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Sample records for guadeloupe kg kyrgyzstan

  1. Kyrgyzstan: Problems, opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banks, J.; Ebel, R. )

    1993-03-15

    Kyrgyzstan is a country of 4.3 million persons in Central Asia with Kazakhstan bordering to the north, China to the southeast, Uzbekistan to the west, and Tajikistan to the southwest. Among Kyrgyzstan's major ethnic groups, Kyrgyz account of 52% of the population, Russians 22%, and Uzbeks 13%. Since independence Sept. 7, 1991, from the Soviet Union, Kyrgyzstan has found itself in a very difficult position. The situation in the energy sector is particularly strained. Oil and gas production are minimal, there are no refineries in the country, and all petroleum products are brought in from Russia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan. Natural gas in supplied from Turkmenistan. Although there are domestic reserves of coal, imports from Russia and Kazakhstan account for 55% of supply. However, there is significant hydropower potential in Kyrgyzstan. Energy officials have clearly identified development of this resource as the path to energy independence and economic progress. An overview of Kyrgyzstan's energy sector is given in this article for crude oil, natural gas, coal resources, electrical power, and investment opportunities.

  2. Coal resources of Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, E.R.; Bostick, N.H.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Johnson, E.A.; Harrison, C.D.; Huber, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The rugged, mountainous country of Kyrgyzstan contains about one-half of the known coal resources of central Asia (a geographic and economic region that also includes Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan). Coal of Jurassic age is present in eight regions in Kyrgyzstan in at least 64 different named localities. Significant coal occurrences of about the same age are present in the central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, China, and Russia. Separation of the coal-bearing rocks into individual deposits results more than earth movements before and during formation of the present-day mountains and basins of the country than from deposition in separate basins.Separation was further abetted by deep erosion and removal of the coal-bearing rocks from many areas, followed by covering of the remaining coal-bearing rocks by sands and gravels of Cenozoic age. The total resources of coal in Kyrgyzstan have been reported as about 30 billion tons. In some of the reported localities, the coal resources are known and adequately explored. In other parts of the republic, the coal resources are inadequately understood or largely unexplored. The resource and reserve inventory of Kyrgyzstan is at best incomplete; for some purposes, such as short-term local and long-range national planning, it may be inadequate. Less than 8% of the total estimated resources are categorized as recoverable reserves, and the amount that is economically recoverable is unknown. The coal is largely of subbituminous and high-volatile C bituminous rank, most has low and medium ash and sulfur contents, and coals of higher rank (some with coking qualities) are present in one region. It is recommended that appropriate analyses and tests be made during planning for utilization.

  3. Guadeloupe: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Guadeloupe Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.03 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GP 3-letter ISO code GLP Numeric ISO...

  4. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Guadeloupe; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-05-27

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Guadeloupe, an overseas region of France located in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Guadeloupe’s utility rates are approximately $0.18 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), below the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  5. Leitner Hubert KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hubert KG Place: Bruneck (BZ), Italy Zip: I-39031 Product: Distributes PV power inverters for Magnetek and Modules for Tenospot. References: Leitner Hubert KG1 This article...

  6. Progress Toward Remediation of Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, P B; Ranville, J; Honeyman, B D; Smith, D K; Rosenberg, N; Knapp, R B

    2003-07-09

    The town of Mailuu-Suu in Kyrgyzstan inherited 23 distinct tailings deposits from Soviet-Era uranium mining operations. Mailuu-Suu is located in the narrow landslide-prone valley of the Mailuu-Suu River about 25 km from the Uzbekistan border. Large-scale release of the radioactive tailings, as a result of landslides, could lead to irreversible contamination of the river and downstream areas. The Mailuu-Suu River is a tributary to the Syr-Darya River, the Fergana valley's main source of irrigation water. The Fergana Valley is a key agricultural region and major population center that spans Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The trans-boundary nature of the Mailuu-Suu tailings issue presents an opportunity for collaboration among these Central Asian states. A cooperative approach to addressing environmental issues such as Mailuu-Suu may contribute to the region's stability by facilitating peaceful associations. Experience from remediation of sites in the US under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action Project (UMTRA) will be useful in progressing toward remediation at Mailuu-Suu.

  7. Campa Sud GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Campa Sud GmbH & Co. KG Place: Straubing, Germany Product: Campa Sd GmbH & Co. KG was established in 2002 as a production...

  8. Fuel 21 GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: fuel 21 GmbH & Co. KG Place: Klein Wanzleben, Germany Zip: 39164 Product: fuel 21 GmbH & Co. KG started in 2006 as a member of...

  9. Flabeg GmbH co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    KG Place: Nrnberg, Germany Zip: 90441 Sector: Solar Product: Glass finishing for automotive and solar industry, especially STEG. References: Flabeg GmbH & co KG1 This article...

  10. Otag GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Otag GmbH & Co KG Place: Olsberg, Germany Zip: 59939 Product: Micro combined heat and power plant manufacturer (<2.2 kWe). References: Otag GmbH & Co KG1 This article...

  11. Campa Biodiesel GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Campa-Biodiesel GmbH & Co. KG Place: Ochsenfurt, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 97199 Product: Campa Biodiesel is a producer and marketer of...

  12. Marina Biodiesel GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marina Biodiesel GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Marina Biodiesel GmbH & Co.KG Place: Brunsbttel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany Zip: 25541 Product: Marina Biodiesel...

  13. AVANCIS GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: AVANCIS GmbH & Co KG Place: Torgau, Germany Product: Germany-based CIS PV cell manufacturer and subsidiary of Saint Gobain....

  14. GETproject GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: GETproject GmbH & Co KG Place: Kiel, Germany Zip: 24109 Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind energy project developer. References: GETproject GmbH & Co KG1...

  15. ETBKN GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: ETBKN GmbH & Co KG Place: Germany Product: Germany-based biogas project developer. References: ETBKN GmbH & Co KG1 This article is a stub. You can...

  16. Renion Biogas GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renion Biogas GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renion Biogas GmbH & Co KG Place: Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 93055 Product: JV between Schmack Biogas and Rewag to...

  17. Berger Lichttechnik GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Berger Lichttechnik GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Berger Lichttechnik GmbH & Co KG Place: Baierbrunn, Germany Zip: D-82065 Sector: Solar Product: German manufacturer...

  18. RIO Energie GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RIO Energie GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: RIO Energie GmbH & Co KG Place: Mainz, Germany Zip: 55118 Sector: Wind energy Product: Subsidiary of the juwi group, Rio...

  19. CIS Solartechnik GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Affinerie and the Cordes & Graefe KG formed a joint venture in order to develop the CIS solar cells. References: CIS Solartechnik GmbH & Co.KG1 This article is a stub. You can...

  20. Meihui Windpark GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Meihui Windpark GmbH & Co KG Place: Niedersachsen, Lower Saxony, Germany Sector: Wind energy Product: German-based wind farm operator, previously in ownership of Taiwan's...

  1. Fuhrlander Pfleiderer GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Fuhrlander-Pfleiderer GmbH & Co KG Place: Germany Sector: Wind energy Product: Joint venture combining the wind power activities of Furhlander AG and Pfleiderer AG....

  2. Elektrizitatswerk Goldbach Hoesbach GmbH Co KG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Elektrizitatswerk Goldbach-Hoesbach GmbH & Co KG Place: Goldbach, Hessen, Germany Zip: 63773 Product: German power provider. Coordinates: 40.413574,...

  3. Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) -...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) Data reflects projected air emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxide (SOX),...

  4. Energiefeld Bayern GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & Co KG Place: Mnchen, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 81539 Product: JV between Schmack Biogas and Erdgas Suedbayern to constructown biogas plants and market electricity directly....

  5. Schnell Z ndstrahlmotoren AG Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zndstrahlmotoren is specialized on the production of dual fuel engines (CHPs) for biogas, dump and sewage gas. References: Schnell Zndstrahlmotoren AG & Co. KG1 This...

  6. Imtech Deutschland GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & Co KG Place: Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Zip: 22041 Product: German division of Imtech N.V. - an energy management and power engineering company. References: Imtech Deutschland...

  7. Energy age wind ltd Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    48291 Sector: Wind energy Product: Energy-age-wind aims to develop small scale vertical-axis wind turbines. References: energy-age-wind ltd & Co. KG1 This article is a stub....

  8. SGL Rotec GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SGL Rotec GmbH & Co KG Place: Lemwerder, Hamburg, Germany Zip: 27809 Sector: Wind energy Product: Germany-based manufacturer of rotor blades for wind turbines. References: SGL...

  9. Windkraft Luhrs GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Windkraft Luhrs GmbH & Co KG Place: Germany Sector: Wind energy Product: Germany-based, wind farm developer. References: Windkraft Luhrs GmbH & Co...

  10. Hoogen Bioenergie GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Germany Zip: 1968 Product: Hoogen Bioenergie assist in building and operating biogas plants. References: Hoogen Bioenergie GmbH & Co.KG1 This article is a stub. You can...

  11. Schunk Group GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a worldwide technology company with a wide range of products. It manufactures bipolar plates for fuel cells. References: Schunk Group GmbH & Co KG1 This article is a...

  12. Nordwind Handels GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Nordwind Handels GmbH & Co. KG Place: Germany Product: German project developer based in Beiersdorf-Freudenberg. The firm is one of Vestas largest...

  13. Performance test report for the 1000 kg melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100 kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV- 384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100 kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the ``GTS Duratek, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report`` (WHC-SD-VI-027).

  14. Dark matter limits froma 15 kg windowless bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szydagis, Matthew Mark; /Chicago U.

    2010-12-01

    The COUPP collaboration has successfully used bubble chambers, a technology previously applied only to high-energy physics experiments, as direct dark matter detectors. It has produced the world's most stringent spin-dependent WIMP limits, and increasingly competitive spin-independent limits. These limits were achieved by capitalizing on an intrinsic rejection of the gamma background that all other direct detection experiments must address through high-density shielding and empirically-determined data cuts. The history of COUPP, including its earliest prototypes and latest results, is briefly discussed in this thesis. The feasibility of a new, windowless bubble chamber concept simpler and more inexpensive in design is discussed here as well. The dark matter limits achieved with a 15 kg windowless chamber, larger than any previous COUPP chamber (2 kg, 4 kg), are presented. Evidence of the greater radiopurity of synthetic quartz compared to natural is presented using the data from this 15 kg device, the first chamber to be made from synthetic quartz. The effective reconstruction of the three-dimensional positions of bubbles in a highly distorted optical field, with ninety-degree bottom lighting similar to cloud chamber lighting, is demonstrated. Another innovation described in this thesis is the use of the sound produced by bubbles recorded by an array of piezoelectric sensors as the primary means of bubble detection. In other COUPP chambers, cameras have been used as the primary trigger. Previous work on bubble acoustic signature differentiation using piezos is built upon in order to further demonstrate the ability to discriminate between alpha- and neutron-induced events.

  15. Sonnen Solar Park GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sonnen Solar Park GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sonnen Solar Park GmbH & Co KG Place: Germany Sector: Solar Product: 1.75MW solar PV park in Bavaria, developed by...

  16. Kompass Corporate Finance GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kompass Corporate Finance GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kompass Corporate Finance GmbH & Co KG Place: Bremen, Germany Zip: 28195 Sector: Renewable Energy Product:...

  17. Rheinische Bio Ester GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rheinische Bio Ester GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rheinische Bio Ester GmbH & Co.KG Place: Neuss, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 41460 Product: Rheinische Bio...

  18. Wurth Solar GmbH Co KG Wuerth Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wurth Solar GmbH Co KG Wuerth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wurth Solar GmbH & Co KG (Wuerth Solar) Place: Schwabisch Hall, Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany Zip: D-74523...

  19. ABO Wind Biogas Sachsen Anhalt GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas Sachsen Anhalt GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: ABO Wind Biogas Sachsen-Anhalt GmbH & Co. KG Place: Wiesbaden, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Zip: 65193 Product: Company...

  20. Green Energy Geotherm Power Fonds GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geotherm Power Fonds GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Energy Geotherm Power Fonds GmbH & Co. KG Place: Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany Zip: 30559 Sector:...

  1. Paradigma Energie und Umwelttechnik GmbH Co KG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paradigma Energie und Umwelttechnik GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Paradigma Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH & Co KG Place: Karlsbad, Germany Zip: 76307 Sector: Solar...

  2. Geothermie Unterhaching GmbH und Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermie Unterhaching GmbH und Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Geothermie Unterhaching GmbH und Co KG Place: Unterhaching, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 82008 Sector: Geothermal...

  3. Habdank PV Montagesysteme GmbH Co KG Habdank PV Mounting Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Germany Zip: 73037 Product: Germany-based manufacturer of mounting systems for PV installations. References: Habdank PV-Montagesysteme GmbH & Co KG Habdank PV Mounting...

  4. GEWI Planungs und Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH Co KG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH & Co KG Place: Husum Nordsee, Germany Zip: 25813 Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind energy project developer. References: GEWI Planungs- und...

  5. Bekon Energy Technologies GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    KG Place: Landshut, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 84034 Product: Planning and construction of biogas plants. Coordinates: 48.53657, 12.151775 Show Map Loading map......

  6. GEE Gesellschaft fuer Erneuerbare Energien mbH Co KG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Erneuerbare Energien mbH & Co.KG Place: Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Zip: 20459 Product: Wood pelletsbriquettes supplier. Coordinates: 53.553345, 9.992455 Show Map Loading...

  7. Umwelt Windrad GmbH Co KG UWR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UWR Jump to: navigation, search Name: Umwelt Windrad GmbH & Co KG (UWR) Place: Rheine, Germany Zip: 48431 Sector: Wind energy Product: Germany-based, subsidiary of Novera Energy...

  8. Joint Solar Silicon GmbH Co KG JSSI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Joint Solar Silicon GmbH & Co KG (JSSI) Place: Germany Sector: Solar Product: Joint venture between Degussa and SolarWorld for the production of solar-grade silicon on...

  9. MBE Mitteldeutsche BioEnergie GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Zip: 6780 Product: MBE is a Bioethanol producer for the use as biofuel. References: MBE Mitteldeutsche BioEnergie GmbH & Co. KG1 This article is a stub....

  10. CO/sub 2/ gas dynamic laser with flow rate of 10 Kg/sec

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haitao, C.

    1982-08-01

    Using a supersonic technique in a 10 Kg/sec flow rate carbon dioxide gas dynamic laser unit to create a population inversion of the carbon dioxide particles, a 33,000 watt multiple mode continuous output was obtained. The power ratio reached 3000 watt sec/Kg. Single mode output was the P(20) branch with power of 11,200 watts and a beam diffuse angle of 4 seconds of radian. After eliminating the effect of stock wave, the diffuse angle can be reduced to 3 seconds of a radian. The results were below standards compared to those in foreign countries.

  11. Complete braided adsorbent for marine testing to demonstrate 3g-U/kg-adsorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janke, Chris; Yatsandra, Oyola; Mayes, Richard; none,; Gill, Gary; Li-Jung, Kuo; Wood, Jordana; Sadananda, Das

    2014-04-30

    ORNL has manufactured four braided adsorbents that successfully demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities ranging from 3.0-3.6 g-U/kg-adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. Four new braided and leno woven fabric adsorbents have also been prepared by ORNL and are currently undergoing marine testing at PNNL.

  12. Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation GmbH Co KG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map References: Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation GmbH & Co KG&127;UNIQ7909a9dd6158f292-ref-0000150E-QINU&127; This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Voith...

  13. GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: 100-kg melter offgas report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100-kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek, Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100-kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report (WHC-SD-WM-VI-027).

  14. Characterization of BG28 and KG3 filter glass for Drive Diagnostic Attenuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, R H; Weiland, T; Folta, J

    2007-11-30

    BG28 and KG3 filter glasses were tested for use as attenuators in the NIF drive diagnostic (DrD) systems. Tests were performed in the Optical Sciences Laser facility with a 351 nm, 2-step, 3-nsec pulse at fluences ranging up to {approx} 1 J/cm{sup 2}. Single-shot measurements showed no solarization when the samples were allowed to relax for a week after exposure. KG3 filters exhibited no luminescence and no transient pulse distortion. BG28 filters luminesced appreciably and imposed a 'droop' (similar to 'square-pulse distortion') on the signals. The droop parameter is estimated at 0.50 {+-} 0.11 cm{sup 2}/J. Droop is explained in terms of known copper-doped-glass spectroscopy and kinetics (buildup of triplet-state populations, with excited-state absorption). Simulation of the distortion ({approx}1.6%) expected on a 1.8 MJ Haan pulse led to a minor redesign of the Drive Diagnostic with reduced fluence on the BG28 filters to reduce the droop distortion to 0.5%.

  15. Post service examination of turbomolecular pumps after stress testing with Kg-scale tritium throughput

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Priester, F.; Roelling, M.

    2015-03-15

    Turbomolecular pumps (TMP) will be used with large amounts of tritium in future fusion machines like ITER, DEMO and in the KATRIN Experiment. In this work, a stress test of a large, magnetically levitated TMP (Leybold MAG W2800) with a tritium throughput of 1.1 kg over 384 days of operation was performed at TLK. After this, the pump was dismantled and the tritium uptake in several parts was deter-mined. Especially the non-metallic parts of the pump have absorbed large amounts of tritium and are most likely responsible for the observed pollution of the process gas. The total tritium uptake of the TMP was estimated with 0.1-1.1 TBq. No radiation-induced damages were found on the inner parts of the pump. The TMP showed no signs of functional limitations during the 384 days of operation. (authors)

  16. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T.; Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Suree; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

  17. First Dark Matter Search Results from a 4-kg CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber Operated in a Deep Underground Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Conner, A.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Grace, E.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0 kg CF{sub 3}I bubble chamber in the 6800 foot deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. This observation provides world best direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2} and demonstrates significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  18. Kyrgyzstan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA Natural Gas Reserves 5,663,000,000 Cubic Meters (cu m) 91 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves 40,000,000 Barrels (bbl) 80 2010 CIA World Factbook Energy Maps featuring...

  19. KG Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    India Sector: Solar Product: Holding company for three yarn firms; setting up a solar thermal plant in Tamil Nadu. Coordinates: 11.01167, 76.98406 Show Map Loading map......

  20. Probabilistic seismic risk of the territory of Bishkek city, Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamchybekov, Murataly Pakirovich

    2008-07-08

    For seismic risk analysis were gathered information about district's seismicity, tectonics, topography, and engineering--geotechnical conditions, which present in apartments, infrastructures and demographies. All of these informations are joined within the limits of GIS for father probabilistic evaluations from different losses levels from earthquake, and also definitions of effective arrangements by reaction. There were given analysis of obtained results with the purpose to take into the consideration and falling of seismic risk's levels.

  1. Milestone Report - Demonstrate Braided Material with 3.5 g U/kg Sorption Capacity under Seawater Testing Condition (Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 - 1/30/2015)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana

    2015-01-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 (1/30/2015) entitled, Demonstrate braided material with 3.5 g U/kg sorption capacity under seawater testing condition . This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent braided materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed four braided fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 3.5 g U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. The braided adsorbents were synthesized by braiding or leno weaving high surface area polyethylene fibers and conducting radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile monomers onto the braided materials followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. The four braided adsorbents demonstrated capacity values ranging from 3.7 to 4.2 g U/kg adsorbent after 56 days of exposure in natural coastal seawater at 20 oC. All data are normalized to a salinity of 35 psu.

  2. Leonhard Kurz GmbH CO KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is an international supplier of hot stamping technology, and researches and developers polymer electronic technology with some PV applications. Coordinates: 49.65048, 8.78048...

  3. Germania Windpark GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    project developer, covering site acquisition, planning, engineering requirements, marketing and service. Coordinates: 52.278749, 7.434676 Show Map Loading map......

  4. Bernt Lorentz GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Henstedt-Ulzburg, Germany Zip: D-24558 Sector: Solar Product: German manufacturer of solar tracking devices, water pumps, and related electronic and hydraulic components....

  5. Fichtner GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    large scale projects in the infrastructure sector. Leading consultant for Solar Thermal Electricity Generation (STEG) projects. Coordinates: 48.767675, 9.171925 Show Map...

  6. SSB Antriebstechnik GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for wind turbines including motors, gearboxes, control and switchgear and their maintenance. Coordinates: 52.323136, 7.347278 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"map...

  7. MT Energie GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Saxony, Germany Zip: 27404 Sector: Services Product: MT-Energie provides both turn-key biogas plants and related components and services. Coordinates: 53.295765, 9.27964 Show...

  8. Property:Dry Mass (kg) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this property. M MHK TechnologiesAirWEC + 1.85 + MHK TechnologiesCanal Power + Variable + MHK TechnologiesITRI WEC + 63700 + MHK TechnologiesPLAT-O + 20000 + MHK...

  9. Mann Naturenergie GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biofuels, Renewable Energy Product: Mann Naturenergie is engaged in renewable energy production and distribution. It offers biofuels like wood chips, wood briquettes or...

  10. GEE Energy GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Hamburg, Germany Zip: 20459 Sector: Biomass Product: Biomass trader delivering wood pellets, wood and bark briquettes to Germany, Scandinavia, Austria, Italy and...

  11. Oil and gas resources of the Fergana basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan). Advance summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA), in cooperation with the US Geological Survey (USGS), has assessed 13 major petroleum producing regions outside of the United States. This series of assessments has been performed under EIA`s Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). The basic approach used in these assessments was to combine historical drilling, discovery, and production data with EIA reserve estimates and USGS undiscovered resource estimates. Field-level data for discovered oil were used for these previous assessments. In FESAP, supply projections through depletion were typically formulated for the country or major producing region. Until now, EIA has not prepared an assessment of oil and gas provinces in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Before breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Fergana basin was selected for a trial assessment of its discovered and undiscovered oil and gas. The object was to see if enough data could be collected and estimated to perform reasonable field-level estimates of oil and gas in this basin. If so, then assessments of other basins in the FSU could be considered. The objective was met and assessments of other basins can be considered. Collected data for this assessment cover discoveries through 1987. Compared to most other oil and gas provinces in the FSU, the Fergana basin is relatively small in geographic size, and in number and size of most of its oil and gas fields. However, with recent emphasis given to the central graben as a result of the relatively large Mingbulak field, the basin`s oil and gas potential has significantly increased. At least 7 additional fields to the 53 fields analyzed are known and are assumed to have been discovered after 1987.

  12. KSP Kluenemann Solar Projekt GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Emsbren, Lower Saxony, Germany Zip: 48488 Product: Developer of a 3.4MW roof-mounted photovoltaic system in Zwickau, Saxony. References: KSP Kluenemann Solar-Projekt GmbH &...

  13. Offshore Burger Windpark Butendiek GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Husum, Germany Zip: 25813 Sector: Wind energy Product: Developing the 240MW Butendiek offshore wind farm. Coordinates: 45.799479, -121.486901 Show Map Loading map......

  14. KvH Projekt GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: D-20259 Sector: Biomass, Solar, Wind energy Product: Project developer in wind, solar, biomass and smart architecture. Coordinates: 53.553345, 9.992455 Show Map Loading...

  15. PV Eiwa Systemtechnik GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Germany Zip: 94447 Product: Germany-based manufacturer of fixed mounting systems and single-axis tracking for PV modules. Coordinates: 48.778312, 12.871223 Show Map...

  16. Reis Robotics GmbH Co KG Maschinenfabrik | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    63785 Product: German manufacturer of industrial robots, robot controls, and turnkey automation systems. Coordinates: 41.839718, -75.016041 Show Map Loading map......

  17. Caribbean-NREL Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    internatio Country Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Saint...

  18. Caribbean-GTZ Renewable Energy Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    enpraxis95 Country Antigua & Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Puerto...

  19. Characterization of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product streams of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg retort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Sanders, R.W.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this program is to determine how retorting process parameters affect the partitioning of Hg, As, Se, and Cd from raw oil shale to spent shale, shale oil, retort water, and offgas. For each of the elements, the objective of this study is to (1) determine the distribution coefficients for each product stream; (2) identify the chemical forms in water, gas, and oil streams, with particular emphasis on inorganic or organometallic species known to be or suspected of being carcinogenic, toxic, or otherwise harmful; (3) investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for mobilization into each product stream for toxic or labile chemical forms identified in item 2 are mobilized into each product stream; and (4) the effect of retorting rate, maximum retorting temperature, and retorting atmosphere on items 1 and 3. A Green River shale from Colorado and a New Albany shale from Kentucky were heated at 1 to 2/sup 0/C/min and at 10/sup 0/C/min to maximum temperatures of 500 and 750/sup 0/C under a nitrogen sweep gas. The product streams were analyzed using a variety of methods including Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy, microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, instrumental neutron activation analysis, high-pressure liquid and silica gel column chromatography, and mercury cold vapor atomic absorption. The results obtained using these analytical methods indicate that the distribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product stream is a function of oil shale type, heating rates, and maximum retorting temperatures. 11 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. USAID-Central Asian Republics Climate Activities | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ourwork Country Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan Central Asia, Central Asia, Central Asia, Central Asia, Central Asia References USAID Climate...

  1. Clay Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante Geothermal Field (Guadeloupe) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  2. Green Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Solar Place: Paris, France Zip: 45003 Product: Develops and builds PV systems in Guadeloupe and Mauritius. Coordinates: 48.85693,...

  3. Request for Proposal No. DE-SOL-0008418 Section J, Appendix D

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    is one of the countries listed below: Algeria Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus China (People's Republic of China) Cuba Georgia Hong Kong India Iran Iraq Israel Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan ...

  4. LM Co-Hosts Internatonal Workshop on Uranium Legacy Sites | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... For visitors from countries of Central Asia, including Tajikstan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan, visiting remediated legacy uranium sites on the Colorado Plateau had an ...

  5. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Dominica (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Dominica, an island nation located southeast of Guadeloupe and northwest of Martinique in the Lesser Antilles.

  6. FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

  7. Request for Proposal No. DE-SOL-0008418 Section J, Appendix D

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    D SECTION J APPENDIX D SENSITIVE FOREIGN NATIONS CONTROL 1. Pursuant to the Contract Section I Clause 952.204-71 entitled "Sensitive Foreign Nations Controls," "sensitive foreign nations" is one of the countries listed below: Algeria Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus China (People's Republic of China) Cuba Georgia Hong Kong India Iran Iraq Israel Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Libya Moldova North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) Pakistan Russia Sudan Syria Taiwan Tajikistan

  8. Microsoft Word - SEC J_Appendix D - Sensitive Foreign Nations Control

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    D, Page 1 SECTION J APPENDIX D SENSITIVE FOREIGN NATIONS CONTROL 1. Pursuant to the Contract Section I Clause entitled "Sensitive Foreign Nations Controls," "sensitive foreign nations" is one of the countries listed below: Algeria Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus China (People's Republic of China) Cuba Georgia Hong Kong India Iran Iraq Israel Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Libya Moldova North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) Pakistan Russia Sudan Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan

  9. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obozov, A.J.; Loscutoff, W.V.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  10. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid

    2012-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so called 'Threat assessment' in each CA country which revealed additional problems in the existing regulatory documents beyond those described at the start of our ongoing bilateral projects in Kazakhstan, Kirgizistan Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. (authors)

  11. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Electricity...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jet Fuel ( Jet A, JP-8) 70.88 kg CO2 MMBtu 9.57 kg CO2 gallon Kerosene 72.31 kg CO2 MMBtu 9.76 kg CO2 gallon Heavy Fuel Oil (No. 5, 6 fuel oil), bunker fuel 78.80 kg CO2 ...

  12. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... H 2 s, T 125-200C) * high hydrogen selectivities (S ... 3.2 kg Media H 2 Density mat ) ( m )( mat ) kg H 2 L 0.07 * HD polyethylene tank 6.2 kg ...

  13. Supercapacitor Materials and Devices: Nickel-Cobalt Supercapacitors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The common measures of performance are the energy density (energy per kg) and power density (power per kg). This technology is based on specific metal oxide compositions ...

  14. Lightweighting and Propulsion Materials Roadmapping Workshop...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Emissions (kg CO2kg Mg) Production volume (ktonsyr) Magnesium Metrics - Production, Cost, Emissions Production volume Emissions Mg cost 2X Al Mg cost Al Mg cost steel ...

  15. National independence and nonproliferation in the new states of Central Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleason, G.

    1993-12-01

    Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.

  16. The Nuvruz Project: Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Transboundary Rivers End of Year One Reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV, BAJGABYL; VALENTINA, ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN, VLADIMIR; POZNIAK, VICTOR; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.

    2002-09-01

    The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors. The Navruz project has a duration of three years. This document contains the reports from each of the participating institutions following the first year of data collection. While a majority of samples from the Navruz project are within normal limits, a preliminary analysis does indicate a high concentration of selenium in the Kazakhstan samples. Uzbekistan samples contain high uranium and thorium concentrations, as well as elevated levels of chromium, antimony and cesium. Additionally, elevated concentrations of radioactive isotopes have been detected at one Tajikistan sampling location. Further analysis will be published in a subsequent report.

  17. Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Boris B.; Sverdlik, Leonid G.; Imashev, Sanjar A.; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Artamonova, Maria S.; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass and chemical composition in both size fractions. Dust transported into the region is common, being detected 33% of the time. The maximum frequency occurred in the spring of 2009. Dust transported to Central Asia comes from regional sources, for example, Taklimakan desert and Aral Sea basin, and from long-range transport, for example, deserts of Arabia, Northeast Africa, Iran, and Pakistan. Regionalmore » sources are characterized by pollution transport with maximum values of coarse particles within the planetary boundary layer, aerosol optical thickness, extinction coefficient, integral coefficient of aerosol backscatter, and minimum values of the Ångström exponent. Pollution associated with air masses transported over long distances has different characteristics during autumn, winter, and spring. During winter, dust emissions were low resulting in high values of the Ångström exponent (about 0.51) and the fine particle mass fraction (64%). Dust storms were more frequent during spring with an increase in coarse dust particles in comparison to winter. The aerosol vertical profiles can be used to lower uncertainty in estimating radiative forcing.« less

  18. INVESTIGATION OF CRUSTAL MOTION IN THE TIEN SHAN USING INSAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellors, R J

    2011-02-25

    The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

  19. Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... costs of 2.76kg to 4.79kg 5. The combined effects of the production tax credit (PTC), Investment Tax Credit (ITC), and Treasury Grant reduce wind electricity prices 0.02kWh. ...

  20. Slide 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is part of decision on breeders *Sea water has huge amount though very dilute. *Japan leading and cost now is estimated at 900kg *At 250kg electricity costs go up by...

  1. UQM Patents Non-Rare Earth Magnet Motor under DOE-Supported Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    While most plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) use motors with rare earth metals, these materials are expensive, their prices have been highly volatile (from 80kg to 750kg), and ...

  2. Novel Solid State Magnetocaloric Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN Partners: Vaccumschmelze GmbH & Co. KG., Hanau, Germany

  3. Section 7

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Values in parentheses are (contour interval, maximum value) in g kg . Horizontal scale ... in precipitation efficiency are much less than the changes in cloud water production. ...

  4. U.S. DOE Webinar Series - 2011-2012 Hydrogen Student Design Contest

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Total manure available per day is 27,387 kg. * 95% of rice production in California takes ... * Catalyst is Zeolite, Activated Carbon, Silica Gel * Cycling Schedule: Pressurization, ...

  5. Distributed Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas: Independent Review Panel Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Independent review report on the available information concerning the technologies needed for forecourts producing 150 kg/day of hydrogen from natural gas.

  6. Pathways to Hydrocarbon Biofuels: Update on the Office's Techno...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway TEA - Sustainability Coordination Design Report Environmental Sustainability Metrics GHG emissions kg CO2eGJ Conversion Plant Fossil Energy Consumption MJMJ ...

  7. DOE-STD-1090-2004; Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (4,500 kg) or More for Nuclear Materials." 14.1 GENERAL ... 14.2.6 Testing......shall be documented in the equipment history file. b. ...

  8. Hoisting and Rigging

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (4,500 kg) or More for Nuclear Materials." 14.1 GENERAL ... 14.2.6 Testing......shall be documented in the equipment history file. b. ...

  9. EERE Success Story-Lightweight Technology Resolved Challenge...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    underbody of a vehicle while carrying its crash loads, developed an underbody 13 kg ... When researchers tested the underbody through a simulated 40 mph crash, they found it ...

  10. Distributed Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, J.; Callaghan, V.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report on the available information concerning the technologies needed for forecourts producing 150 kg/day of hydrogen from natural gas.

  11. Development of dense-phase pneumatic transport of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horisaka, S.; Ikemiya, H.; Kajiwara, T.

    1996-12-31

    Dense phase pneumatic transport system has been developed to reduce entrained particles as is seen in the belt conveyor system. High mass flow rate and dense phase (Loading ratio = 50--100kg-coal/kg-N{sub 2}) transport has been achieved by applying this plug flow system to pneumatic conveying of coal (Average particle diameter = 2.5 mm).

  12. Process steam production from cotton gin trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePori, W.A.; Carney, D.B.; Lalk, T.R.; Anthony, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A steam producing system based on fluidized-bed gasification of biomass materials is discussed. Limited experimental results are discussed and show that steam has been produced at rates of 334.3 kg/hr. (737 lbs/hr.) with 2.8 kg of stream produced for each kilogram of cotton gin trash (2.8 lb/lb.). ref.

  13. Reference Designs for Hydrogen Fueling Stations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... (2,6) - B2B fills 19 Cost of hydrogen typically varies from 40kg to a low of 6kg G - gaseous L - liquid B - booster C - cascade (1,2) - Num Hoses (2,6) - B2B fills 20 Full ...

  14. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles; Rintala, Jukka

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H{sub 2}S during food waste digestion. Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m{sup 3}day. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Highest CH{sub 4} yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m{sup 3}day with untreated FW. Autoclaved FW produced highest CH{sub 4} yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m{sup 3}day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d. Methane yields at all OLR were 510% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 0.013 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 3 kg VS/m{sup 3} d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 0.020 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 4 kg VS/m{sup 3} d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components.

  15. The following data/assumptions will better address the LLW differences between t

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data/assumptions will better address the LLW differences between the LEU option and the LEU/Th option of Alternative 1. 1. There is 397 kg fissile ( 233 U and 235 U) in the HTGR fuel. 2. Based on past experience of LLW to Nevada National Security Site, it is expected that the maximum quantity of fissile in a Type B shipping container (CASTOR cask) will be restricted to 1 kg. To protect a 1 kg maximum, it is assumed that 900 grams would be the maximum in a CASTOR cask. Therefore, from a fissile

  16. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  17. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-18

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources from Europe; South, East, and Central Asia; and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.

  18. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; et al

    2015-02-18

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly valuesmore » from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources from Europe; South, East, and Central Asia; and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.« less

  19. 183-H Basin sludge treatability test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biyani, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    This document presents the results from the treatability testing of a 1-kg sample of 183-H Basin sludge. Compressive strength measurements, Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure, and a modified ANSI 16.1 leach test were conducted

  20. Comparing Clouds Using Cloud Radar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Year Weight (kg) 1998 102 1999 104 2000 98 2001 91 2002 86 1. Now you will need to draw the axes of your graph. These are lines that tell you where to put information. On the...

  1. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... kg of chemical waste kgsup minus1 of TNAZ in addition to the energy burden encountered with any industrial process. less July 1998 Thermal models of ASRM case steel ...

  2. Lower Cost, Nanoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separator - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Although the polyolefin polymer material often used for lithium battery separators costs approximately 1.30kg, the difficult process used to make it porous, to allow the flow of ...

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - Reporting Small Quantities to NMMSS_Brian...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reportable Units DOE-owned Other Materials: - Enriched Lithium Kilograms Li - Deuterium 0.1 kg D 2 - Pu-242 Grams Pu, Grams Pu-242 (>20% Pu-242 by weight) - Americium-241 Grams ...

  4. Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TIAX LLC) were estimated for compressed hydrogen storage tanks with design pressures of 350 bar (5000 psi) and 700 bar (10,000 psi) capable of storing 5.6 kg of usable hydrogen. ...

  5. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13010: Onboard Type...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This record summarizes the current status of the projected capacities and manufacturing costs of Type IV, 350- and 700-bar compressed hydrogen storage systems, storing 5.6 kg of ...

  6. Hydrogen-Powered Buses Brochure … 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and disperses rapidly * Hydrogen is odorless, colorless, and nontoxic * When hydrogen burns in air, it doesn't produce smoke * 1 kg of hydrogen has about the same energy content ...

  7. Vertical Seismic Profiling At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    were taken in three different wells. A 60 kg accelerated weight drop and Vibroseis machine was used as the seismic source. Two receiver arrays were used, one was a linear...

  8. CompacTec | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CompacTec Jump to: navigation, search Name: CompacTec Place: Germany Product: Founded in 1999, CompacTec KG has its own production plants and four press lines, making it one of the...

  9. EV Everywhre Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Density (Wh kg -1 or Wh L -1 ) Approximate Timeline (Year) Path Forward for Lithium-Based Batteries 11 * Higher energy materials will reduce the cost of batteries. *...

  10. On the nature of the magnetocaloric effect of the first-order...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The structural entropies range from 4.5 to 45 J kg2;1 K2;1 and are proportional to the volume differences of the phases involved in the transition. This correlation allows one to ...

  11. Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... U.S. Department of Energy, Feb. 2011, DOEGO-102011-3178. 8 ... L 15 15 System weight e kg 22 15 Cost f 842 g 500 a ... Cell Humidifiers, February 2013. b Dry air in: 3,000 SLPM ...

  12. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    normal density. A 75-liter fed-batch growth produced 14 kg of yeast and required a new freezer be purchased to store it all. With this massive increase in starting material, enough...

  13. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    normal density. A 75-liter fed-batch growth produced 14 kg of yeast and required a new freezer be purchased to store it all. With this massive increase in starting material,...

  14. US-India Consortium for Development of Sustainable Advanced Lignocellu...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... on a pilot scale (10 kg) followed by fermentation to butyrate (100 L). * Large-scale (6 ... phosphate from the biorefinery waste stream on an industrial scale is delayed by a year. ...

  15. An Improved Hindcast Approach for Evaluation and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Right) 2009 monthly mean 10 cm soil moisture (kg m-2) from the east (black) and west (grey) profiles of SWATS measurements at the ARM SGP Central Facility, as well as from the...

  16. Workshop on Atomic Force Microscopy, Nanometrology and More ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Swarna Addepalli 2012.12.17 One of my colleagues from our global research center in India, K.G. V. Siva Kumar (Sivakumar), recently attended a workshop on Atomic Force...

  17. 3d-4f spin interaction and field-induced metamagnetism in RCrO{sub 4} (R?=?Ho, Gd, Lu) compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Midya, A.; Khan, N.; Bhoi, D.; Mandal, P.

    2014-05-07

    We observe that the zircon-type RCrO{sub 4} (R?=?Ho, Gd, Lu) compounds exhibit complicated magnetic properties and large magnetic entropy change due to the strong competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions. For a field change of 7?T, the maximum values of entropy change and refrigerant capacity reach 28?J?kg{sup ?1}?K{sup ?1} and 740?J?kg{sup ?1}, respectively, for GdCrO{sub 4} whereas the corresponding values for HoCrO{sub 4} are 29?J?kg{sup ?1}?K{sup ?1} and 550?J?kg{sup ?1}. For GdCrO{sub 4} compound, the magnetic entropy change is quite large even at low temperatures well below the ferromagnetic transition.

  18. Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The energy density of a sealed sandwich-type cell with polythiophene at the positive electrode was estimated as 44 Wh kg-1, which is competitive with state-of-the-art battery ...

  19. uav_scie

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... UAV capable of carrying a 100-kg payload to a maximum altitude of 7 km. The Gnat was first operated in a checkout flight at Edwards Air Force Base with a basic radiometric payload ...

  20. Property:PotentialBiopowerSolidMass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for a place. Use this type to express a quantity of magnitude, or an object's resistance to acceleration. The default unit is the kilogram (kg). http:en.wikipedia.org...

  1. Property:PotentialBiopowerGaseousMass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for a place. Use this type to express a quantity of magnitude, or an object's resistance to acceleration. The default unit is the kilogram (kg). http:en.wikipedia.org...

  2. POLICY OPTIONS FOR FCV MARKET INTRODUCTION

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by K.G. Duleep of Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. at the 2010 - 2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Meeting on August 9 - 10, 2006 in Washington, D.C.

  3. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power ... hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electrical vehicles. ...kg) , new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen ...

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silica (4) silicon (4) stability (4) applied life sciences ... one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in ...kg) , new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen ...

  5. A REVIEW OF THORIUM FUEL REPROCESSING EX

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... 1400 kg I) from 870 metric tons of thorium. The Acid Thorex process, which uses HN0 3 rather than Al(N0-j) 2 as tne salting agent in the solvent extraction step, was developed in ...

  6. HIGH ENERGY LIQUID FUELS FROM PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemethy, E. K.; Otvos, J. W.; Calvin, M.

    1980-10-01

    The heptane extract of Euphorbia lathyris has a low oxygen content and a heat valve of 42 MJ/kg which is comparable to that of crude oil (44 MJ/kg). These qualities indicate a potential for use as fuel or chemical feedstock material. Therefore we have investigated the chemical composition of this fraction in some detail. Since the amoun of the methanol fraction is quite substantial we have also identified the major components of this fraction.

  7. L-Boronophenylalanine-Mediated Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Glioma Progressing After External Beam Radiation Therapy: A Phase I Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kankaanranta, Leena; Seppaelae, Tiina; Koivunoro, Hanna; Vaelimaeki, Petteri; Beule, Annette; Collan, Juhani; Kortesniemi, Mika; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Kotiluoto, Petri; Auterinen, Iiro; Seren, Tom; Paetau, Anders; Saarilahti, Kauko; Savolainen, Sauli; Joensuu, Heikki

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the safety of boronophenylalanine-mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of malignant gliomas that progress after surgery and conventional external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Adult patients who had histologically confirmed malignant glioma that had progressed after surgery and external beam radiotherapy were eligible for this Phase I study, provided that >6 months had elapsed from the last date of radiation therapy. The first 10 patients received a fixed dose, 290 mg/kg, of L-boronophenylalanine-fructose (L-BPA-F) as a 2-hour infusion before neutron irradiation, and the remaining patients were treated with escalating doses of L-BPA-F, either 350 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, or 450 mg/kg, using 3 patients on each dose level. Adverse effects were assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 2.0. Results: Twenty-two patients entered the study. Twenty subjects had glioblastoma, and 2 patients had anaplastic astrocytoma, and the median cumulative dose of prior external beam radiotherapy was 59.4 Gy. The maximally tolerated L-BPA-F dose was reached at the 450 mg/kg level, where 4 of 6 patients treated had a grade 3 adverse event. Patients who were given >290 mg/kg of L-BPA-F received a higher estimated average planning target volume dose than those who received 290 mg/kg (median, 36 vs. 31 Gy [W, i.e., a weighted dose]; p = 0.018). The median survival time following BNCT was 7 months. Conclusions: BNCT administered with an L-BPA-F dose of up to 400 mg/kg as a 2-hour infusion is feasible in the treatment of malignant gliomas that recur after conventional radiation therapy.

  8. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  9. Drag reducing effects of polymer additives in a plate heat exchanger for the OTEC system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, N.; Yoon, S.; Kim, C.; Seo, T.

    1999-07-01

    Experiments were undertaken for a 15kW Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger utilizing polyethylene oxide as a polymer additive. Concentrations of polymer additives were 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 200 and 400 wppm at 25 C and mass flow rates were 0.6kg/s, 0.7kg/s, 0.8kg/s and 0.9kg/s in normal operating ranges of the plate heat exchanger. The maximum effects of drag reductions were found at 20 wppm polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and mass flow rate for the plate heat exchanger for maximum drag reduction effects. In most cases, drag reduction of approximately 20% has been obtained. It means considerable savings in pumping power for a large size OTEC plant.

  10. Pulverized coal injection (PCI) at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.L.; Greenawald, P.B.; Ranade, M.G.; Ricketts, J.A.; Zuke, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    Fuel injection at the tuyeres has always been part of normal operating practice on this blast furnace. It has been used as much because of the beneficial effects on furnace operation as for the replacement of some of the coke that would otherwise be consumed. Fuel oil was used at first, but since the early 1980s it was more economical to inject natural gas. Studies in 1990 indicated that natural gas could be increased to 75 kg/tHM on No. 7 Furnace, and this would result in a coke rate of approximately 360 kg/tHM. It was apparent that coal injection offered significantly more opportunity for coke savings. Coke rate could be lowered to 300 kg/tHM with coal injected at 175 kg/tHM. Some combustion limitations were expected at that level. A coke rate of 270 kg/tHM with coal at 200 kg/tHM may be possible once these limitations are overcome. Furnace permeability was expected to limit the ability to reduce coke rate any further. In addition, the relative cost of coal would be significantly lower than the cost of coke it replaced. This lead to the decision late in 1991 to install pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment for all of Inland`s blast furnaces. This paper will deal with PCI experience at No. 7 Blast Furnace.

  11. Analysis of the Tank 5F Feed and Bleed Residual Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Diprete, D.: Coleman, C.; Washington, A.

    2011-07-07

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. As part of Tank 5F Closure Mechanical Cleaning, SRR conducted a 'Feed and Bleed' process in Tank 5F. Following this 'Feed and Bleed' Mechanical Cleaning in Tank 5F, SRR collected two tank heel samples (referred to as sample 1 and sample 2) under Riser 5 to determine the composition of the material remaining in the tanks. This document describes sample analysis results. The conclusions from this analysis follow. (1) The anions measured all had a concentration less than 250 mg/kg, except for oxalate, which had a concentration of 2100-2400 mg/kg. (2) The measured cations with the highest concentration were iron (432,000-519,000 mg/kg), nickel (54,600-69,300 mg/kg), and manganese (35,200-42,100 mg/kg). All other cations measured less than 13,000 mg/kg. (3) The radionuclides present in the highest concentration are {sup 90}Sr (3.0 x 10{sup 10} dpm/g), {sup 137}Cs (6.8 x 10{sup 8} dpm/g), and {sup 241}Am (1.4 x 10{sup 8} - 1.8 x 10{sup 8} dpm/g). (4) The particle size analysis shows a large fraction of particles greater than 100 {micro}.

  12. JV Task 59-Demonstration of Accelerated In Situ Contaminant Degradation by Vacuum-Enhanced Nutrient Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaroslav Solc

    2007-03-15

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at a former Mohler Oil site in Bismarck, North Dakota. The remedial strategy was based on the application of two innovative concepts: (1) design and deployment of the mobile extraction, treatment, and injection units to overcome site limitations associated with urban settings in high-traffic areas and (2) vacuum-controlled nutrient injection within and on the periphery of an induced hydraulic and pneumatic depression. Combined contaminant recovery since the beginning of the project in June 2003 totals over 13,600 lb ({approx}6,170 kg) of hydrocarbons, equivalent to 2176 gallons (8236 l) of product. In situ delivery of 1504 Ib (682 kg) of ionic nitrate and 540 Ib (245 kg) of dissolved oxygen translates into further reduction of about 489 Ib (222 kg) of benzene for the same period and provides for long-term stimulation of the natural attenuation process. In addition to contaminant recovered by extraction and reduced by in situ biodegradation, a total of 4136 Ib (1876 kg) of oxygen was delivered to the saturated zone, resulting in further in situ reduction of an estimated 1324 lb (600 kg) of dissolved-phase hydrocarbons. Based on the results of the EERC demonstration, the North Dakota Department of Health approved site abandonment and termination of the corrective action.

  13. Cost estimate for muddy water palladium production facility at Mound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAdams, R.K.

    1988-11-30

    An economic feasibility study was performed on the ''Muddy Water'' low-chlorine content palladium powder production process developed by Mound. The total capital investment and total operating costs (dollars per gram) were determined for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg in 1-kg increments. The report includes a brief description of the Muddy Water process, the process flow diagram, and material balances for the various production batch sizes. Two types of facilities were evaluated--one for production of new, ''virgin'' palladium powder, and one for recycling existing material. The total capital investment for virgin facilities ranged from $600,000 --$1.3 million for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg, respectively. The range for recycle facilities was $1--$2.3 million. The total operating cost for 100% acceptable powder production in the virgin facilities ranged from $23 per gram for a 1-kg production batch size to $8 per gram for a 10-kg batch size. Similarly for recycle facilities, the total operating cost ranged from $34 per gram to $5 per gram. The total operating cost versus product acceptability (ranging from 50%--100% acceptability) was also evaluated for both virgin and recycle facilities. Because production sizes studied vary widely and because scale-up factors are unknown for batch sizes greater than 1 kg, all costs are ''order-of-magnitude'' estimates. All costs reported are in 1987 dollars.

  14. Nanoporous separators for supercapacitor using activated carbon monolith electrode from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nor, N. S. M. Deraman, M. Omar, R. Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Taer, E.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R.

    2014-02-24

    Activated porous carbon electrode prepared from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches was used for preparing the carbon based supercapacitor cells. The symmetrical supercapacitor cells were fabricated using carbon electrodes, stainless steel current collector, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, and three types of nanoporous separators. Cells A, B and C were fabricated using polypropylene, eggshell membrane, and filter paper, respectively. Electrochemical characterizations data from Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry, and Galvanic Charge Discharge techniques showed that specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy for cell A were 122 F g{sup ?1}, 177 W kg{sup ?1}, 3.42 Wh kg{sup ?1}, cell B; 125 F g{sup ?1}, 179 W kg{sup ?1}, and 3.64 Wh kg{sup ?1}, and cell C; 180 F g{sup ?1}, 178 W kg{sup ?1}, 4.27 Wh kg{sup ?1}. All the micrographs from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope showed that the different in nanoporous structure of the separators lead to a significant different in influencing the values of specific capacitance, power and energy of supercapacitors, which is associated with the mobility of ion into the pore network. These results indicated that the filter paper was superior than the eggshell membrane and polypropylene nanoporous separators. However, we found that in terms of acidic resistance, polypropylene was the best nanoporous separator for acidic medium.

  15. Economic Analysis of a Brackish Water Photovoltaic-Operated (BWRO-PV) Desalination System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Karaghouli, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    2010-10-01

    The photovoltaic (PV)-powered reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination system is considered one of the most promising technologies in producing fresh water from both brackish and sea water, especially for small systems located in remote areas. We analyze the economic viability of a small PV-operated RO system with a capacity of 5 m3/day used to desalinate brackish water of 4000 ppm total dissolve solids, which is proposed to be installed in a remote area of the Babylon governorate in the middle of Iraq; this area possesses excellent insolation throughout the year. Our analysis predicts very good economic and environmental benefits of using this system. The lowest cost of fresh water achieved from using this system is US $3.98/ m3, which is very reasonable compared with the water cost reported by small-sized desalination plants installed in rural areas in other parts of the world. Our analysis shows that using this small system will prevent the release annually of 8,170 kg of CO2, 20.2 kg of CO, 2.23 kg of CH, 1.52 kg of particulate matter, 16.41 kg of SO2, and 180 kg of NOx.

  16. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govasmark, Espen; Staeb, Jessica; Holen, Borge; Hoornstra, Douwe; Nesbakk, Tommy; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2011-12-15

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and {Sigma} PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (<0.30-5.77 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and thiabendazol (<0.14-0.73 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  17. Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reilly, J.J.; Fedak, M.A. )

    1990-09-01

    The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by {sup 2}H or {sup 3}H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both {sup 2}HHO and {sup 3}HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with {sup 3}H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals.

  18. A pilot-scale field study on the anaerobic biotreatment of soil impacted with highly chlorinated benzenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanand, K.; Foulke, B.; Delnicki, W.A.; Ying, A.C.; Baek, N.H.; Coats, M.L.; Duffy, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    An on-site pilot-scale demonstration of anaerobic biodegradation of highly chlorinated benzenes was successfully performed at a chemical manufacturing industrial facility in Niagara Falls, New York. The field investigation was conducted in 6-yd{sup 3} capacity soil boxes. Approximately 4 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with chlorinated compounds was placed in each soil box. Chlorinated benzenes with 3 or more chlorines accounted for about 85% of the total chemistry in the soil. The soil box amended with water, nutrients, and acclimated soil microbial inoculum exhibited greater than 78% reduction in the levels of highly chlorinated compounds after one year of field study. The total concentrations of hexa-, penta-, tetra-, and trichlorobenzenes decreased from 920 mg/kg to less than 190 mg/kg, while the total concentrations of di-, and monochlorobenzene increased from 8 mg/kg to greater than 400 mg/kg during one year of field operation. The control soil that did not receive any external nutrient or microbial amendments maintained the same percentage of the highly chlorinated benzenes after one year and di-, and monochlorobenzene never exceeded more than 4 mg/kg at any given time period. The anaerobic activity was further confirmed by monitored parameters such as nutrient consumption (butyrate, nitrogen, organic matter), sulfate depletion, and methane production.

  19. RTGs Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    A small spacecraft design for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) Mission is under study by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), for a possible launch as early as 1998. JPL's 1992 baseline design calls for a power source able to furnish an energy output of 3963 kWh and a power output of 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. Satisfying those demands is made difficult because NASA management has set a goal of reducing the spacecraft mass from a baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for the power source. To support the ongoing NASA/JPL studies, the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA) commissioned Fairchild Space to prepare and analyze conceptual designs of radioisotope power systems for the PFF mission. Thus far, a total of eight options employing essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules were designed and subjected to thermal, electrical, structural, and mass analyses by Fairchild. Five of these - employing thermoelectric converters - are described in the present paper, and three - employing free-piston Stirling converters - are described in the companion paper presented next. The system masses of the thermoelectric options ranged from 19.3 kg to 10.2 kg. In general, the options requiring least development are the heaviest, and the lighter options require more development with greater programmatic risk. There are four duplicate copies

  20. System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-11-01

    Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

  1. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

    1989-06-30

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

  2. 100-F/IU Area ROD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Area ROD Christopher Guzzetti US EPA Topics  15 waste sites with ICs for contamination at depth  1 waste site with IC for Irrigation  MNA for Groundwater 15 ft HH GW/SW 15 waste sites with deep ICs IC Boundaries Waste site with IC for Irrigation Waste site with IC for Irrigation Max Conc. 3.23 mg/kg 22 ft. 0.27 mg/kg 48.9 ft. Max Conc. 7.5 mg/kg CVP ND 20 µg/L Interim 10 µg/L Final Waste Site vs. Cr6 Plume MNA for Groundwater  Timeframes to achieve cleanup levels are based on the

  3. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  4. Evaluation of graphite/steam interactions for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolik, G.R.; Merrill, B.J.; Piet, S.J.; Holland, D.F.

    1990-09-01

    In this report we present the results of an experimental/analytical study designed to determine the quantity of hydrogen generated during a coolant inleakage accident in ITER. This hydrogen could represent a potential explosive hazard, provided the proper conditions exist, causing machine damage and release of radioactive material. We have measured graphite/steam reaction rates for several graphites and carbon-based composites at temperatures between 1000 C and 1700 C. The effects of steam flow rate, and partial pressure were also examined. The measured reaction rates correlated well with two Arrhenius type relationships. We have used the relationships for GraphNOL N3M in a thermal model to determine that for ITER the quantity of hydrogen produced would range between 5 and 35 kg, depending upon how the graphite tiles are attached to the first wall. While 5 kg is not a significant concern, 35 kg presents an explosive hazard. 20 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. Thomas, Ph.D., President Franklin D. Lomax, Ph.D, CTO & Principal Investigator, and Maxim Lyubovski, Ph.D.

    2011-03-10

    H{sub 2}Gen, with the support of the Department of Energy, successfully designed, built and field-tested two steam methane reformers with 578 kg/day capacity, which has now become a standard commercial product serving customers in the specialty metals and PV manufacturing businesses. We demonstrated that this reformer/PSA system, when combined with compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) equipment could produce hydrogen that is already cost-competitive with gasoline per mile driven in a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle. We further showed that mass producing this 578 kg/day system in quantities of just 100 units would reduce hydrogen cost per mile approximately 13% below the cost of untaxed gasoline per mile used in a hybrid electric vehicle. If mass produced in quantities of 500 units, hydrogen cost per mile in a FCEV would be 20% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in an HEV in the 2015-2020 time period using EIA fuel cost projections for natural gas and untaxed gasoline, and 45% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in a conventional car. This 20% to 45% reduction in fuel cost per mile would accrue even though hydrogen from this 578 kg/day system would cost approximately $4.14/kg, well above the DOE hydrogen cost targets of $2.50/kg by 2010 and $2.00/kg by 2015. We also estimated the cost of a larger, 1,500 kg/day SMR/PSA fueling system based on engineering cost scaling factors derived from the two H{sub 2}Gen products, a commercial 115 kg/day system and the 578 kg/day system developed under this DOE contract. This proposed system could support 200 to 250 cars per day, similar to a medium gasoline station. We estimate that the cost per mile from this larger 1,500 kg/day hydrogen fueling system would be 26% to 40% below the cost per mile of untaxed gasoline in an HEV and ICV respectively, even without any mass production cost reductions. In quantities of 500 units, we are projecting per mile cost reductions between 45% (vs. HEVs) and 62% (vs ICVs), with hydrogen costing approximately $2.87/kg, still above the DOE's 2010 $2.50/kg target. We also began laboratory testing of reforming ethanol, which we showed is currently the least expensive approach to making renewable hydrogen. Extended testing of neat ethanol in micro-reactors was successful, and we also were able to reform E-85 acquired from a local fueling station for 2,700 hours, although some modifications were required to handle the 15% gasoline present in E-85. We began initial tests of a catalyst-coated wall reformer tube that showed some promise in reducing the propensity to coke with E-85. These coated-wall tests ran for 350 hours. Additional resources would be required to commercialize an ethanol reformer operating on E-85, but there is no market for such a product at this time, so this ethanol reformer project was moth-balled pending future government or industry support. The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to design, build and test a steam methane reformer and pressure swing adsorption system that, if scaled up and mass produced, could potentially meet the DOE 2015 cost and efficiency targets for on-site distributed hydrogen generation, and (2) to demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost renewable hydrogen generation system based on reforming ethanol to hydrogen at the fueling station.

  6. Miniature heat pumps for portable and distributed space conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drost, M.K.; Friedrich, M.

    1997-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a miniature absorption heat pump for a range of microclimate control applications, including manportable cooling and distributed space conditioning. The miniature absorption heat pump will be sized to provide 350 W cooling, will have dimensions of 9 cm x 9 cm x 6 cm, and will weigh approximately 0.65 kg. Compared to a macroscale absorption heat pump, this represents reduction in volume by a factor of 60. A complete manportable cooling system including the heat pump, an air-cooled heat exchanger, batteries, and fuel is estimated to weight between 4 and 5 kg, compared to the 10 kg weight of alternative systems. Size and weight reductions are obtained by developing a device that can simultaneously take advantage of the high heat and mass transfer rates attainable in microscale structures while being large enough to allow electric powered pumping.

  7. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 5 copies in the file.

  8. The use of Eupatorium Odoratum as bio-monitor for radionuclides determination in Manjung, Perak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zainal, Fetri Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-29

    The accumulation of radionuclides in plants can be used as bio-monitoring in the environment. This technique is a cost-effective as the plants used to uptake deposited radionuclides from soil, commonly as soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF), which is widely used for calculating radiological risk. Radionuclides deposited in the soil carry by the air as particles or gases lead to the accumulation in soil. Eupatorium odoratum, known as pokok kapal terbang in Malaysia was chosen as sample for their abundances and properties to measure surface soil contamination. The plants were collected in three different directions (North, North-East and South-East) from Manjung district. The plants were collected in same size and then separated in to three parts (roots, stems and leaves) to determine the transfer factor from soil to each part. The concentrations of thorium (Th) and uranium (U) were analyzed using Energy Disperse X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and found in the range of 1.20-3.50 mg/kg and 1.20-3.90 mg/kg in roots, 1.40-3.90 mg/kg and 1.50-5.90 mg/kg in stems and 1.50-2.50 mg/kg and 2.00-6.00 mg/kg in leaves, respectively. Transfer factor (TF) was calculated through concentrations as reported in this article and show that the plants have transferred and accumulated radionuclides in significant values. From radionuclides concentrations in topsoil, the radiological risk was calculated and the present result show that external hazard index (H{sub ex}) is below than unity indicate low radiological risk at that area.

  9. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 2 copies in the file.

  10. Fuel Performance Experience, Analysis and Modeling: Deformations, Fission Gas Release and Pellet-Clad Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, G.; Hallstadius, L.; Helmersson, S.; Massih, A.R.; Schrire, D.; Kaellstroem, R.; Wikmark, G.; Hellwig, C.

    2007-07-01

    Some basic attributes of light water reactor fuel performance, determined by measurements, are evaluated. In particular, data on fuel volume swelling, cladding creep/growth, fission product gas release and cladding deformation due to pellet-clad mechanical interaction of rods irradiated in power reactors to rod burnups up to about 70 MWd/kgU are presented and appraised. A thermal fuel matrix swelling caused by fission products shows a linear increase in the fuel volume fraction with burnup up to 70 MWd/kgU with a mean rate of 0.76% per 10 MWd/kgU at a best-estimate level. Cladding hoop strain data due to in-reactor creep as a function of burnup from 15 to 70 MWd/kgU for pressurized water reactor (PWR) rods and from 5 to 50 MWd/kgU for boiling water reactor (BWR) rods are presented. The maximum measured cladding creep-down hoop strain in the considered BWR rods is {epsilon}{sub {theta}} {approx_equal} -0.5% and in the PWR rods {epsilon}{sub {theta}} {approx_equal} -1.25%. Rod growth data on BWR and PWR rods as a function of burnup are presented and discussed. Rod internal free volume data, measured and calculated as a function of burnup, are presented. Recent high burnup (52-70 MWd/kgU) fission product gas release data obtained by destructive methods are evaluated with the STAV7 computer code. Finally, slow power ramp experiments conducted at the Studsvik R2 reactor are simulated with the STAV7 code and it is observed that by accounting the contribution of fuel thermal gaseous swelling, the code describes the clad diameter increase due to pellet-clad mechanical interaction under the power bump satisfactorily. (authors)

  11. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    You Wrote: Hi my question is what is the number of atoms in the world and why don't scientist agree on one number for them. Thank you. Hi, the answer to your question by its very nature can not be terribly accurate. However, when I pull down my copy of a college physics book, I find that it lists the mass of the earth as (6 x 10^24 kg). The mass of a proton or neutron is (1.67 x 10^-27 kg). Consequently, you can say to mediocre accuracy that the number of protons or neutrons in the earth is

  12. Dark matter search with CUORE-0 and CUORE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguirre, C. P.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Casali, N.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; De Biasi, A.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Goett, J.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; ODonnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale experiment made of TeO? bolometers that will probe the neutrinoless double beta decay of ?Te. Excellent energy resolution, low threshold and low background make CUORE sensitive to nuclear recoils, allowing a search for dark matter interactions. With a total mass of 741 kg of TeO?, CUORE can search for an annual modulation of the counting rate at low energies. We present data obtained with CUORE-like detectors and the prospects for a dark matter search in CUORE-0, a 40-kg prototype, and CUORE.

  13. Improved Limits on Spin-Dependent WIMP-Proton Interactions from a Two Liter CF{sub 3}I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Hinnefeld, J. H.; Levine, I.; Shepherd, T.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Hall, J.; Hu, M.; Ramberg, E.; Sonnenschein, A.; Collar, J. I.; Dahl, C. E.; Fustin, D.; Szydagis, M.

    2011-01-14

    Data from the operation of a bubble chamber filled with 3.5 kg of CF{sub 3}I in a shallow underground site are reported. An analysis of ultrasound signals accompanying bubble nucleations confirms that alpha decays generate a significantly louder acoustic emission than single nuclear recoils, leading to an efficient background discrimination. Three dark matter candidate events were observed during an effective exposure of 28.1 kg day, consistent with a neutron background. This observation provides strong direct detection constraints on weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  14. Improved Limits on Spin-Dependent WIMP-Proton Interactions from a Two Liter CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Hall, J.; Hinnefeld, J.H.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Data from the operation of a bubble chamber filled with 3.5 kg of CF{sub 3}I in a shallow underground site are reported. An analysis of ultrasound signals accompanying bubble nucleations confirms that alpha decays generate a significantly louder acoustic emission than single nuclear recoils, leading to an efficient background discrimination. Three dark matter candidate events were observed during an effective exposure of 28.1 kg-day, consistent with a neutron background. This observation provides the strongest direct detection constraint to date on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses > 20 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  15. Method of making a high performance ultracapacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    2000-07-26

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  16. Dark matter search with CUORE-0 and CUORE

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aguirre, C. P.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale experiment made of TeO₂ bolometers that will probe the neutrinoless double beta decay of ¹³⁰Te. Excellent energy resolution, low threshold and low background make CUORE sensitive to nuclear recoils, allowing a search for dark matter interactions. With a total mass of 741 kg of TeO₂, CUORE can search for an annual modulation of the counting rate at low energies. We present data obtained with CUORE-like detectors and the prospects for a dark matter search in CUORE-0, a 40-kg prototype, and CUORE.

  17. Flywheel energy storage advances using HTS bearings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulcahy, T. M.

    1998-09-11

    High-Temperature-Superconducting (HT) bearings have the potential to reduce idling losses and make flywheel energy storage economical. Demonstration of large, high-speed flywheels is key to market penetration. Toward this goal, a flywheel system has been developed and tested with 5-kg to 15-kg disk-shaped rotors. Rlm speeds exceeded 400 mls and stored energies were >80 W-hr. Test implementation required technological advances in nearly all aspects of the flywheel system. Features and limitations of the design and tests are discussed, especially those related to achieving additional energy storage.

  18. Parametric Gasification of Oak and Pine Feedstocks Using the TCPDU and Slipstream Water-Gas Shift Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrdlicka, J.; Feik, C.; Carpenter, D.; Pomeroy, M.

    2008-12-01

    With oak and pine feedstocks, the Gasification of Biomass to Hydrogen project maximizes hydrogen production using the Full Stream Reformer during water-gas shift fixed-bed reactor testing. Results indicate that higher steam-to-biomass ratio and higher thermal cracker temperature yield higher hydrogen concentration. NREL's techno-economic models and analyses indicate hydrogen production from biomass may be viable at an estimated cost of $1.77/kg (current) and $1.47/kg (advanced in 2015). To verify these estimates, NREL used the Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU), an integrated system of unit operations that investigates biomass thermochemical conversion to gaseous and liquid fuels and chemicals.

  19. Wind to Hydrogen in California: Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonia, O.; Saur, G.

    2012-08-01

    This analysis presents a case study in California for a large scale, standalone wind electrolysis site. This is a techno-economic analysis of the 40,000 kg/day renewable production of hydrogen and subsequent delivery by truck to a fueling station in the Los Angeles area. This quantity of hydrogen represents about 1% vehicle market penetration for a city such as Los Angeles (assuming 0.62 kg/day/vehicle and 0.69 vehicles/person) [8]. A wind site near the Mojave Desert was selected for proximity to the LA area where hydrogen refueling stations are already built.

  20. FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

    2008-12-17

    Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved aluminum will be stored in Tank 8 and 21,000 kg will be stored in saltcake via evaporation. Up to 77% of the total aluminum planned for SB6 may be removed via aluminum dissolution. Storage of the aluminum-laden supernate in Tank 8 will require routine evaluation of the free hydroxide concentration in order to maintain aluminum in solution. Periodic evaluation will be established on concurrent frequency with corrosion program samples as previously established for aluminum-laden supernate from SB5 that is stored in Tank 11.

  1. Evaluation of Solar Grade Silicon Produced by the Institute of Physics and Technology: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-211

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, M.

    2013-02-01

    NREL and Solar Power Industries will cooperate to evaluate technology for producing solar grade silicon from industrial waste of the phosphorus industry, as developed by the Institute of Physics and Technology (IPT), Kazakhstan. Evaluation will have a technical component to assess the material quality and a business component to assess the economics of the IPT process. The total amount of silicon produced by IPT is expected to be quite limited (50 kg), so evaluations will need to be done on relatively small quantities (? 5 kg/sample).

  2. Experimental results of core-concrete interactions using molten steel with zirconium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copus, E.R.; Blose, R.E.; Brockmann, J.E.; Gomez, R.D.; Lucero, D.A. )

    1990-07-01

    Four inductively sustained experiments, QT-D, QT-E, SURC-3, and SURC-3A, were performed in order to investigate the additional effects of zirconium metal oxidation on core debris-concrete interactions using molten stainless steel as the core debris simulant. The QT-D experiment ablated 18 cm of concrete axially during 50 minutes of interaction on limestone-common sand concrete using a 10 kg charge of 304 stainless steel to which 2 kg of zirconium metal was added subsequent to the onset of erosion. The QT-E experiment ablated 10 cm of limestone-common sand concrete axially and 10 cm radially during 35 minutes of sustained interaction using 50 kg of stainless steel and 10 kg of zirconium. The SURC-3 experiment had a 45 kg charge of stainless steel to which 1.1 kg of zirconium was subsequently added. SURC-3 axially eroded 33 cm of limestone concrete during two hours of interaction. The fourth experiment, SURC-3A, eroded 25 cm of limestone concrete axially and 9 cm radially during 90 minutes of sustained interaction. It utilized 40 kg of stainless steel and 2.2 kg of added zirconium as the charge material. All four experiments showed in a large increase in erosion rate, gas production, and aerosol release following the addition of Zr metal to the melt. In the SURC-3 and SURC-3A tests the measured erosion rates increased from 14 cm/hr to 27 cm/hr, gas release increased from 50 slpm to 100 slpm, and aerosol release increased from .02 q/sec to .04 q/sec. The effluent gas was composed of 80% CO, 10% CO{sub 2}, and 2% H{sub 2} before Zr addition and 92% CO, 4% CO{sub 2}, 4% H{sub 2} during the Zr interactions which lasted 10--20 minutes. Addition measurements indicated that the melt pool temperature ranged from 1600{degree}C--1800{degree} and that the aerosols produced were comprised primarily of Te and Fe oxides. 21 refs., 120 figs., 51 tabs.

  3. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph (Auburn, AL); Dispennette, John M. (Auburn, AL)

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  4. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C.J.; Dispennette, J.M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg. 3 figs.

  5. Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Information is reported in sections entitled: radiation monitoring; Environmental Management Program; radiation and safety surveys; industrial safety and special projects; Office of Operational Safety; and training, lectures, publications, and professional activities. There were no external or internal exposures to personnel which exceeded the standards for radiation protection as defined in DOE Manual Chapter 0524. Only 35 employees received whole body dose equivalents of 10 mSv (1 rem) or greater. There were no releases of gaseous waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. There were no releases of liquid radioactive waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. The quantity of those radionuclides of primary concern in the Clinch River, based on the concentration measured at White Oak Dam and the dilution afforded by the Clinch River, averaged 0.16 percent of the concentration guide. The average background level at the Perimeter Air Monitoring (PAM) stations during 1980 was 9.0 ..mu..rad/h (0.090 ..mu..Gy/h). Soil samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for eleven radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.37 Bq/kg (0.01 pCi/g) to 1.5 Bq/kg (0.04 pCi/g), and the uranium-235 content ranged from 0.7 Bq/kg (0.02 pCi/g) to 16 Bq/kg (0.43 pCi/g). Grass samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for twelve radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.04 Bq/kg (0.001 pCi/g) to 0.07 Bq/kg (0.002 pCi/g), and the uranium-235 content ranged from 0.37 Bq/kg (0.01 pCi/g) to 12 Bq/kg (0.33 pCi/g).

  6. Thermo-gasification of steam classified municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, M.H.; Sebghati, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) has been processed using a procedure called steam classification. This material has been examined for use as a combustion fuel, feedstock for composting, and cellulytic enzyme hydrolysis. An initial study has been conducted using a prototype plasma arc pyrolysis system to transform the steam classified MSW into a pyrolysis gas and vitrified material. With 136 kg (300 lbs) of the steam classified MSW pyrolysized at a feed rate of 22.7 kg/hour (50 lbs/hour), samples of the gas and grasslike material were captured for analysis. A presentation of the emission data and details on the system used will be presented.

  7. Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Green Algae: Milestone Completion Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos, W. A.

    2004-01-01

    This report updates the 1999 economic analysis of NREL's photobiological hydrogen production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The previous study had looked mainly at incident light intensities, batch cycles and light adsorption without directly attempting to model the saturation effects seen in algal cultures. This study takes a more detailed look at the effects that cell density, light adsorption and light saturation have on algal hydrogen production. Performance estimates based on actual solar data are also included in this study. Based on this analysis, the estimated future selling price of hydrogen produced from algae ranges $0.57/kg to $13.53/kg.

  8. Hydrofluoric Acid Corrosion Testing on Unplated and Electroless Gold-Plated Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, P.E.; Icenhour, A.S.; Del Cul, G.D.

    2000-08-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) remediation requires that almost 40 kg of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) be converted to uranium oxide (UO). In the process of this conversion, six moles of hydrofluoric acid (HP) are produced for each mole of UF6 converted.

  9. March market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The spot market price for uranium in unrestricted markets weakened further during March, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.15, to $7.45 per pound U3O8. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.15, to $2.55 per pound U3O8. Ample UF6 supplies and limited demand led to a $0.50 decrease in the UF6 Value, to $25.00 per kgU as UF6, while the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.75, to $5.25 per kgU. Nine near-term uranium transactions were reported, totalling almost 3.3 million pounds equivalent U3O8. This is the largest monthly spot market volume since October 1992, and is double the volume reported in January and February. The March 31 Conversion Value was $4.25 per kgU as UF6. Beginning with the March 31 Value, NUEXCO now reports its Conversion Value in US dollars per kilogram of uranium (US$/kgU), reflecting current industry practice. The March loan market was inactive with no transactions reported. The Loan Rate remained unchanged at 3.0 percent per annum. Low demand and increased competition among sellers led to a one-dollar decrease in the SWU Value, to $65 per SWU, and the RAMP for SWU declined one dollar, to $9 per SWU.

  10. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominatedmore » community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).« less

  11. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L.; Dawson, R.; Blue, B.; Dunn, P.

    1994-09-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC`s are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  12. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  13. LICENSE HISTORY MO.8 Petrolite Corporation, St. Louis

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    for 0.5 kg. of U-235, 93% enriched as a fuel loading and star-up curce for Webster ... y-235, 93% en- riched as a fuel ioadh& start ce ior toe reactor to oe ccni%Zm Tissouxi. ...

  14. Prototype Tests for the Recovery and Conversion of UF6 Chemisorbed in NaF Traps for the Molten Salt Reactor Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Icenhour, A.S.; Simmons, D.W.

    2000-04-01

    The remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site includes the removal of about 37 kg of uranium. Of that inventory, about 23 kg have already been removed from the piping system and chemisorbed in 25 NaF traps. This material is being stored in Building 3019. The planned recovery of -11 kg of uranium from the fuel salt will generate another 15 to 19 NaF traps. The remaining 2 to 3 kg of uranium are present in activated charcoal beds, which are also scheduled to be removed from the reactor site. Since all of these materials (NaF traps and the uranium-laden charcoal) are not suitable for long-term storage, they will be converted to a chemical form [uranium oxide], which is suitable for long-term storage. This document describes the process that will be used to recover and convert the uranium in the NaF traps into a stable oxide for long-term storage. Included are a description of the process, equipment, test results, and lessons learned. The process was developed for remote operation in a hot cell. Lessons learned from the prototype testing were incorporated into the process design.

  15. Prototype Tests for the Recovery and Conversion of UF6Chemisorbed in NaF Traps for the Molten Salt Reactor Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Cul, G.D.

    2000-06-07

    The remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site includes the removal of about 37 kg of uranium. Of that inventory, about 23 kg have already been removed from the piping system and chemisorbed in 25 NaF traps. This material is being stored in Building 3019. The planned recovery of {approx}11 kg of uranium from the fuel salt will generate another 15 to 19 NaF traps. The remaining 2 to 3 kg of uranium are present in activated charcoal beds, which are also scheduled to be removed from the reactor site. Since all of these materials (NaF traps and the uranium-laden charcoal) are not suitable for long-term storage, they will be converted to a chemical form [uranium oxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8})], which is suitable for long-term storage. This document describes the process that will be used to recover and convert the uranium in the NaF traps into a stable oxide for long-term storage. Included are a description of the process, equipment, test results, and lessons learned. The process was developed for remote operation in a hot cell. Lessons learned from the prototype testing were incorporated into the process design.

  16. Depopulation rates for combustion-related species in long-lived vibrationally or electronically excited levels. Technical progress report, 16 July 1981-30 June 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, R.W.; Kinsey, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Research is reported on: effects of a 0-200G magnetic field on fluorescence in acetylene; anticrossings, Stark (0 to 10 kV/cm), and Zeeman (0 to 10 kG) quantum beats in acetylene; and quantum chaos in X/sup 1/..sigma../sub g//sup +/ acetylene (stimulated emission pumping). (DLC)

  17. Solubility of small-chain carboxylic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparks, Darrell L.; Este?vez, L. Antonio; Hernandez, Rafael; McEwen, Jason; French, Todd

    2010-07-08

    The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 0.03) kg m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 0.2) kg m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 0.1) kg m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0 MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 2) kg m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with increasing molar mass at constant supercritical-fluid density. Additionally, the efficacy of Chrastil's equation and other density-based models was evaluated for each fatty acid.

  18. The Majorana Double Beta Decay Experiment: Present Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Beene, Jim; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, C. D.; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keller, C.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips II, D. G.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2013-06-01

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, an R&D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator

  19. CO2 is dominant greenhouse gas emitted from six hydropower reservoirs in southeastern United States during peak summer emissions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Stewart, Aurthur J.; Fortner, Allison M.; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Mosher, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-06

    During August-September 2012, we sampled six hydropower reservoirs in southeastern United States. for CO2 and CH4 emissions via three pathways: diffusive emissions from water surface; ebullition in the water column; and losses from dam tailwaters during power generation. Average total emission rates of CO2 for the six reservoirs ranged from 1,127 to 2,051 mg m-2 d-1, which is low to moderate compared to CO2 emissions rates reported for tropical hydropower reservoirs and boreal ponds and lakes, and similar to rates reported for other temperate reservoirs. Similar average rates for CH4 were also relatively low, ranging from 5 to 83 mgmore » m-2 d-1. On a whole-reservoir basis, total emissions of CO2 ranged nearly 10-fold, from ~51,000 kg per day for Fontana to ~486,000 kg per day for Guntersville, and total emissions of CH4 ranged nearly 20-fold, from ~5 kg per day for Fontana to ~83 kg per day for Allatoona. Emissions through the tailwater pathway varied among reservoirs, comprising from 20 to 50% of total CO2 emissions and 0 to 90% of CH4 emissions, depending on the reservoir. Furthermore, several explanatory factors related to reservoir morphology and water quality were considered for observed differences among reservoirs.« less

  20. Solubility of small-chain carboxylic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sparks, Darrell L.; Estevez, L. Antonio; Hernandez, Rafael; McEwen, Jason; French, Todd

    2010-07-08

    The solubility of heptanoic acid and octanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide has been determined at temperatures of (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K over a pressure range of (8.5 to 30.0) MPa, depending upon the solute. The solubility of heptanoic acid ranged from a solute concentration of (0.08 ± 0.03) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 8.5 MPa) to (147 ± 0.2) kg • m-3 (T = 323.15 K, p = 20.0 MPa). The lowest octanoic acid solubility obtained was a solute concentration of (0.40 ± 0.1) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 10.0more » MPa), while the highest solute concentration was (151 ± 2) kg • m-3 (T = 333.15 K, p = 26.7 MPa). In addition, solubility experiments were performed for nonanoic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 323.15 K and pressures of (10.0 to 30.0) MPa to add to the solubility data previously published by the authors. In general, carboxylic acid solubility increased with increasing solvent density. The results also showed that the solubility of the solutes decreased with increasing molar mass at constant supercritical-fluid density. Additionally, the efficacy of Chrastil's equation and other density-based models was evaluated for each fatty acid.« less

  1. Sex-specific vitellogenin production in immature rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, D.B.; Williams, D.E.

    1999-10-01

    Many xenobiotics interact with hormone systems of animals, potentially leading to a phenomenon commonly called endocrine disruption. Much attention has focused on steroid hormone systems and corresponding receptor proteins, particularly estrogens. Vitellogenin (Vg) was measured in sexually immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in the diet. Mixed-sex populations of trout aged 3, 6, 12, or 18 months were maintained separately and fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 or 2.5 mg/kg for 7d. Females fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 mg/kg consistently produced three- to fourfold greater amounts of Vg than similarly aged males. Age- and sex-matched fish fed E{sub 2} at 2.5 mg/kg produced equivalent amounts of Vg. Sex differences in Vg production were apparent only at a dose of E{sub 2} (0.05 mg/kg) that results in submaximal Vg induction. Their results document the importance of considering the sex of juvenile fish when using Vg production as a marker of xenoestrogen exposure.

  2. MOLTEN PLUTONIUM FUELED FAST BREEDER REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiehn, R.M.; King, L.D.P.; Peterson, R.E.; Swickard, E.O. Jr.

    1962-06-26

    A description is given of a nuclear fast reactor fueled with molten plutonium containing about 20 kg of plutonium in a tantalum container, cooled by circulating liquid sodium at about 600 to 650 deg C, having a large negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, and control rods and movable reflector for criticality control. (AEC)

  3. Evaluation of plasma melter technology for verification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes: Demonstration test No. 4 preliminary test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Gass, W.R.; Dighe, S.V.; D`Amico, N.; Swensrud, R.L.; Darr, M.F.

    1995-01-10

    This document provides a preliminary report of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. Phase I test conduct included 26 hours (24 hours steady state) of melting of simulated high-sodium low-level radioactive liquid waste. Average processing rate was 4.9 kg/min (peak rate 6.2 kg/min), producing 7330 kg glass product. Free-flowing glass pour point was 1250 C, and power input averaged 1530 kW(e), for a total energy consumption of 19,800 kJ/kg glass. Restart capability was demonstrated following a 40-min outage involving the scrubber liquor heat exchanger, and glass production was continued for another 2 hours. Some volatility losses were apparent, probably in the form of sodium borates. Roughly 275 samples were collected and forwarded for analysis. Sufficient process data were collected for heat/material balances. Recommendations for future work include lower boron contents and improved tuyere design/operation.

  4. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).

  5. Evaluation of Aroclor 1260 exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahlang, Banrida; Song, Ming; Beier, Juliane I.; Cameron Falkner, K.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Clair, Heather B.; Prough, Russell A.; Osborne, Tanasa S.; Malarkey, David E.; Christopher States, J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260 + HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20 mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200 mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200 mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant “second hit” in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. - Highlights: • Aroclor 1260 exposure decreased adiposity in mice fed with high fat diet • Aroclor 1260 exposure induced steatohepatitis in diet-induced obese mice • Aroclor 1260 (20 and 200 mg/kg) induced Cyp2b10 and Cyp3a11 (CAR/PXR target genes) • Aroclor 1260 at 200 mg/kg induced Cyp1a2 (AhR target gene)

  6. An LCA model for waste incineration enhanced with new technologies for metal recovery and application to the case of Switzerland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boesch, Michael E.; Vadenbo, Carl; Saner, Dominik; Huter, Christoph; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: An enhanced process-based LCA model for MSWI is featured and applied in case study. LCA modeling of recent technological developments for metal recovery from fly ash. Net release from Swiss MSWI 133 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne waste from attributional LCA perspective. Net savings from a consequential LCA perspective reach up to 303 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne waste. Impacts according to ReCiPe and CExD show similar pattern to climate change. - Abstract: A process model of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and new technologies for metal recovery from combustion residues was developed. The environmental impact is modeled as a function of waste composition as well as waste treatment and material recovery technologies. The model includes combustion with a grate incinerator, several flue gas treatment technologies, electricity and steam production from waste heat recovery, metal recovery from slag and fly ash, and landfilling of residues and can be tailored to specific plants and sites (software tools can be downloaded free of charge). Application of the model to Switzerland shows that the treatment of one tonne of municipal solid waste results on average in 425 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. generated in the incineration process, and 54 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. accrue in upstream processes such as waste transport and the production of operating materials. Downstream processes, i.e. residue disposal, generates 5 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Savings from energy recovery are in the range of 67 to 752 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. depending on the assumptions regarding the substituted energy production, while the recovery of metals from slag and fly ash currently results in a net saving of approximately 35 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. A similar impact pattern is observed when assessing the MSWI model for aggregated environmental impacts (ReCiPe) and for non-renewable resource consumption (cumulative exergy demand), except that direct emissions have less and no relevance, respectively, on the total score. The study illustrates that MSWI plants can be an important element of industrial ecology as they provide waste disposal services and can help to close material and energetic cycles.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of ?{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 12 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  8. System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-05-01

    This report presents results of system evaluations and lifecycle cost analyses performed for several different commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production concepts. The concepts presented in this report rely on grid electricity and non-nuclear high-temperature process heat sources for the required energy inputs. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate both central plant designs for large-scale hydrogen production (50,000 kg/day or larger) and forecourt plant designs for distributed production and delivery at about 1,500 kg/day. The HYSYS software inherently ensures mass and energy balances across all components and it includes thermodynamic data for all chemical species. The optimized designs described in this report are based on analyses of process flow diagrams that included realistic representations of fluid conditions and component efficiencies and operating parameters for each of the HTE hydrogen production configurations analyzed. As with previous HTE system analyses performed at the INL, a custom electrolyzer model was incorporated into the overall process flow sheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet steam, hydrogen, and sweep-gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The lifecycle cost analyses were performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. There are standard default sets of assumptions that the methodology uses to ensure consistency when comparing the cost of different production or plant design options. However, these assumptions may also be varied within the spreadsheets when better information is available or to allow the performance of sensitivity studies. The selected reference plant design for this study was a 1500 kg/day forecourt hydrogen production plant operating in the thermal-neutral mode. The plant utilized industrial natural gas-fired heaters to provide process heat, and grid electricity to supply power to the electrolyzer modules and system components. Modifications to the reference design included replacing the gas-fired heaters with electric resistance heaters, changing the operating mode of the electrolyzer (to operate below the thermal-neutral voltage), and considering a larger 50,000 kg/day central hydrogen production plant design. Total H2A-calculated hydrogen production costs for the reference 1,500 kg/day forecourt hydrogen production plant were $3.42/kg. The all-electric plant design using electric resistance heaters for process heat, and the reference design operating below the thermal-neutral voltage had calculated lifecycle hydrogen productions costs of $3.55/kg and $5.29/kg, respectively. Because of its larger size and associated economies of scale, the 50,000 kg/day central hydrogen production plant was able to produce hydrogen at a cost of only $2.89/kg.

  9. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayr, S. Ojanper, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: Rendering wastes mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  10. Repeated in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure affects male gonads in offspring, leading to sex ratio changes in F{sub 2} progeny

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, Masahiko . E-mail: ikedam@ys2.u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp; Tamura, Masashi; Yamashita, Junko; Suzuki, Chinatsu; Tomita, Takako

    2005-08-15

    The effects of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the reproductive system of male rat offspring (F{sub 1}) and the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F{sub 2}) were examined. Female Holtzman rats were gavaged with an initial loading dose of 400 ng/kg TCDD prior to mating, followed by weekly maintenance doses of 80 ng/kg during mating, pregnancy, and the lactation period. Maternal exposure to TCDD had no significant effects on fetus/pup (F{sub 1}) mortality, litter size, or sex ratio on gestation day (GD) 20 or postnatal day (PND) 2. The TCDD concentration in maternal livers and adipose tissue on GD20 was 1.21 and 1.81 ng/kg, respectively, and decreased at weaning to 0.72 in the liver and 0.84 in the adipose tissue. In contrast, the TCDD concentration in pup livers was 1.32 ng/kg on PND2 and increased to 1.80 ng/kg at weaning. Ventral prostate weight of male offspring was significantly decreased by TCDD exposure on PND28 and 120 compared with that of controls. Weight of the testes, cauda epididymides, and seminal vesicle, and sperm number in the cauda epididymis were not changed by TCDD exposure at PND120. TCDD- or vehicle-exposed male offspring were mated with unexposed females. The sex ratio (percentage of male pups) of F{sub 2} offspring was significantly reduced in the TCDD-exposed group compared with controls. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposures affect the development of male gonads in offspring (F{sub 1}), leading to changes in the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F{sub 2})

  11. Iron optimization for Fenton-driven oxidation of MTBE-spent granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott G. Huling; Patrick K. Jones; Tony R. Lee

    2007-06-01

    Fenton-driven chemical oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) was accomplished through the addition of iron (Fe) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) (15.9 g/L; pH 3). The GAC used was URV, a bituminous-coal based carbon. The Fe concentration in GAC was incrementally varied (1020-25 660 mg/kg) by the addition of increasing concentrations of Fe solution (FeSO4{center_dot}7H{sub 2}O). MTBE degradation in Fe-amended GAC increased by an order of magnitude over Fe-unamended GAC and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction was predominantly (99%) attributed to GAC-bound Fe within the porous structure of the GAC. Imaging and microanalysis of GAC particles indicated limited penetration of Fe into GAC. The optimal Fe concentration was 6710 mg/kg (1020 mg/kg background; 5690 mg/kg amended Fe) and resulted in the greatest MTBE removal and maximum Fe loading oxidation efficiency (MTBE oxidized (g)/Fe loaded to GAC(mg/Kg)). At lower Fe concentrations, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction was Fe limited. At higher Fe concentrations, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction was not entirely Fe limited, and reductions in GAC surface area, GAC pore volume, MTBE adsorption, and Fe loading oxidation efficiency were measured. Results are consistent with nonuniform distribution of Fe, pore blockage in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} transport, unavailable Fe, and limitations in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} diffusive transport, and emphasize the importance of optimal Fe loading. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Tumasonis, C.; Briggs, R.G.; Narang, A.S.; Narang, R.S.; Rej, R.; Stein, V.; McMartin, D.N.; Kaminsky, L.S.

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  13. Development and Test Evaluations for Ni-DOBDC Metal Organic Framework (MOF) Engineered Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh

    2013-07-01

    A joint effort to prepare engineered forms of a Ni-DOBDC metal organic framework (MOF) was completed with contributions from PNNL, SNL and the INL. Two independent methods were used at INL and SNL to prepare engineered form (EF) sorbents from Ni-DOBDC MOF powder developed and prepared at PNNL. Xe and Kr capacity test evaluations were performed at ambient temperature with the cryostat experimental setup at INL. The initial INL EF MOF test results indicated a Xe capacity of 1.6 mmol/kg sorbent and no Kr capacity. A large loss of surface area also occurred during minimal testing rendering the INL EF MOF unusable. Four capacity tests were completed using the SNL EF MOF at ambient temperature and resulted in Xe capacities of 1.4, 4.2, 5.0 and 3.8 mmol/kg sorbent with no Kr capacity observed in any ambient temperature tests. Two additional capacity tests were performed at 240 K to further evaluate SNL EF MOF performance. Xe capacities of 50.7 and 49.3 mmol/kg of sorbent and Kr capacities of 0.77 and 0.69 mmol/kg of sorbent were obtained, respectively. Following the adsorption evaluations, the SNL EF MOF material had lost about 40 % of the initial mass and 40 % of the initial surface area. In general, the Xe capacity results at ambient temperature for the INL and SNL EF Ni-DOBDC MOFs were lower than 9.8 mmol Xe/kg sorbent test results reported by INL in FY-12 using PNNLs inital EF supplied material.

  14. Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.S. Tumuluru; L.G. Tabil; Y. Song; K.L. Iroba; V. Meda

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, specific energy for grinding and physical properties of wheat, canola, oat and barley straw grinds were investigated. The initial moisture content of the straw was about 0.130.15 (fraction total mass basis). Particle size reduction experiments were conducted in two stages: (1) a chopper without a screen, and (2) a hammer mill using three screen sizes (19.05, 25.4, and 31.75 mm). The lowest grinding energy (1.96 and 2.91 kWh t-1) was recorded for canola straw using a chopper and hammer mill with 19.05-mm screen size, whereas the highest (3.15 and 8.05 kWh t-1) was recorded for barley and oat straws. The physical properties (geometric mean particle diameter, bulk, tapped and particle density, and porosity) of the chopped and hammer-milled wheat, barley, canola, and oat straw grinds measured were in the range of 0.984.22 mm, 3680 kg m-3, 49119 kg m-3, 6001220 kg m-3, and 0.90.96, respectively. The average mean particle diameter was highest for the chopped wheat straw (4.22-mm) and lowest for the canola grind (0.98-mm). The canola grinds produced using the hammer mill (19.05-mm screen size) had the highest bulk and tapped density of about 80 and 119 kg m-3; whereas, the wheat and oat grinds had the lowest of about 58 and 8890 kg m-3. The results indicate that the bulk and tapped densities are inversely proportional to the particle size of the grinds. The flow properties of the grinds calculated are better for chopped straws compared to hammer milled using smaller screen size (19.05 mm).

  15. Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T.; Kuang, Xingya; Melin, Staffan; Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2015-03-02

    Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, atmore » 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO₂, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO₂ is highest for switchgrass and CH₄ is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.« less

  16. Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T.; Kuang, Xingya; Melin, Staffan; Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2015-03-02

    Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, at 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO₂, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO₂ is highest for switchgrass and CH₄ is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.

  17. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rat receiving nilotinib

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Zhi-yong; Wan, Li-li; Yang, Quan-jun; Han, Yong-long; Li, Yan; Yu, Qi; Guo, Cheng; Li, Xiao

    2013-10-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy drug with a narrow therapeutic window. Nilotinib, a small-molecule Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was reported to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transmembrane transporters. The present study aimed to investigate nilotinib's affection on the steady-state pharmacokinetics, disposition and cardiotoxicity of DOX. A total of 24 male SpragueDawley rats were randomized into four groups (6 in each) and received the following regimens: saline, intravenous DOX (5 mg/kg) alone, and DOX co-administrated with either 20 or 40 mg/kg nilotinib. Blood was withdrawn at 12 time points till 72 h after DOX injection and the concentrations of DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in serum and cardiac tissue were assayed by LCMSMS method. To determine the cardiotoxicity, the following parameters were investigated: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Histopathological examination of heart section was carried out to evaluate the extent of cardiotoxicity after treatments. The results showed that pretreatment of 40 mg/kg nilotinib increased the AUC{sub 0t} and C{sub max} of DOX and DOXol. However, their accumulation in cardiac tissue was significantly decreased when compared with the group that received DOX alone. In addition, biochemical and histopathological results showed that 40 mg/kg nilotinib reduced the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX administration. In conclusion, co-administration of nilotinib increased serum exposure, but significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in cardiac tissue. Consistent with in vitro profile, oral dose of 40 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased the cardiotoxicity of DOX in rat by enhancing P-gp activity in the heart.

  18. Carbonic anhydrase-facilitated CO2 absorption with polyacrylamide buffering bead capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, Robert; Griffith, Craid; Liu, Zhu; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila W.; Koepsel, Richard; Ataai, M [Ataai, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    A novel CO2 separation concept is described wherein the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) is used to increase the overall rate Of CO2 absorption after which hydrated CO2 reacts with regenerable amine-bearing polyacrylamide buffering beads (PABB). Following saturation of the material's immobilized tertiary amines, CA-bearing carrier water is separated and recycled to the absorption stage while CO2-loaded material is thermally regenerated. Process application of this concept would involve operation of two or more columns in parallel with thermal regeneration with low-pressure steam taking place after the capacity of a column of amine-bearing polymeric material was exceeded. PABB CO2- bearing capacity was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for beads of three acrylamido buffering monomer ingredient concentrations: 0 mol/kg bead, 0.857 mol/kg bead, and 2 mol/kg bead. TGA results demonstrate that CO2- bearing capacity increases with increasing PABB buffering concentration and that up to 78% of the theoretical CO2- bearing capacity was realized in prepared PABB samples (0.857 mol/kg recipe). The highest observed CO2-bearing capacity of PABB was 1.37 mol of CO2 per kg dry bead. TGA was also used to assess the regenerability Of CO2-loaded PABB. Preliminary results suggest that CO2 is partially driven from PABB samples at temperatures as low as 55 degrees C, with complete regeneration occurring at 100 degrees C. Other physical characteristics of PABB are discussed. In addition, the effectiveness of bovine carbonic anhydrase for the catalysis Of CO2 dissolution is evaluated. Potential benefits and drawbacks of the proposed process are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Drug safety evaluation through biomarker analysis-A toxicity study in the cynomolgus monkey using an antibody-cytotoxic conjugate against ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Frank Y. Tengstrand, Elizabeth; Lee, J.-W.; Li, Lily Y.; Silverman, Lee; Riordan, Bill; Miwa, Gerald; Milton, Mark; Alden, Carl; Lee, Frank

    2007-10-01

    Antibody-cytotoxin conjugates are complex novel therapeutic agents whose toxicological properties are not presently well understood. The objective of this study was to identify serum biomarkers that correlate with MLN8866 (an Antibody-Cytotoxic Conjugate, mAb8866-CT) pathological events in monkeys and to predict the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) level using biomarkers. Cynomolgus monkeys were administered a single dose MLN8666 (5, 15 or 30 mg/kg) by intravenous infusion and evaluated over a 7-day period. Exposure levels were determined by quantifying MLN8866 levels (C{sub max} and AUC{sub 0-96h}) in serum. The increase in MLN8866 C{sub max} and AUC{sub 0-96h} was approximately dose proportional. Two biomarkers in serum (m/z 316 and m/z 368) were identified to be correlated with MLN8866 toxicological outcomes. The predicted MTD, 11.4 mg/kg, was within the MTD range set by pathology results (5-15 mg/kg). Administration of MLN8866 at 15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg dose levels resulted in changes in hematology parameters associated with impaired hematopoiesis and bone marrow toxicity. The projected MLN8866 MTD exposure level was integrated with toxicokinetic analysis and showed C{sub max} = 236 {mu}g/mL and AUC{sub 0-96h} = 7246 h mg/mL. The safety of three different MLN8866 dosing regimens with three dosing schedules was explored with pharmacokinetic modeling.

  20. Hazardous medical waste generation rates of different categories of health-care facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Fouki, Anastassia; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We calculated hazardous medical waste generation rates (HMWGR) from 132 hospitals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on a 22-month study period, HMWGR were highly skewed to the right. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HMWGR varied from 0.00124 to 0.718 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A positive correlation existed between the HMWGR and the number of hospital beds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used non-parametric statistics to compare rates among hospital categories. - Abstract: Goal of this work was to calculate the hazardous medical waste unit generation rates (HMWUGR), in kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, using data from 132 health-care facilities in Greece. The calculations were based on the weights of the hazardous medical wastes that were regularly transferred to the sole medical waste incinerator in Athens over a 22-month period during years 2009 and 2010. The 132 health-care facilities were grouped into public and private ones, and, also, into seven sub-categories, namely: birth, cancer treatment, general, military, pediatric, psychiatric and university hospitals. Results showed that there is a large variability in the HMWUGR, even among hospitals of the same category. Average total HMWUGR varied from 0.012 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, for the public psychiatric hospitals, to up to 0.72 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, for the public university hospitals. Within the private hospitals, average HMWUGR ranged from 0.0012 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, for the psychiatric clinics, to up to 0.49 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, for the birth clinics. Based on non-parametric statistics, HMWUGR were statistically similar for the birth and general hospitals, in both the public and private sector. The private birth and general hospitals generated statistically more wastes compared to the corresponding public hospitals. The infectious/toxic and toxic medical wastes appear to be 10% and 50% of the total hazardous medical wastes generated by the public cancer treatment and university hospitals, respectively.

  1. Hydrothermal stability of SAPO-34 for refrigeration and air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haijun; Cui, Qun; Wu, Juan; Zhu, Yuezhao; Li, Quanguo; Zheng, Kai; Yao, Huqing

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. SAPO-34 shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles. Most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is restored, while the regular cubic-like morphology is well maintained, and the specific surface area only decreases by 8.6%. - Highlights: • Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. • SAPO-34 with diethylamine as the template shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles, and most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is well maintained. • SAPO-34 has an excellent adsorption performance and a good hydrothermal stability, thus is promising for application in adsorption refrigeration. - Abstract: Hydrothermal stability is one of the crucial factors in applying SAPO-34 molecular sieve to adsorption refrigration. The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Both a vacuum gravimetric method and an intelligent gravimetric analyzer were applied to analyze the water adsorption performance of SAPO-34. Cyclic hydrothermal performance was determined on the modified simulation adsorption refrigeration test rig. Crystal phase, morphology, and porosity of SAPO-34 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} sorption, respectively. The results show that, water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. SAPO-34 shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles. Most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is restored, while the regular cubic-like morphology is well maintained, and the specific surface area only decreases by 8.6%.

  2. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a HTGR Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. McKellar; Edwin A. Harvego; Anastasia A. Gandrik

    2010-10-01

    A design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The power conversion unit will be a Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 40%. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 40.4% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.75 kg/s and an oxygen production rate of 13.8 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.67/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return, IRR, of 12% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20%. A second analysis shows that if the power cycle efficiency increases to 44.4%, the hydrogen production efficiency increases to 42.8% and the hydrogen and oxygen production rates are 1.85 kg/s and 14.6 kg/s respectively. At the higher power cycle efficiency and an IRR of 12% the cost of hydrogen production is $3.50/kg.

  3. Status of steady-state irradiation testing of mixed-carbide fuel designs. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The steady-state irradiation program of mixed-carbide fuels has demonstrated clearly the ability of carbide fuel pins to attain peak burnup greater than 12 at.% and peak fluences of 1.4 x 10/sup 23/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). Helium-bonded fuel pins in 316SS cladding have achieved peak burnups of 20.7 at.% (192 MWd/kg), and no breaches have occurred in pins of this design. Sodium-bonded fuel pins in 316SS cladding have achieved peak burnups of 15.8 at.% (146 MWd/kg). Breaches have occurred in helium-bonded fuel pins in PE-16 cladding (approx. 5 at.% burnup) and in D21 cladding (approx. 4 at.% burnup). Sodium-bonded fuel pins achieved burnups over 11 at.% in PE-16 cladding and over 6 at.% in D9 and D21 cladding.

  4. High-burnup core design using minor actinide-containing metal fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohta, Hirokazu; Ogata, Takanari; Obara, T.

    2013-07-01

    A neutronic design study of metal fuel fast reactor (FR) cores is conducted on the basis of an innovative fuel design concept to achieve an extremely high burnup and realize an efficient fuel cycle system. Since it is expected that the burnup reactivity swing will become extremely large in an unprecedented high burnup core, minor actinides (MAs) from light water reactors (LWRs) are added to fresh fuel to improve the core internal conversion. Core neutronic analysis revealed that high burnups of about 200 MWd/kg for a small-scale core and about 300 MWd/kg for a large-scale core can be attained while suppressing the burnup reactivity swing to almost the same level as that of conventional cores with normal burnup. An actinide burnup analysis has shown that the MA consumption ratio is improved to about 60% and that the accumulated MAs originating from LWRs can be efficiently consumed by the high-burnup metal fuel FR. (authors)

  5. X:\ARM_19~1\P193-223.WPD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cm 1 ) H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O, CO 2 H 2 O, CO 2 H 2 O, CO 2 CO 2 , O 3 H 2 O, CO 2 CO 2 , O 3 H 2 O H 2 O, O 3 O 3 H 2 O O 3 H 2 O, CH 4 CH 4 H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O, CO 2 H 2 O, N 2 O CO 2 CO 2 N 2 O, CO 2 H 2 O, CH 4 k(g i ) k(g i ) Session Papers (a) Currently at Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. 219 RRTM: A Rapid Radiative Transfer Model E. J. Mlawer, S. J. Taubman, and S. A. Clough (a) Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts Introduction A

  6. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menlove, Howard O.; Stewart, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the .sup.235 U nuclide content of samples containing UF.sub.6, UF.sub.4, or UO.sub.2 utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1.sigma.) for cylinders containing UF.sub.6 with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF.sub.6 takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures.

  7. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menlove, H.O.; Stewart, J.E.

    1985-02-04

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the /sup 235/U nuclide content of samples containing UF/sub 6/, UF/sub 4/, or UO/sub 2/ utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1sigma) for cylinders containing UF/sub 6/ with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF/sub 6/ takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. GTS Duratek, phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-10-26

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the final report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc. in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384215. The report contains description of the tests, observations, test data and some analysis of the data as it pertains to application of this technology for LLW vitrification. The document also contains summaries of the melter offgas reports issued as separate documents for the 100 kg melter (WHC-SD-WM-VI-028) and for the 1000 kg melter (WHC-SD-WM-VI-029).

  9. Space reactor/Stirling cycle systems for high power lunar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, P.C. ); Mason, L.S. )

    1991-01-05

    It is desired to estimate performance and mass of a 550 kWe SP-100/Stirling nuclear power lunar base. Mass and efficiency estimates are made by modeling the components as a function of thermal or electrical power output requirements. It is found that utilizing a 1050 K heater head the total system mass is 13537 kg. For the 1300 K heater head temperature the system mass is 11474 kg. Mass and radiator area comparisons are made with a SP-100/Brayton and an Incore thermionic reactor. Two technology levels are looked at which correspond to low and high temperature systems (for the thermionic system it also includes a increase in thermionic output voltage). Stirling converter systems are the lightest of the low temperatures systems. At higher temperatures all of the systems masses are similar. Thermionic systems always produced the smallest radiators because of their high heat rejection temperature with Stirling systems coming in a close second.

  10. Low-coke rate operation under high PCI at Kobe No. 3 BF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Kanazuka, Yasuo; Hoshino, Koichi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitayama, Syuji; Ishiwaki, Shiro

    1997-12-31

    Kobe No. 3 blast furnace (BF) suffered tremendous damage when the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake rocked the area on January 17, 1995. However, working as quickly as possible to dig out of the burden and rehabilitate various facilities, the company managed to restart the No. 3 BF on April 2. After the restart, which went smoothly, production was shifted into the low coke rate operation which was being promoted before the disaster. In October, 1995, only seven months after the restart, the nation record of 296 kg/t low coke rate could be achieved. Subsequently, in January, 1996, coke rate reached 290 kg/t and the low coke rate operation was renewed. Since that time the same level of coke rate has been maintained. The paper discusses how low coke rate operation was achieved.

  11. Neutronic and severe safety aspects of 1500 MWth lead and sodium cooled fast reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucek, Kamil; Carlsson, Johan; Vidovic, Dragan; Wider, Hartmut

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, neutronics and severe safety characteristics of Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) and Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) cores concurrently breeding plutonium and burning minor actinides (MAs) are investigated. For LFR, two core variants were modeled: with active core part 90 cm and 120 cm tall. Monte Carlo code was used for neutronics and European Accident Code EAC-2 for severe safety studies. It is shown that both 1500 MW{sub th} LFR and SFR start-up cores can transmute on average 70 kg of MAs annually in the homogeneous mode. In this case, 5% of MAs were admixed to the core fuel. More than 110 kg of MAs can be burned per year when 10% of MAs are additionally added to axial and radial blankets. LFR core designs show advantages over SFR cores regarding severe safety behavior due to higher thermal inertia, better natural circulation behavior and the higher boiling point of lead. (authors)

  12. Conceptual study of measures against heat generation for TRU fuel fabrication system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawaguchi, Koichi; Namekawa, Takashi

    2007-07-01

    To lower the reprocessing cost and the environmental burden, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed low decontamination TRU fuel fabrication system. TRU fuel contains MA of 1.2 to 5 wt% and its decay heat is estimated a few tens W/kg-HM. As the heat affects fuel quality through oxidation of fuel material and members, it is necessary to remove decay heat. In this work, authors designed concepts of the measures against heat generation at typical equipments using with the thermal hydraulics analysis technique. As a result, it is shown that it is possible to cool fuel materials with specific heat generation up to 20 W/kg-HM enough, though more detailed study is required for comprehensive equipments. (authors)

  13. Estimates of Particulate Mass in Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    2000-02-16

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulates that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  14. Nicotinic acid increases the lipid content of rat brain synaptosomes. [Ethanol effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basilio, C.; Flores, M.

    1989-02-09

    Chronic administration of nicotinic acid (NA) increase hepatic lipids and potentiates a similar effect induced by ethanol. The amethystic properties of NA promoted us to study its effects on the lipid content of brain synaptosomes of native and ethanol treated rats. Groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley female rats received i.p. either saline, ethanol (4g/kg), NA (50mg/kg), or a mixture of both compounds once a week during 3 weeks. The sleeping time (ST) of the animals receiving ethanol was recorded, brain synaptosomes of all groups were prepared and total lipids (TL) and cholesterol (Chol) content were determined. NA, ethanol and ethanol + NA markedly increased both TL and Chol of synaptosomes. Animals treated with ethanol or ethanol + NA developed tolerance. The group treated with ethanol-NA showed the highest Chol content and slept significantly less than the one treated with ethanol alone indicating that the changes induced by NA favored the appearance of tolerance.

  15. Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.

  16. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: A Search for Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay of Germanium-76

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, Alexis G.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Zhang, C.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, Mark; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2012-09-28

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would determine whether the neutrino is a Majorana particle and provide information on the absolute scale of neutrino mass. The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the DEMONSTRATOR, an array of germanium detectors, to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment. Operation of the DEMONSTRATOR aims to determine whether a future tonne-scale germanium experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay Q-value of 2039 keV.

  17. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-02-25

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  18. A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

    2010-12-14

    A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

  19. Thermal treatment effects on charge storage performance of graphene-based materials for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Bhat, Vinay V; Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I

    2012-01-01

    Graphene materials were synthesized by reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets by hydrazine hydrate and then thermally treated in nitrogen to improve the surface area and their electrochemical performance as electrical double-layer capacitor electrodes. The structural and surface properties of the prepared reduced graphite oxide (RGO) were investigated using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption / desorption. RGO forms a continuous network of crumpled sheets, which consist of numerous few-layer and single-layer graphenes. Electrochemical studies were conducted by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The modified RGO materials showed enhanced electrochemical performance, with maximum specific capacitance of 96 F/g, energy density of 12.8 Wh/kg, and power density of 160 kW/kg. The results demonstrate that thermal treatment of RGO at selected conditions is a convenient and efficient method for improving specific capacitance, energy, and power density.

  20. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima makes an ideal substrate for anaerobic digestion because it is easy to harvest, it can use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as its carbon source, and its fermentability is higher than that of other small algae. Digestion experiments demonstrated that S. maxima can serve as the sole nutrient for biogas production and that municipal sewage sludge, when adapted to this new substrate, is very stable. During semicontinuous daily-fed trials under non-optimal conditions at an 0.06 lb volatile solids (VS)/ft/sup 3/ (0.97 kg VS/m/sup 3/) loading rate, 33-day retention time, and 86/sup 0/F (30/sup 0/C) digestion temperature, the daily methane yield was 4.2 CF/lb (0.26 m/sup 3//kg) VS added, which represents 47% of the maximum theoretical yield. Studies on optimizing the process are underway.

  1. Estimation of the Performance of Multiple Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures for Detecting Shielded HEU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson; Scott M. Watson; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-10-01

    A comprehensive modeling study has been carried out to evaluate the utility of multiple active neutron interrogation signatures for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). The modeling effort focused on varying HEU masses from 1 kg to 20 kg; varying types of shields including wood, steel, cement, polyethylene, and borated polyethylene; varying depths of the HEU in the shields, and varying engineered shields immediately surrounding the HEU including steel, tungsten, and cadmium. Neutron and gamma-ray signatures were the focus of the study and false negative detection probabilities versus measurement time were used as a performance metric. To facilitate comparisons among different approaches an automated method was developed to generate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for different sets of model variables for multiple background count rate conditions. This paper summarizes results or the analysis, including laboratory benchmark comparisons between simulations and experiments. The important impact engineered shields can play towards degrading detectability and methods for mitigating this will be discussed.

  2. Combustion of refuse derived fuel in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piao, Guilin; Aono, Shigeru; Mori, Shigekatsu; Deguchi, Seiichi; Fujima, Yukihisa; Kondoh, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Masataka

    1998-12-31

    Power generation from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is an attractive utilization technology of municipal solid waste. To explain the behavior of RDF-fired fluidized bed incinerator, the commercial size RDF was continuously burnt in a 30 x 30 cm bubbling type fluidized-bed combustor. It was found that 12 kg/h of RDF feed rate was too high feed for this test unit and the Co level was higher than 500 ppm. However, 10 kg/h of RDF was a proper feed rate and the Co level was kept under 150 ppm. Secondary air injection and changing air ratio from the pipe grid were effective for the complete combustion of RDE. It was also found that HCl concentration in flue gas was controlled by the calcium component contained in RDF and its level was decreased with decreasing the combustor temperature.

  3. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis. Task 2 summary report. Model for alkaline water electrolysis systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, M.R.; Murray, J.N.

    1980-04-01

    Task 2 involved the establishment of an engineering and economic model for the evaluation of various options in water electrolysis. The mode, verification of the specific coding and four case studies are described. The model was tested by evaluation of a nearly commercial technology, i.e., an 80-kW alkaline electrolyte system, operating at 60/sup 0/C, which delivers approximately 255 SLM, hydrogen for applications such as electrical generation cooling or semiconductor manufacturing. The calculated cost of hydrogen from this installed non-optimized case system with an initial cost to the customer of $87,000 was $6.99/Kg H/sub 2/ ($1.67/100 SCF) on a 20-yr levelized basis using 2.5 cents/kWh power costs. This compares favorably to a levelized average merchant hydrogen cost value of $9.11/Kg H/sub 2/ ($2.17/100 SCF) calculated using the same program.

  4. Direct search for dark matter with DarkSide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agnes, P.

    2015-11-16

    Here, the DarkSide experiment is designed for the direct detection of Dark Matter with a double phase liquid Argon TPC operating underground at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The TPC is placed inside a 30 tons liquid organic scintillator sphere, acting as a neutron veto, which is in turn installed inside a 1 kt water Cherenkov detector. The current detector is running since November 2013 with a 50 kg atmospheric Argon fill and we report here the first null results of a Dark Matter search for a (1422 ± 67) kg.d exposure. This result correspond to a 90% CL uppermore » limit on the WIMP-nucleon cross section of 6.1 × 10-44 cm2 (for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c2) and it's currently the most sensitive limit obtained with an Argon target.« less

  5. Pyroprocessing of fast flux test facility nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, B.R.; Wurth, L.A.; Fredrickson, G.L.; Galbreth, G.G.; Vaden, D.; Elliott, M.D.; Price, J.C.; Honeyfield, E.M.; Patterson, M.N.

    2013-07-01

    Used nuclear fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was recently transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory and processed by pyroprocessing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility. Approximately 213 kg of uranium from sodium-bonded metallic FFTF fuel was processed over a one year period with the equipment previously used for the processing of EBR-II used fuel. The peak burnup of the FFTF fuel ranged from 10 to 15 atom% for the 900+ chopped elements processed. Fifteen low-enriched uranium ingots were cast following the electrorefining and distillation operations to recover approximately 192 kg of uranium. A material balance on the primary fuel constituents, uranium and zirconium, during the FFTF campaign will be presented along with a brief description of operating parameters. Recoverable uranium during the pyroprocessing of FFTF nuclear fuel was greater than 95% while the purity of the final electro-refined uranium products exceeded 99%. (authors)

  6. Pyroprocessing of Fast Flux Test Facility Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.R. Westphal; G.L. Fredrickson; G.G. Galbreth; D. Vaden; M.D. Elliott; J.C. Price; E.M. Honeyfield; M.N. Patterson; L. A. Wurth

    2013-10-01

    Used nuclear fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was recently transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory and processed by pyroprocessing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility. Approximately 213 kg of uranium from sodium-bonded metallic FFTF fuel was processed over a one year period with the equipment previously used for the processing of EBR-II used fuel. The peak burnup of the FFTF fuel ranged from 10 to 15 atom% for the 900+ chopped elements processed. Fifteen low-enriched uranium ingots were cast following the electrorefining and distillation operations to recover approximately 192 kg of uranium. A material balance on the primary fuel constituents, uranium and zirconium, during the FFTF campaign will be presented along with a brief description of operating parameters. Recoverable uranium during the pyroprocessing of FFTF nuclear fuel was greater than 95% while the purity of the final electrorefined uranium products exceeded 99%.

  7. PFPF canister counter for foreign plutonium (PCAS-3) hardware operations and procedures manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Kroncke, K.E.; Miller, M.C. ); Takahashi, S.; Seki, S.; Inose, S.; Yamamoto, T. )

    1993-01-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of plutonium powder contained in tall storage canisters. The counter was designed for installation in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility fabrication plant. Each canister contains from one to five cans of PuO[sub 2]. The neutron counter measures the spontaneous-fission rate from the plutonium and, when this is combined with the plutonium isotopic ratios, the plutonium mass is determined. The system can accommodate plutonium loadings up to 12 kg, with 10 kg being a typical loading. Software has been developed to permit the continuous operation of the system in an unattended mode. Authentication techniques have been developed for the system. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  8. PFPF canister counter for foreign plutonium (PCAS-3) hardware operations and procedures manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Kroncke, K.E.; Miller, M.C.; Takahashi, S.; Seki, S.; Inose, S.; Yamamoto, T.

    1993-01-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of plutonium powder contained in tall storage canisters. The counter was designed for installation in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility fabrication plant. Each canister contains from one to five cans of PuO{sub 2}. The neutron counter measures the spontaneous-fission rate from the plutonium and, when this is combined with the plutonium isotopic ratios, the plutonium mass is determined. The system can accommodate plutonium loadings up to 12 kg, with 10 kg being a typical loading. Software has been developed to permit the continuous operation of the system in an unattended mode. Authentication techniques have been developed for the system. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  9. Study of technetium uptake in vegetation in the vicinity of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acox, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Technetium-99 was measured in vegetation and soil collected on and near the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to obtain an estimate of the soil-to-vegetation concentration factors. The concentration factors appear to be lognormally distributed with a geometric mean of 3.4 (Bq/kg dry wt. tissue per Bq/kg dry wt. soil) and a geometric standard deviation of 4.7. A dose commitment was calculated using a hypothetical 3.7 x 10/sup 10/ Bq Tc-99/year release and the actual CY-1981 concentration release of Tc-99. The radiological significance of Tc-99 in the terrestial food chain is substantially less than previously believed.

  10. Corrosion Tests of LWR Fuels - Nuclide Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.A. Finn; Y. Tsai; J.C. Cunnane

    2001-12-14

    Two BWR fuels [64 and 71 (MWd)/kgU], one of which contained 2% Gd, and two PWR fuels [30 and 45 (MWd)/kgU], are tested by dripping groundwater on the fuels under oxidizing and hydrologically unsaturated conditions for times ranging from 2.4 to 8.2 yr at 90 C. The {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 97}Mo, and {sup 90}Sr releases are presented to show the effects of long reaction times and of gadolinium on nuclide release. This investigation showed that the five nuclides at long reaction times have similar fractional release rates and that the presence of 2% Gd reduced the {sup 99}Tc cumulative release fraction by about an order of magnitude over that of a fuel with a similar burnup.

  11. Monitoring the Bulalo geothermal reservoir, Philippines, using precision gravity data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Andres, R.B.; Pedersen, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Precision gravity monitoring of the Bulalo geothermal field began in 1980 to estimate the natural mass recharge to the reservoir. Between 1980 and 1991, gravity decreases exceeding 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} N/kg (250 microgals) were observed in response to fluid withdrawals. A maximum rate of {minus}26 microgals per year was observed near the production center. Mass discharges predicted by recent reservoir simulation modeling generally match those inferred from the observed gravity data. According to simulation studies, no recharge occurred between 1980 and 1984. The mass recharge between 1984 and 1991 was estimated to be 30% of net fluid withdrawal during the same period, equivalent to an average rate of 175 kg/s (630 metric tons per hour).

  12. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) from Poly(vinyl chloride)- co -chlorinated Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC- co -CPVC) Fiber

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Suree; Yue, Yanfeng; Kuo, Li-Jung; Mehio, Nada; Li, Meijun; Gill, Gary; Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T.; Saito, Tomonori; Dai, Sheng

    2016-03-11

    The need to secure future supplies of energy attracts researchers in several countries to a vast resource of nuclear energy fuel: uranium in seawater (estimated at 4.5 billion tons in seawater). In this study, we developed effective adsorbent fibers for the recovery of uranium from seawater via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from a poly-(vinyl chloride)-co-chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-co-CPVC) fiber. ATRP was employed in the surface graft polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), precursors for uranium-interacting functional groups, from PVC-co-CPVC fiber. The [tBA]/[AN] was systematically varied to identify the optimal ratio between hydrophilic groups (from tBA) and uranyl-binding ligandsmore » (from AN). The best performing adsorbent fiber, the one with the optimal [tBA]/[AN] ratio and a high degree of grafting (1390%), demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities that are significantly greater than those of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) reference fiber in natural seawater tests (2.42 3.24 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 5.22 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure, versus 1.66 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 1.71 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure for JAEA). Lastly, adsorption of other metal ions from seawater and their corresponding kinetics were also studied. The grafting of alternative monomers for the recovery of uranium from seawater is now under development by this versatile technique of ATRP.« less

  13. Magnetic hardening of Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi with ThMn12 structure by melt spinning

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Chen; Sun, Kewei; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Kramer, M. J.

    2015-04-15

    A recent study on the intrinsic magnetic properties of CeFe11–yCoyTi has revealed that substituting one Co for Fe retains the favorable magnetocrystalline anisotropy Ha found in the ternary Fe end member, while enhancing the Curie temperature Tc and saturation magnetization 4πMs. These findings warrant further optimization around Co substitution y = 1 to try to exploit the hard magnetic properties of these Ce-based magnets. Both Ce and Co concentrations in Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi have been optimized in the range of x = 0 – 0.2 and y = 0 –1.5. It was found that Co substitution effectively enhances all hard magnetic properties,more » although the values are still lower than those predicted from the intrinsic magnetic properties. Specifically, Tc increases from 210 °C to 285 – 350 °C; 4πM19 (magnetization at 19 kOe) from 8.9 kG to 10.5 – 11.5 kG, remanence Br from 3.1 kG to 4.1 – 4.5 kG, and most importantly, Hci from 1.1 kOe to 1.5 kOe. As a result, the room temperature energy product (BH)max has been increased by over 100% from 0.7 MGOe in Ce1.1Fe11Ti to 1.5 MGOe in Ce1.05Fe9.75Co1.25Ti. Microscopy analysis indicates that the addition of Co refines the grain size and promotes chemical homogeneity at the microscopic scale. As a result, the beneficial effect of Co on the microstructure contributes to the improved hard magnetic properties.« less

  14. Portable gas chromatograph mass spectrometer for on-site chemical analyses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Bushman, John F.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Eckels, Joel D.

    2002-01-01

    A portable, lightweight (approximately 25 kg) gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, including the entire vacuum system, can perform qualitative and quantitative analyses of all sample types in the field. The GC/MS has a conveniently configured layout of components for ease of serviceability and maintenance. The GC/MS system can be transported under operating or near-operating conditions (i.e., under vacuum and at elevated temperature) to reduce the downtime before samples can be analyzed on-site.

  15. COMET 169P/NEAT(=2002 EX{sub 12}): THE PARENT BODY OF THE {alpha}-CAPRICORNID METEOROID STREAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Wiegert, Paul A.; Balam, David D.

    2010-12-15

    The Jupiter-family comet 169P/NEAT (previously known as asteroid 2002 EX{sub 12}) has a dynamical association with the {alpha}-Capricornid meteoroid stream. In this paper, we present photometric observations of comet 169P/NEAT to further investigate the physical characters of its disintegration state related to the stream. The comet shows a point-like surface brightness profile limiting contamination due to coma emission to {approx}4% at most, indicating no evidence of outgassing. An upper limit on the fraction of the surface that could be sublimating water ice of <10{sup -4} is obtained with an upper limit to the mass loss of {approx}10{sup -2} kg s{sup -1}. The effective radius of nucleus is found to be 2.3 {+-} 0.4 km. Red filter photometry yields a rotational period of 8.4096 {+-} 0.0012 hr, and the range of the amplitude 0.29 {+-} 0.02 mag is indicative of a moderately spherical shape having a projected axis ratio {approx}1.3. The comet shows redder colors than the Sun, being compatible with other dead comet candidates. The calculated lost mass per revolution is {approx}10{sup 9} kg. If it has sustained this mass loss over the estimated 5000 yr age of the {alpha}-Capricornid meteoroid stream, the total mass loss from 169P/NEAT ({approx}10{sup 13} kg) is consistent with the reported stream mass ({approx}10{sup 13}-10{sup 15} kg), suggesting that the stream is the product of steady disintegration of the parent at every return.

  16. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beylot, Antoine Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. E.g. climate change impact ranges from ?58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of ?58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  17. Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. )

    1993-01-01

    An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

  18. Heating control methodology in coke oven battery at Rourkela Steel Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.S.; Parthasarathy, L.; Gupta, A.; Bose, P.R.; Mishra, U.

    1996-12-31

    A methodology of heating control was evolved incorporating temperature data generated through infra-red sensor at quenching station and thermocouples specially installed in the gooseneck of coke oven battery No. 3 of RSP. Average temperature of the red-hot coke as pushed helps in diagnosis of the abnormal ovens and in setting the targeted battery temperature. A concept of coke readiness factor (Q) was introduced which on optimization resulted in lowering the specific heat consumption by 30 KCal/Kg.

  19. Advanced solar panel designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralph, E.L.; Linder, E.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new high efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  20. Comparison of actinide production in traveling wave and pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, A.G.; Smith, T.A.; Deinert, M.R.

    2013-07-01

    The geopolitical problems associated with civilian nuclear energy production arise in part from the accumulation of transuranics in spent nuclear fuel. A traveling wave reactor is a type of breed-burn reactor that could, if feasible, reduce the overall production of transuranics. In one possible configuration, a cylinder of natural or depleted uranium would be subjected to a fast neutron flux at one end. The neutrons would transmute the uranium, producing plutonium and higher actinides. Under the right conditions, the reactor could become critical, at which point a self-stabilizing fission wave would form and propagate down the length of the reactor cylinder. The neutrons from the fission wave would burn the fissile nuclides and transmute uranium ahead of the wave to produce additional fuel. Fission waves in uranium are driven largely by the production and fission of {sup 239}Pu. Simulations have shown that the fuel burnup can reach values greater than 400 MWd/kgIHM, before fission products poison the reaction. In this work we compare the production of plutonium and minor actinides produced in a fission wave to that of a UOX fueled light water reactor, both on an energy normalized basis. The nuclide concentrations in the spent traveling wave reactor fuel are computed using a one-group diffusion model and are verified using Monte Carlo simulations. In the case of the pressurized water reactor, a multi-group collision probability model is used to generate the nuclide quantities. We find that the traveling wave reactor produces about 0.187 g/MWd/kgIHM of transuranics compared to 0.413 g/MWd/kgIHM for a pressurized water reactor running fuel enriched to 4.95 % and burned to 50 MWd/kgIHM. (authors)

  1. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νββ-decay searches that will

  2. Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facts: Uranium Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium has the highest atomic weight (19 kg m) of all naturally occurring elements. Uranium occurs naturally in low concentrations in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing

  3. SuperNEMO status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapon, A. [Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, ENSICAEN, LPC Caen, UMR 6534, 6 boulevard du Marechal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex (France); Collaboration: SUPERNEMO Collaboration

    2011-12-16

    The SuperNEMO experiment aims to reach a sensitivity up to 10{sup 26} years on the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay. The SuperNEMO project strongly inherits from the previous Nemo3 experiment. It will consist of a ''tracko-calo'' modular detector with at least 100 kg of betabeta isotope. The current status of the main R and D tasks will be presented: enrichment and production of source foils, radiopurity control, tracker and calorimeter.

  4. The Majorana Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo, E.; Fast, J. E.; Hoppe, E. W.; Keillor, M. E.; Kephart, J. D.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, N. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F. T. III [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Back, H. O. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Barabash, A. S.; Konovalov, S. I.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bergevin, M.; Chan, Y.-D.; Detwiler, J. A.; Loach, J. C. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); and others

    2011-12-16

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

  5. SuperNEMO Project Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chauveau, E. [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France) and CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France)

    2009-11-09

    The SuperNEMO experiment aims to reach a sensitivity up to 10{sup 26} years on the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay. The chosen way is to build a 'tracko-calo' detector with at least 100 kg of betabeta isotope. The current status of the main R and D tasks will be presented: enrichment and production of source foil, radiopurity control, tracker and calorimeter.

  6. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13010: Onboard Type IV Compressed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Storage Systems-Current Performance and Cost | Department of Energy 0: Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems-Current Performance and Cost DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13010: Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems-Current Performance and Cost This record summarizes the current status of the projected capacities and manufacturing costs of Type IV, 350- and 700-bar compressed hydrogen storage systems, storing 5.6 kg of usable hydrogen, for onboard

  7. Design of Roadside Safety Features

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis and Design of the Roadside Safety Features for Safety Performance Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) researchers are investigating the performance of a crash wall design to determine its effectiveness in reducing the damage to mechanically supported earth (MSE) wall panels during a vehicular impact. The simulations are based on Test Level 4 impact conditions of the new AASHTO Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH). This involves a 10,000-kg single unit truck (SUT) impacting at 90

  8. Hydrogen Production Pathways | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathways Hydrogen Production Pathways Hydrogen Production Pathways DOE is focused on developing technologies that can produce hydrogen at a target of less than $4/kg (delivered and dispensed). To reach these goals, the program looks at a wide portfolio of processes over a range of time frames and production scales. Currently, most hydrogen in the United States is produced by large-scale natural gas reforming. This established technology has been shown to be able to reach the cost targets in the

  9. Design and performance of a fluidized-bed incinerator for TRU combustible wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    Problems encountered in the incineration of glovebox generated waste at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) led to the development of a fluidized-bed incineration (FBI) system for transuranic (TRU) combustible wastes. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the process preceded the installation of an 82-kg/h production demonstration incinerator at RFP. The FBI process is discussed, and the design of the demonstration incinerator is described. Operating experience and process performance for both the pilot and demonstration units are presented.

  10. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  11. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production Cost Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Cost Analysis NREL analyzed the cost of hydrogen production via wind-based water electrolysis at 42 potential sites in 11 states across the nation. This analysis included centralized plants producing the Department of Energy (DOE) target of 50,000 kg of hydrogen per day, using both wind and grid electricity. The use of wind and grid electricity can be balanced either by power or cost, including or excluding the purchase of peak summer electricity. Current wind incentives-such

  12. Results of the Phase I Dose-Escalating Study of Motexafin Gadolinium With Standard Radiotherapy in Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Judith M. Seiferheld, Wendy; Alger, Jeffrey R.; Wu, Genevieve; Endicott, Thyra J.; Mehta, Minesh; Curran, Walter; Phan, See-Chun

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: Motexafin gadolinium (MGd) is a putative radiation enhancer initially evaluated in patients with brain metastases. This Phase I trial studied the safety and tolerability of a 2-6-week course (10-22 doses) of MGd with radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: A total of 33 glioblastoma multiforme patients received one of seven MGd regimens starting at 10 doses of 4 mg/kg/d MGd and escalating to 22 doses of 5.3 mg/kg/d MGd (5 or 10 daily doses then three times per week). The National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program toxicity and stopping rules were applied. Results: The maximal tolerated dose was 5.0 mg/kg/d MGd (5 d/wk for 2 weeks, then three times per week) for 22 doses. The dose-limiting toxicity was reversible transaminase elevation. Adverse reactions included rash/pruritus (45%), chills/fever (30%), and self-limiting vesiculobullous rash of the thumb and fingers (42%). The median survival of 17.6 months prompted a case-matched analysis. In the case-matched analysis, the MGd patients had a median survival of 16.1 months (n = 31) compared with the matched Radiation Therapy Oncology Group database patients with a median survival of 11.8 months (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.94). Conclusion: The maximal tolerated dose of MGd with radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme in this study was 5 mg/kg/d for 22 doses (daily for 2 weeks, then three times weekly). The baseline survival calculations suggest progression to Phase II trials is appropriate, with the addition of MGd to radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide.

  13. Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment Final Campaign Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 The Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment Final Campaign Report PM Stepanian KG Horton March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would

  14. On Graded Electrode Porosity as a Design Tool for Improving the Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Density of Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 15, 2015, Research Highlights On Graded Electrode Porosity as a Design Tool for Improving the Energy Density of Batteries (Top) Optimization performance for specific energy (Wh/kg) based on two designs: constant and varying-porosity. (Bottom) The effect of various Bruggeman exponent on cell performances by two designs: constant-porosity and varying-porosity Scientific Achievement A clear and unambiguous quantification of the

  15. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  16. The history of a quiet-sun magnetic element revealed by IMaX/SUNRISE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Requerey, Iker S.; Del Toro Iniesta, Jose Carlos; Bellot Rubio, Luis R.; Bonet, Jos A.; Martnez Pillet, Valentn; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Isolated flux tubes are considered to be fundamental magnetic building blocks of the solar photosphere. Their formation is usually attributed to the concentration of magnetic field to kG strengths by the convective collapse mechanism. However, the small size of the magnetic elements in quiet-Sun areas has prevented this scenario from being studied in fully resolved structures. Here, we report on the formation and subsequent evolution of one such photospheric magnetic flux tube, observed in the quiet Sun with unprecedented spatial resolution (0.''15-0.''18) and high temporal cadence (33 s). The observations were acquired by the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment on board the SUNRISE balloon-borne solar observatory. The equipartition field strength magnetic element is the result of the merging of several same polarity magnetic flux patches, including a footpoint of a previously emerged loop. The magnetic structure is then further intensified to kG field strengths by convective collapse. The fine structure found within the flux concentration reveals that the scenario is more complex than can be described by a thin flux tube model with bright points and downflow plumes being established near the edges of the kG magnetic feature. We also observe a daisy-like alignment of surrounding granules and a long-lived inflow toward the magnetic feature. After a subsequent weakening process, the field is again intensified to kG strengths. The area of the magnetic feature is seen to change in anti-phase with the field strength, while the brightness of the bright points and the speed of the downflows varies in phase. We also find a relation between the brightness of the bright point and the presence of upflows within it.

  17. Room temperature magnetocaloric effect and refrigerant capacitance in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumaresavanji, M. Sousa, C. T.; Pires, A.; Pereira, A. M.; Araujo, J. P.; Lopes, A. M. L.

    2014-08-25

    High aspect ratio La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} nanotube (NT) arrays have been synthesized using nitrates based sol-gel precursor by nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide template assisted method. Their phase purity and microstructures were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of as prepared NTs was investigated by means of field dependence magnetization measurements. Significant magnetic entropy change, −△S{sub M} = 1.6 J/kg K, and the refrigerant capacitance, RC = 69 J/kg, were achieved near the transition temperature at 315 K for 5 T. For comparison, a bulk sample was also prepared using the same precursor solution which gives a value of −△S{sub M} = 4.2 J/kg K and a RC = 165 J/kg. Though the bulk sample exhibits higher △S{sub M} value, the NTs present an expanded temperature dependence of −△S{sub M} curves that spread over a broad temperature range and assured to be appropriate for active magnetic refrigeration. The diminutive MCE observed in manganite NTs is explained by the increased influence of surface sites of nanograins which affect the structural phase transition occurred by external magnetic field due to the coupling between magnetism and the lattice in manganese perovskites. Our report paves the way for further investigation in 1D manganite nanostructured materials towards applications in such magnetic refrigeration technology or even on hyperthermia/drug delivery.

  18. Mechanical and thermophysical properties of hot-pressed SYNROC B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoenig, C.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Otto, R.A.; Brady, R.L.; Brown, A.E.; Ulrich, A.R.; Lum, R.C.

    1981-05-06

    The optimal SYNROC compositons for use with commercial waste are reviewed. Large amounts of powder (about 2.5 kg) were prepared by convention al ceramic operations to test the SYNROC concept on a processing scale. Samples, 15.2 cm in diameter, were hot pressed in graphite, and representative samples were cut for microstructural evaluations. Measured mechanical and thermophysical properties did not vary significantly as a function of sample location and were typical of titanate ceramic materials.

  19. Compartmental Targeting for mTHPC-Based Photodynamic Treatment In Vivo: Correlation of Efficiency, Pharmacokinetics, and Regional Distribution of Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrier, Julie; Bressenot, Aude; Graefe, Susanna

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: The present study investigates the efficacy of compartmental targeting in xenografted tumors treated by meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT). The therapeutic efficacy was, furthermore, related to a regional photoinduced distribution of apoptosis and an mTHPC biodistribution profile. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing EMT6 tumors were subjected to a single irradiation (10 J/cm{sup 2}) of red laser light (652 nm) at different intervals after a single- (0.3 mg/kg or 0.15 mg/kg) or double-intravenous (2 x 0.15 mg/kg) injection(s) of mTHPC. Efficiency of the treatment was evaluated by monitoring tumor regrowth. mTHPC pharmacokinetics were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of excised organs. The regional distribution of apoptosis in tumor sections was investigated with a newly developed colabelling immunohistochemistry technique. Results: A fractionated double-injection protocol of mTHPC with 24-h and 3-h drug-light intervals (DLI) yielded 100% tumor cure, with tumors presenting a massive apoptosis of neoplastic cells along with a distortion of vessels. The best efficiency for a single injection (0.3 mg/kg) was about 54% tumor cure and corresponded to a DLI of 3 h. At this DLI, tumors showed apoptosis of endothelial cells in residual vessels. Concentrations of mTHPC observed in plasma and tumor for the fractionated injection were not statistically different and were less than the total drug dose in each compartment. Conclusions: The present work suggests that clinical PDT protocols with mTHPC could be greatly improved by fractionation of the drug administration. Time points should be chosen based on the intratumoral spatiotemporal drug distribution.

  20. The MAJORANA Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, John; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

  1. The LUX experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; et al

    2015-03-24

    We present the status and prospects of the LUX experiment, which employs approximately 300 kg of two-phase xenon to search for WIMP dark matter interactions. The LUX detector was commissioned at the surface laboratory of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD, between December 2011 and February 2012 and the detector has been operating underground since January, 2013. These proceedings review the results of the commissioning run as well as the status of underground data-taking.

  2. Optimal operation of a concurrent-flow corn dryer with a drying heat pump using superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moraitis, C.S. [Systelligence Consultants and Research Associates, Volos (Greece); Akritidis, C.B. [Dept. of Hydraulics and Agricultural Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1998-07-01

    A numerical model of a concurrent-flow dryer of corn using superheated steam as drying medium is solved applying a shooting technique, so as to satisfy boundary conditions imposed by the optimal design of a drying heat pump. The drying heat pump is based on the theory of minimum energy cycles. The solution of the model proves the applicability of the heat pump to a concurrent-flow dryer, achieving a Specific Energy Consumption as low as 1080 kJ/kg.

  3. Analysis of Reference Design for Nuclear-Assisted Hydrogen Production at 750C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. McKellar; Edwin A. Harvego

    2010-05-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This report describes the resulting new INL reference design coupled to two alternative HTGR power conversion systems, a Steam Rankine Cycle and a Combined Cycle (a Helium Brayton Cycle with a Steam Rankine Bottoming Cycle). Results of system analyses performed to optimize the design and to determine required plant performance and operating conditions when coupled to the two different power cycles are also presented. A 600 MWt high temperature gas reactor coupled with a Rankine steam power cycle at a thermal efficiency of 44.4% can produce 1.85 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.6 kg/s of oxygen. The same capacity reactor coupled with a combined cycle at a thermal efficiency of 42.5% can produce 1.78 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.0 kg/s of oxygen.

  4. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  5. Magnetic hardening of Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi with ThMn12 structure by melt spinning

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Chen; Sun, Kewei; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Kramer, M. J.

    2015-04-15

    A recent study on the intrinsic magnetic properties of CeFe11–yCoyTi has revealed that substituting one Co for Fe retains the favorable magnetocrystalline anisotropy Ha found in the ternary Fe end member, while enhancing the Curie temperature Tc and saturation magnetization 4πMs. These findings warrant further optimization around Co substitution y = 1 to try to exploit the hard magnetic properties of these Ce-based magnets. Both Ce and Co concentrations in Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi have been optimized in the range of x = 0 – 0.2 and y = 0 –1.5. It was found that Co substitution effectively enhances all hard magnetic properties,more »although the values are still lower than those predicted from the intrinsic magnetic properties. Specifically, Tc increases from 210 °C to 285 – 350 °C; 4πM19 (magnetization at 19 kOe) from 8.9 kG to 10.5 – 11.5 kG, remanence Br from 3.1 kG to 4.1 – 4.5 kG, and most importantly, Hci from 1.1 kOe to 1.5 kOe. As a result, the room temperature energy product (BH)max has been increased by over 100% from 0.7 MGOe in Ce1.1Fe11Ti to 1.5 MGOe in Ce1.05Fe9.75Co1.25Ti. Microscopy analysis indicates that the addition of Co refines the grain size and promotes chemical homogeneity at the microscopic scale. As a result, the beneficial effect of Co on the microstructure contributes to the improved hard magnetic properties.« less

  6. Conceptual Design of an Ultra-Dense Phase Injector and Feed System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Sprouse; Fred Widman; Alan Darby

    2006-03-30

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept that uses rocket engine technology to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to current state-of-the-art systems. One key feature of the PWR concept is the use of an ultra-dense phase feed system to provide dry coal to the multi-element injector. This report describes the design of an ultra-dense phase multi-element injector and feed system for use on PWR gasifiers operating at pressures to 1,000 psia. For the design of this injector and feed system, the pulverized coal's Bingham fluid yield stress is approximately 11 Pascals (Pa) with a coefficient of rigidity of 10 centipoise (cp). These values are typical of earlier experimental testing conducted with dried pulverized coal below 18 wt% moisture -- see, e.g., Sprouse and Schuman (1983, 1986). Each individual injector element is designed for a coal flow rate between 3 and 4 tons/hr (0.76 to 1.0 kg/sec) at full flow conditions. Hence, a small 400 to 500 tons/day (4.2 to 5.25 kg/sec) gasifier will require a 6-element injector, a 1,500 tons/day (15.7 kg/sec) gasifier will require an 18-element injector and a 3,000 tons/day (31.5 kg/sec) gasifier will require a 36-element injector. These injectors and feed systems are capable of 'turn-down' below 50% of full-flow operation.

  7. Satellite determination of stratus cloud microphysical properties (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Satellite determination of stratus cloud microphysical properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Satellite determination of stratus cloud microphysical properties Satellite measurements of liquid water path from SSM/I, broadband albedo from ERBE, and cloud characteristics from ISCCP are used to study stratus regions. An average cloud liquid water path of 0.120{+-}0.032 kg m{sup {minus}2} is derived by dividing the average liquid water path for stratus

  8. Cleaning Cesium Radionuclides from BN-350 Primary Sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanenko, O.G.; Allen, K.J.; Wachs, D.M.; Planchon, H.P.; Wells, P.B.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Nazarenko, P.; Dumchev, I.; Maev, V.; Zemtzev, B.; Tikhomirov, L.; Yakovlev, V.; Synkov, A

    2005-04-15

    This paper reports the successful design and operation of a system to remove highly radioactive cesium from the sodium coolant of the BN-350 reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan. As an international effort between the United States and the Republic of Kazakhstan, a cesium-trapping system was jointly designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully operated. The results are significant for a number of reasons, including (a) a significant reduction of radioactivity levels of the BN-350 coolant and reactor surfaces, thereby reducing exposure to workers during shutdown operations; (b) demonstration of scientific ideas; and (c) the engineering application of effective cesium trap deployment for commercial-sized liquid-metal reactors. About 255 300 GBq (6900 Ci) of cesium was trapped, and the {sup 137}Cs specific activity in BN-350 primary sodium was decreased from 296 MBq/kg (8000 {mu}Ci/kg) to 0.37 MBq/kg (10 {mu}Ci/kg) by using seven cesium traps containing reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as the cesium adsorbent. Cesium trapping was accomplished by pumping sodium from the primary circuit, passing it through a block of RVC within each trap, and returning the cleaned sodium to the primary circuit. Both to predict and to analyze the behavior of the cesium traps in the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, a model was developed that satisfactorily describes the observed results of the cesium trapping. By using this model, thermodynamic parameters, such as the heat of adsorption of cesium atoms on RVC and on internal piping surfaces of the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, -22.7 and -5.0 kJ/mole, respectively, were extracted from the experimental data.

  9. The correlation between reactivity and ash mineralogy of coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerkkonen, O.; Mattila, E.; Heiniemi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Rautaruukki is a modern integrated Finnish steel works having a production of 2.4 mil. t/year of flat products. The total fuel consumption of the two blast furnaces in 1994 was 435 kg/t HM. Coke used was 345 kg/t HM and oil injection was 90 kg/t HM. The coking plant was taken in to operation in 1987 and is the only one in Finland, which means that the coking tradition is very short. Coke production is 0.9 mil. t/year. The coking blends include 70--80% medium volatile coals having a wide range of total dilatation. From time to time disturbances in the operation of the blast furnaces have occurred in spite of the fact that the reactivity of the coke used has remained constant or even decreased. It was thought necessary to investigate the factors affecting coke reactivity, in order to better understand the results of the reactivity test. This paper deals with carbonization tests done in a 7 kg test oven using nine individual coals having volatile-matter contents of 17--36% (dry) and seven blends made from these coals. Coke reactivity with CO{sub 2} at 1100 C (CRI) and coke strength after reaction (CSR) were determined using the test developed by the Nippon Steel Corporation. The influence of coke carbon form, porosity and especially ash mineralogy on the coke reactivity were examined. The effects of some additives; petroleum coke (pet coke), the spillage material from the coke ovens and oxidized coal, on coke quality were also studied. Typical inorganic minerals found in coals were added to one of the high volatile coals, which was then coked to determine the affect of the minerals on the properties of the coke produced.

  10. Process and Method to Enhance the Performance of Plasma-based Particle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerators Using Magnetic Plasma Compression | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Process and Method to Enhance the Performance of Plasma-based Particle Accelerators Using Magnetic Plasma Compression Electron dephasing is a major gain-inhibiting effect in plasma-based accelerators. A novel method is proposed to overcome dephasing, in which the modulation of a modest [O.10 kG.], axial, uniform magnetic field in the acceleration channel leads to densification of the plasma through magnetic

  11. Toxicogenomic profiling in maternal and fetal rodent brains following gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreira, Estefania G.; Yu Xiaozhong; Robinson, Joshua F.; Griffith, Willian; Hong, Sung Woo; Beyer, Richard P.; Bammler, Theo K.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2010-06-15

    Considering the wide variety of effects that have been reported to occur in the developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos (CP) and the lack of consensus on their dependence of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity inhibition, we applied microarray technology to explore dose-dependent alterations in transcriptional response in the fetal and maternal C57BL/6 mouse brain after daily gestational exposure (days 6 to 17) to CP (2, 4, 10, 12 or 15 mg/kg, sc). We identified significantly altered genes across doses and assessed for overrepresentation of Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and KEGG pathways. We further clustered genes based on their expression profiles across doses and repeated the GO/pathways analysis for each cluster. The dose-effect relationship of CP on gene expression, both at the gene and pathway levels was non-monotonic and not necessarily related to brain AChE inhibition. The largest impact was observed in the 10 mg/kg dose group which was also the LOAEL for brain AChE inhibition. In the maternal brain, lower doses (4 mg/kg) influenced GO categories and pathways such as cell adhesion, behavior, lipid metabolism, long-term potentiation, nervous system development, neurogenesis, synaptic transmission. In the fetal brain, lower doses (2 and/or 4 mg/kg) significantly altered cell division, translation, transmission of nerve impulse, chromatin modification, long-term potentiation. In addition, some genes involved in nervous system development and signaling were shown to be specifically influenced by these lower CP doses. Our approach was sensitive and reflected the diversity of responses known to be disrupted by CP and highlighted possible additional consequences of CP neurotoxicity, such as disturbance of the ubiquitin proteasome system.

  12. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type I) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Crowell, J.A.; Thurman, J.D.; Gosnell, P.A.

    1991-08-01

    A two-phase Dose Range finding study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type I, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150, micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75 micron GBI/Kg/day), and a vehicle control (O micron /Kg/day). Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11-12 weeks of age into four treatment groups (12 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rats/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals, and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four of the eight cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  13. U.S. Geographic Analysis of the Cost of Hydrogen from Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Ainscough, C.

    2011-12-01

    This report summarizes U.S. geographic analysis of the cost of hydrogen from electrolysis. Wind-based water electrolysis represents a viable path to renewably-produced hydrogen production. It might be used for hydrogen-based transportation fuels, energy storage to augment electricity grid services, or as a supplement for other industrial hydrogen uses. This analysis focuses on the levelized production, costs of producing green hydrogen, rather than market prices which would require more extensive knowledge of an hourly or daily hydrogen market. However, the costs of hydrogen presented here do include a small profit from an internal rate of return on the system. The cost of renewable wind-based hydrogen production is very sensitive to the cost of the wind electricity. Using differently priced grid electricity to supplement the system had only a small effect on the cost of hydrogen; because wind electricity was always used either directly or indirectly to fully generate the hydrogen. Wind classes 3-6 across the U.S. were examined and the costs of hydrogen ranged from $3.74kg to $5.86/kg. These costs do not quite meet the 2015 DOE targets for central or distributed hydrogen production ($3.10/kg and $3.70/kg, respectively), so more work is needed on reducing the cost of wind electricity and the electrolyzers. If the PTC and ITC are claimed, however, many of the sites will meet both targets. For a subset of distributed refueling stations where there is also inexpensive, open space nearby this could be an alternative to central hydrogen production and distribution.

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - 1 Kevin Brown

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Program Update Interagency Steering Committee on Performance and Risk Assessment Community of Practice Annual Technical Exchange Meeting Richland, Washington December 15-16, 2015 Project Team Members Vanderbilt University & CRESP D. Kosson*, K.G. Brown*, A.C. Garrabrants, S. Mahadevan, J. Branch, F. Sanchez Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) C. Langton*; G. Flach*; H. Burns*; R. Seitz, S. Marra; F.G. Smith, III Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands (ECN) & CRESP H. van der

  15. Microsoft PowerPoint - 7 Kevin Brown

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (CBP) Toolsets Kevin G. Brown Vanderbilt University and CRESP Cementitious Barriers Partnership Performance & Risk Assessment Community of Practice Technical Exchange Meeting December 11-12, 2014 Las Vegas NM Project Team Members Vanderbilt University & CRESP D. Kosson*, K.G. Brown*, S. Mahadevan, J. Branch, F. Sanchez Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) C. Langton*, G. Flach*, H. Burns*, R. Seitz, S. Marra Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands (ECN) & CRESP H. van der

  16. Radioprotective effect of combinations of WR-2721 and mercaptopropionylglycine on mouse bone marrow chromosomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uma Devi, P.; Prasanna, P.G. )

    1990-11-01

    The radioprotective and toxic effects of low to moderate doses of S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) and its combination with mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) on the chromosomes of the bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice were studied at 24 h and 14 days postirradiation. Significant protection against radiation-induced chromosome aberrations was observed with 50 mg/kg WR-2721. The protection increased with the dose of the drug administered, and the degree of protection per unit dose increment was more pronounced at lower than at higher doses. A combination of WR-2721 and MPG given before exposure resulted in a significantly greater number of normal metaphases at 24 h postirradiation compared to the respective single-drug treatment groups. On Day 14 postirradiation, when the presence of WR-2721 resulted in an increase in the frequency of aberrant cells, combination with MPG helped to reduce this value markedly, especially at WR-2721 doses below 200 mg/kg. On the basis of these results it is suggested that 150 mg/kg WR-2721 may be considered an optimum dose for combination with MPG for protection of chromosomes of bone marrow cells when repeated drug administrations are not needed. Changes in the level of glutathione (GSH) in the blood were studied at different times following the administration of 150 mg/kg WR-2721 and its combination with MPG before sham irradiation or exposure to 4.5 Gy 60Co gamma rays. The results showed that WR-2721 elevated blood GSH levels significantly above normal values by the time radiation was delivered, while MPG did not. Glutathione appears to have an important role in the action of WR-2721, while protection by MPG may not be mediated through GSH. Injection of MPG after WR-2721 helps to maintain the higher GSH level for a longer duration compared to treatment with WR-2721 alone.

  17. The Majorana Double Beta Decay Experiment: Present Status (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Majorana Double Beta Decay Experiment: Present Status Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Majorana Double Beta Decay Experiment: Present Status The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, an R&D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - 1_JESSICA_WHITE-HORTON_NMMSS_2014_JWH+5714+PTS.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Emerging Technologies to Improve Accountability and Safeguards Jessica White-Horton, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Overview  Nonproliferation Concerns/Safeguards Challenges  Next Generation Safeguards Initiative - 5 Year Program  Technology Assessment  Stakeholders Meeting, April 2014 2 Nonproliferation Concerns  Approximately 20,000 cylinders are in active circulation at any time - Each cylinder can contain ~50 kg of 235 U equivalent to 2 significant quantities (SQs) of Highly

  19. Reclaiming silver from silver zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Silver zeolite is used to capture radioiodines from air cleaning systems in some nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It may become radioactively contaminated and/or poisoned by hydrocarbon vapors, which diminishes its capacity for iodine. Silver zeolite contains up to 38 wt% silver. A pyrometallurgical process was developed to reclaim the silver before disposing of the unserviceable zeolite as a radioactive waste. A flux was formulated to convert the refractory aluminosilicate zeolite structure into a low-melting fluid slag, with Na[sub 2]O added as NAOH instead of Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3] to avoid severe foaming due to CO[sub 2] evolution. A propane-fired furnace was built to smelt 45 kg charges at 1300C in a carbon-bonded silicon carbide crucible. A total of 218 kg (7000 tr oz) of silver was reclaimed from 1050 kg of unserviceable zeolite. Silver recoveries of 97% were achieved, and the radioisotopes were fixed as stable silicates in a vitreous slag that was disposed of as a low level waste. Recovered silver was refined using oxygen and cast into 100 tr oz bars assaying 99.8+% silver and showing no radioactive contamination.

  20. Reclaiming silver from silver zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Silver zeolite is used to capture radioiodines from air cleaning systems in some nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It may become radioactively contaminated and/or poisoned by hydrocarbon vapors, which diminishes its capacity for iodine. Silver zeolite contains up to 38 wt% silver. A pyrometallurgical process was developed to reclaim the silver before disposing of the unserviceable zeolite as a radioactive waste. A flux was formulated to convert the refractory aluminosilicate zeolite structure into a low-melting fluid slag, with Na{sub 2}O added as NAOH instead of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to avoid severe foaming due to CO{sub 2} evolution. A propane-fired furnace was built to smelt 45 kg charges at 1300C in a carbon-bonded silicon carbide crucible. A total of 218 kg (7000 tr oz) of silver was reclaimed from 1050 kg of unserviceable zeolite. Silver recoveries of 97% were achieved, and the radioisotopes were fixed as stable silicates in a vitreous slag that was disposed of as a low level waste. Recovered silver was refined using oxygen and cast into 100 tr oz bars assaying 99.8+% silver and showing no radioactive contamination.

  1. Superfund record of decision (EPA region 10): Eielson Air Force Base, Fairbanks-North Star Borough, AK, September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The decision document presents the final remedial action selected for Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska. The sitewide investigation at Eielson AFB evaluated basewide contamination that is not confined or attributable to specific source areas identified and addressed in the FFA as well as cumulative risks to human health and the environment posed by contamination on a sitewide basis. Garrison Slough is the only one that poses an unacceptable risk to human health and the environment. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in the fish tissue and sediments of Garrison Slough. Soils in a trench adjacent to Garrison Slough were contaminated with PCBs and appear to be the source of contamination to slough sediments via surface water runoff. The major components of the selected remedy include: Fishing restrictions in Garrison Slough; Fish control device near the downstream edge of Eielson AFB; Excavation of contaminated soils and sediments with concentrations greater than 10 mg/kg PCBs; Onsite disposal of material with PCB concentrations less than 50 mg/kg; Offsite disposal or treatment of materials with PCB concentrations greater than 50 mg/kg in accordance with the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 40 CFR part 761; and Environmental monitoring of soils, sediments, surface water, fish, and groundwater.

  2. Fused salt processing of impure plutonium dioxide to high-purity plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.; Babcock, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting impure plutonium dioxide (approx. 96% pure) to high-purity plutonium metal (>99.9%) was developed. The process consists of reducing the oxide to an impure plutonium metal intermediate with calcium metal in molten calcium chloride. The impure intermediate metal is cast into an anode and electrorefined to produce high-purity plutonium metal. The oxide reduction step is being done now on a 0.6-kg scale with the resulting yield being >99.5%. The electrorefining is being done on a 4.0-kg scale with the resulting yield being 80 to 85%. The purity of the product, which averages 99.98%, is essentially insensitive to the purity of the feed metal. The yield, however, is directly dependent on the chemical composition of the feed. To date, approximately 250 kg of impure oxide has been converted to pure metal by this processing sequence. The availability of impure plutonium dioxide, together with the need for pure plutonium metal, makes this sequence a valuable plutonium processing tool.

  3. Multi-purpose hydrogen isotopes separation plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boniface, H.A.; Gnanapragasam, N.V.; Ryland, D.K.; Suppiah, S.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    There is a potential interest at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories to remove tritium from moderately tritiated light water and to reclaim tritiated, downgraded heavy water. With only a few limitations, a single CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process configuration can be designed to remove tritium from heavy water or light water and upgrade heavy water. Such a design would have some restrictions on the nature of the feed-stock and tritium product, but could produce essentially tritium-free light or heavy water that is chemically pure. The extracted tritium is produced as a small quantity of tritiated heavy water. The overall plant capacity is fixed by the total amount of electrolysis and volume of catalyst. In this proposal, with 60 kA of electrolysis a throughput of 15 kg*h{sup -1} light water for detritiation, about 4 kg*h{sup -1} of heavy water for detritiation and about 27 kg*h{sup -1} of 98% heavy water for upgrading can be processed. Such a plant requires about 1,000 liters of AECL isotope exchange catalyst. The general design features and details of this multi-purpose CECE process are described in this paper, based on some practical choices of design criteria. In addition, we outline the small differences that must be accommodated and some compromises that must be made to make the plant capable of such flexible operation. (authors)

  4. Treating garbage and wastes to obtain methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishida, M.; Haga, R.; Odawara, Y.

    1981-09-08

    The starch-containing garbage is subjected to an alcohol-producing anaerobic fermentation in the slurry state without sterilizing the garbage in the presence of one or more ethanol-producing yeasts which directly converts starch producing anaerobic fermentation in the presence of CH/sub 4/-producing bacteria. Thus, 3 kg slurry of 10% organic concentration was mixed with 0.5 kg seed culture prepared in advance by mix-culturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces diasbtitics, and Candia lipolitica at pH 5 and 30 degrees for 3 days. The mixture was charged into a stainless steel container, stirred at 100 rpm, 30 degrees, and pH 5.0 for 3 days, then from the 4th day onward a continual charging was effected at load of 25 g dried organics per day. The neutralized slurry was gasified in a tank at 60 degrees with residence time of 12 days and pH 7.8. A gas containing 75 volume percent CH/sub 4/ was generated at 35 L/kg slurry.

  5. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semelsberger, Troy; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kg system), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/L system). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material propertiesdand most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  6. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it starts one step upstream from all other Sipv production efforts. Our process starts by producing high purity SiO2/C feedstocks from which Sipv can be produced in a single, chlorine free, final EAF step. Specifically, our unique technology, and the resultant SiO2/C product can serve as high purity feedstocks to existing metallurgical silicon (Simet) producers, allowing them to generate Sipv with existing US manufacturing infrastructure, reducing the overall capital and commissioning schedule. Our low energy, low CAPEX and OPEX process purifies the silica and carbon present in rice hull ash (RHA) at low temperatures (< 200C) to produce high purity (5-6 Ns) feedstock for production of Sipv using furnaces similar to those used to produce Simet. During the course of this project we partnered with Wadham Energy LP (Wadham), who burns 220k ton of rice hulls (RH)/yr generating 200 GWh of electricity/yr and >30k ton/yr RHA. The power generation step produces much more energy (42 kWh/kg of final silicon produced) than required to purify the RHA (5 kWh/kg of Sipv, compared to 65 kWh/kg noted above. Biogenic silica offers three very important foundations for producing high purity silicon. First, wastes from silica accumulating plants, such as rice, corn, many grasses, algae and grains, contain very reactive, amorphous silica from which impurities are easily removed. Second, plants take up only a limited set of, and minimal quantities of the heavy metals present in nature, meaning fewer minerals must be removed. Third, biomass combustion generates a product with intrinsic residual carbon, mixed at nanometer length scales with the SiO2. RHA is 80-90 wt% high surface area (20 m2/g), amorphous SiO2 with some simple mineral content mixed intimately with 5-15 wt% carbon. The mineral content is easily removed by low cost, acid washes using Mayaterials IP, leading to purified rice hull ash (RHAclean) at up to 6N purity. This highly reactive silica is partially extracted from RHAclean at 200 C in an environmentally benign process to adjust SiO2:C ratios to those needed in EA

  7. RECENT RESULTS OF THE NEMO 3 EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tretyak, V. I. [Institute Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 Rue du Loess, Strasbourg (France); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6 Joliot Curie, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-09

    NEMO 3 is a currently running experiment to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0v{beta}{beta}) and to study the two-neutrino double beta decay (2v{beta}{beta}) with 10 kg of enriched isotopes. No evidence for the 0v{beta}{beta}-decay is found after 1409 effective days of data collection with 7 kg of {sup 100}Mo, T{sub 1/2}{sup 0v}>1.1{center_dot}10{sup 24} yr at 90% CL, and with 1 kg of {sup 82}Se, T{sub 1/2}{sup 0v}>3.6{center_dot}10{sup 23} yr at 90% CL. The corresponding limits on the effective Majorana neutrino mass are <0.45-0.93 eV for {sup 100}Mo and <0.89-2.43 eV for {sup 82}Se depending on the nuclear matrix element calculations.

  8. A Metal Fuel Core Concept for 1000 MWt Advanced Burner Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W.S.; Kim, T.K.; Grandy, C.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the core design and performance characteristics of a metal fuel core concept for a 1000 MWt Advanced Burner Reactor. A ternary metal fuel form of U-TRU-Zr was assumed with weapons grade plutonium feed for the startup core and TRU recovered from LWR spent fuel for the recycled equilibrium core. A compact burner core was developed by trade-off between the burnup reactivity loss and TRU conversion ratio, with a fixed cycle length of one-year. In the startup core, the average TRU enrichment is 15.5%, the TRU conversion ratio is 0.81, and the burnup reactivity loss over a cycle is 3.6% {delta}k. The heavy metal and TRU inventories are 13.1 and 2.0 metric tons, respectively. The average discharge burnup is 93 MWd/kg, and the TRU consumption rate is 55.5 kg/year. For the recycled equilibrium core, the average TRU enrichment is 22.1 %, the TRU conversion ratio is 0.73, and the burnup reactivity loss is 2.2% {delta}k. The TRU inventory and consumption rate are 2.9 metric tons and 81.6 kg/year, respectively. The evaluated reactivity coefficients provide sufficient negative feedbacks. The control systems provide shutdown margins that are more than adequate. The integral reactivity parameters for quasi-static reactivity balance analysis indicate favorable passive safety features, although detailed safety analyses are required to verify passive safety behavior. (authors)

  9. The washability of lignites for clay removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oteyaka, B.; Yamik, A.; Ucar, A.; Sahbaz, O.; Demir, U.

    2008-07-01

    In the washability research of the Seyitomer Lignites (Kutahya-Turkey), with lower calorific value (1,863 kcal/kg) and high ash content (51.91%), by heavy medium separation, it was found out that middling clay in the coal had an effect to change the medium density. To prevent this problem, a trommel sieve with 18 and 5 mm aperture diameter was designed, and the clay in the coal was tried to be removed using it before the coal was released to heavy medium. Following that, the obtained coal in -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm fractions was subjected to sink and float test having 1.4 gcm{sup -3} and 1.7 gcm{sup -3} medium densities (-5 mm fraction will be evaluated in a separate work). Depending on the raw coal, with the floating of -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm size fraction in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} medium density, clean coal with 60.10% combustible matter recovery, 19.12% ash, and 3,150 kcal/kg was obtained. Also floating of the samples sinking in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} in the medium density (1.7 gcm{sup -3}), middling with 18.70% combustible matter recovery, 41.93% ash, 2,150 kcal/kg, and tailing having 78.31% ash were obtained.

  10. Energy storage options for space power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, H.W.; Martin, J.F.; Olszewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    Including energy storage in a space power supply enhances the feasibility of using thermal power cycles (Rankine or Brayton) and providing high-power pulses. Review of storage options (superconducting magnets, capacitors, electrochemical batteries, thermal phase-change materials (PCM), and flywheels) suggests that flywheels and phase-change devices hold the most promise. Latent heat storage using inorganic salts and metallic eutectics offers thermal energy storage densities of 1500 to 2000 kJ/kg at temperatures to 1675/sup 0/K. Innovative techniques allow these media to operate in direct contact with the heat engine working fluid. Enhancing thermal conductivity and/or modifying PCM crystallization habit provide other options. Flywheels of low-strain graphite and Kevlar fibers have achieved mechanical energy storage densities of 300 kJ/kg. With high-strain graphite fibers, storage densities appropriate to space power needs (approx. 550 kJ/kg) seem feasible. Coupling advanced flywheels with emerging high power density homopolar generators and compulsators could result in electric pulse-power storage modules of significantly higher energy density.

  11. Low Radioactivity Argon Dark Matter Search Results from the DarkSide-50 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnes, P.

    2015-10-02

    Our DarkSide-50 dark matter search reports the first results obtained using a target of lowradioactivity argon extracted from underground sources. The experiment is located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and uses a two-phase time projection chamber as a detector. A total of 155 kg of low radioactivity argon has been obtained, and we have determined that underground argon is depleted in 39Ar by a factor (1.4 ±0.2) x 103 relative to atmospheric argon. The underground argon was also found to contain (2.05 ± 0.13)mBq=kg of 85Kr. We also found no evidence for dark matter in the form of WIMPs in 70.9 live-days of data with a fiducial mass of (36.9 ± 0.6) kg. When combined with our preceding search with an atmospheric argon target, we set a 90% C.L. upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 2.0 x 10-44 cm2 (8.6 x 10-44 cm2, 8.0 x 10-43 cm2) for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV=c2 (1TeV=c2, 10TeV=c2).

  12. INTERACTIONS AMONG PHOSPHATE AMENDMENTS, MICROBES AND URANIUM MOBILITY IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, A

    2007-08-30

    The use of sequestering agents for the transformation of radionuclides in low concentrations in contaminated soils/sediments offers considerable potential for long-term environmental cleanup. This study evaluated the influence of four phosphate amendments and two microbial amendments on U availability. The synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of the untreated U-contaminated sediment showed that U was closely associated with Mn. All tested phosphate amendments reduced aqueous U concentration more than 90%, likely due to formation of insoluble phosphate precipitates. The addition of A. piechaudii and P. putida alone were found to reduce U concentrations 63% and 31% respectively. Uranium sorption in phosphate treatments was significantly reduced in the presence of microbes. However, increased microbial activity in the treated sediment led to reduction of phosphate effectiveness. The average U concentration in 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract from U amended sediment was 437 {micro}g/kg, but in the same sediment without microbes (autoclaved sediment), the extractable U concentration was only 103 {micro}g/kg. When the autoclaved amended sediment was treated with autoclaved biological apatite, U concentration in the 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract was {approx}0 {micro}g/kg. Together these tests suggest that microbes may enhance U leaching and reduce phosphate amendment remedial effectiveness.

  13. Spreader beam analysis for the CASTOR GSF cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, E.P.

    1997-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the 150% rated capacity load test performed by DynCorp Hoisting and Rigging on the CASTOR GSF special cask lifting beams. The two lifting beams were originally rated and tested at 20,000kg (44,000lb) by the cask manufacturer in Germany. The testing performed by DynCorp rated and tested the lifting beams to 30,000 kg (66,000 lb) +0%, -5%, for Hanford Site use. The CASTOR GSF cask, used to transport isotopic Heat Sources (canisters), must be lifted with its own designed lifting beam system (Figures 1, 2, and 3). As designed, the beam material is RSt 37-2 (equivalent to American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] A-570), the eye plate is St 52-2 (equivalent to ASTM A-516), and the lifting pin is St 50 (equivalent to ASTM A-515). The beam has two opposing 58 mm (2.3 in.) diameter by 120 mm(4.7 in.) length, high grade steel pins that engage the cask for lifting. The pins have a manual locking mechanism to prevent disengagement from the casks. The static, gross weight (loaded) of the cask 18,640 kg (41,000 lb) on the pins prevents movement of the pins during lifting. This is due to the frictional force of the cask on the pins when lifting begins.

  14. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of Te130 with CUORE-0

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; et al

    2015-09-03

    We report the results of a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in a 9.8 kg yr exposure of 130Te using a bolometric detector array, CUORE-0. The characteristic detector energy resolution and background level in the region of interest are 5:1± 0:3 keV FWHM and 0:058 ± 0:004 (stat) ± 0:002 (syst) counts / (keV kg yr), respectively. The median 90% C.L. lower-limit half-life sensitivity of the experiment is 2:9x1024 yr and surpasses the sensitivity of previous searches. We find no evidence for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te and place a Bayesian lower bound on the decay half-life, T0ν1/2 > 2.7more » x 1024 yr at 90% C.L. Combining CUORE-0 data with the 19.75 kg yr exposure of 130Te from the Cuoricino experiment we obtain T0ν1/2 > 4.0 x 1024 yr at 90% C.L. (Bayesian), the most stringent limit to date on this half-life. Lastly, using a range of nuclear matrix element estimates we interpret this as a limit on the e ective Majorana neutrino mass, mββ < 270 -760 meV.« less

  15. Reduction of erythema in hairless guinea pigs after cutaneous sulfur mustard vapor exposure by pretreatment with niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Erythema is the initial symptom that occurs after sulfur mustard (HD) cutaneous exposure. The time course of HD-induced erythema is similar to that observed after UV irradiation, which can be reduced by indomethacin. Sulfur mustard lethality is decreased by using promethazine, which is an antihistamine. Niacinamide can reduce microvesication after HD vapor exposure in hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. The present study examines the effect of the combined administration of niacinamide, indomethacin and promethazine used alone or in all possible combinations on the degree of erythema and histopathologic skin damage after HD exposure in HGP. Niacinamide (750 mg kg%`, i.p.), promethazine (12.5 mg kg%1, i.m.) or indomethacin (4 mg kg%1, p.o.) used singly or in combination was given as a 30-min pretreatment before an 8-min HD vapor cup skin exposure. Using a combination pretreatment of niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin, erythema was reduced at 4 (91%) and 6 (55%) h, but not 24 h after HD. The incidence of histopathological skin changes (microvesicles, follicular involvement, epidermal necrosis, intracellular edema and pustular epidermatitis) 24 h after HD was not reduced. This study indicates that HD (induced erythema) may result from several different mechanisms, including inflammation, histamine release and DNA damage. It is suggested that two phases of inflammation may occur: an early phase sensitive to antihistamines and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a late phase of extensive cell damage that was not sensitive to these drug pretreatments.

  16. Reduction of Radioactive Backgrounds in Electroformed Copper for Ultra-Sensitive Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Liezers, Martin; Miley, Harry S.; Overman, Nicole R.; Reeves, James H.

    2014-07-07

    Abstract Ultra-pure construction materials are required for the next generation of neutrino physics, dark matter and environmental science applications. These new efforts require materials with purity levels at or below 1 uBq/kg 232Th and 238U. Yet radiometric analysis lacks sensitivity below ~10 uBq/kg for the U and Th decay chains. This limits both the selection of clean materials and the validation of purification processes. Copper is an important high-purity material for low-background experiments due to the ease with which it can be purified by electrochemical methods. Electroplating for purification into near-final shapes, known as electroforming, is one such method. Continued refinement of the copper electroforming process is underway, for the first time guided by an ICP-MS based assay method that can measure 232Th and 238U near the desired purity levels. An assay of electroformed copper at 10 uBq/kg for 232Th has been achieved and is described. The implications of electroformed copper at or better than this purity on next-generation low-background experiments are discussed.

  17. Lightweight photovoltaic module development for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Lamp, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Terrestrial crystalline silicon solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize module cost, with modifications to improve module specific power (W/kg) and power density (W/m{sup 2}). New module processes are being developed for assembling standard thickness (320 mm) and thin (125 mm) solar cells, thin (50 to 100 mm) encapsulant films, and thin (25 mm) cover films. In comparison, typical terrestrial modules use 300 to 400 mm thick solar cells, 460 mm thick encapsulants, and 3.2 mm thick glass covers. The use of thin, lightweight materials allows the fabrication of modules with specific powers ranging from 120 to 200 W/kg, depending on cell thickness and efficiency, compared to 15 W/kg or less for conventional terrestrial modules. High efficiency designs based on ultra-thin (5 mm) GaAs cells have also been developed, with the potential for achieving substantially higher specific powers. Initial design, development, and module assembly work is completed. Prototype modules were fabricated in sizes up to 45 cm x 99 cm. Module materials and processes are being evaluated through accelerated environmental testing, including thermal cycling, humidity-freeze cycling, mechanical cycling, and exposure to UV and visible light.

  18. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, H.-M.; Fang, S.-H.; Wen, K.-C.; Hsiu, S.-L.; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Y.-C.; Chi, Y.-C.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn . E-mail: pdlee@mail.cmu.edu.tw

    2005-12-15

    Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC{sub 0-t} by 207.8% and 127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%, respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and 14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at 4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in rats.

  19. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Weifeng Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

    2013-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-κB expression. - Highlights: • THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. • THC reduced NF-κB expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue.

  20. Assessment of the Electrohol process to manufacture acetaldehyde from ethanol electrogeneratively. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trevino, A.A.

    1985-04-10

    Preliminary process economics data for the electrogenerative process to manufacture acetaldehyde from ethanol were generated based on patent information. The technology was assessed in four alternative processing options. The Electrohol process is viable in the US only if integrated to the production of 190 pf ethanol from corn in a large scale unit. To be competitive, the Electrohol process must show yields in excess of 93%. Its attractiveness depends on corn prices remaining under $2.90/bu and DDG selling for more than $132/T. A corn price of $2.00/bu is needed to make a farm-size corn-based processing alternative competitive. A plant based on the fermentation of molasses proved too expensive under the US economic assumptions. The Electrohol technology based on purchased ethanol cannot compete with the existing ethylene-based process under current conditions. To become attractive, the Electrohol process must have access to cheap ethanol ($1.43/gal). The zero electricity generation mode is the most attractive mode of operation for the Electrohol technology in the US. The penalty for low levels of generation (0.130 kwh/kg AcH) is, however, negligible. The optimum operating mode in W. Europe is the generation of 0.312 kwh/kg AcH. In Japan, the low generation level is perferred (0.130 kwh/kg AcH). In general, higher energy prices improve the competitiveness of the Electrohol processing alternatives.

  1. Evaluation of fission gas release in high-burnup light water reactor fuel rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D. )

    1993-05-01

    Research to define the behavior of Zircaloy-clad light water reactor (LWR) UO[sub 2] fuel irradiated to high burnup levels was conducted as part of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). The HBEP was a 12-yr program that ultimately acquired, characterized, irradiated, and examined after irradiation 82 LWR fuel rods ranging in rod-average fuel burnup from 22 to 69 MWd/kgM with a peak pellet burnup of 83 MWd/kg M. A principal emphasis of the HBEP was to evaluate the effect of high burnup on fission gas release. It was confirmed that fission gas release remained as dependent on design and irradiation history parameters at high burnup levels as at low to moderate burnup levels. One observed high-burnup effect was the development of a burnup-dependent microstructure at the fuel pellet surface when pellet-edge burnup exceeded 65 MWd/kgM. This low-temperature rim region' was characterized by a loss of optically definable grain structure, a high volume of porosity, and diffusion of fission gas from the UO[sub 2] matrix to the porosity. Although the rim region has the potential for enhanced fission gas release, it is concluded that no significant enhancement of rod-average fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined fuel rods.

  2. A novel plug-flow digester for biogasification of conventional and hazardous organics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, S.; Kato, Y.; Liu, T.; Fukushi, K.

    1996-12-31

    A novel plug-flow digestion system of simple construction was designed, fabricated and operated for several years with a synthetic mixture of solid and liquid wastes simulating conditions south of the US-Mexican border and other developing countries. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene (BTX) were mixed with the synthetic feed in several phases of this research to simulate field conditions where these solvents are discharged to public sewers and mixed with non-hazardous pollutants. The mesophilic plug-flow digester exhibited a high gas yield of 0.46 SCM /kg VS added, a methane content of 77 mol%, and a VS reduction of 75% at an HRT of 13 days with a 96% biodegradation of the feed toluene. At a feed concentration of 50 mg/l, toluene did not inhibit anaerobic fermentation. Gas and methane yields, and VS and COD conversion efficiencies were about the same with or without toluene present in the feed. At a reduced HRT of 8 days, a high feed COD concentration of 50,000 mg/l, and a loading rate of 0.48 kg VS/m{sup 3}-day, the digester afforded a gas yield of 3.1 SCM /kg VS added, and a methane content of 67 mol%. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were biodegraded at efficiencies of 94%, 90%, and 88%, respectively. The degradation kinetics of the xenobiotic compound could be described by a model based on cometabolic degradation of these secondary substrates.

  3. Use of system code to estimate equilibrium tritium inventory in fusion DT machines, such as ARIES-AT and components testing facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.P.C. Wong; B. Merrill

    2014-10-01

    ITER is under construction and will begin operation in 2020. This is the first 500 MWfusion class DT device, and since it is not going to breed tritium, it will consume most of the limited supply of tritium resources in the world. Yet, in parallel, DT fusion nuclear component testing machines will be needed to provide technical data for the design of DEMO. It becomes necessary to estimate the tritium burn-up fraction and corresponding initial tritium inventory and the doubling time of these machines for the planning of future supply and utilization of tritium. With the use of a system code, tritium burn-up fraction and initial tritium inventory for steady state DT machines can be estimated. Estimated tritium burn-up fractions of FNSF-AT, CFETR-R and ARIES-AT are in the range of 12.8%. Corresponding total equilibrium tritium inventories of the plasma flow and tritium processing system, and with the DCLL blanket option are 7.6 kg, 6.1 kg, and 5.2 kg for ARIES-AT, CFETR-R and FNSF-AT, respectively.

  4. MELCOR Model of the Spent Fuel Pool of Fukushima Dai-ichi Unit 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Unit 4 of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered a hydrogen explosion at 6:00 am on March 15, 2011, exactly 3.64 days after the earthquake hit the plant and the off-site power was lost. The earthquake occurred on March 11 at 2:47 pm. Since the reactor of this Unit 4 was defueled on November 29, 2010, and all its fuel was stored in the spent fuel pool (SFP4), it was first believed that the explosion was caused by hydrogen generated by the spent fuel, in particular, by the recently discharged core. The hypothetical scenario was: power was lost, cooling to the SFP4 water was lost, pool water heated/boiled, water level decreased, fuel was uncovered, hot Zircaloy reacted with steam, hydrogen was generated and accumulated above the pool, and the explosion occurred. Recent analyses of the radioisotopes present in the water of the SFP4 and underwater video indicated that this scenario did not occur - the fuel in this pool was not damaged and was never uncovered the hydrogen of the explosion was apparently generated in Unit 3 and transported through exhaust ducts that shared the same chimney with Unit 4. This paper will try to answer the following questions: Could that hypothetical scenario in the SFP4 had occurred? Could the spent fuel in the SPF4 generate enough hydrogen to produce the explosion that occurred 3.64 days after the earthquake? Given the magnitude of the explosion, it was estimated that at least 150 kg of hydrogen had to be generated. As part of the investigations of this accident, MELCOR models of the SFP4 were prepared and a series of calculations were completed. The latest version of MELCOR, version 2.1 (Ref. 1), was employed in these calculations. The spent fuel pool option for BWR fuel was selected in MELCOR. The MELCOR model of the SFP4 consists of a total of 1535 fuel assemblies out of which 548 assemblies are from the core defueled on Nov. 29, 2010, 783 assemblies are older assemblies, and 204 are new/fresh assemblies. The total decay heat of the fuel in the pool was, at the time of the accident, 2.284 MWt, of which 1.872 MWt were from the 548 assemblies of the last core discharged and 0.412 MWt were from the older 783 assemblies. These decay heat values were calculated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the ORIGEN2.2 code (Ref. 2) - they agree with values reported elsewhere (Ref. 3). The pool dimensions are 9.9 m x 12.2 m x 11.8 m (height), and with the water level at 11.5 m, the pool volume is 1389 m3, of which only 1240 m3 is water, as some volume is taken by the fuel and by the fuel racks. The initial water temperature of the SFP4 was assumed to be 301 K. The fuel racks are made of an aluminum alloy but are modeled in MELCOR with stainless steel and B4C. MELCOR calculations were completed for different initial water levels: 11.5 m (pool almost full, water is only 0.3 m below the top rim), 4.4577 m (top of the racks), 4.2 m, and 4.026 m (top of the active fuel). A calculation was also completed for a rapid loss of water due to a leak at the bottom of the pool, with the fuel rapidly uncovered and oxidized in air. Results of these calculations are shown in the enclosed Table I. The calculation with the initial water level at 11.5 m (full pool) takes 11 days for the water to boil down to the top of the fuel racks, 11.5 days for the fuel to be uncovered, 14.65 days to generate 150 kg of hydrogen and 19 days for the pool to be completely dry. The calculation with the initial water level at 4.4577 m, takes 1.1 days to uncover the fuel and 4.17 days to generate 150 kg of hydrogen. The calculation with the initial water level at 4.02 m takes 3.63 days to generate 150 kg of hydrogen this is exactly the time when the actual explosion occurred in Unit 4. Finally, fuel oxidation in air after the pool drained the water in 20 minutes, generates only 10 kg of hydrogen this is because very little steam is available and Zircaloy (Zr) oxidation with the oxygen of the air does not generate hydrogen. MELCOR calculated water levels and hydrogen generated in the SFP4 as a function of time for initial water levels of 4.457 m, 4.2 m and 4.02 m are shown in Figs. 1 and 2. Water levels increase at the beginning due to the expansion of the water during the heat-up from 301 K to 373 K. Boiling occurs after the water temperature reaches 373 K. The total amount of hydrogen generated is ~2000 kg, this amount includes hydrogen generated from Zr, which is the largest amount (~1580 kg), from stainless steel (~360 kg), and from B4C (~60 kg). In theory, it is possible to generate up to 3.4 kg of hydrogen per assembly (from oxidation of Zr in the fuel cladding and box), or a total of 4,525 kg from the hot 1331 assemblies stored in the SFP4. The hydrogen generated from oxidation of steel and B4C will be additional. So the answers to the questions are YES according to these MELCOR calculations, enough hydrogen (150 kg) could be generated in the SFP4 3.64 days after the earthquake to produce ...

  5. Removal of Radiocesium from Food by Processing: Data Collected after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident - 13167

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko

    2013-07-01

    Removal of radiocesium from food by processing is of great concern following the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Foods in markets are monitored and recent monitoring results have shown that almost all food materials were under the standard limit concentration levels for radiocesium (Cs-134+137), that is, 100 Bq kg{sup -1} in raw foods, 50 Bq kg{sup -1} in baby foods, and 10 Bq kg{sup -1} in drinking water; those food materials above the limit cannot be sold. However, one of the most frequently asked questions from the public is how much radiocesium in food would be removed by processing. Hence, information about radioactivity removal by processing of food crops native to Japan is actively sought by consumers. In this study, the food processing retention factor, F{sub r}, which is expressed as total activity in processed food divided by total activity in raw food, is reported for various types of corps. For white rice at a typical polishing yield of 90-92% from brown rice, the F{sub r} value range was 0.42-0.47. For leafy vegetable (indirect contamination), the average F{sub r} values were 0.92 (range: 0.27-1.2) after washing and 0.55 (range: 0.22-0.93) after washing and boiling. The data for some fruits are also reported. (authors)

  6. Development of doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in the B6C3F{sub 1} mouse model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desai, Varsha G.; Herman, Eugene H.; Moland, Carrie L.; Branham, William S.; Lewis, Sherry M.; Davis, Kelly J.; George, Nysia I.; Lee, Taewon; Kerr, Susan; Fuscoe, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Serum levels of cardiac troponins serve as biomarkers of myocardial injury. However, troponins are released into the serum only after damage to cardiac tissue has occurred. Here, we report development of a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced chronic cardiotoxicity to aid in the identification of predictive biomarkers of early events of cardiac tissue injury. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were administered intravenous DOX at 3 mg/kg body weight, or an equivalent volume of saline, once a week for 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 weeks, resulting in cumulative DOX doses of 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 mg/kg, respectively. Mice were sacrificed a week following the last dose. A significant reduction in body weight gain was observed in mice following exposure to a weekly DOX dose for 1 week and longer compared to saline-treated controls. DOX treatment also resulted in declines in red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, and hematocrit compared to saline-treated controls after the 2nd weekly dose until the 8th and 9th doses, followed by a modest recovery. All DOX-treated mice had significant elevations in cardiac troponin T concentrations in plasma compared to saline-treated controls, indicating cardiac tissue injury. Also, a dose-related increase in the severity of cardiac lesions was seen in mice exposed to 24 mg/kg DOX and higher cumulative doses. Mice treated with cumulative DOX doses of 30 mg/kg and higher showed a significant decline in heart rate, suggesting drug-induced cardiac dysfunction. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the development of DOX-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} mice. -- Highlights: ? 24 mg/kg was a cumulative cardiotoxic dose of doxorubicin in male B6C3F{sub 1} mice. ? Doxorubicin-induced hematological toxicity was in association with splenomegaly. ? Doxorubicin induced severe testicular toxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} male mice.

  7. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross-sectional associations are causally related to vigorous exercise or are the consequence of self-selection remains to be determined.

  8. Osilodrostat (LCI699), a potent 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, administered in combination with the multireceptor-targeted somatostatin analog pasireotide: A 13-week study in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Li; Vashisht, Kapil; Boisclair, Julie; Li, Wenkui; Lin, Tsu-han; Schmid, Herbert A.; Kluwe, William; Schoenfeld, Heidi; Hoffmann, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The somatostatin analog pasireotide and the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor osilodrostat (LCI699) reduce cortisol levels by distinct mechanisms of action. There exists a scientific rationale to investigate the clinical efficacy of these two agents in combination. This manuscript reports the results of a toxicology study in rats, evaluating different doses of osilodrostat and pasireotide alone and in combination. Sixty male and 60 female rats were randomized into single-sex groups to receive daily doses of pasireotide (0.3 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously), osilodrostat (20 mg/kg/day, orally), osilodrostat/pasireotide in combination (low dose, 1.5/0.03 mg/kg/day; mid-dose, 5/0.1 mg/kg/day; or high dose, 20/0.3 mg/kg/day), or vehicle for 13 weeks. Mean body-weight gains from baseline to Week 13 were significantly lower in the pasireotide-alone and combined-treatment groups compared to controls, and were significantly higher in female rats receiving osilodrostat monotherapy. Osilodrostat and pasireotide monotherapies were associated with significant changes in the histology and mean weights of the pituitary and adrenal glands, liver, and ovary/oviduct. Osilodrostat alone was associated with adrenocortical hypertrophy and hepatocellular hypertrophy. In combination, osilodrostat/pasireotide did not exacerbate any target organ changes and ameliorated the liver and adrenal gland changes observed with monotherapy. C{sub max} and AUC{sub 0–24h} of osilodrostat and pasireotide increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner. In conclusion, the pasireotide and osilodrostat combination did not exacerbate changes in target organ weight or toxicity compared with either monotherapy, and had an acceptable safety profile; addition of pasireotide to the osilodrostat regimen may attenuate potential adrenal gland hyperactivation and hepatocellular hypertrophy, which are potential side effects of osilodrostat monotherapy. - Highlights: • We examined the target organ toxicity of SOM230 (pasireotide) and LCI699 (osilodrostat) alone or in combination. • Co-treatment with pasireotide and osilodrostat did not exacerbate target organ toxicity by either compound. • Co-treatment with pasireotide and osilodrostat did not change the systemic exposure of either compound. • Combination of pasireotide and osilodrostat appeared to ameliorate some of the target organ effects by either compound.

  9. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  10. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M. Majid, Amran Ab. Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-02-12

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of {sup 232}Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  11. Well-to-Wheels analysis of landfill gas-based pathways and their addition to the GREET model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-30

    Today, approximately 300 million standard cubic ft/day (mmscfd) of natural gas and 1600 MW of electricity are produced from the decomposition of organic waste at 519 U.S. landfills (EPA 2010a). Since landfill gas (LFG) is a renewable resource, this energy is considered renewable. When used as a vehicle fuel, compressed natural gas (CNG) produced from LFG consumes up to 185,000 Btu of fossil fuel and generates from 1.5 to 18.4 kg of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emissions per million Btu of fuel on a 'well-to-wheel' (WTW) basis. This compares with approximately 1.1 million Btu and 78.2 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for CNG from fossil natural gas and 1.2 million Btu and 97.5 kg of CO{sub 2}e per million Btu for petroleum gasoline. Because of the additional energy required for liquefaction, LFG-based liquefied natural gas (LNG) requires more fossil fuel (222,000-227,000 Btu/million Btu WTW) and generates more GHG emissions (approximately 22 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu WTW) if grid electricity is used for the liquefaction process. However, if some of the LFG is used to generate electricity for gas cleanup and liquefaction (or compression, in the case of CNG), vehicle fuel produced from LFG can have no fossil fuel input and only minimal GHG emissions (1.5-7.7 kg CO{sub 2}e /MM Btu) on a WTW basis. Thus, LFG-based natural gas can be one of the lowest GHG-emitting fuels for light- or heavy-duty vehicles. This report discusses the size and scope of biomethane resources from landfills and the pathways by which those resources can be turned into and utilized as vehicle fuel. It includes characterizations of the LFG stream and the processes used to convert low-Btu LFG into high-Btu renewable natural gas (RNG); documents the conversion efficiencies and losses of those processes, the choice of processes modeled in GREET, and other assumptions used to construct GREET pathways; and presents GREET results by pathway stage. GREET estimates of well-to-pump (WTP), pump-to-wheel (PTW), and WTW energy, fossil fuel, and GHG emissions for each LFG-based pathway are then summarized and compared with similar estimates for fossil natural gas and petroleum pathways.

  12. Incorporation of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po to Poultry through the Addition of Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP) to the Diet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masque, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Gasa, J.; Anguita, M.

    2008-08-07

    Due to the replacement of calcium by uranium in the phosphorite, sedimentary phosphate rock contains high concentrations of {sup 238}U (i.e. from 1500 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} in Morocco to 4000 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} in Tanzania ores). Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP) is produced by the wet acid digestion of the phosphorite, and is used as a source of calcium and phosphorus for livestock feed supplement. If the phosphorite acid digestion is made with hydrochloric acid, DCP may present specific activities of about 10{sup 3} Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} of {sup 238}U and some of its decay chain daughters. In particular, due to its radiological implications, the presence of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in DCP is of special relevance. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential incorporation of these radionuclides to poultry through its diet. Three different diets were therefore prepared with different contents of both DCP and {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po. Diet A was used as a blank, and had a 2.5% in weight of monocalcium phosphate (MCP); diet B, with a 5% in weight of DCP; and diet C, with a 2.5% of DCP. Concentrations of {sup 210}Pb were 0.93, 101.4 and 51.2 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}; whereas concentrations of {sup 210}Po were 0.92, 74 and 36 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} of food for diets A, B and C, respectively. Accumulation of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po was analysed at several times during poultry growth in samples of bone, liver, kidney, muscle, excrements as well as entire animals, with a total of 30 broilers fed with the 3 different diets. Results showed clear enhancements in the accumulation of both {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in chicken for diets B and C, and in particular in liver and bone. However, total accumulation of radionuclides in chicken, and especially in edible parts, is low compared to its expulsion through excrements. These results are interpreted in terms of the potential dose through consumption of chicken.

  13. Economic Analysis of the Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature-Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm•cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating current, AC, to direct current, DC, conversion is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of the plant was also performed using the H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. A required cost of $3.23 per kg of hydrogen produced was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%. Approximately 73% of this cost ($2.36/kg) is the result of capital costs associated with the construction of the combined nuclear plant and hydrogen production facility. Operation and maintenance costs represent about 18% of the total cost ($0.57/kg). Variable costs (including the cost of nuclear fuel) contribute about 8.7% ($0.28/kg) to the total cost of hydrogen production, and decommissioning and raw material costs make up the remaining fractional cost.

  14. Soil microbial responses to nitrogen addition in arid ecosystems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Belnap, Jayne; Rudgers, Jennifer; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Martinez, Noelle; Sandquist, Darren

    2015-08-14

    The N cycle of arid ecosystems is influenced by low soil organic matter, high soil pH, and extremes in water potential and temperature that lead to open canopies and development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). We investigated the effects of N amendment on soil microbial dynamics in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa shrubland site in southern Nevada USA. Sites were fertilized with a NO3-NH4 mix at 0, 7, and 15 kg N ha-1 y-1 from March 2012 to March 2013. In March 2013, biocrust (0–0.5 cm) and bulk soils (0–10 cm) were collected beneath Ambrosia canopies and in the interspaces betweenmore » plants. Biomass responses were assessed as bacterial and fungal SSU rRNA gene copy number and chlorophyll a concentration. Metabolic responses were measured by five ecoenzyme activities and rates of N transformation. With most measures, nutrient availability, microbial biomass, and process rates were greater in soils beneath the shrub canopy compared to the interspace between plants, and greater in the surface biocrust horizon compared to the deeper 10 cm soil profile. Most measures responded positively to experimental N addition. Effect sizes were generally greater for bulk soil than biocrust. Results were incorporated into a meta-analysis of arid ecosystem responses to N amendment that included data from 14 other studies. Effect sizes were calculated for biomass and metabolic responses. Regressions of effect sizes, calculated for biomass, and metabolic responses, showed similar trends in relation to N application rate and N load (rate × duration). The critical points separating positive from negative treatment effects were 88 kg ha-1 y-1 and 159 kg ha-1, respectively, for biomass, and 70 kg ha-1 y-1 and 114 kg ha-1, respectively, for metabolism. These critical values are comparable to those for microbial biomass, decomposition rates and respiration reported in broader meta-analyses of N amendment effects in mesic ecosystems. The large effect sizes at low N addition rates indicate that arid ecosystems are sensitive to modest increments in anthropogenic N deposition.« less

  15. High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: A pilot scale study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolzonella, David; Cavinato, Cristina; Fatone, Francesco; Pavan, Paolo; Cecchi, Franco

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperatures were tested in single and two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increased temperature demonstrated the possibility of improving typical yields of the conventional mesophilic process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature phased anaerobic digestion process (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) showed the best performances with yields of 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia and phosphate released from solids destruction determined the precipitation of struvite in the reactor. - Abstract: The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35 Degree-Sign C), thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) and temperature phased (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed} at 35, 55, and 65 + 55 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65 Degree-Sign C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 gCOD (soluble) per gVS{sub fed}. The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile fatty acids of 20 and 9 g/l, respectively. Acetic and propionic acids were the main compounds found in the acids mixture. Because of the improved digestion efficiency, organic nitrogen and phosphorus were solubilised in the bulk. Their concentration, however, did not increase as expected because of the formation of salts of hydroxyapatite and struvite inside the reactor.

  16. Soil microbial responses to nitrogen addition in arid ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Belnap, Jayne; Rudgers, Jennifer; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Martinez, Noelle; Sandquist, Darren

    2015-08-14

    The N cycle of arid ecosystems is influenced by low soil organic matter, high soil pH, and extremes in water potential and temperature that lead to open canopies and development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). We investigated the effects of N amendment on soil microbial dynamics in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa shrubland site in southern Nevada USA. Sites were fertilized with a NO3-NH4 mix at 0, 7, and 15 kg N ha-1 y-1 from March 2012 to March 2013. In March 2013, biocrust (0–0.5 cm) and bulk soils (0–10 cm) were collected beneath Ambrosia canopies and in the interspaces between plants. Biomass responses were assessed as bacterial and fungal SSU rRNA gene copy number and chlorophyll a concentration. Metabolic responses were measured by five ecoenzyme activities and rates of N transformation. With most measures, nutrient availability, microbial biomass, and process rates were greater in soils beneath the shrub canopy compared to the interspace between plants, and greater in the surface biocrust horizon compared to the deeper 10 cm soil profile. Most measures responded positively to experimental N addition. Effect sizes were generally greater for bulk soil than biocrust. Results were incorporated into a meta-analysis of arid ecosystem responses to N amendment that included data from 14 other studies. Effect sizes were calculated for biomass and metabolic responses. Regressions of effect sizes, calculated for biomass, and metabolic responses, showed similar trends in relation to N application rate and N load (rate × duration). The critical points separating positive from negative treatment effects were 88 kg ha-1 y-1 and 159 kg ha-1, respectively, for biomass, and 70 kg ha-1 y-1 and 114 kg ha-1, respectively, for metabolism. These critical values are comparable to those for microbial biomass, decomposition rates and respiration reported in broader meta-analyses of N amendment effects in mesic ecosystems. The large effect sizes at low N addition rates indicate that arid ecosystems are sensitive to modest increments in anthropogenic N deposition.

  17. Consistent quantification of climate impacts due to biogenic carbon storage across a range of bio-product systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guest, Geoffrey Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco Strmman, Anders H.

    2013-11-15

    Temporary and permanent carbon storage from biogenic sources is seen as a way to mitigate climate change. The aim of this work is to illustrate the need to harmonize the quantification of such mitigation across all possible storage pools in the bio- and anthroposphere. We investigate nine alternative storage cases and a wide array of bio-resource pools: from annual crops, short rotation woody crops, medium rotation temperate forests, and long rotation boreal forests. For each feedstock type and biogenic carbon storage pool, we quantify the carbon cycle climate impact due to the skewed time distribution between emission and sequestration fluxes in the bio- and anthroposphere. Additional consideration of the climate impact from albedo changes in forests is also illustrated for the boreal forest case. When characterizing climate impact with global warming potentials (GWP), we find a large variance in results which is attributed to different combinations of biomass storage and feedstock systems. The storage of biogenic carbon in any storage pool does not always confer climate benefits: even when biogenic carbon is stored long-term in durable product pools, the climate outcome may still be undesirable when the carbon is sourced from slow-growing biomass feedstock. For example, when biogenic carbon from Norway Spruce from Norway is stored in furniture with a mean life time of 43 years, a climate change impact of 0.08 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year time horizon (TH)) would result. It was also found that when biogenic carbon is stored in a pool with negligible leakage to the atmosphere, the resulting GWP factor is not necessarily ? 1 CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored. As an example, when biogenic CO{sub 2} from Norway Spruce biomass is stored in geological reservoirs with no leakage, we estimate a GWP of ? 0.56 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year TH) when albedo effects are also included. The large variance in GWPs across the range of resource and carbon storage options considered indicates that more accurate accounting will require case-specific factors derived following the methodological guidelines provided in this and recent manuscripts. -- Highlights: Climate impacts of stored biogenic carbon (bio-C) are consistently quantified. Temporary storage of bio-C does not always equate to a climate cooling impact. 1 unit of bio-C stored over a time horizon does not always equate to ? 1 unit CO{sub 2}eq. Discrepancies of climate change impact quantification in literature are clarified.

  18. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SMALL-SCALE SAFETY TESTING SYSTEMS AT LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HSU, P C

    2008-07-31

    Small-scale sensitivity testing is important for determining material response to various stimuli including impact, friction, and static spark. These tests, briefly described below, provide parameters for safety in handling. ERL Type 12 drop hammer equipment at LLNL, shown in Figure 1, was used to determine the impact sensitivity. The equipment includes a 2.5-kg drop weight, a striker (upper anvil, 2.5 kg for solid samples and 1.0 kg for liquid samples), a bottom anvil, a microphone sensor, and a peakmeter. For each drop, sample (35 mg for solid or 45 microliter for liquid) is placed on the bottom anvil surface and impacted by the drop weight from different heights. Signs of reactions upon impact are observed and recorded. These signs include noises, flashes or sparks, smoke, pressure, gas emissions, temperature rise due to exothermic reaction, color change of the sample, and changes to the anvil surface (noted by inspection). For solid samples, a 'GO' was defined as a microphone sensor (for noise detection) response of {ge} 1.3 V as measured by a peakmeter. The higher the DH{sub 50} values, the lower the impact sensitivity. The method used to calculate DH{sub 50} values is the 'up and down' or Bruceton method. PETN and RDX have impact sensitivities of 15 and 35 cm, respectively. TATB has impact sensitivity more than 177 cm. For liquid samples, a 'GO' was determined by the noise levels as measured by the peakmeter, appearance of flashes, temperature rise of the anvil, and visual inspection of the anvil surface. Two liquid samples TMETN and FEFO have impact sensitivities of 14 and 32 cm, respectively. Figure 2 shows a 'GO' event observed during the impact sensitivity test; flashes appeared as the drop weight impacted the sample. A BAM friction sensitivity test machine, as shown in Figure 3, was used to determine the frictional sensitivity. The system uses a fixed porcelain pin and a movable porcelain plate that executes a reciprocating motion. Weight affixed to a torsion arm allows for a variation in applied force between 0.5 kg to 36.0 kg. The relative measure of the frictional sensitivity of a material is based upon the smallest load (kg) at which reaction occurs for a 1-in-10 series of attempts. The lower the load values, the higher the frictional sensitivity. PETN has a frictional sensitivity of 6.4 kg. The static spark machine at LLNL is used to evaluate the electrostatic discharge hazards (human ESD) associated with the handling of explosives. The machine was custom-built almost 30 years ago and consists of a capacitor bank (up to 20,000 pF), a voltage meter, and a discharge circuit, as shown in Figure 4. An adjustable resistor up to 510 ohms (chosen to simulate human body) is wired to the discharge circuit. A 5-mg sample is placed in a Teflon washer sealed to a steel disc and covered with a Mylar tape. High static voltage (up to 10 kv) is applied and discharged to the sample. Evidence of reaction is judged from the condition of Mylar tape, smokes, and color change of the sample. Voltage, capacitance, and resistance can be adjusted to achieve the desired static energy. The results obtained are expressed as a zero in 10 or one-in-ten at a specific voltage and joules. One reaction in ten trials at {le} 0.25 joules is considered spark-sensitive. Primary explosives show reaction at 0.1 joule.

  19. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: Single-phase and two-phase systems were compared for fruit and vegetable waste digestion. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS and 83% VS removal. Substrate solubilization was high in acidification conditions at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.56.2. Energy yield was lower by 33% for two-phase system compared to the single-phase system. Simple and straight-forward operation favored single phase process over two-phase process. - Abstract: Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.56.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of energy during hydrolysis in the TPAR and the deficit in methane production in the TPMR attributed to COD loss due to biomass synthesis and adsorption of hard COD onto the flocs. These results including the complicated operational procedure of the two-phase process and the economic factors suggested that the single-phase process could be the preferred system for FVW.

  20. Supercapacitors specialities - Materials review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obreja, Vasile V. N.

    2014-06-16

    The electrode material is a key component for supercapacitor cell performance. As it is known, performance comparison of commercial available batteries and supercapacitors reveals significantly lower energy storage capability for supercapacitor devices. The energy density of commercial supercapacitor cells is limited to 10 Wh/kg whereas that of common lead acid batteries reaches 35-40 Wh/kg. For lithium ion batteries a value higher than 100 Wh/kg is easily available. Nevertheless, supercapacitors also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors have other advantages in comparison with batteries. As a consequence, many efforts have been made in the last years to increase the storage energy density of electrochemical capacitors. A lot of results from published work (research and review papers, patents and reports) are available at this time. The purpose of this review is a presentation of the progress to date for the use of new materials and approaches for supercapacitor electrodes, with focus on the energy storage capability for practical applications. Many reported results refer to nanostructured carbon based materials and the related composites, used for the manufacture of experimental electrodes. A specific capacitance and a specific energy are seldom revealed as the main result of the performed investigation. Thus for nanoprous (activated) carbon based electrodes a specific capacitance up to 200-220 F/g is mentioned for organic electrolyte, whereas for aqueous electrolyte, the value is limited to 400-500 F/g. Significant contribution to specific capacitance is possible from fast faradaic reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface in addition to the electric double layer effect. The corresponding energy density is limited to 30-50 Wh/kg for organic electrolyte and to 12-17 Wh/kg for aqueous electrolyte. However such performance indicators are given only for the carbon material used in electrodes. For a supercapacitor cell, where two electrodes and also other materials for cell assembling and packaging are used, the above mentioned values have to be divided by a factor higher than four. As a consequence, the specific energy of a prototype cell, hardly could exceed 10 Wh/kg because of difficulties with the existing manufacturing technology. Graphene based materials and carbon nanotubes and different composites have been used in many experiments reported in the last years. Nevertheless in spite of the outstanding properties of these materials, significant increase of the specific capacitance or of the specific energy in comparison with activated or nanoporous carbon is not achieved. Use of redox materials as metal oxides or conducting polymers in combination with different nanostructured carbon materials (nanocomposite electrodes) has been found to contribute to further increase of the specific capacitance or of the specific energy. Nevertheless, few results are reported for practical cells with such materials. Many results are reported only for a three electrode system and significant difference is possible when the electrode is used in a practical supercapacitor cell. Further improvement in the electrode manufacture and more experiments with supercapacitor cells with the known electrochemical storage materials are required. Device prototypes and commercial products with an energy density towards 15-20 Wh/kg could be realized. These may be a milestone for further supercapacitor device research and development, to narrow the storage energy gap between batteries and supercapacitors.

  1. Sub-5 nm Domains in Ordered Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) Block Polymers for Lithography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennemur, Justin; Yao, Li; Bates, Frank Stephen; Hillmyer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly- (methyl methacrylate) (PCHE PMMA) diblock copolymers with varying molar mass (4.9 kg/mol Mn 30.6 kg/mol) and narrow molar mass distribution were synthesized through a combination of anionic and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) techniques. Heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of -(hydroxy)polystyrene (PS-OH) yielded -(hydroxy)poly(cyclohexylethylene) (PCHEOH) with little loss of hydroxyl functionality. PCHE-OH was reacted with -bromoisobutyryl bromide (BiBB) to produce an ATRP macroinitiator used for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate. PCHE PMMA is a glassy, thermally stable material with a large effective segment segment interaction parameter, eff = (144.4 6.2)/T (0.162 0.013), determined by meanfield analysis of order-to-disorder transition temperatures (TODT) measured by dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Ordered lamellar domain pitches (9 D 33 nm) were identified by small-angle X-ray scattering from neat BCPs containing 43 52 vol % PCHE ( f PCHE). Atomic force microscopy was used to show 7.5 nm lamellar features (D = 14.8 nm) which are some of the smallest observed to date. The lowest molar mass sample (Mn = 4.9 kg/mol, f PCHE = 0.46) is characterized by TODT = 173 3 C and sub-5 nm nanodomains, which together with the sacrificial properties of PMMA and the high overall thermal stability place this material at the forefront of high- systems for advanced nanopatterning applications.

  2. Preliminary analysis of loss-of-coolant accident in Fukushima nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Anshari, Rio

    2012-06-06

    Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) especially on Fukushima Nuclear Accident will be discussed in this paper. The Tohoku earthquake triggered the shutdown of nuclear power reactors at Fukushima Nuclear Power station. Though shutdown process has been completely performed, cooling process, at much smaller level than in normal operation, is needed to remove decay heat from the reactor core until the reactor reach cold-shutdown condition. If LOCA happen at this condition, it will cause the increase of reactor fuel and other core temperatures and can lead to reactor core meltdown and exposure of radioactive material to the environment such as in the Fukushima Dai Ichi nuclear accident case. In this study numerical simulation has been performed to calculate pressure composition, water level and temperature distribution on reactor during this accident. There are two coolant regulating system that operational on reactor unit 1 at this accident, Isolation Condensers (IC) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV) system. Average mass flow of steam to the IC system in this event is 10 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 3,2 hours and fully uncovered in 4,7 hours later. There are two coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 2, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) System and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of coolant that correspond this event is 20 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 73 hours and fully uncovered in 75 hours later. There are three coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 3, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) system, High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of water that correspond this event is 15 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 37 hours and fully uncovered in 40 hours later.

  3. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prieto, A.M.; Santos, A.G.; Csipak, A.R.; Caliri, C.M.; Silva, I.C.; Arbex, M.A.; Silva, F.S.; Marchi, M.R.R.

    2012-12-15

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)or with casearin X0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BWafter which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ? We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ? We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ? We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ? We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ? The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  4. Control of radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F. ); Hrma, P. ); Bowan, B.W. II )

    1990-01-01

    Slurries of simulated high level radioactive waste and glass formers have been isothermally reacted and analyzed to identify the sequence of the major chemical reactions in waste vitrification, their effect on glass production rate, and the development of leach resistance. Melting rates of waste batches have been increased by the addition of reducing agents (formic acid, sucrose) and nitrates. The rate increases are attributable in part to exothermic reactions which occur at critical stages in the vitrification process. Nitrates must be balanced by adequate reducing agents to avoid the formation of persistent foam, which would destabilize the melting process. The effect of foaming on waste glass production rates is analyzed, and melt rate limitations defined for waste-glass melters, based upon measurable thermophysical properties. Minimum melter residence times required to homogenize glass and assure glass quality are much smaller than those used in current practice. Thus, melter size can be reduced without adversely affecting glass quality. Physical chemistry and localized heat transfer of the waste-glass melting process are examined, to refine the available models for predicting and assuring glass production rate. It is concluded that the size of replacement melters and future waste processing facilities can be significantly decreased if minimum heat transfer requirements for effective melting are met by mechanical agitation. A new class of waste glass melters has been designed, and proof of concept tests completed on simulated High Level Radioactive Waste slurry. Melt rates have exceeded 155 kg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} with slurry feeds (32 lb ft{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}), and 229 kg kg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} with dry feed (47 lb ft{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}). This is about 8 times the melt rate possible in conventional waste- glass melters of the same size. 39 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. PCB153-elicited hepatic responses in the immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice: Comparative toxicogenomic effects of dioxin and non-dioxin-like ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopec, Anna K.; Burgoon, Lyle D.; Ibrahim-Aibo, Daher; Mets, Bryan D.; Tashiro, Colleen; Potter, Dave; Sharratt, Bonnie; Harkema, Jack R.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2010-03-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous contaminants found as complex mixtures of coplanar and non-coplanar congeners. The hepatic temporal and dose-dependent effects of the most abundant non-dioxin-like congener, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), were examined in immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice, and compared to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the prototypical aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand. Animals were gavaged once with 300 mg/kg PCB153 or sesame oil vehicle and sacrificed 4, 12, 24, 72 or 168 h post dose. In the dose-response study, mice were gavaged with 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg PCB153 or sesame oil for 24 h. Significant increases in relative liver weights were induced with 300 mg/kg PCB153 between 24 and 168 h, accompanied by slight vacuolization and hepatocellular hypertrophy. The hepatic differential expression of 186 and 177 genes was detected using Agilent 4 x 44 K microarrays in the time course (|fold change| >= 1.5, P1(t) >= 0.999) and dose-response (|fold change| >= 1.5, P1(t) >= 0.985) studies, respectively. Comparative analysis with TCDD suggests that the differential gene expression elicited by PCB153 was not mediated by the AhR. Furthermore, constitutive androstane and pregnane X receptor (CAR/PXR) regulated genes including Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, Ces2, Insig2 and Abcc3 were dose-dependently induced by PCB153. Collectively, these results suggest that the hepatocellular effects elicited by PCB153 are qualitatively and quantitatively different from TCDD and suggestive of CAR/PXR regulation.

  6. April market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The spot market price for uranium outside the USA weakened further during April, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.35, to $7.10 per pound U3O8. This is the lowest Exchange Value observed in nearly twenty years, comparable to Values recorded during the low price levels of the early 1970s. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.40, to $2.95 per pound U3O8. Transactions for significant quantities of uranium concentrates that are both deliverable in and intended for consumption in the USA could have been concluded on April 30 at $10.05 per pound U3O8, up $0.05 from the sum of corresponding March Values. Four near-term concentrates transactions were reported, totalling nearly 1.5 million pounds equivalent U3O8. One long-term sale was reported. The UF6 Value also declined, as increased competition among sellers led to a $0.50 decrease, to $24.50 per kgU as UF6. However, the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.65, to $5.90 per kgU as UF6, reflecting an effective US market level of $30.40 per kgU. Two near term transactions were reported totalling approximately 1.1 million pounds equivalent U3O8. In total, eight uranium transactions totalling 28 million pounds equivalent U3O8 were reported, which is about average for April market activity.

  7. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, H. W.; Ip, W. H.; Chen, W. P.; Chen, Y. T.; Lacerda, P.; Holman, M.; Protopapas, P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus <4 km radius, with colors g {sub P1} r {sub P1} = 0.5 0.02, r {sub P1} i {sub P1} = 0.12 0.02, and i {sub P1} z {sub P1} = 0.46 0.03. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of ?100 kg s{sup 1}. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from ?40 kg s{sup 1} to 150 kg s{sup 1}. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgassing rate. The results indicate that it may have a similar surface composition to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our numerical simulations show that the future orbital evolution of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is more similar to that of the main population of Centaurs than to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The results also demonstrate that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is dynamically unstable and can only remain near its current orbit for roughly a thousand years.

  8. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from ?290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to ?19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Na; Zhang Hua; Chen Miao; Shao Liming; He Pinjing

    2012-12-15

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

  10. Immobilization of Rocky Flats graphite fines residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.; Marra, J.C.; Peeler, D.K.

    1999-07-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt% graphite, 15 wt% calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and 12 wt% plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Approximately 950 kg of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO{sub 2} concentration in the residue averages 12 wt%, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF{sub 2} dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2} and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF{sub 2} and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.

  11. The ecological evaluation of surface water outfalls at a manufacturing plant in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harman, C.R.; Gilchrist, W.

    1995-12-31

    Historic metal machining operations at a manufacturing plant in northern New Jersey had resulted in the contamination of three surface water outfalls leading from the plant to a second-order stream used for trout fishing. The outfalls were fed by a combination of non-contact cooling water, stormwater runoff and groundwater infiltration. The outfalls ranged in length from 180 meters to 600 meters. All three of the outfalls pass through forested wetland areas and contained emergent wetland pockets. The ecological evaluation consisted of the collection of sediment samples to evaluate the extent of chemical contamination and the evaluation of the biological integrity of a portion of the surface water outfalls. Additionally, an ecological characterization of the surrounding habitat was prepared. Sediment sampling indicated elevated concentrations of antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc. Nickel concentrations were the most significant, with concentrations ranging up to 9,850 mg/kg. PCB concentrations ranged between 0.45 mg/kg and 6.4 mg/kg. Elevated concentrations of metals and PCBs were detected to a sediment depth of 45 centimeters. To evaluate the potential for biological impacts from the metals in the sediments, a modified Rapid Bioassessment Protocol 1 evaluation was conducted on the macroinvertebrate population. The results of the evaluation indicated a very sparse macroinvertebrate community. Those organisms that were identified were typical of highly contaminated surface water system. The surrounding wetland systems appeared to be unaffected by the outfall contamination. Based on the results of the first phase of the ecological evaluation, a program of additional sediment sampling and further biological evaluation was prepared.

  12. Daily treatment with {alpha}-naphthoflavone enhances follicular growth and ovulation rate in the rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barreiro, Karina A.; Di Yorio, Maria P.; Artillo-Guida, Romina D.; Paz, Dante A.; Faletti, Alicia G.

    2011-04-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and the first protein involved in a variety of physiological and toxicological processes, including those of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. AhR has been found in the ovary of many species and seems to mediate the ovarian toxicity of many environmental contaminants, which are AhR ligands. However, the role of AhR in the ovarian function is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the action of {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}NF), known to be an AhR antagonist, on both follicular growth and ovulation. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats were daily injected intraperitoneally with {alpha}NF (0.1-80 mg/kg) or vehicle for 12 days, and primed with gonadotrophins (eCG/hCG) to induce follicular growth and ovulation. Ovaries were obtained 20 h after hCG administration. By means of immunohistochemistry, we found that the numbers of primordial, primary and antral follicles were increased in rats treated with 80 mg/kg {alpha}NF and that there were no differences with other doses. Likewise, the ovarian weight and the ovulation rate, measured by both number of oocytes within oviducts and corpora lutea in ovarian sections, were increased when the rats received either 1 or 10 mg/kg daily. Although further studies are necessary to know the mechanism of action of {alpha}NF, it is possible that the different ovarian processes can be differentially responsive to the presence of different levels of {alpha}NF, and that the same or different endogenous AhR ligands can be involved in these ovarian processes in a cell type-dependent manner.

  13. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of a nanoporous NiO film with high specific energy and power via an electrochemical dealloying approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Kun; Tang, Xianzhong; Wei, Bingqing; Hu, Wencheng

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The maximum values were 170 Wh kg{sup ?1} and 27.5 kW kg{sup ?1} for specific energy and power at the potential window of 1.1 V, respectively. As so far as we know, the values of specific energy and power were both the highest than that reported in literatures. - Highlights: We developed a convenient approach to fabricate the three-dimensional nanoporous NiO film. The nanoporous films contain irregular 3D interconnected nanosheets structure with open channels. The film as supercapacitor electrode showed excellent specific capacitance values. It is noticed that the nanoporous film exhibited high specific energy and high specific power. The electrochemical electrode presented excellent cycling performance and low retention. - Abstract: A three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous NiO film was fabricated via a two-step process using an electrochemical route. This process included electrodeposition of the Ni/Zn alloy film and electrochemical dealloying using a direct-current power source. The scanning electron microscopy images suggest that the film has an irregular 3D interconnected nanosheet structure with open channels. The adsorptiondesorption isotherms indicate that the as-prepared NiO film had a high specific surface area of 198 m g{sup ?1} and a narrow pore size distribution, with two peaks at 2.7 and 5.1 nm. The specific capacitance of the sample reached 1670 F g{sup ?1} at a discharge current density of 1 A g{sup ?1}. In addition, the as-prepared nanoporous film exhibited high performance during a long-term cycling test. The maximum values for the specific energy and specific power at the 1.1 V potential window were 170 and 27.5 kW kg{sup ?1}, respectively.

  15. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U.; Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Boorman, Gary A.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ? Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ? HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ? We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  16. Influence of electrolyte on lithium cycling efficiency with pressurized electrode stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirai, Toshiro; Yoshimatsu, Isamu; Yamaki, Junichi )

    1994-03-01

    The limited cycle life of rechargeable lithium cells has been one of the most important barriers for developing commercial cells and many factors have been investigated in attempts to improve cycle ability. The dependency of lithium cycling efficiency on stack pressure was studied for several electrolytes. To evaluate the cycling efficiency E, the authors calculated the figure of merit (FOM) of lithium as FOM = 1/(1-E). The effect of solvents on the FOM change with pressure was examined for LiAsF[sub 6] solute electrolytes containing 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2MeTHF), ethylene carbonate (EC)/2MeTHF, propylene carbonate (PC), or EC/PC. The electrolyte LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF showed the largest FOM (80 at 125 kg/cm[sup 2]). With the electrolytes LiAsF[sub 6] [minus] PC and LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/PC, FOM was less dependent on stack pressure than it was with the electrolytes LiAsF[sub 6]-2MeTHF and EC/2MeTHF, probably because a different separator was used for the former electrolytes. Examining the effect of the solute on the FOM change with pressure showed that the FOMs for LiPF[sub 6]- and LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]-EC/2MeTHF reached maximum values at 50 and 75 kg/cm[sup 2], respectively, and that the FOM values for LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF increased with increasing stack pressure up to at least 125 kg/cm[sup 2].

  17. The COHERENT Experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Steven Ray

    2015-09-30

    The COHERENT collaboration's primary objective is to measure coherent elastic neutrino- nucleus scattering (CEvNS) using the unique, high-quality source of tens-of-MeV neutrinos provided by the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In spite of its large cross section, the CEvNS process has never been observed, due to tiny energies of the resulting nuclear recoils which are out of reach for standard neutrino detectors. The measurement of CEvNS has now become feasible, thanks to the development of ultra-sensitive technology for rare decay and weakly-interacting massive particle (dark matter) searches. The CEvNS cross section is cleanly predicted in the standard model; hence its measurement provides a standard model test. It is relevant for supernova physics and supernova-neutrino detection, and enables validation of dark-matter detector background and detector-response models. In the long term, precision measurement of CEvNS will address questions of nuclear structure. COHERENT will deploy multiple detector technologies in a phased approach: a 14-kg CsI[Na] scintillating crystal, 15 kg of p-type point-contact germanium detectors, and 100 kg of liquid xenon in a two-phase time projection chamber. Following an extensive background measurement campaign, a location in the SNS basement has proven to be neutron-quiet and suitable for deployment of the COHERENT detector suite. The simultaneous deployment of the three COHERENT detector subsystems will test the N=2 dependence of the cross section and ensure an unambiguous discovery of CEvNS. This document describes concisely the COHERENT physics motivations, sensitivity and plans for measurements at the SNS to be accomplished on a four-year timescale.

  18. Variation of the Side Chain Branch Position Leads to Vastly Improved Molecular Weight and OPV Performance in 4,8-dialkoxybenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene/2,1,3-benzothiadiazole Copolymers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coffin, Robert C.; MacNeill, Christopher M.; Peterson, Eric D.; Ward, Jeremy W.; Owen, Jack W.; McLellan, Claire A.; Smith, Gregory M.; Noftle, Ronald E.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Carroll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Tmore » hrough manipulation of the solubilizing side chains, we were able to dramatically improve the molecular weight ( M w ) of 4,8-dialkoxybenzo[1,2- b :4,5- b ′ ]dithiophene (BDT)/2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT) copolymers. When dodecyl side chains ( P1 ) are employed at the 4- and 8-positions of the BDT unit, we obtain a chloroform-soluble copolymer fraction with M w of 6.3 kg/mol. Surprisingly, by moving to the commonly employed 2-ethylhexyl branch ( P2 ), M w decreases to 3.4 kg/mol.his is despite numerous reports that this side chain increases solubility and M w . By moving the ethyl branch in one position relative to the polymer backbone (1-ethylhexyl, P3 ), M w is dramatically increased to 68.8 kg/mol. As a result of this M w increase, the shape of the absorption profile is dramatically altered, with λ max = 637 nm compared with 598 nm for P1 and 579 nm for P2 .he hole mobility as determined by thin film transistor (TFT) measurements is improved from ~ 1 × 10 − 6  cm 2 /Vs for P1 and P2 to 7 × 10 − 4  cm 2 /Vs for P3 , while solar cell power conversion efficiency in increased to 2.91 % for P3 relative to 0.31 % and 0.19 % for P1 and P2 , respectively.« less

  19. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.

  20. Unraveling the mechanism of neuroprotection of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Pranay; Yadav, Rajesh S.; Chandravanshi, Lalit P.; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Dhuriya, Yogesh K.; Chauhan, Lalit K.S.; Dwivedi, Hari N.; Pant, Aditiya B.; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2014-09-15

    Earlier, we found that arsenic induced cholinergic deficits in rat brain could be protected by curcumin. In continuation to this, the present study is focused to unravel the molecular mechanisms associated with the protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits. Exposure to arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats resulted to decrease the expression of CHRM2 receptor gene associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions as evident by decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, activity of mitochondrial complexes and enhanced apoptosis both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in comparison to controls. The ultrastructural images of arsenic exposed rats, assessed by transmission electron microscope, exhibited loss of myelin sheath and distorted cristae in the mitochondria both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats was found to protect arsenic induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of mitochondrial complexes both in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Alterations in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and ultrastructural damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus following arsenic exposure were also protected in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. The data of the present study reveal that curcumin could protect arsenic induced cholinergic deficits by modulating the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the brain. More interestingly, arsenic induced functional and ultrastructural changes in the brain mitochondria were also protected by curcumin. - Highlights: • Neuroprotective mechanism of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits studied • Curcumin protected arsenic induced enhanced expression of stress markers in rat brain • Arsenic compromised mitochondrial electron transport chain protected by curcumin • Functional and structural changes in mitochondria by arsenic protected by curcumin.

  1. Influence of copper substitution on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of NiMnInB alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Sudip Quetz, Abdiel; Aryal, Anil; Dubenko, Igor; Ali, Naushad; Samanta, Tapas; Stadler, Shane

    2015-05-07

    The structural, magnetocaloric, and thermomagnetic properties of Ni{sub 50.51}Mn{sub 34.34−x}Cu{sub x}In{sub 14.14}B{sub 1.01} with x = (0, 1.26, and 2.02) have been studied using room-temperature x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and magnetization measurements. The partial substitution of Cu for Mn was found to shift both the martensitic transition temperature (T{sub M}) and the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) to lower temperatures. The values of the latent heat (L = 9.4 J/g) and corresponding magnetic (ΔS{sub M}) and total entropy (ΔS{sub T}) changes (ΔS{sub M} = 22.60 J/kg K for ΔH = 5 T and ΔS{sub T} = 29.7 J/kg K) have been evaluated using magnetic and DSC measurements, respectively, for the sample with x = 1.26. Large negative values of ΔS{sub M} of −7.27 and −5.98 J/kg K for ΔH = 5 T in the vicinity of T{sub C} were observed for x = 1.26 and 2.02, respectively. It has been found that the application of hydrostatic pressure changes the magnetic ground state of the martensitic phase and increases the temperature stability of the martensitic phase. The roles of the magnetic and structural changes on the transition temperatures are discussed.

  2. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P.; Jena, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

  3. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian; Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang; Li Yebo

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  4. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  5. REINVESTIGATING THE PROCESS IMPACTS FROM OXALIC ACIDHIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLEANING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-01-22

    The impacts and acceptability of using oxalic acid to clean the Savannah River Site, High Level Waste Tanks 1-8, were re-investigated using a two-phased approach. For the first phase, using a representative Tank 1-8 sludge, the chemical equilibrium based software, OLI ESP{copyright} and Savannah River Site laboratory test results were used to develop a chemically speciated material balance and a general oxalate mass balance. Using 8 wt% oxalic acid with a 100% molar excess, for every 1 kg of sludge solid that was dissolved, about 3.4 kg of resultant solids would form for eventual vitrification, while about 0.6 kg of soluble oxalate would precipitate in the evaporator system, and form a salt heel. Using available analyses, a list of potential safety and process impacts were developed, screened, and evaluated for acceptability. The results showed that the use of oxalic acid had two distinct types of impacts, those which were safety based and required potential upgrades or additional studies. Assuming such were performed and adequate, no further actions were required. The second type of impacts were also acceptable, but were long-term, and as such, would need to be managed. These impacts were directly caused by the solubility characteristics of oxalate in a concentrated sodium solution and, occurred after pH restoration. Since oxalate destruction methods are commonly available, their use should be considered. Using an oxalate destruction method could enable the benefits of oxalic to applied, while eliminating the long-term impacts that must be managed, and hence should be considered.

  6. Preconceptual Feasibility Study to Evaluate Alternative Means to Produce Plutonium-238

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Matthew S. Everson

    2013-02-01

    There is currently no large-scale production of 238Pu in the United States. Feasibility studies were performed at the Idaho National Laboratory to assess the capability of developing alternative 238Pu production strategies. Initial investigations indicate potential capability to provision radioisotope-powered systems for future space exploration endeavors. For the short term production of 238Pu, sealed canisters of dilute 237Np solution in nitric acid could be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Targets in the large and medium I positions of the ATR were irradiated over a simulated period of 306 days and analyzed using MCNP5 and ORIGEN2.2. Approximately 0.5 kg of 238Pu could be produced annually in the ATR with purity greater than 92%. Optimization of the irradiation cycles could further increase the purity to greater than 98%. Whereas the typical purity of space batteries is between 80 to 85%, the higher purity 238Pu produced in the ATR could be blended with existing lower-purity inventory to produce useable material. Development of irradiation methods in the ATR provides the fastest alterative to restart United States 238Pu production. The analysis of 238Pu production in the ATR provides the technical basis for production using TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) nuclear reactors. Preliminary analyses envisage a production rate of approximately 0.7 kg annually using a single dedicated 5-MW TRIGA reactor with continuous flow loops to achieve high purity product. Two TRIGA reactors represent a robust means of providing at over 1 kg/yr of 238Pu annually using dilute solution targets of 237Np in nitric acid. Further collaboration and optimization of reactor design, radiochemical methods, and systems analyses would further increase annual 238Pu throughput, while reducing the currently evaluated reactor requirements.

  7. The G+M eclipsing binary V530 Orionis: a stringent test of magnetic stellar evolution models for low-mass stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Pavlovski, Kreimir; Feiden, Gregory A.; Sabby, Jeffrey A.; Bruntt, Hans; Clausen, Jens Viggo

    2014-12-10

    We report extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 6.1 day period, G+M-type detached double-lined eclipsing binary V530 Ori, an important new benchmark system for testing stellar evolution models for low-mass stars. We determine accurate masses and radii for the components with errors of 0.7% and 1.3%, as follows: M {sub A} = 1.0038 0.0066 M {sub ?}, M {sub B} = 0.5955 0.0022 M {sub ?}, R {sub A} = 0.980 0.013 R {sub ?}, and R {sub B} = 0.5873 0.0067 R {sub ?}. The effective temperatures are 5890 100 K (G1 V) and 3880 120 K (M1 V), respectively. A detailed chemical analysis probing more than 20 elements in the primary spectrum shows the system to have a slightly subsolar abundance, with [Fe/H] = 0.12 0.08. A comparison with theory reveals that standard models underpredict the radius and overpredict the temperature of the secondary, as has been found previously for other M dwarfs. On the other hand, models from the Dartmouth series incorporating magnetic fields are able to match the observations of the secondary star at the same age as the primary (?3 Gyr) with a surface field strength of 2.1 0.4 kG when using a rotational dynamo prescription, or 1.3 0.4 kG with a turbulent dynamo approach, not far from our empirical estimate for this star of 0.83 0.65 kG. The observations are most consistent with magnetic fields playing only a small role in changing the global properties of the primary. The V530 Ori system thus provides an important demonstration that recent advances in modeling appear to be on the right track to explain the long-standing problem of radius inflation and temperature suppression in low-mass stars.

  8. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nautiyal, Sunil Kaechele, Harald

    2008-11-15

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  9. Mineralogical characterization of saprolite at the FRC background site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Moon, Ji Won; Roh, Yul; Brooks, Scott C

    2008-12-01

    The Field Research Center (FRC) including five contaminated sites and a clean background area was established in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program. This study investigates the mineralogy and mineralogical pathways of saprolite at the FRC background site to provide a fundamental basis for the remediation strategy for contaminated sites. The background site is underlain interbedded shales, siltstones, and limestones with nearly identical characteristics to the contaminated sites. Bulk samples of saprolite were collected by hand picking approximately at 1 m depth (C horizon) from the soil surface. The soil pH of 4.3 and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 10.5 cmol/kg measured are in the range of the typical shallow depth saprolite layer in this area. Total Fe by citrate-bicarbonate-dithionate (CBD) and ammonium oxalate extractable (amorphous) were 17.6 and 0.61 g/kg, respectively. Total Mn extracted by NH{sub 2}OH{center_dot}HCl was 0.17 g/kg. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses indicate that quartz, illite, and microcline (K-feldspar) are the dominant minerals, occupying 95% of mineral composition. The saprolite samples analyzed have shown characteristics of oxic conditions overall, and the degrees of weathering for three sampling locations were various, most for S1 and least for S3, likely influenced either by the flow channels developed through saprolite or by seasonal fluctuation of the groundwater table. The source of the manganese oxide that observed from the site is likely to be Mn-rich muscovite in the shale or Mn-rich biotite in the blackish band in the limestone. The results such as abundant Mn and Fe contents identified encouraging prospects for conducting remediation projects in FRC sites.

  10. Sprague-Dawley rats display sex-linked differences in the pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonsart, Julien, E-mail: julien.fonsart@lrb.aphp.f [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France); CNRS, UMR 7157, Paris F-75006 (France); INSERM, U705, Paris F-75006 (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Biologique, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris F-75010 (France); Menet, Marie-Claude [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Plateau Spectrometrie de Masse (IFR 71), Service de Chimie Analytique, Paris F-75006 (France); Debray, Marcel; Hirt, Deborah; Noble, Florence; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Decleves, Xavier [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France); CNRS, UMR 7157, Paris F-75006 (France); INSERM, U705, Paris F-75006 (France)

    2009-12-15

    The use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has increased in recent years; it can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia and serotonin syndrome. Human and rodent males appear to be more sensitive to acute toxicity than are females. MDMA is metabolized to five main metabolites by the enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2D and COMT. Little is presently known about sex-dependent differences in the pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its metabolites. We therefore analyzed MDMA disposition in male and female rats by measuring the plasma and urine concentrations of MDMA and its metabolites using a validated LC-MS method. MDA AUC{sub last} and C{sub max} were 1.6- to 1.7-fold higher in males than in females given MDMA (5 mg/kg sc), while HMMA C{sub max} and AUC{sub last} were 3.2- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively. MDMA renal clearance was 1.26-fold higher in males, and that of MDA was 2.2-fold higher. MDMA AUC{sub last} and t{sub 1/2} were 50% higher in females given MDMA (1 mg/kg iv). MDA C{sub max} and AUC{sub last} were 75-82% higher in males, with a 2.8-fold higher metabolic index. Finally, the AUC{sub last} of MDA was 0.73-fold lower in males given 1 mg/kg iv MDA. The volumes of distribution of MDMA and MDA at steady-state were similar in the two sexes. These data strongly suggest that differences in the N-demethylation of MDMA to MDA are major influences on the MDMA and MDA pharmacokinetics in male and female rats. Hence, males are exposed to significantly more toxic MDA, which could explain previously reported sexual dysmorphism in the acute effects and toxicity of MDMA in rats.

  11. Production of branched-chain alcohols by recombinant Ralstonia eutropha in fed-batch cultivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei, Q; Brigham, CJ; Lu, JN; Fu, RZ; Sinskey, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Branched-chain alcohols are considered promising green energy sources due to their compatibility with existing infrastructure and their high energy density. We utilized a strain of Ralstonia eutropha capable of producing branched-chain alcohols and examined its production in flask cultures. In order to increase isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) productivity in the engineered strain, batch, fed-batch, and two-stage fed-batch cultures were carried out in this work. The effects of nitrogen source concentration on branched-chain alcohol production were investigated under four different initial concentrations in fermenters. A maximum 380 g m(-3) of branched-chain alcohol production was observed with 2 kg m(-3) initial NH4Cl concentration in batch cultures. A pH-stat control strategy was utilized to investigate the optimum carbon source amount fed during fed-batch cultures for higher cell density. In cultures of R. eutropha strains that did not produce polyhydroxyalkanoate or branched-chain alcohols, a maximum cell dry weight of 36 kg m(-3) was observed using a fed-batch strategy, when 10 kg m(-3) carbon source was fed into culture medium. Finally, a total branched-chain alcohol titer of 790 g m(-3), the highest branched-chain alcohol yield of 0.03 g g(-1), and the maximum branched-chain alcohol productivity of 8.23 g m(-3) h(-1) were obtained from the engineered strain Re2410/pJL26 in a two-stage fed-batch culture system with pH-stat control. Isobutanol made up over 95% (mass fraction) of the total branched-chain alcohols titer produced in this study. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8more » ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.« less

  13. Elevated concentrations of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a northeastern Arizona Native American community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, Johanna M.; Avasarala, Sumant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Ali, Abdul -Mehdi S.; Brearley, Adrian J.; Shuey, Christopher; Robinson, Wm. Paul; Nez, Christopher; Bill, Sadie; Lewis, Johnnye; Hirani, Chris; Pacheco, Juan S. Lezama; Cerrato, José M.

    2015-07-09

    The chemical interactions of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a Native American community in northeastern Arizona were investigated using spectroscopy, microscopy and aqueous chemistry. The concentrations of U (67–169 μg L–1) in spring water samples exceed the EPA maximum contaminant limit of 30 μg L–1. Elevated U (6,614 mg kg–1), V (15,814 mg kg–1), and As (40 mg kg–1) concentrations were detected in mine waste solids. Spectroscopy (XPS and XANES) solid analyses identified U (VI), As (-I and III) and Fe (II, III). Linear correlations for the release of U vs V and As vs Fe were observed for batch experiments when reacting mine waste solids with 10 mM ascorbic acid (~pH 3.8) after 264 h. The release of U, V, As, and Fe was at least 4-fold lower after reaction with 10 mM bicarbonate (~pH 8.3). These results suggest that U–V mineral phases similar to carnotite [K2(UO2)2V2O8] and As–Fe-bearing phases control the availability of U and As in these abandoned mine wastes. Elevated concentrations of metals are of concern due to human exposure pathways and exposure of livestock currently ingesting water in the area. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence and mobility of metals in communities located close to abandoned mine waste sites.

  14. COMPARISON OF THREE TRACER TESTS AT THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earl D Mattson; Mitchell Plummer; Carl Palmer; Larry Hull; Samantha Miller; Randy Nye

    2011-02-01

    Three conservative tracer tests have been conducted through the Bridge Fault fracture zone at the Raft River Geothermal (RRG) site. All three tests were conducted between injection well RRG-5 and production wells RRG-1 (790 m distance) and RRG-4 (740 m distance). The injection well is used during the summer months to provide pressure support to the production wells. The first test was conducted in 2008 using 136 kg of fluorescein tracer. Two additional tracers were injected in 2010. The first 2010 tracer injected was 100 kg fluorescein disodium hydrate salt on June, 21. The second tracer (100 kg 2,6-naphthalene disulfonic acid sodium salt) was injected one month later on July 21. Sampling of the two productions wells is still being performed to obtain the tail end of the second 2010 tracer test. Tracer concentrations were measured using HPLC with a fluorescence detector. Results for the 2008 test, suggest 80% tracer recover at the two production wells. Of the tracer recovered, 85% of tracer mass was recovered in well RRG-4 indicating a greater flow pathway connection between injection well and RRG-4 than RRG-1. Fluorescein tracer results appear to be similar between the 2008 and 2010 tests for well RRG-4 with peak concentrations arriving approximately 20 days after injection despite the differences between the injection rates for the two tests (~950 gpm to 475 gpm) between the 2008 and 2010. The two 2010 tracer tests will be compared to determine if the results support the hypothesis that rock contraction along the flow pathway due to the 55 oC cooler water injection alters the flow through the ~140 oC reservoir.

  15. Celecoxib offsets the negative renal influences of cyclosporine via modulation of the TGF-?1/IL-2/COX-2/endothelin ET{sub B} receptor cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M.; Helmy, Maged W.; Ali, Rabab M.; El-Mas, Mahmoud M.

    2014-03-01

    Endothelin (ET) signaling provokes nephrotoxicity induced by the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine A (CSA). We tested the hypotheses that (i): celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, counterbalances renal derangements caused by CSA in rats and (ii) the COX-2/endothelin ET{sub B} receptor signaling mediates the CSA-celecoxib interaction. Ten-day treatment with CSA (20 mg/kg/day) significantly increased biochemical indices of renal function (serum urea, creatinine), inflammation (interleukin-2, IL-2) and fibrosis (transforming growth factor-?{sub 1}, TGF-?{sub 1}). Histologically, CSA caused renal tubular atrophy along with interstitial fibrosis. These detrimental renal effects of CSA were largely reduced in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib (10 mg/kg/day). We also report that cortical glomerular and medullary tubular protein expressions of COX-2 and ET{sub B} receptors were reduced by CSA and restored to near-control values in rats treated simultaneously with celecoxib. The importance of ET{sub B} receptors in renal control and in the CSA-celecoxib interaction was further verified by the findings (i) most of the adverse biochemical, inflammatory, and histopathological profiles of CSA were replicated in rats treated with the endothelin ET{sub B} receptor antagonist BQ788 (0.1 mg/kg/day, 10 days), and (ii) the BQ788 effects, like those of CSA, were alleviated in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib. Together, the data suggest that the facilitation of the interplay between the TGF-?1/IL-2/COX-2 pathway and the endothelin ET{sub B} receptors constitutes the cellular mechanism by which celecoxib ameliorates the nephrotoxic manifestations of CSA in rats. - Highlights: Celecoxib abolishes nephrotoxic manifestations of CSA in rats. Blockade of ETB receptors by BQ788 mimicked the nephrotoxic effects of CSA. CSA or BQ788 reduces renal protein expression of COX-2 and endothelin ETB receptors. Enhanced TGF?1/IL-2/COX2/ETB signaling mediates celecoxib renoprotection.

  16. Design considerations for a 100 kW c-w, 140 GHz gyrotron oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felch, K.; Bier, R.; Fox, L.; Huey, H.; Ives, L.; Jory, H.; Spang, S.

    1984-01-01

    A gyrotron oscillator capable of generating 100 kW of c-w power is currently under development at Varian. The tube is being designed for operation in the TE/sup 0//sub 031/ cavity mode with the electron beam located at the second radial electric field maximum in the cavity. The electron beam will be produced by a magnetron injection gun and the 56 kG magnetic field required for 140 GHz operation will be provided by a superconducting magnet. Initial design calculations for the important elements of the tube are reported and the various technology issues of the tube design are discussed.

  17. Using NERSC Systems, Physicists Close In on a Rare-Particle Decay Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using NERSC Systems, Physcists Close in on a Rare-Particle Decay Process Using NERSC Systems, Physicists Close In on a Rare-Particle Decay Process Underground Experiment May Unlock the Mysteries of the Neutrino June 11, 2012 NERSC Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 exo-1.jpg Located at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico, EXO-200 is a 200-kg detector using liquid xenon, enriched in the isotope 136, to detect "neutrino-less double beta decay." With

  18. PLUTONIUM UPTAKE AND BEHAVIOR IN PLANTS OF THE DESERT SOUTHWEST: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Ferguson, C.

    2011-03-01

    Eight species of desert vegetation and associated soils were collected from the Nevada National Security Site (N2S2) and analyzed for 238Pu and 239+240Pu concentrations. Amongst the plant species sampled were: atmospheric elemental accumulators (moss and lichen), the very slow growing, long-lived creosote bush and the rapidly growing, short-lived cheatgrass brome. The diversity of growth strategies provided insight into the geochemical behavior and bio-availability of Pu at the N2S2. The highest concentrations of Pu were measured in the onion moss (24.27 Bq kg-1 238Pu and 52.78 Bq kg-1 239+240Pu) followed by the rimmed navel lichen (8.18 Bq kg-1 and 18.4 Bq kg-1 respectively), pointing to the importance of eolian transport of Pu. Brome and desert globemallow accumulated between 3 and 9 times higher concentrations of Pu than creosote and sage brush species. These results support the importance of species specific elemental accumulation strategies rather than exposure duration as the dominant variable influencing Pu concentrations in these plants. Total vegetation elemental concentrations of Ce, Fe, Al, Sm and others were also analyzed. Strong correlations were observed between Fe and Pu. This supports the conclusion that Pu was accumulated as a consequence of the active accumulation of Fe and other plant required nutrients. Cerium and Pu are considered to be chemical analogs. Strong correlations observed in plants support the conclusion that these elements displayed similar geochemical behavior in the environment as it related to the biochemical uptake process of vegetation. Soils were also sampled in association with vegetation samples. This allowed for the calculation of a concentration ratio (CR). The CR values for Pu in plants were highly influenced by the heterogeneity of Pu distribution among sites. Results from the naturally occurring elements of concern were more evenly distributed between sample sites. This allowed for the development of a pattern of plant species that accumulated Ce, Sm, Fe and Al. The highest accumulators of these elements were onion moss, lichen flowed by brome. The lowest accumulators were creosote bush and fourwing saltbush. This ranked order corresponds to plant accumulations of Pu.

  19. Synthesis of rare-earth-based oxides for the ceramic industry: From laboratory to pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S.E.; Lanagan, M.T.; Poeppel, R.B. ); Tourre, J.M.; Golowski, J.W. . Fine Inorganic Chemicals Div.)

    1991-11-01

    A wide variety of compounds, e.g., superconductors, chromites, and manganites, have been synthesized by spray drying a mixture of salts or a combination of salts and sols in a flash dryer. The process allows for good control of stoichiometry, morphology, particle size, and surface area. Appropriate particle-growth and synthesis heat treatments of these fine powders were performed. The resultant powders were evaluated for possible applications in fuel cells and superconductors. The processes have been scaled up to a capacity of {approx}40 Kg a day.

  20. First data from CUORE-0

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vignati, A. M.; Aguirre, C. P.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone III, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; et al

    2015-03-24

    CUORE-0 is an experiment built to test and demonstrate the performance of the upcoming CUORE experiment. Composed of 52 TeO2 bolometers of 750 g each, it is expected to reach a sensitivity to the 0νββ half-life of 130Te around 3 · 1024 y in one year of live time. We present the first data, corresponding to an exposure of 7.1 kg y. An analysis of the background indicates that the CUORE sensitivity goal is within reach, validating our techniques to reduce the α radioactivity of the detector.

  1. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a high energy lithium based technology with targets of over 500 Wh/l and 325 Wh/kg. Seeo would leverage the work already achieved with its unique proprietary solid polymer DryLyteTM technology in cells which had a specific

  2. Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 New data are reported from a second run of the 2-liter PICO-2L C3F8 bubble chamber with a total exposure of 129 kg-days at a thermodynamic threshold energy of 3.3 keV. These data show that measures taken to control particulate contamination in the superheated fluid resulted in the absence of the anomalous background events

  3. Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 New data are reported from a second run of the 2-liter PICO-2L C3F8 bubble chamber with a total exposure of 129 kg-days at a thermodynamic threshold energy of 3.3 keV. These data show that measures taken to control particulate contamination in the superheated fluid resulted in the absence of the anomalous background events

  4. Jan 8 2012 RAP Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Draft A Proposed Plan Overview Presented to: Hanford Advisory Board River and Plateau Committee By: James Hanson January 8, 2013 2 100 Area Historic Plumes 100-D/H Groundwater Plume Map 3 100-D/H Area Cleanup * Removed more than 3 million tons of waste and cleaned up 148 waste sites * Removed 115 former process and site support facilities * Pump and treat systems have removed over 1200 kg of hexavalent chromium * Remediation of waste sites under Interim Action Record of Decision is ongoing 4

  5. High-energy X-rays give industry affordable way to optimize cast iron |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report) | SciTech Connect High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a high energy lithium based technology with targets of over 500 Wh/l and 325 Wh/kg. Seeo would leverage the work already achieved with its unique proprietary solid polymer DryLyteTM technology in cells which had a specific energy density of 220

  6. Modifying the response of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells to nitrogen mustard

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (HN/sub 2/) by vincristine, Ca and liposomes (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Modifying the response of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells to nitrogen mustard (HN/sub 2/) by vincristine, Ca and liposomes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modifying the response of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells to nitrogen mustard (HN/sub 2/) by vincristine, Ca and liposomes Though vincristine (0.5mg/kg) has no significant carcinostatic effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, it does modify the

  7. Metal coupled emission process

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    com, ISTN A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with CO 2 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Cross-section of ISTN XPS board ISTN XPS board produced in factory demonstration ISTN, Inc. Project Summary Timeline: Start date: January 1, 2014 Planned end date: December 31, 2015 Key Milestones 1. Insulation value of R-6 per inch, pore geometry and orientation created by the foam extrusion process with 97% porosity (30 kg/m 3 density) and

  8. ch_3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 DOE/EIS-0287 Idaho HLW & FD EIS poured into Savannah River Site-type stainless steel canisters. Figure 3-8 illustrates the Early Vitrification Option. Elemental mercury from the offgas scrubbing system would be amalgamated and packaged for disposal as low-level waste. Soluble mercury (less than 260 mg/kg) from the offgas system would be precipitated, evaporated, and grouted for disposal as low-level waste. The major facilities and projects required to implement the Early Vitrification

  9. Valorisation of used cooking oil sludge by codigestion with swine manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fierro, J.; Martnez, E.J.; Morn, A.; Gmez, X.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: Anaerobic codigestion of UCO sludge and swine manure was successful at 50 d HRT. VFA build-up was present during the reactor start-up but were reduced after 50 d. CH{sub 4} yield was 326 l/kg VS{sub feed}, decreasing HRT to 30 d resulted in poor performance. Digestate at 50 d HRT was unstable although the load applied to the reactor was low. - Abstract: The addition of lipid wastes to the digestion of swine manure was studied as a means of increasing biogas production. Lipid waste was obtained from a biodiesel plant where used cooking oil is the feedstock. Digestion of this co-substrate was proposed as a way of valorising residual streams from the process of biodiesel production and to integrate the digestion process into the biorefinery concept. Batch digestion tests were performed at different co-digesting proportions obtaining as a result an increase in biogas production with the increase in the amount of co-substrate added to the mixture. Semi-continuous digestion was studied at a 7% (w/w) mass fraction of total solids. Co-digestion was successful at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d but a decrease to 30 d resulted in a decrease in specific gas production and accumulation of volatile and long chain fatty acids. The CH{sub 4} yield obtained was 326 46 l/kg VS{sub feed} at an HRT of 50 d, while this value was reduced to 274 43 l/kg VS{sub feed} when evaluated at an HRT of 30 d. However these values were higher than the one obtained under batch conditions (266 40 l/kg VS{sub feed}), thus indicating the need of acclimation to the co-substrate. Despite of operating at low organic loading rate (OLR), measurements from respirometry assays of digestate samples (at an HRT of 50 d) suggested that the effluent could not be directly applied to the soil as fertiliser and might have a negative effect over soil or crops.

  10. High-efficiency solar cells using HEM silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khattak, C.P.; Schmid, F.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-12-31

    Developments in Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) technology for production of multicrystalline silicon ingot production have led to growth of larger ingots (55 cm square cross section) with lower costs and reliability in production. A single reusable crucible has been used to produce 18 multicrystalline 33 cm square cross section 40 kg ingots, and capability to produce 44 cm ingots has been demonstrated. Large area solar cells of 16.3% (42 cm{sup 2}) and 15.3% (100 cm{sup 2}) efficiency have been produced without optimization of the material production and the solar cell processing.

  11. Market values summary/October market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-11-01

    This article is the October 1993 uranium market summary. In spite of the substantial quantity of material that moved through the unrestricted market during this period, the unrestricted exchange value remained constant at $6.90 per pound U3O8, and the unrestricted value dipped to $10.15. There were four deals in the concentrates market during this period. Both the restricted and the unrestricted UF6 values remained constant at $31.75 and $24.75 per kgU as UF6 respectively, as did the restricted and unrestricted SWU values ($82 and $68 respectively). Active supply increased, while active demand decreased.

  12. Present Status and Future Perspectives of the NEXT Experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gómez Cadenas, J. J.; Álvarez, V.; Borges, F. I. G.; Cárcel, S.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Dias, T. H. V. T.; et al

    2014-01-01

    NEXT is an experiment dedicated to neutrinoless double beta decay searches in xenon. The detector is a TPC, holding 100 kg of high-pressure xenon enriched in the136Xe isotope. It is under construction in the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc in Spain, and it will begin operations in 2015. The NEXT detector concept provides an energy resolutionbetter than 1% FWHM and a topological signal that can be used to reduce the background. Furthermore, the NEXT technology can be extrapolated to a 1 ton-scale experiment.

  13. Remedial Investigation Report on the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Program; Y-12 Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid pipeline (ANAP). This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately}4800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. During the mid-1980s, sections of the pipeline were removed during various construction projects. A total of 19 locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The 19 samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant`s laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. Uranium activities in the soil samples ranged from 0.53 to 13.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U, from 0.075 to 0.75 pCi/g for {sup 235}U, and from 0.71 to 5.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U. Maximum total values for lead, chromium, and nickel were 75.1 mg/kg, 56.3 mg/kg, and 53.0 mg/kg, respectively. The maximum nitrate/nitrite value detected was 32.0 mg-N/kg. One sample obtained adjacent to a sewer line contained various organic compounds, at least some of which were tentatively identified as fragrance chemicals commonly associated with soaps and cleaning solutions. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the ANAP contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health.

  14. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolealov, Markta; Beneov, Libue; Zvodsk, Anita

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: The character of household waste in the three different types of households were assesed. The quantity, density and composition of household waste were determined. The physicochemical characteristics were determined. The changing character of household waste during past 10 years was described. The potential of energy recovery of household waste in Czech republic was assesed. - Abstract: The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in rural households. Because knowledge about the properties of household waste, as well as its physicochemical characteristics, is very important not only for future waste management, but also for the prediction of the behaviour and influence of the waste on the environment as the country continues to streamline its legislation to the European Unions solid waste mandates, the results of these studies were employed by the Czech Ministry of Environment to optimise the national waste management strategy.

  15. Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LOCALIZED DEFORMATION IN IRRADIATED AUSTENITIC STEELS ORNL: M.N. Gussev*, K.G. Field, J.T. Busby, K.J. Leonard, PNNL: T.S. Byun, University of Michigan: K.J. Stephenson, G.S. Was. 1 *Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fuel Cycle & Isotopes Division P.O. Box 2008, MS-6151 Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA Tel. (865) 574-44-56 Fax. (865) 241-3650 gussevmn@ornl.gov Credits This presentation is based on several papers and conference talks presented/published recently. Some of these are listed below: SEM-EBSD

  16. Critical Masses for Unreflected Metal Spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Wright, Richard Q

    2009-01-01

    Calculated critical masses of bare metal spheres for 28 actinide isotopes, using the SCALE/XSDRNPM one-dimensional, discrete-ordinates system, are presented. ENDF/B-VI, ENDF/B-VII, and JENDL-3.3 cross sections were used in the calculations. Results are given for isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, californium, and for one isotope of einsteinium. Calculated k values for these same nuclides are also given. We show that, for non-threshold or low-threshold fission nuclides, a good approximation for the nuclide k is the value of nubar at 1 MeV. A plot of the critical mass versus k values is given for 19 nuclides with A-numbers between 232 and 250. The peaks in the critical mass curve (for seven nuclides) correspond to dips in the k curve. For the seven cases with the largest critical mass, six are even-even nuclides. Neptunium-237, with a critical mass of about 62.7 kg (ENDF/B-VI calculation), has an odd number of protons and an even number of neutrons. However, two cases with quite small critical masses, 232U and 236Pu, are also even-even. These two nuclides do not exhibit threshold fission behavior like most other even-even nuclides. The largest critical mass is 208.8 kg for 243Am and the smallest is 2.44 kg for 251Cf. The calculated k values vary from 1.5022 for 234U to 4.4767 for 251Cf. A correlation between the calculated critical mass (kg) and the fission spectrum averaged value of is given for the elements U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, and Cf. For each of the five elements, a fit to the data for that element is provided. In each case the fit employs a negative exponential of the form mass = exp(A + B ~ ln( ) The values of A and B are element dependent and vary slightly for each of the five elements. The method described here is mainly applicable for non-threshold fission nuclides (15 of the 28 nuclides considered in this paper). There are three exceptions, 238Pu, 244Cm, and 250Cf, which all exhibit threshold fission behavior.

  17. EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultra-thin single crystal silicon modules capable of 450 W/kg and bending radii admin2016-04-18T20:58:24+00:00 Popular Downloads Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems: Final Report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team (10515 downloads) Modeling System Losses in PVsyst (8993 downloads) Numerical Manufacturing And Design Tool (NuMAD v2.0) for Wind Turbine Blades: User's Guide (7144 downloads) Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) Proactive Intelligent Advances for Photovoltaic Systems

  18. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in60,617 male runners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist circumference.

  19. Foam encapsulated targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuckolls, John H. (Livermore, CA); Thiessen, Albert R. (Livermore, CA); Dahlbacka, Glen H. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Foam encapsulated laser-fusion targets wherein a quantity of thermonuclear fuel is embedded in low density, microcellular foam which serves as an electron conduction channel for symmetrical implosion of the fuel by illumination of the target by one or more laser beams. The fuel, such as DT, is contained within a hollow shell constructed of glass, for example, with the foam having a cell size of preferably no greater than 2 .mu.m, a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3, and external diameter of less than 200 .mu.m.

  20. XENON dark matter searches: Results and the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Andrew [Physics Department, Purdue University - 525 Northwestern Ave., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2014-06-24

    XENON100 is a dark matter search experiment looking for elastic WIMP scattering using a 62 kg liquid target. WIMP search data from XENON100 published in 2012 has set the world's strongest limits on WIMP-nucleus spinindependent, elastic scattering. It has also set the strongest limits on WIMP-nucleus spin-dependent scattering considering neutron scattering only, and competitive limits considering proton scattering only. The successor experiment to XENON100, XENON1T, is currently under construction, with commissioning scheduled to begin in 2014. XENON1T's design goal is a 100 fold increase in sensitivity for elastic WIMP searches over XENON100.

  1. Next-Generation Germanium Spectrometer Background Reduction Techniques at 2 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.

    2005-04-01

    The Majorana project, a next-generation 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment being undertaken by a large international collaboration, has the goal of measuring the neutrinoless double-beta decay rate by observing monochromatic events at 2039 keV in 500 kg of isotopically enriched 76Ge gamma-ray spectrometers. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity limit, the background in the 2037-2041 keV region must be reduced to <1 event per year in the entire germanium array. The effects of various background reduction techniques, and the combination thereof, to produce a huge 76Ge spectrometer array with virtually zero background are discussed.

  2. Observation of large magnetocaloric effect in HoRu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paramanik, Tapas Das, Kalipada; Das, I.

    2014-02-28

    Detailed magnetic, magnetotransport, and magnetocaloric measurements on HoRu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} have been performed. In this Letter, we report presence of spin reorientation transition below paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition temperature (T{sub N} = 19 K). Large magnetic entropy change 9.1 J/kg K and large negative magnetoresistance ∼21% in a magnetic field of 5 T has been observed around T{sub N}, which is associated with field induced spin-flip metamagnetic transition.

  3. On the nature of the magnetocaloric effect of the first-order magnetostructural transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Karl A. Jr; Mudryk, Yaroslav; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2012-01-10

    Methods were developed to determine the structural entropy contribution to the total isothermal entropy change of materials which undergo a magnetostructural first-order phase transition. The structural entropies range from 4.5 to 45 J kg#2;1 K#2;1 and are proportional to the volume differences of the phases involved in the transition. This correlation allows one to predict new giant magnetocaloric effect materials from crystallographic data. There is a critical magnetic field which must be exceeded to drive the structural transition to completion.

  4. Integrated Efficiency Test for Pyrochemical Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.X.; Vaden, D.; Westphal, B.R.; Fredrickson, G.L.; Benedict, R.W.; Johnson, T.A.

    2007-07-01

    An integrated efficiency test was conducted with sodium bonded, spent EBR-II drive fuel elements. The major equipment involved in the test were the element chopper, Mk-IV electro-refiner, cathode processor, and casting furnace. Four electrorefining batches (containing 54.4 kg heavy metal) were processed under the fixed operating parameters that have been developed for this equipment based on over a decade's worth of processing experience. A mass balance across this equipment was performed. Actinide dissolution and recovery efficiencies were established based on the mass balance and chemical analytical results of various samples taken from process streams during the integrated efficiency test. (authors)

  5. Research and development on vanadium alloys for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Matsui, H.; Abe, K.; Smith, D.L.; Osch, E. van; Kazakov, V.A.

    1998-03-01

    The current status of research and development on unirradiated and irradiated V-Cr-Ti alloys intended for fusion reactor structural applications is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the flow and fracture behavior of neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys. Recent progress on fabrication, joining, oxidation behavior, and the development of insulator coatings is also summarized. Fabrication of large (>500 kg) heats of V-4Cr-4Ti with properties similar to previous small laboratory heats has now been demonstrated. Impressive advances in the joining of thick sections of vanadium alloys using GTA and electron beam welds have been achieved in the past two years, although further improvements are still needed.

  6. Solid state fermentation system for production of ethanol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    A solid state fermentation system for the production of ethanol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. The yields of ethanol varied from about 29 g to more than 40 g/kg of apple pomace, depending on the samples fermented. Separation of up to 99% of the ethanol from spent qpple pomace was achieved with a rotary vacuum evaporator. Alcohol fermentation of apple pomace might be an efficient method of alleviating waste disposal problems with the concomitant production of ethanol.

  7. An ethanolic extract of black cohosh causes hematological changes but not estrogenic effects in female rodents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Cora, Michelle C.; Witt, Kristine L.; Granville, Courtney A.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Fomby, Laurene; Knostman, Katherine A.; Ryan, Michael J.; Newbold, Retha; Smith, Cynthia; Foster, Paul M.; Vallant, Molly K.; Stout, Matthew D.

    2012-09-01

    Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) is used as a remedy for pain and gynecological ailments; modern preparations are commonly sold as ethanolic extracts available as dietary supplements. Black cohosh was nominated to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for toxicity testing due to its widespread use and lack of safety data. Several commercially available black cohosh extracts (BCE) were characterized by the NTP, and one with chemical composition closest to formulations available to consumers was used for all studies. Female B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats were given 0, 15 (rats only), 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day BCE by gavage for 90 days starting at weaning. BCE induced dose-dependent hematological changes consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia and increased frequencies of peripheral micronucleated red blood cells (RBC) in both species. Effects were more severe in mice, which had decreased RBC counts in all treatment groups and increased micronucleated RBC at doses above 125 mg/kg. Dose-dependent thymus and liver toxicity was observed in rats but not mice. No biologically significant effects were observed in other organs. Puberty was delayed 2.9 days at the highest treatment dose in rats; a similar magnitude delay in mice occurred in the 125 and 250 mg/kg groups but not at the higher doses. An additional uterotrophic assay conducted in mice exposed for 3 days to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg found no estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. These are the first studies to observe adverse effects of BCE in rodents. -- Highlights: ? Mice and rats were dosed with black cohosh extract for 90 days starting at weaning. ? Hematological changes were consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia. ? Peripheral micronucleated red blood cell frequencies increased. ? Puberty was delayed 2.9 days in rats. ? No estrogenic/anti-estrogenic activity was seen in the uterotrophic assay.

  8. A study of cooling time reduction of interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors using a high-emissivity coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakakibara, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Chen, D.; Tokoku, C.; Uchiyama, T.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Kimura, N.; Suzuki, T.; Koike, S.

    2014-01-29

    In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

  9. Real Time Technology Application Demonstration Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crumbling, Deana

    2008-04-02

    Each of the 20 1-kg sample bags of Paducah soil will be sampled using a multi-increment (MI) strategy. These MI samples will be analyzed for total PCBs by the Abraxis PCB-HC kit. Processed soil samples will also be pooled to create sufficient volume for analysis for PAHs and PCB Aroclors by the ERT-Edison laboratory. Methanol extracts from Abraxis extractions will be analyzed by the ERT-Edison lab, the Abraxis lab, and the XDS laboratory for TEQ analytes.

  10. Biomass-Derived Hydrogen from a Thermally Ballasted Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Robert C

    2007-04-06

    The goal of this project is to develop an indirectly heated gasification system that converts switchgrass into hydrogen-rich gas suitable for powering fuel cells. The project includes investigations of the indirectly-heated gasifier, development of particulate removal equipment, evaluation of catalytic methods for upgrading producer gas, development of contaminant measurement and control techniques, modeling of the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier, and estimation of the cost of hydrogen from the proposed gasification system. Specific technologies investigated include a thermally ballasted gasifier, a moving bed granular filter, and catalytic reactors for steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction. The approach to this project was to employ a pilot-scale (5 ton per day) gasifier to evaluate the thermally ballasted gasifier as a means for producing hydrogen from switchgrass. A slipstream from the gasifier was used to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. Other tests were conducted with laboratory-scale equipment using simulated producer gas. The ballasted gasifier operated in conjunction with a steam reformer and two-stage water-gas shift reactor produced gas streams containing 54.5 vol-% H2. If purge gas to the feeder system could be substantially eliminated, hydrogen concentration would reach 61 vol-%, which closely approaches the theoretical maximum of 66 vol-%. Tests with a combined catalyst/sorbent system demonstrated that steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction could be substantially performed in a single reactor and achieve hydrogen concentrations exceeding 90 vol-%. Cold flow trials with a laboratory-scale moving bed granular filter achieved particle removal efficiencies exceeding 99%. Two metal-based sorbents were tested for their ability to remove H2S from biomass-derived producer gas. The ZnO sorbent, tested at 450° C, was effective in reducing H2S from 200 ppm to less than 2 ppm (>99% reduction) while tests with the MnO sorbent were inconclusive. A computer model was developed that successfully predicted the thermal performance of the ballasted gasifier. An economic comparison of an air-blown gasification plant and a ballasted gasifier plant found that operating costs for ballasted gasification plant are about 31% higher than for the air blown gasifier plant. Hydrogen from the ballasted gasification plant and air blown gasification plant are projected to be $2.43/kg and $1.85/kg, respectively. This is lower than U.S. DOE’s 2010 target price of $2.90/kg and comparable to U.S. DOE’s 2015 target price of $2.00/kg.

  11. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Lonnie J; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Kunc, Vlastimil; Peter, William H; Blue, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  12. Improving proliferation resistance of high breeding gain generation 4 reactors using blankets composed of light water reactor waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellesen, C.; Grape, S.; Haakanson, A.; Jacobson Svaerd, S.; Jansson, P.

    2013-07-01

    Fertile blankets can be used in fast reactors to enhance the breeding gain as well as the passive safety characteristics. However, such blankets typically result in the production of weapons grade plutonium. For this reason they are often excluded from Generation IV reactor designs. In this paper we demonstrate that using blankets manufactured directly from spent light water (LWR) reactor fuel it is possible to produce a plutonium product with non-proliferation characteristics on a par with spent LWR fuel of 30-50 MWd/kg burnup. The beneficial breeding and safety characteristics are retained. (authors)

  13. Characterization of Chemical Speciation in Ultra Thin Uranium Oxide Films by Neutron Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Peng

    2012-06-20

    Motivation for this project is due to more than 17 kg of HEU and 400 g of Pu have been interdicted through an international effort to control nuclear smuggling. Nuclear forensics - Detection and analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion or activities, which can contribute significantly for national security. Develop new nuclear forensic methods can be applied to: (a) Environmental swipes, (b) Small particulates, and (c) Thin films. Conclusions of the project are: (1) A unique approach: Neutron Reflectometry + Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy; and (2) Detection of chemical speciation with {angstrom}-level resolution.

  14. SREL Reprint #3145

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Contrasting cesium dynamics in neighboring deep and shallow warm-water reservoirs John E. Pinder III1, T.G. Hinton2, F.W. Whicker3 1Department of Biology, Texas Christian University, Ft. Worth, TX 76129, USA 2Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Cadarache, 13115 France 3Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1618, USA Abstract: To measure the long term retention and seasonal dynamics of an initial 4 kg

  15. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Administration under contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000. Sandia Large Rotor Design Scorecard (SNL100-00) Example completed for SNL100-00. Reference: D.T. Griffith and T.D. Ashwill, "The Sandia 100-meter All-glass Baseline Wind Turbine Blade: SNL100-00," Sandia National Laboratories Technical Report, SAND2011-3779. Table 1: Blade Parameters Parameter Value Blade Designation SNL100-00 Wind Speed Class IB Blade Length (m) 100 Blade Weight (kg) 114,172 Span-wise CG location (m) 33.6 #

  16. Synthesis of high porosity, monolithic alumina aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poco, J F; Satcher, J H; Hrubesh, L W

    2000-09-20

    Many non-silica aerogels are notably weak and fragile in monolithic form. Particularly, few monolithic aerogels with densities less than 50kg/m3 have any significant strength. It is especially difficult to prepare uncracked monoliths of pure alumina aerogels that are robust and moisture stable. In this paper, we discuss the synthesis of strong, stable, monolithic, high porosity (>98% porous) alumina aerogels, using a two-step sol-gel process. The alumina aerogels have a polycrystalline morphology that results in enhanced physical properties. Most of the measured physical properties of the alumina aerogels are superior to those for silica aerogels for equivalent densities.

  17. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary; Hilliard, Marcus

    2011-05-10

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  18. Magnetic hardening of Ce1+xFe11yCoyTi with ThMn12 structure by melt spinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Chen; Sun, Kewei; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Kramer, M. J.

    2015-04-15

    A recent study on the intrinsic magnetic properties of CeFe11yCoyTi has revealed that substituting one Co for Fe retains the favorable magnetocrystalline anisotropy Ha found in the ternary Fe end member, while enhancing the Curie temperature Tc and saturation magnetization 4?Ms. These findings warrant further optimization around Co substitution y = 1 to try to exploit the hard magnetic properties of these Ce-based magnets. Both Ce and Co concentrations in Ce1+xFe11yCoyTi have been optimized in the range of x = 0 0.2 and y = 0 1.5. It was found that Co substitution effectively enhances all hard magnetic properties, although the values are still lower than those predicted from the intrinsic magnetic properties. Specifically, Tc increases from 210 C to 285 350 C; 4?M19 (magnetization at 19 kOe) from 8.9 kG to 10.5 11.5 kG, remanence Br from 3.1 kG to 4.1 4.5 kG, and most importantly, Hci from 1.1 kOe to 1.5 kOe. As a result, the room temperature energy product (BH)max has been increased by over 100% from 0.7 MGOe in Ce1.1Fe11Ti to 1.5 MGOe in Ce1.05Fe9.75Co1.25Ti. Microscopy analysis indicates that the addition of Co refines the grain size and promotes chemical homogeneity at the microscopic scale. As a result, the beneficial effect of Co on the microstructure contributes to the improved hard magnetic properties.

  19. First data from CUORE-0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vignati, A. M.; Aguirre, C. P.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone III, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Casali, N.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; De Biasi, A.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Goett, J.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O’Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-03-24

    CUORE-0 is an experiment built to test and demonstrate the performance of the upcoming CUORE experiment. Composed of 52 TeO2 bolometers of 750 g each, it is expected to reach a sensitivity to the 0νββ half-life of 130Te around 3 · 1024 y in one year of live time. We present the first data, corresponding to an exposure of 7.1 kg y. An analysis of the background indicates that the CUORE sensitivity goal is within reach, validating our techniques to reduce the α radioactivity of the detector.

  20. Integrated Efficiency Test for Pyrochemical Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. X. Li; D. Vaden; R. W. Benedict; T. A. Johnson; B. R. Westphal; Guy L. Frederickson

    2007-09-01

    An integrated efficiency test was conducted with sodium bonded, spent EBR-II drive fuel elements. The major equipment involved in the test were the element chopper, Mk-IV electrorefiner, cathode processor, and casting furnace. Four electrorefining batches (containing 54.4 kg heavy metal) were processes under the fixed operating parameters that have been developed for this equipment based on over a decades worth of processing experience. A mass balance across this equipment was performed. Actinide dissolution and recovery efficiencies were established based on the mass balance and chemical analytical results of various samples taken from process streams during the integrated efficiency test.

  1. The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, D.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keller, C.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would resolve the Majorana nature of the neutrino and could provide information on the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The initial phase of the Majorana Experiment, known as the Demonstrator, will house 40 kg of Ge in an ultra-low background shielded environment at the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The objective of the Demonstrator is to validate whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a narrow region of interest around the 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay peak.

  2. Impact of TRU waste storage on a stand-alone MRS facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, R.E.; Ganley, J.T.

    1983-11-01

    A study was made of the impact of transuranic (TRU) waste storage on the conceptual design of a stand-alone Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The amount of TRU waste requiring storage is related to the startup dates of the reprocessing plant and the final repository. Current technology is available to store TRU waste from lightwater reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel refabrication safely and economically. Unit capital costs for TRU waste storage are in the range 7 to 10 $/kg of heavy metal. 7 references, 13 figures, 16 tables.

  3. Plasma Couette Experiment - Cary Forest Group - UW Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PCX Home UW Madison Plasma Couette Experiment PCX Home PCX HomeResearch MissionPhysics TopicsDeviceDiagnosticsContacts LinksPCX People CPLA Home Directory Publications Links University of Wisconsin Physics Department Department of Energy National Science Foundation The Plasma Couette Experiment (PCX). A magnet assembly consisting of 1.5 kG dipole magnets fastened to water cooled aluminum rings is dropped inside a vacuum vessel. Plasma is created with a LaB6 cathode heated and biased with respect

  4. WIMP-Search Results from the Second CDMSlite Run

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnese, R.

    2015-09-08

    The CDMS low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite) uses cryogenic germanium detectors operated at a relatively high bias voltage to amplify the phonon signal in the search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Our results are presented from the second CDMSlite run with an exposure of 70 kg days, which reached an energy threshold for electron recoils as low as 56 eV. Furthermore, a fiducialization cut reduces backgrounds below those previously reported by CDMSlite. New parameter space for the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section is excluded forWIMP masses between 1.6 and 5.5 GeV/c2.

  5. Supercapacitors Based on Metal Electrodes Prepared from Nanoparticle Mixtures at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2010-01-01

    Films comprising Au and Ag nanoparticles are transformed into porous metal electrodes by desorption of weak organic ligands followed by wet chemical etching of silver. Thus prepared electrodes provide the basis for supercapacitors whose specific capacitances approach 70 F/g. Cyclic voltammetry measurement yield rectangular I-V curves even at high scan rates, indicating that the supercapacitors have low internal resistance. Owing to this property, the supercapacitors have a high power density ~12 kW/kg, comparable with that of the state-of-the-art carbon-based devices. The entire assembly protocol does not require high-temperature processing or the use of organic binders.

  6. Results of Remediation and Verification Sampling for the 600-270 Horseshoe Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. S. Thompson

    2005-12-14

    This report presents the results of the 2005 remedial action and verification soil sampling conducted at the 600-270 waste site after removal of soil containing residual concentrations of dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its breakdown products dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane. The remediation was performed in response to post-closure surface soil sampling performed between 1998 and 2003 that indicated the presence of residual DDT contamination exceeding the Record of Decision for the 1100 Area National Priorities List site cleanup criteria of 1 mg/kg that was established for the original 1994 cleanup activities.

  7. Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

    1996-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this pilot unit we have successfully destroyed liquid gun propellant and dimethylsulfoxide containing HMX in continuous, long-duration runs.

  8. ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

    2010-11-01

    An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

  9. Results from the XENON10 and the Race to Detect Dark Matter with Noble Liquids

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Shutt, Tom [Case Western Reserve, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

    2009-09-01

    Detectors based on liquid noble gases have the potential to revolutionize the direct search for WIMP dark matter. The XENON10 experiment, of which I am a member, has recently announced the results from it's first data run and is now the leading WIMP search experiment. This and other experiments using xenon, argon and neon have the potential to rapidly move from the current kg-scale target mass to the ton scale and well beyond. This should allow a (nearly) definitive test or discovery of dark matter if it is in the form of weakly interacting massive particles.

  10. The MAJORANA Project: a status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Steven Ray

    2015-06-09

    This series of slides presents the topic under the following aspects: ?? sensitivity, underground laboratory, shield, monoliths, strings, detectors, electroformed small parts, and background. Assembly and construction are proceeding at Sanford Davis Campus laboratory. Based on assays, material backgrounds are projected to meet cleanliness goals. Module 1 is complete. Electrofromed copper has just been completed at SURF and PNNL. The shield is nearly complete. Successful reduction and refinement of enrGe has taken place with 98% yield. AMTEK (ORTEC) has produced 27 kg within 32 detectors from the reduced/refined enrGe; 30 of these are underground at SURF being assembled into strings.

  11. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy; Kakwani, Ramesh M.; Valdmanis, Edgars; Woods, Melvins E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  12. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  13. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pecharsky, Alexandra O.; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2006-10-03

    An alloy made of heat treated material represented by Gd.sub.5(Si.sub.xGe.sub.1-x).sub.4 where 0.47.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.56 that exhibits a magnetic entropy change (-.DELTA.S.sub.m) of at least 16 J/kg K, a magnetostriction of at least 2000 parts per million, and a magnetoresistance of at least 5 percent at a temperature of about 300K and below, and method of heat treating the material between 800 to 1600 degrees C. for a time to this end.

  14. Process for obtaining gaseous streams rich in ethene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, J.A.; Coutinho, P.H.

    1981-02-17

    This invention relates to the production of ethene with a highly profitable yield by means of fluidized bed catalytic cracking of a mixture containing 0.13 to 50 parts by weight of ethanol to 100 parts by weight of hydrocarbons blend at a temperature between 430/sup 0/C and 550/sup 0/C., and pressure between 0 and 5.0kg/cm2 ga in such way that the final gaseous product resulting therefrom has an ethene content between 18.8% and 64% by volume.

  15. Investigation of separation, treatment, and recycling options for hazardous paint blast media waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A.

    1996-02-01

    U.S. Army depot depaint operations generate over 4 million kg per year of contaminated paint blast media wastes. The objective of this work was to investigate technologies that might significantly mitigate this Army hazardous waste disposal problem. Most of the technologies investigated either failed to meet acceptable TCLP levels for hazardous metals content, or failed to meet Army disposal requirements. However, based on a review of several commercially available services, it is recommended that Army depot depaint operations consider processing hazardous blast media waste through properly regulated contractors that offer safe, effective, and economical stabilization, fixation, and recycling technologies.

  16. Assessment of lead contamination in Bahrain environment. I. Analysis of household paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madany, I.M.; Ali, S.M.; Akhter, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of lead in household paint collected from various old buildings in Bahrain is reported. The atomic absorption spectrophotometric method, both flame and flameless (graphite furnace) techniques, were used for the analysis. The concentrations of lead in paint were found in the range 200 to 5700 mg/kg, which are low compared to the limit of 0.5% in UK and 0.06% in USA. Nevertheless, these are hazardous. Recommendations are reported in order to avoid paint containing lead. 17 references, 1 table.

  17. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Chinnapaiyan; Khan, Adam Ismail; Balaji, Venkataraman; Selvaraj, Jayaraman; Balasubramanian, Karundevi

    2011-12-15

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vitamins C and E alter ROS, glucose uptake, oxidation and insulin signaling molecules.

  18. Developing a Regulatory Framework for Extended Storage and Transportation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    NEET Award - Developing Microstructure-Property Correlation in Reactor Materials using in situ High-Energy X-rays PIs: Meimei Li (ANL), Jonathan Almer (ANL), Yong Yang (U. Florida), Lizhen Tan (ORNL) Contributors: Erika Benda, Yiren Chen, Peter Kenesei, Ali Mashayekhi, Jun-Sang Park, Hemant Sharma (ANL), B.K. Kim and K.G. Field (ORNL) Postdoc and student: Xuan Zhang (Postdoc, ANL), Chi Xu (PhD student, U. Florida) Special thanks to NSUF and Prof. Stubbins (U. Illinois) for providing irradiated

  19. WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigum, Marianne; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyse 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 Danish households. • We quantify and characterise misplaced WEEE and portable batteries. • We compare misplaced WEEE and batteries to collection through dedicated schemes. • Characterisation showed that primarily small WEEE and light sources are misplaced. • Significant amounts of misplaced batteries were discarded as built-in WEEE. - Abstract: A total of 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6 kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11 kg of batteries, 2.2 kg of toners and 16 kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29 g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4 g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1 g of toners and 7 g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these findings are taken into account when designing new or improving existing special waste collection schemes. Improving the collection of WEEE is also recommended as one way to also improve the collection of batteries due to the large fraction of batteries found as built-in. The findings in this study were comparable to other western European studies, suggesting that the recommendations made in this study could apply to other western European countries as well.

  20. ARMIUnmanned Air Vehic/elSarenites J. Vitko, Jr. Sandia National Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehic/elSarenites J. Vitko, Jr. Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA 94550 Introduction cases, on balloons; typically weigh less than 5 kg; and can operate unattended and over wide temperature ranges (as low as -20°C). From the onset, these instruments have been designed with calibration in mind. They have estimated accuracies as high as 1 % in the solar and several percent (-3%) in the I R and appear to be well accepted in the climate community. The current plan is to fly two each-one

  1. The miniCLEAN single-phase noble liquid dark mater experiment (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Conference: The miniCLEAN single-phase noble liquid dark mater experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The miniCLEAN single-phase noble liquid dark mater experiment MiniCLEAN is a single-phase WIMP dark matter experiment which observes scintillation light from a 150kg fiducial mass liquid argon target. This detector design strategy emphasizes scalability to target masses of order 10 tons or more. The liquid noble target is observed by a sphere of 92

  2. Design of magnetic mirrors for a linear theta pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veglia, V. P.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of generating optimum magnetic mirror fields at the ends of a 50-cm long theta-pinch experiment to study particle flow and loss effects has been investigated. A combination of active and passive mirrors was developed to produce 2-3:1 fields for a 23-kG pinch. Biot-Savart and potential field prediction solutions for the magnetic field distribution were compared with experimental measurements in 2-5-cm long coils for the 50-cm long pinch.

  3. A Technical Review on Biomass Processing: Densification, Preprocessing, Modeling and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright

    2010-06-01

    It is now a well-acclaimed fact that burning fossil fuels and deforestation are major contributors to climate change. Biomass from plants can serve as an alternative renewable and carbon-neutral raw material for the production of bioenergy. Low densities of 40–60 kg/m3 for lignocellulosic and 200–400 kg/m3 for woody biomass limits their application for energy purposes. Prior to use in energy applications these materials need to be densified. The densified biomass can have bulk densities over 10 times the raw material helping to significantly reduce technical limitations associated with storage, loading and transportation. Pelleting, briquetting, or extrusion processing are commonly used methods for densification. The aim of the present research is to develop a comprehensive review of biomass processing that includes densification, preprocessing, modeling and optimization. The specific objective include carrying out a technical review on (a) mechanisms of particle bonding during densification; (b) methods of densification including extrusion, briquetting, pelleting, and agglomeration; (c) effects of process and feedstock variables and biomass biochemical composition on the densification (d) effects of preprocessing such as grinding, preheating, steam explosion, and torrefaction on biomass quality and binding characteristics; (e) models for understanding the compression characteristics; and (f) procedures for response surface modeling and optimization.

  4. Stimulated Raman scattering of beat wave of two counter-propagating X-mode lasers in a magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Kanika; Sajal, Vivek Varshney, Prateek; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Navneet K.

    2014-02-15

    Effects of transverse static magnetic field on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of the beat wave excited by two counter-propagating lasers are studied. Two counter-propagating lasers with frequency difference, ?{sub 1}??{sub 2}?2?{sub p}, drive a non resonant space charge beat mode at wave number k{sup ?}{sub 0}?k{sup ?}{sub 1}+k{sup ?}{sub 2} in a plasma, where k{sup ?}{sub 1} and k{sup ?}{sub 2} are wave vectors of lasers having frequencies ?{sub 1} and ?{sub 2}, respectively. The driven beat wave acts as a pump for SRS and excites parametrically a pair of plasma wave (?,k{sup ?}) and side band electromagnetic wave (?{sub 3},k{sup ?}{sub 3}) propagating in the sideward direction in such a way that momentum remains conserved. The growth rate of Raman process is maximum for side scattering at ?{sub s}=?/2 for lower values of applied magnetic field (?1?kG), which can be three fold by applying magnetic field ?5.0?kG. Thus, optimum value of magnetic field can be utilized to achieve maximum electron acceleration in counter propagating geometry of beat wave acceleration by reducing the growth rate of Raman process.

  5. Effects of installing economizers in boilers used in space heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Medina, M.A.; Schruben, D.L.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses how the performance of a boiler can be improved by adding an economizer to preheat the boiler's feedwater. An energy analysis was applied to a boiler and then to both a boiler and an economizer (water pre-heater) to evaluate the benefits of heat recovery. Exergy rates calculated for both the boiler and the economizer determined that the temperature of the stack gases had primary effects on the performance of a boiler. The results from this study showed that 57% of the heat rejected at the boiler's stack could be recovered by installing an economizer to preheat the feedwater. As a result, the average cost savings that would be realized for a 36,400 kg/h (80,000 lbm/h) boiler averages US$8 per hour. The cost savings to steam production averaged US$0.20 per 455 kg (1,000 lbm) of steam and the ration between the cost savings to stack temperature averaged $0.02 per C (1.8 F). For this case, the fuel and the cost savings realized from using an economizer were averaged at 3.8% and 3.7%, respectively. These results translated to total cost savings, for an eight-day period considered, of US$940.

  6. DUST FROM COMET 209P/LINEAR DURING ITS 2014 RETURN: PARENT BODY OF A NEW METEOR SHOWER, THE MAY CAMELOPARDALIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Jun; Takagi, Yuhei; Morihana, Kumiko; Honda, Satoshi; Arai, Akira; Hasegawa, Sunao; Sarugaku, Yuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Imai, Masataka; Goda, Shuhei; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Oasa, Yumiko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Morokuma, Tomoki; Murata, Katsuhiro; Nogami, Daisaku; and others

    2015-01-10

    We report a new observation of the Jupiter family comet 209P/LINEAR during its 2014 return. The comet is recognized as a dust source of a new meteor shower, the May Camelopardalids. 209P/LINEAR was apparently inactive at a heliocentric distance r{sub h} = 1.6 AU and showed weak activity at r{sub h} ? 1.4 AU. We found an active region of <0.001% of the entire nuclear surface during the comet's dormant phase. An edge-on image suggests that particles up to 1 cm in size (with an uncertainty of factor 3-5) were ejected following a differential power-law size distribution with index q = 3.25 0.10. We derived a mass-loss rate of 2-10 kg s{sup 1} during the active phase and a total mass of ?5נ10{sup 7} kg during the 2014 return. The ejection terminal velocity of millimeter- to centimeter-sized particles was 1-4 m s{sup 1}, which is comparable to the escape velocity from the nucleus (1.4 m s{sup 1}). These results imply that such large meteoric particles marginally escaped from the highly dormant comet nucleus via the gas drag force only within a few months of the perihelion passage.

  7. Electron cyclotron heating at down-shifted frequencies in existing tokamak devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzucato, E.; Fidone, I.; Giruzzi, G.; Krivenski, V.

    1985-06-01

    Plasma heating in existing tokamak devices by electron cyclotron waves with frequency (f) significantly smaller than the electron gyrofrequency (f/sub c/) is investigated for the case of Maxwellian plasmas. It is shown that for central electron temperatures larger than 3 keV, strong absorption of extraordinary waves can occur at values of toroidal field for which the condition f = f/sub c/ is not satisfied in the plasma region. The cases of f = 60 GHz and f = 100 GHz are discussed for the PLT and TFTR devices as representative of medium (approx. =30 kG) and high (approx. =50 kG) magnetic field tokamaks, respectively. Numerical calculations with a ray tracing code indicate that most of the rf energy is absorbed in a central plasma region. These results are of practical interest because they significantly simplify the main technical problem of ECH in a tokamak reactor, i.e., the development of high frequency and high power microwave sources.

  8. Adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirch, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    As requested in the subject reference, adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests have been performed with sodium acetate covering TOC concentrations from 3 to 7% with the following results: Exothermic activity noted around 200{degrees}C. Propagating reaction initiated at about 300{degrees}C. Required TOC concentration for propagation estimated at about 6 w% (dry mixture) or about 20 w% sodium acetate. Heat of reaction estimated to be 3.7 MJ per kg of sodium acetate (based on VSP test with 3 w% TOC and using a dry mixture specific heat of 1000 J kg{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}). Based upon the above results we estimate that a moisture content in excess of 14 w% would prevent a propagating reaction of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer ({approximately} 38 w% sodium acetate and {approximately}62 w% sodium nitrate). Assuming that the fuel can be treated as sodium acetate equivalent, and considering that the moisture content in the organic containing waste generally is believed to be in excess of 14 w%, it follows that the possibility of propagating reactions in the Hanford waste tanks can be ruled out.

  9. Modeling cation diffusion in compacted water-saturatedNa-bentonite at low ionic strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourg, Ian C.; Sposito, Garrison; Bourg, Alain C.M.

    2007-08-28

    Sodium bentonites are used as barrier materials for the isolation of landfills and are under consideration for a similar use in the subsurface storage of high-level radioactive waste. The performance of these barriers is determined in large part by molecular diffusion in the bentonite pore space. We tested two current models of cation diffusion in bentonite against experimental data on the relative apparent diffusion coefficients of two representative cations, sodium and strontium. On the 'macropore/nanopore' model, solute molecules are divided into two categories, with unequal pore-scale diffusion coefficients, based on location: in macropores or in interlayer nanopores. On the 'surface diffusion' model, solute molecules are divided into categories based on chemical speciation: dissolved or adsorbed. The macropore/nanopore model agrees with all experimental data at partial montmorillonite dry densities ranging from 0.2 (a dilute bentonite gel) to 1.7 kg dm{sup -3} (a highly compacted bentonite with most of its pore space located in interlayer nanopores), whereas the surface diffusion model fails at partial montmorillonite dry densities greater than about 1.2 kg dm{sup -3}.

  10. Risk-based high-throughput chemical screening and prioritization using exposure models and in vitro bioactivity assays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Hyeong -Moo; Ernstoff, Alexi; Arnot, Jon A.; Wetmore, Barbara A.; Csiszar, Susan A.; Fantke, Peter; Zhang, Xianming; McKone, Thomas E.; Jolliet, Olivier; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2015-05-01

    We present a risk-based high-throughput screening (HTS) method to identify chemicals for potential health concerns or for which additional information is needed. The method is applied to 180 organic chemicals as a case study. We first obtain information on how the chemical is used and identify relevant use scenarios (e.g., dermal application, indoor emissions). For each chemical and use scenario, exposure models are then used to calculate a chemical intake fraction, or a product intake fraction, accounting for chemical properties and the exposed population. We then combine these intake fractions with use scenario-specific estimates of chemical quantity to calculate daily intake rates (iR; mg/kg/day). These intake rates are compared to oral equivalent doses (OED; mg/kg/day), calculated from a suite of ToxCast in vitro bioactivity assays using in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation and reverse dosimetry. Bioactivity quotients (BQs) are calculated as iR/OED to obtain estimates of potential impact associated with each relevant use scenario. Of the 180 chemicals considered, 38 had maximum iRs exceeding minimum OEDs (i.e., BQs > 1). For most of these compounds, exposures are associated with direct intake, food/oral contact, or dermal exposure. The method provides high-throughput estimates of exposure and important input for decision makers to identify chemicals of concern for further evaluation with additional information or more refined models.

  11. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization from Chlorinated Polypropylene and Polyethylene Trunk Fibers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Suree; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Li, Meijun; Yue, Yanfeng; Tsouris, Costas; Janke, Christopher J.; Saito, Tomonori; Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-10

    Seawater contains a large amount of uranium (~4.5 billion tons) which can serve as a limitless supply of an energy source. However, in order to make the recovery of uranium from seawater economically feasible, lower manufacturing and deployment costs are required, and thus, solid adsorbents must have high uranium uptake, reusability, and high selectivity toward uranium. In this study, atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), without the radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP), was used for grafting acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA) from a new class of trunk fibers, forming adsorbents in a readily deployable form. The new class of trunk fibers wasmore » prepared by the chlorination of PP round fiber, hollow-gear-shaped PP fiber, and hollow-gear-shaped PE fiber. During ATRP, degrees of grafting (d.g.) varied according to the structure of active chlorine sites on trunk fibers and ATRP conditions, and the d.g. as high as 2570% was obtained. Resulting adsorbent fibers were evaluated in U-spiked simulated seawater and the maximum adsorption capacity of 146.6 g U/kg, much higher than that of a standard adsorbent JAEA fiber (75.1 g/kg), was obtained. This new type of trunk fibers can be used for grafting a variety of uranium-interacting ligands, including designed ligands that are highly selective toward uranium.« less

  12. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Margaret; Obi, Curtis

    2015-01-26

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  13. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanolmore » (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.« less

  14. 46X, mar/46X, dic(Y)(qter p11::qter) - report of a case and literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siller, M.; Aizpuru, E.; Munchinick, O.

    1994-09-01

    There is a great controversy between phenotype-karyotype in individuals having a chromosomal mosaicism involving one single line 45X, or 2 or more lines with structural rearrangements of the Y chromosome. Here we report a case in a prepuberal patient with a male phenotype, bilateral cryptorchidism, obesity (I), left nipple inversion and low scholar achievement. He was the product of a second normal gestation, with weight of 3,200 kg and height 47 cm, postnatal development reported as normal. The genealogy only shows a paternal uncle with primary sterility (never studied). Clinical findings: height 1.27 cm, weight 38 kg, C.C. 56 cm., T.C. 77 cm., A.C. 72 cm., obesity (I), inverted left nipple, bilateral cryptorchidea with both testicles in inguinal channel, but small and hypotrophic. The blood hormone level determinations were normal. In lymphocyte peripheral blood culture (66 metaphases studied) with C- and G-bands, we found 46X,mar/46X,dic(Y)(qter p11::qter). The karyotype in gonadal cell biopsy showed the presence of the one mentioned above and an additional cell line of 45X (46X,mar/45X/46Xdic). It is reported in the literature some mosaics of Turner syndrome and Y isodicentrics with female phenotype. In our case, the development of the genitals is male; that suggests that the gene determinant for the testes formation was present and active in the early stages of gonadal development.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal tropical ecosystems: Distribution, fate and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodoo, D.K.; Essumang, D.K.; Jonathan, J.W.A.; Bentum, J.K.

    2012-10-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) though banned still find use in most developing countries including Ghana. PCB congener residues in sediments in the coastal regions of Ghana were determined. Sediment samples (n=80) were collected between June 2008 and March 2009, extracted by the continuous soxhlet extraction using (1:1) hexane-acetone mixture for 24 h and analyzed with a CP 3800 gas chromatogram equipped with {sup 65}Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and a mixed PCBs standard of the ICES 7 as marker, after clean-up. Validation of the efficiency and precision of the extraction and analytical methods were done by extracting samples spiked with 2 ppm ICES PCB standard and a certified reference material 1941b for marine sediments from NIST, USA, and analyzed alongside the samples. Total PCBs detected in sediments during the dry and wet seasons were, respectively, 127 and 112 {mu}g/kg dry weight (dw), with a mean concentration of 120 {mu}g/kg (dw). The composition of PCB homologues in the sediments were dominated by tri-, penta- and tetra-PCBs. There was no correlation between organic carbon (OC) of the sediments and total PCBs content. Risk assessments conducted on the levels indicated that PCB levels in sediments along the coastal region of Ghana poses no significant health risk to humans.

  16. Pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and other new ironmaking processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Oshnock, T.W.

    1995-12-01

    The requirements for the physical, chemical and metallurgical properties of pellets have continued to become more stringent as blast-furnace productivity and coke rate have been rapidly improved during the last decade. In addition, the age and deterioration of the North American coke batteries, the lack of capital to sufficiently rebuild them, and the threat of increasingly more stringent environmental controls for the coke batteries has forced North American ironmakers to begin implementing pulverized coal injection to minimize the coke requirements for the blast furnace and to seriously investigate developing other ironmaking processes that use coal instead of coke. Therefore, the next major step in North American ironmaking has included injecting pulverized coal (PC) at 200 kilograms per ton of hot metal (kg/ton) [400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM)] or greater which will result in the coke rate decreasing to less than 300 kg/ton (600 lb/NTHM) or less. As a result, the pellets will spend more time in the furnace and will be required to support more total weight. Pellets can also be a major iron unit source for other cokeless ironmaking processes such as the COREX process or the AISI direct ironmaking process. This paper will explore the pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and cokeless ironmaking processes.

  17. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M.; Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  18. Trials with a 100% pellet burden in blast furnace No. 6 at Hoogovens IJmuiden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoone, E.; Toxopeus, H.; Vos, D.

    1995-12-01

    The burden consists of 50% high basicity sinter and 50% home made olivine pellets. Two coke oven plants produce the required coke, about 340 kg/t (680 lb/NT). The average pulverized coal injection rate is 150 kg/t (300 lb/NT). To anticipate the aging coke oven plant No. 2 the coal injection capacity will e increased by 50% in 1996, by the installation of a third coal grinding line. In the Netherlands environmental issues have a high impact on further developments. In particular the environmental regulations require a significant decrease of dust, SO{sub 2} and dioxins emitted by the sinter plant. The appropriate measures must be concluded in the second part of this decade. To avoid costly conventional solutions Hoogovens has been testing since April, 1994 the Emission Optimized Sintering (EOS). In case of failure of EOS, the situation of a (partially) closed sinter plant was tested. Purchased pellets replaced sinter, leading to a 100% pellet and an 80% pellet/20% sinter trial. The trials were executed in the first half of 1994 at blast furnace No. 6, equipped with a PW-bell less top. Results are described.

  19. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, P.W.

    1995-12-01

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  20. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the SNL/California waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braye, S.; Phillips, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    SNL/California`s waste management facilities, Bldgs. 961 and 962-2, generate a secondary stream of hazardous and radioactive waste. This waste stream is generated mainly during the processing and handling of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes (primary waste stream), which are generated by the laboratories, and when cleaning up spills. The secondary waste stream begins with the removal of a generator`s hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste from specified collection areas. The waste stream ends when the containers of processed waste are loaded for shipment off-site. The total amount of secondary hazardous waste generated in the waste management facilities from January 1993 to July 1994 was 1,160.6 kg. The total amount of secondary radioactive waste generated during the same period was 1,528.8 kg (with an activity of 0.070 mCi). Mixed waste usually is not generated in the secondary waste stream. This pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted using the graded approach methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) PPOA task group. The original method was modified to accommodate the needs of Sandia`s site-specific processes. The options generated for potential hazardous waste minimization, cost savings, and environmental health and safety were the result of a waste minimization team effort. The results of the team efforts are summarized.

  1. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, G.L.

    2005-10-03

    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  2. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  3. Critical Masses for Unreflected Metal Spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Goluoglu, Sedat; Wright, Richard Q

    2009-01-01

    Critical masses of bare metal spheres for 33 actinide isotopes, using the SCALE/XSDRNPM one-dimensional, discrete-ordinates system, are presented. ENDF/B-VI, ENDF/B-VII, and JENDL-3.3 cross sections were used in the calculations. Results are given for isotopes of U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, and Cf and for one isotope of Es. Calculated k-infinity values for 41 actinides are also given. For the nonthreshold or low-threshold fission nuclides, a good approximation for the nuclide k-infinity is the value of nubar at 1 MeV. A correlation between the calculated critical mass (kg) and the fission spectrum averaged value of F is given for the elements U, Np, Pu, Cm, and Cf as CM (kg) = exp (A + B ln( F)).(1) The values of A and B are element dependent and vary slightly for each of the five elements. The method described here is mainly applicable for nonthreshold fission nuclides (15 of the 31 nuclides considered in this paper). We conclude that equation (1) is useful for predicting the critical mass for nonthreshold fission nuclides if we have accurate values of the fission spectrum averaged F.

  4. Radioecologycal study of {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of {sup 239/240}Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suseno, Heny; Wisnubroto, Djarot S.

    2014-03-24

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on {sup 239/240}Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope {sup 239/240}Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg{sup ?1} and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg{sup ?1} respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m{sup ?3} and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m{sup ?3}.

  5. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  6. Examination of Zircaloy-clad spent fuel after extended pool storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, E.R.; Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lowry, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results from metallurgical examinations of Zircaloy-clad fuel rods from two bundles (0551 and 0074) of Shippingport PWR Core 1 blanket fuel after extended water storage. Both bundles were exposed to water in the reactor from late 1957 until discharge. The estimated average burnups were 346 GJ/kgU (4000 MWd/MTU) for bundle 0551 and 1550 GJ/kgU (18,000 MWd/MTU) for bundle 0074. Fuel rods from bundle 0551 were stored in deionized water for nearly 21 yr prior to examination in 1980, representing the world's oldest pool-stored Zircaloy-clad fuel. Bundle 0074 has been stored in deionized water since reactor discharge in 1964. Data from the current metallurgical examinations enable a direct assessment of extended pool storage effects because the metallurgical condition of similar fuel rods was investigated and documented soon after reactor discharge. Data from current and past examinations were compared, and no significant degradation of the Zircaloy cladding was indicated after almost 21 yr in water storage. The cladding dimensions and mechanical properties, fission gas release, hydrogen contents of the cladding, and external oxide film thicknesses that were measured during the current examinations were all within the range of measurements made on fuel bundles soon after reactor discharge. The appearance of the external surfaces and the microstructures of the fuel and cladding were also similar to those reported previously. In addition, no evidence of accelerated corrosion or hydride redistribution in the cladding was observed.

  7. Search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of Mo 100 with the NEMO-3 detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Baker; A. J. Caffrey

    2014-06-01

    We report the results of a search for the neutrinoless double- decay (0? ) of Mo 100 , using the NEMO-3 detector to reconstruct the full topology of the final state events. With an exposure of 34.7??kgy , no evidence for the 0? signal has been found, yielding a limit for the light Majorana neutrino mass mechanism of T 1/2 (0?)>1.110 24 years (90% C.L.) once both statistical and systematic uncertainties are taken into account. Depending on the nuclear matrix elements this corresponds to an upper limit on the Majorana effective neutrino mass of ?m ? ?<0.30.9??eV (90% C.L.). Constraints on other lepton number violating mechanisms of 0? decays are also given. Searching for high-energy double electron events in all suitable sources of the detector, no event in the energy region [3.210] MeV is observed for an exposure of 47??kgy .

  8. First Results of the Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay with the NEMO 3 Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, R.; Caurier, E.; Guyonnet, J.L.; Jollet, C.; Nowacki, F. [IReS, IN2P3-CNRS and ULP, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Augier, C.; Errahmane, K.; Etienvre, A.I.; Jullian, S.; Lalanne, D.; Sarazin, X.; Simard, L.; Szklarz, G. [LAL, IN2P3-CNRS and UPS, 91405 Orsay (France); Baker, J.; Caffrey, A.J. [INL, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Barabash, A.; Konovalov, S.; Umatov, V.; Vanushin, I.; Vasilyev, V. [ITEP, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    2005-10-28

    The NEMO 3 detector, which has been operating in the Frejus underground laboratory since February 2003, is devoted to the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}0{nu}). The half-lives of the two neutrino double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}2{nu}) have been measured for {sup 100}Mo and {sup 82}Se. After 389 effective days of data collection from February 2003 until September 2004 (phase I), no evidence for neutrinoless double-beta decay was found from {approx}7 kg of {sup 100}Mo and {approx}1 kg of {sup 82}Se. The corresponding limits are T{sub 1/2}({beta}{beta}0{nu})>4.6x10{sup 23} yr for {sup 100}Mo and T{sub 1/2}({beta}{beta}0{nu})>1.0x10{sup 23} yr for {sup 82}Se (90% C.L.). Depending on the nuclear matrix element calculation, the limits for the effective Majorana neutrino mass are <0.7-2.8 eV for {sup 100}Mo and <1.7-4.9 eV for {sup 82}Se.

  9. The Majorana Demonstrator: A search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of germanium-76

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, S. R.; Boswell, M.; Goett, J.; Rielage, K.; Ronquest, M. C.; Xu, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Abgrall, N.; Chan, Y-D.; Hegai, A.; Martin, R. D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguayo, E.; Fast, J. E.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, N. R.; Soin, A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); and others

    2013-12-30

    The MAJORANA collaboration is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay using {sup 76}Ge, which has been shown to have a number of advantages in terms of sensitivities and backgrounds. The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would show that lepton number is violated and that neutrinos are Majorana particles and would simultaneously provide information on neutrino mass. Attaining sensitivities for neutrino masses in the inverted hierarchy region, 15 - 50 meV, will require large, tonne-scale detectors with extremely low backgrounds, at the level of ?1 count/t-y or lower in the region of the signal. The MAJORANA collaboration, with funding support from DOE Office of Nuclear Physics and NSF Particle Astrophysics, is constructing the DEMONSTRATOR, an array consisting of 40 kg of p-type point-contact high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, of which ?30 kg will be enriched to 87% in {sup 76}Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR is being constructed in a clean room laboratory facility at the 4850' level (4300 m.w.e.) of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. It utilizes a compact graded shield approach with the inner portion consisting of ultra-clean Cu that is being electroformed and machined underground. The primary aim of the DEMONSTRATOR is to show the feasibility of a future tonne-scale measurement in terms of backgrounds and scalability.

  10. Discovery potential of xenon-based neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in light of small angular scale CMB observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gmez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martn-Albo, J.; Vidal, J. Muoz; Pea-Garay, C., E-mail: gomez@mail.cern.ch, E-mail: jmalbos@ific.uv.es, E-mail: jmunoz@ific.uv.es, E-mail: penya@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Fsica Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valencia Calle Catedrtico Jos Beltrn, 2, 46090 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has probed an expanded angular range of the CMB temperature power spectrum. Their recent analysis of the latest cosmological data prefers nonzero neutrino masses, with ?m{sub ?} = (0.320.11) eV. This result, if confirmed by the upcoming Planck data, has deep implications on the discovery of the nature of neutrinos. In particular, the values of the effective neutrino mass m{sub ??} involved in neutrinoless double beta decay (??0?) are severely constrained for both the direct and inverse hierarchy, making a discovery much more likely. In this paper, we focus in xenon-based ??0? experiments, on the double grounds of their good performance and the suitability of the technology to large-mass scaling. We show that the current generation, with effective masses in the range of 100 kg and conceivable exposures in the range of 500 kgyear, could already have a sizeable opportunity to observe ??0? events, and their combined discovery potential is quite large. The next generation, with an exposure in the range of 10 tonyear, would have a much more enhanced sensitivity, in particular due to the very low specific background that all the xenon technologies (liquid xenon, high-pressure xenon and xenon dissolved in liquid scintillator) can achieve. In addition, a high-pressure xenon gas TPC also features superb energy resolution. We show that such detector can fully explore the range of allowed effective Majorana masses, thus making a discovery very likely.

  11. Giant magnetocaloric effect in magnetoelectric Eu{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubi, Km; Kumar, Pawan; Maheswar Repaka, D. V.; Chen, Ruofan; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Mahendiran, R.

    2014-01-20

    We report the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub m}) in magnetoelectric Eu{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}TiO{sub 3} for 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.9. We find −ΔS{sub m} = 11 (40) J/kg·K in x = 0.1 for a field change of 1 (5) T, respectively, which is the largest value among all Eu-based oxides. ΔS{sub m} arises from the field-induced suppression of the spin entropy of Eu{sup 2+}:4f{sup 7} localized moments. While ∣−ΔS{sub m}∣ decreases with increasing x, ∣−ΔS{sub m}∣ = 6.58 J/kg·K observed in the high spin diluted composition x = 0.9 is larger than that in many manganites. Our results indicate that these magnetoelectrics are potential candidates for cryogenic magnetic refrigeration.

  12. Large entropy change accompanying two successive magnetic phase transitions in TbMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} for magnetic refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guoxing; Cheng, Zhenxiang E-mail: cheng@uow.edu.au; Fang, Chunsheng; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Jianli E-mail: cheng@uow.edu.au; Ren, Qingyong

    2015-05-04

    Structural and magnetic properties in TbMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction, magnetization, electrical resistivity, and heat capacity measurements. TbMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} undergoes two successive magnetic transitions at around T{sub c1} = 50 K and T{sub c2} = 64 K. T{sub c1} remains almost constant with increasing magnetic field, but T{sub c2} shifts significantly to higher temperature. Thus, there are two partially overlapping peaks in the temperature dependence of magnetic entropy change, i.e., −ΔS{sub M} (T). The different responses of T{sub c1} and T{sub c2} to external magnetic field, and the overlapping of −ΔS{sub M} (T) around T{sub c1} and T{sub c2} induce a large refrigerant capacity (RC) within a large temperature range. The large reversible magnetocaloric effect (−ΔS{sub M}{sup peak} ∼ 16 J/kg K for a field change of 0–5 T) and RC (=396 J/kg) indicate that TbMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} could be a promising candidate for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  13. AIR PASSIVATION OF METAL HYDRIDE BEDS FOR WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J; R. H. Hsu, R

    2007-07-02

    Metal hydride beds offer compact, safe storage of tritium. After metal hydride beds have reached the end of their useful life, the beds will replaced with new beds and the old beds prepared for disposal. One acceptance criteria for hydride bed waste disposal is that the material inside the bed not be pyrophoric. To determine the pyrophoric nature of spent metal hydride beds, controlled air ingress tests were performed. A simple gas handling manifold fitted with pressure transducers and a calibrated volume were used to introduce controlled quantities of air into a metal hydride bed and the bed temperature rise monitored for reactivity with the air. A desorbed, 4.4 kg titanium prototype hydride storage vessel (HSV) produced a 4.4 C internal temperature rise upon the first air exposure cycle and a 0.1 C temperature rise upon a second air exposure. A total of 346 scc air was consumed by the bed (0.08 scc per gram Ti). A desorbed, 9.66 kg LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} prototype storage bed experienced larger temperature rises over successive cycles of air ingress and evacuation. The cycles were performed over a period of days with the bed effectively passivated after the 12th cycle. Nine to ten STP-L of air reacted with the bed producing both oxidized metal and water.

  14. Determination of the toxicity characteristic for metals in soil: A comparison of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and total metal determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, D.A.; Taylor, J.D.

    1994-12-01

    A comparison is made of the concentrations of metals extracted from soils using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a total determination method. This information is of interest in two ways. First, it is hoped that a relationship might be established between the amount of each metal determined after extraction by the TCLP and the amount determined using a total determination method. And second, data are also presented which indicate the general extractability of various metals in soil samples using the TCLP. This study looks specifically at inorganic elements (Sb, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mg, Hg, Se, Ag, Sn, and Zn) in soils from a firing range. Results show that total determination methods for metals can not generally be used for heterogeneous samples, such as soil samples from a firing range. Some correlation between a total determination method and TCLP was observed when Ba and Cd were present in the samples at lower concentrations (less than 80 mg/kg for Ba and less than 25 mg/kg for Cd); however, additional data are necessary to verify this correlation.

  15. JV Task 104 - Risk Reduction Using Innovative Vacuum-Enhanced Plume Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaroslav Solc; Barry Botnen

    2009-03-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at the Vining Oil site in Carrington, North Dakota. The primary technological synergies included (1) contaminant recovery using simultaneous operation of multiphase recovery and high-vacuum soil vapor extraction (SVE) and (2) vacuum-controlled air and ozone sparging on the periphery of an induced hydraulic and pneumatic depression. Final risk reduction steps included design and retrofit for the municipal well. The successful remediation effort resulted in the reduction of long-term health risks associated with rate-limited contaminant release within the capture zone for the municipal well and allowed for its reintegration into the water supply system. Contaminant recovery for the remediation period of September 2006 to June 2008 totaled over 12,653 lb (5,740 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent to 2022 gallons (7653 l) of product. Integration of the air-sparging subsystem operated simultaneously with multiphase extraction and SVE systems resulted in accelerated volatile organic contaminant transport from the saturated zone and increased contaminants of concern recovery. Delivery of over 7.7 million ft{sup 3} of oxygen (219.8 thousand m{sup 3}) into the contaminated aquifer would translate into in situ biodegradation of 2007 kg (4424 lb) of benzene and provide for long term stimulation of the natural attenuation process.

  16. DISINTEGRATING ASTEROID P/2013 R3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jewitt, David; Li, Jing; Agarwal, Jessica; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Larson, Stephen

    2014-03-20

    Splitting of the nuclei of comets into multiple components has been frequently observed but, to date, no main-belt asteroid has been observed to break up. Using the Hubble Space Telescope, we find that main-belt asteroid P/2013 R3 consists of 10 or more distinct components, the largest up to 200 m in radius (assumed geometric albedo of 0.05) each of which produces a coma and comet-like dust tail. A diffuse debris cloud with total mass ∼2 × 10{sup 8} kg further envelopes the entire system. The velocity dispersion among the components, ΔV ∼ 0.2-0.5 m s{sup –1}, is comparable to the gravitational escape speeds of the largest members, while their extrapolated plane-of-sky motions suggest a break up between 2013 February and September. The broadband optical colors are those of a C-type asteroid. We find no spectral evidence for gaseous emission, placing model-dependent upper limits to the water production rate ≤1 kg s{sup –1}. Breakup may be due to a rotationally induced structural failure of the precursor body.

  17. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed: Technical progress report for the third quarter, April 1, 1989-June 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-07-01

    This research project is for the development of a technical and economical feasible process for drying and stability fine particles of high-moisture subbituminous coal. Research conducted in this quarter focused upon thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of both feed coals; continuation of the bench-scale IFB drying experiments; and initiation of the characterization of the products from the bench-scale drying experiments to determine their moisture reabsorption, dustiness, and spontaneous ignition properties. Thirty 4-hr and six 12-hr bench-scale IFB drying tests were conducted this quarter making a total of forty-one 4-hr (19 using Eagle Butte feed coal and 22 using Usibelli feed coal) and six 12-hr (3 using each feed coal) tests conducted thus far. IFB reactor slopes of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 degrees were investigated for each feed coal. During the tests using Eagle Butte coal, gas-to-solids ratios ranging from approximately 0.7 to 9.7 lb/lb (kg/kg) and average IFB reactor temperatures ranging from approximately 370 to 700/degree/F (188 to 371/degree/C) were tested. 5 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Capture and isotopic exchange method for water and hydrogen isotopes on zeolite catalysts up to technical scale for pre-study of processing highly tritiated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michling, R.; Braun, A.; Cristescu, I.; Dittrich, H.; Gramlich, N.; Lohr, N.; Glugla, M.; Shu, W.; Willms, S.

    2015-03-15

    Highly tritiated water (HTW) may be generated at ITER by various processes and, due to the excessive radio toxicity, the self-radiolysis and the exceedingly corrosive property of HTW, a potential hazard is associated with its storage and process. Therefore, the capture and exchange method for HTW utilizing Molecular Sieve Beds (MSB) was investigated in view of adsorption capacity, isotopic exchange performance and process parameters. For the MSB, different types of zeolite were selected. All zeolite materials were additionally coated with platinum. The following work comprised the selection of the most efficient zeolite candidate based on detailed parametric studies during the H{sub 2}/D{sub 2}O laboratory scale exchange experiments (about 25 g zeolite per bed) at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). For the zeolite, characterization analytical techniques such as Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry and online mass spectrometry were implemented. Followed by further investigation of the selected zeolite catalyst under full technical operation, a MSB (about 22 kg zeolite) was processed with hydrogen flow rates up to 60 mol*h{sup -1} and deuterated water loads up to 1.6 kg in view of later ITER processing of arising HTW. (authors)

  19. A reduced graphene oxide/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite for supercapacitor electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, Chengcheng; Li, Ming; Zhi, Mingjia; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wu, Nianqiang

    2013-03-15

    20 nm sized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are in-situ grown on the chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets to form a rGO-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite during hydrothermal processing. The rGO-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite is employed as the pseudocapacitor electrode in the 2 M KOH aqueous electrolyte solution. The rGOCo{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 472 F/g at a scan rate of 2 mV/s in a two-electrode cell. 82.6% of capacitance is retained when the scan rate increases to 100 mV/s. The rGOCo{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite electrode shows high rate capability and excellent long-term stability. It also exhibits high energy density at relatively high power density. The energy density reaches 39.0 Wh/kg at a power density of 8.3 kW/kg. The super performance of the composite electrode is attributed to the synergistic effects of small size and good redox activity of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles combined with high electronic conductivity of the rGO sheets.

  20. Fluoride based cathodes and electrolytes for high energy thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briscoe, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    A research and development program is being conducted at the Saft Advanced Technologies Division in Hunt Valley, MD to double the energy density of a thermal battery. A study of high voltage cathodes to replace iron disulfide is in progress. Single cells are being studied with a lithium anode and either a copper(II) fluoride, silver(II) fluoride, or iron(III) fluoride cathode. Due to the high reactivity of these cathodes, conventional alkali metal chloride and bromide salt electrolytes must be replaced by alkali metal fluoride electrolytes. Parametric studies using design-of-experiments matrices will be performed so that the best cathode for an improved battery design can be selected. Titanium hardware for the design will provide a higher strength to weight ratio with lower emissivity than conventional stainless steel. The battery will consist of two power sections. The goals are battery activation in less than 0.2 s, 88 Wh/kg, 1,385 W/kg, and 179 Wh/L over an environmental temperature range of {minus}40 C to +70 C.

  1. The CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giachero, A.; Artusa, D. R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Dell’Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nastasi, M.; Nisi, S.; C. Nones; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O’Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.; Bravina, L.; Foka, Y.; Kabana, S.

    2015-05-29

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 130Te and other rare processes. CUORE is a cryogenic detector composed of 988 TeO2 bolometers for a total mass of about 741 kg. The detector is being constructed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, where it will start taking data in 2015. If the target background of 0.01 counts/(keV·kg·y) will be reached, in five years of data taking CUORE will have an half life sensitivity around 1 × 1026 y at 90% C.L. As a first step towards CUORE a smaller experiment CUORE-0, constructed to test and demonstrate the performances expected for CUORE, has been assembled and is running. The detector is a single tower of 52 CUORE-like bolometers that started taking data in spring 2013. The status and perspectives of CUORE will be discussed, and the first CUORE-0 data will be presented.

  2. Risk-based high-throughput chemical screening and prioritization using exposure models and in vitro bioactivity assays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shin, Hyeong -Moo; Ernstoff, Alexi; Arnot, Jon A.; Wetmore, Barbara A.; Csiszar, Susan A.; Fantke, Peter; Zhang, Xianming; McKone, Thomas E.; Jolliet, Olivier; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2015-05-01

    We present a risk-based high-throughput screening (HTS) method to identify chemicals for potential health concerns or for which additional information is needed. The method is applied to 180 organic chemicals as a case study. We first obtain information on how the chemical is used and identify relevant use scenarios (e.g., dermal application, indoor emissions). For each chemical and use scenario, exposure models are then used to calculate a chemical intake fraction, or a product intake fraction, accounting for chemical properties and the exposed population. We then combine these intake fractions with use scenario-specific estimates of chemical quantity to calculate dailymore » intake rates (iR; mg/kg/day). These intake rates are compared to oral equivalent doses (OED; mg/kg/day), calculated from a suite of ToxCast in vitro bioactivity assays using in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation and reverse dosimetry. Bioactivity quotients (BQs) are calculated as iR/OED to obtain estimates of potential impact associated with each relevant use scenario. Of the 180 chemicals considered, 38 had maximum iRs exceeding minimum OEDs (i.e., BQs > 1). For most of these compounds, exposures are associated with direct intake, food/oral contact, or dermal exposure. The method provides high-throughput estimates of exposure and important input for decision makers to identify chemicals of concern for further evaluation with additional information or more refined models.« less

  3. Direct fissile assay of highly enriched UF/sub 6/ using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, J.E.; Menlove, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    A new nondestructive method for direct assay of /sup 235/U mass contained in Model 5A uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) product storage cylinders has been successfully tested in the laboratory and under field conditions. The technique employs passive neutron self-interrogation and uses the ratio of coincidences-to-totals counts as a measure of bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1 sigma) based on field measurements of 44 Model 5A cylinders, 11 of which were either only partially filled or contained reactor return material. The cylinders contained UF/sub 6/ with enrichments from 5.96% to 97.6%. Count times were 3 to 6 min depending on /sup 235/U mass. Samples ranged from below 1 kg to over 16 kg of /sup 235/U. Because the method relies primarily on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF/sub 6/ takes place. This feature alleviates inhomogeneity problems and offers increased assurance of the presence of stated amounts of bulk fissile material as compared with current verification methods.

  4. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding environmental performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global Warming Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} of MSWM.

  5. Comparative environmental impact and efficiency assessment of selected hydrogen production methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozbilen, Ahmet Dincer, Ibrahim Rosen, Marc A.

    2013-09-15

    The environmental impacts of various hydrogen production processes are evaluated and compared, considering several energy sources and using life cycle analysis. The results indicate that hydrogen produced by thermochemical water decomposition cycles are more environmentally benign options compared to conventional steam reforming of natural gas. The nuclear based four-step Cu–Cl cycle has the lowest global warming potential (0.559 kg CO{sub 2}-eq per kg hydrogen production), mainly because it requires the lowest quantity of energy of the considered processes. The acidification potential results show that biomass gasification has the highest impact on environment, while wind based electrolysis has the lowest. The relation is also investigated between efficiency and environmental impacts. -- Highlights: • Environmental performance of nuclear-based hydrogen production is investigated. • The GWP and AP results are compared with various hydrogen production processes. • Nuclear based 4-step Cu–Cl cycle is found to be an environmentally benign process. • Wind-based electrolysis has the lowest AP value.

  6. Engineering and Economic Analysis of an Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plant with and without Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Task 7. Design and Economic Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booras, George; Powers, J.; Riley, C.; Hendrix, H.

    2015-09-01

    This report evaluates the economics and performance of two A-USC PC power plants; Case 1 is a conventionally configured A-USC PC power plant with superior emission controls, but without CO2 removal; and Case 2 adds a post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) system to the plant from Case 1, using the design and heat integration strategies from EPRI’s 2015 report, “Best Integrated Coal Plant.” The capture design basis for this case is “partial,” to meet EPA’s proposed New Source Performance Standard, which was initially proposed as 500 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1100 lb-CO2/MWh (gross), but modified in August 2015 to 635 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1400 lb-CO2/MWh (gross). This report draws upon the collective experience of consortium members, with EPRI and General Electric leading the study. General Electric provided the steam cycle analysis as well as v the steam turbine design and cost estimating. EPRI performed integrated plant performance analysis using EPRI’s PC Cost model.

  7. Switchgrass Cultivar/Ecotype Selection and Management for Biofuels in the Upper Southeast USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lemus, Rocky; Parrish, David J.; Wolf, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass indigenous to the eastern USA, has potential as a biofuels feedstock. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars under different environments and management treatments. Four cultivars of switchgrass were evaluated from 2000 to 2001 under two management regimes in plots established in 1992 at eight locations in the upper southeastern USA. Two management treatments included 1) a single annual harvest (in late October to early November) and a single application of 50 kg N/ha/yr and 2) two annual harvests (in midsummer andmore » November) and a split application of 100 kg N/ha/yr. Biomass yields averaged 15 Mg/ha/yr and ranged from 10 to 22 Mg/ha/yr across cultivars, managements, locations, and years. There was no yield advantage in taking two harvests of the lowland cultivars (Alamo and Kanlow). When harvested twice, upland cultivars (Cave-in-Rock and Shelter) provided yields equivalent to the lowland ecotypes. Tiller density was 36% lower in stands cutting only once per year, but the stands appeared vigorous after nine years of such management. Lowland cultivars and a one-cutting management (after the tops have senesced) using low rates of applied N (50 kg/ha) are recommended.« less

  8. Effects of Amines on the Surface Charge Poperties of Iron Oxides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benezeth, Pascale; Wesolowski, David J; Palmer, Donald; Machesky, Michael L.

    2009-07-01

    Specific studies detailing the effects of amines, used as pH control agents for corrosion inhibition in power plants, on the surface charge of iron oxides provide data to assess the mechanism of how these amines impact deposition rate. The current study was undertaken in order to determine accurately the dissociation constants of the relevant amines at Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) operating conditions and to investigate the effect of sorption of two of these amines (morpholine and dimethylamine) by magnetite. The acid-dissociation equilibria of morpholine (MOR), dimethylamine (DMA) and ethanolamine (ETA) were measured potentiometrically with a hydrogen-electrode concentration cell (HECC) from 0 to 290 C in sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (NaTr) solutions at ionic strengths up to 1 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. Magnetite surface titrations were performed at an ionic strength of 0.03 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} (NaTr medium) in the presence or absence of morpholine and dimethylamine buffers over a wide range of pH and total amine concentrations at 150-250 C.

  9. The solubility of zinc oxide in 0.03 m NaTr as a function of temperature, with in situ pH measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-01

    The solubility of zincite (ZnO) has been measured in noncomplexing solutions over a wide range of pH{sub m} (4--11), and temperature (75--200 C) at 0.03 mol/kg ionic strength in NaTr media (sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate, a noncomplexing 1:1 electrolyte), in a hydrogen electrode concentration cell (HECC), which provided continuous in situ measurement of hydrogen ion molality. Total zinc content was analyzed by atomic absorption using graphite furnace, flame, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometers. The direction of approach to the equilibrium saturation state was varied to demonstrate that the system was reversible thermodynamically. Separate experiments were performed in alkaline solutions (0.03 mol/kg NaOH) at 25 and 50 C in polypropylene syringes, and between 50 and 290 C in a Teflon-lined pressure vessel. The aim of these experiments was to reach higher pH{sub m} (>8 depending on the temperature) to determine the thermodynamic properties of the negatively charged species, Zn(OH){sub 3}{sup {minus}}. A least-squares regression of the results obtained at this ionic strength was used to determine the molal solubility products (Q{sub sn}) of zincite. The solubility products (Q{sub sn}) were extrapolated to infinite dilution (K{sub sn}), permitting calculation of the thermodynamic properties of aqueous species of zinc for comparison with previous work.

  10. A Conceptual Multi-Megawatt System Based on a Tungsten CERMET Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan A. Webb; Brian Gross

    2011-02-01

    Abstract. A conceptual reactor system to support Multi-Megawatt Nuclear Electric Propulsion is investigated within this paper. The reactor system consists of a helium cooled Tungsten-UN fission core, surrounded by a beryllium neutron reflector and 13 B4C control drums coupled to a high temperature Brayton power conversion system. Excess heat is rejected via carbon reinforced heat pipe radiators and the gamma and neutron flux is attenuated via segmented shielding consisting of lithium hydride and tungsten layers. Turbine inlet temperatures ranging from 1300 K to 1500 K are investigated for their effects on specific powers and net electrical outputs ranging from 1 MW to 100 MW. The reactor system is estimated to have a mass, which ranges from 15 Mt at 1 MWe and a turbine inlet temperature of 1500 K to 1200 Mt at 100 MWe and a turbine temperature of 1300 K. The reactor systems specific mass ranges from 32 kg/kWe at a turbine inlet temperature of 1300 K and a power of 1 MWe to 9.5 kg/kW at a turbine temperature of 1500 K and a power of 100 MWe.

  11. Conceptual Design of a CERMET NTR Fission Core Using Multiphysics Modeling Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan A. Webb; Brian J. Gross; William T. Taitano

    2011-08-01

    An initial pre-conceptual CERMET Nuclear Thermal Propulsion reactor system is investigated within this paper. Reactor configurations are investigated where the fuel consists of 60 vol.% UO2 and 40 vol.% W where the UO2 consists of Gd2O3 concentrations of 5 and 10 mol.%.Gd2O3. The fuel configuration consisting of 5 mol.% UO2 was found to have a total mass of 2761 kg and a thrust to weight ratio of 4.10 and required a coolant channel surface area to fueled volume ratio of approximately 15.0 in order to keep the centerline temperature below 3000 K. The configuration consisting of 10 mol.% Gd2O3 required a surface area to volume ratio of approximately 12.2 to cool the reactor to a peak temperature of 3000 K and had a total mass of 3200 kg and a thrust to weight ratio of 3.54. It is not known yet what concentration of Gd2O3 is required to maintain fuel stability at 3000 K; however, both reactors offer the potential for operations at 25,000 lb, and at a specific impulse which may range from 900 to 950 seconds.

  12. Effects of Continuous Triiodothyronine Infusion on Citric Acid Cycle in the Normal Immature Swine Heart under Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in vivo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-02-15

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is frequently used in infants with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. ECMO also suppresses circulating triiodothyronine (T3) levels and modifies myocardial metabolism. We assessed the hypothesis that T3 supplementation reverses ECMO induced metabolic abnormalities in the immature heart. Twenty-two male Yorkshire pigs (age 25-38 days) with ECMO were received [2-13C]lactate, [2,4,6,8-13C]octanoate (medium chain fatty acid) and [U-13C]long-chain fatty acids as metabolic tracers either systemically (totally physiological intracoronary concentration) or directly into the coronary artery (high substrate concentration) for the last 60 minutes of each protocol. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of left ventricular tissue determined the fractional contribution (Fc) of these substrates to the citric acid cycle (CAC). Fifty percent of the pigs in each group received intravenous T3 supplement (bolus at 0.6 ?g/kg and then continuous infusion at 0.2 ?g/kg/hour) during ECMO. Under both substrate loading conditions T3 significantly increased lactate-Fc with a marginal increase in octanoate-Fc. Both T3 and high substrate provision increased myocardial energy status indexed by [Phosphocreatine]/[ATP]. In conclusion, T3 supplementation promoted lactate metabolism to the CAC during ECMO suggesting that T3 releases inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Manipulation of substrate utilization by T3 may be used therapeutically during ECMO to improve resting energy state and facilitate weaning.

  13. Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Eddaoudi; Zaworotko, Michael; Space, Brian; Eckert, Juergen

    2013-05-08

    Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

  14. CONSTRAINTS ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MAIN BELT COMET P/2013 R3 FROM ITS BREAKUP EVENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Snchez, Diego Paul; Gabriel, Travis; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2014-07-01

    Jewitt etal. recently reported that main belt comet P/2013 R3 experienced a breakup, probably due to rotational disruption, with its components separating on mutually hyperbolic orbits. We propose a technique for constraining physical properties of the proto-body, especially the initial spin period and cohesive strength, as a function of the body's estimated size and density. The breakup conditions are developed by combining mutual orbit dynamics of the smaller components and the failure condition of the proto-body. Given a proto-body with a bulk density ranging from 1000kgm{sup 3} to 1500kgm{sup 3} (a typical range of the bulk density of C-type asteroids), we obtain possible values of the cohesive strength (40-210Pa) and the initial spin state (0.48-1.9hr). From this result, we conclude that although the proto-body could have been a rubble pile, it was likely spinning beyond its gravitational binding limit and would have needed cohesive strength to hold itself together. Additional observations of P/2013 R3 will enable stronger constraints on this event, and the present technique will be able to give more precise estimates of its internal structure.

  15. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Stabilization and solidification of chromium-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherne, C.A.; Thomson, B.M.; Conway, R.

    1997-11-01

    Chromium-contaminated soil is a common environmental problem in the United States as a result of numerous industrial processes involving chromium. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is the species of most concern because of its toxicity and mobility in groundwater. One method of diminishing the environmental impact of chromium is to reduce it to a trivalent oxidation state [Cr(III)], in which it is relatively insoluble and nontoxic. This study investigated a stabilization and solidification process to minimize the chromium concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract and to produce a solidified waste form with a compressive strength in the range of 150 to 300 pounds per square inch (psi). To minimize the chromium in the TCLP extract, the chromium had to be reduced to the trivalent oxidation state. The average used in this study was an alluvium contaminated with chromic and sulfuric acid solutions. The chromium concentration in the in the in situ soil was 1212 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) total chromium and 275 mg/kg Cr(VI). The effectiveness of iron, ferrous sulfate to reduce Cr(VI) was tested in batch experiments.

  17. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of bulk dysprosium chromite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDannald, A.; Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 ; Kuna, L.; Jain, M.; Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269

    2013-09-21

    In this work, a polycrystalline bulk DyCrO{sub 3} sample was prepared by a solution route and the structural and magnetic properties were investigated. The phase purity and ionic valence state of the DyCrO{sub 3} sample were determined by x-ray diffraction/Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The AC and DC magnetization measurements revealed the onset of antiferromagnetic order at 146 K with an effective moment of 8.88 μ{sub B}. Isothermal magnetization measurements of this material are presented for the first time, showing a peak in the coercive field at 80 K that is explained by the competition between the paramagnetic Dy{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} sublattices. DyCrO{sub 3} was found to display a large magnetocaloric effect (8.4 J/kg K) and relative cooling power (217 J/kg) at 4 T applied field, which renders DyCrO{sub 3} useful for magnetic refrigeration between 5 K and 30 K.

  18. Ultra-lean combustion at high inlet temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Combustion at inlet-air temperatures of 1100 to 1250/sup 0/K was studied for application to advanced automotive gas turbine engines. Combustion was initiated by the hot environment, and therefore no external ignition source was used. Combustion was stabilized without a flameholder. The tests were performed in a 12-cm-diameter test section at a pressure of 2.5 x 10/sup 5/ Pa, with reference velocities of 32 to 60 m/s and at maximum combustion temperatures of 1350 to 1850/sup 0/K. Number 2 diesel fuel was injected by means of a multiple-source fuel injector. Unburned hydrocarbons emissions were negligible for all test conditions. Nitrogen oxides emissions were less than 1.9 g NO/sub 2//kg fuel for combustion temperatures below 1680/sup 0/K. Carbon monoxide emissions were less than 16 g CO/kg fuel for combustion temperatures greater than 1600/sup 0/K, inlet-air temperatures higher than 1150/sup 0/K, and residence times greater than 4.3 ms.

  19. Suppression of phosphate liberation from eutrophic lake sediment by using fly ash and ordinary Portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng-Peng Ye; Fan-Zhong Chen; Yan-Qing Sheng; Guo-Ying Sheng; Jia-Mo Fu

    2006-08-15

    In this study, the effect of suppression on phosphate liberation from eutrophic lake sediment by using fly ash and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated by small scale experiment. A system including sediment, lake water, and several kinds of capping materials was designed to clarify the suppression of phosphate liberation from sediment under the anaerobic condition. The suppression efficiencies of fly ash, OPC and glass bead used as control material were also determined, and these effects were discussed. The suppression efficiency of glass bead was 44.4%, and those of fly ash and OPC were 84.4%, 94.9%, respectively. The suppression by fly ash and OPC was mainly carried out by the adsorption effect, in addition to the covering effect. The suppression efficiency depended on the amounts of the material used, and about 90% of liberated phosphate was suppressed by fly ash of 10.0 Kg m{sup -2}, and OPC of 6.0 Kg m{sup -2}. The concentrations of heavy metals, such as mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, chromium, silver, arsenic and nickel, in fly ash and OPC were lower than those in the environmental materials. And it was considered that the concentrations of heavy metals in fly ash and OPC were too low to influence the ecosystem in natural water region.

  20. Sex- and dose-dependency in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of (+)-methamphetamine and its metabolite (+)-amphetamine in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milesi-Halle, Alessandra; Hendrickson, Howard P.; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M.; Gentry, W. Brooks; Owens, S. Michael . E-mail: mowens@uams.edu

    2005-12-15

    These studies investigated how (+)-methamphetamine (METH) dose and rat sex affect the pharmacological response to METH in Sprague-Dawley rats. The first set of experiments determined the pharmacokinetics of METH and its pharmacologically active metabolite (+)-amphetamine (AMP) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats after 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg METH doses. The results showed significant sex-dependent changes in METH pharmacokinetics, and females formed significantly lower amounts of AMP. While the area under the serum concentration-time curve in males increased proportionately with the METH dose, the females showed a disproportional increase. The sex differences in systemic clearance, renal clearance, volume of distribution, and percentage of unchanged METH eliminated in the urine suggested dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in female rats. The second set of studies sought to determine the behavioral implications of these pharmacokinetic differences by quantifying locomotor activity in male and female rats after saline, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg METH. The results showed sex- and dose-dependent differences in METH-induced locomotion, including profound differences in the temporal profile of effects at higher dose. These findings show that the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile of METH (slower METH clearance and lower AMP metabolite formation) plays a significant role in the differential pharmacological response to METH in male and female rats.