Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

2

"Produção de óleo diesel limpo a partir do gás natural: estudo de viabilidade técnico-econômica para a instalação de uma planta GTL (gas-to-liquids) no Brasil".  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??CALLARI. R. Produção de óleo diesel limpo a partir do gás natural: estudo de viabilidade técnico-econômica para a instalação de uma planta gtl (gas-to-liquids) no… (more)

Roberto Callari

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Controlled Variables Selection for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process' Controlled Variables Selection for a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Liquids (GTL) process' Auto-thermal reformer (ATR) reactions 2n Oxidation of methane: Steam reforming unit · Pre-reformer · Auto-thermal reformer (ATR) · Fired heater CO2 removal (optional) Fischer of methane: Shift Reaction: 4 2 2 3 2 2 CH O CO H O 4 2 23CH H O CO H 2 2 2CO H O CO H ( ) 2 n m 2 2 m

Skogestad, Sigurd

4

Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Technology Assessment  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Heat recovery Carbon Dioxide removal Process Components Utilities Water Other Products & Discharges Power CO2 Waste Water . ... Plant took a ...

5

Options for Gas-to-Liquids Technology in Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purposes of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10 percent. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinquish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

Robertson, Eric Partridge

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Options for gas-to-liquids technology in Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10%. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinguish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

Robertson, E.P.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts Eisa Engineering at University of New South Wales. #12;1 Introduction Gas-to-liquid (GTL) compounds are clean fuels for converting natural gas to the liquid hydrocarbons [1]. However, the reaction is a complex network of many

New South Wales, University of

8

Selection of Controlled Variables for a Natural Gas to Liquids Process Mehdi Panahi and Sigurd Skogestad*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selection of Controlled Variables for a Natural Gas to Liquids Process Mehdi Panahi and Sigurd variables (CVs) for a natural gas to hydrocarbon liquids (GTL) process based on the idea of self of operation are studied. In mode I, where the natural gas flow rate is given, there are three unconstrained

Skogestad, Sigurd

9

An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the conversion process.

Greene, D.L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Utilizing the heat content of gas-to-liquids by-product streams for commercial power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Gas-to-liquids (GTL) processes produce a large fraction of by-products whose disposal or handling ordinarily becomes a cost rather than benefit. As an alternative strategy to market stranded gas reserves, GTL provides middle distillates to an unsaturated global market and offers opportunities to generate power for commercial purposes from waste by-product streams, which normally are associated with increased expenses incurred from additional handling cost. The key concept investigated in this work is the possibility of integrating the GTL process with power generation using conventional waste by-product steam streams. Simulation of the integrated process was conducted with the aim of identifying the critical operating conditions for successful integration of the GTL and power generation processes. About 500 MW of electric power can be generated from 70% of the exit steam streams, with around 20 to 25% steam plant thermal efficiency. A detailed economic analysis on the LNG, stand-alone GTL, and Integrated GTL Power-Generation plants indicates that the integrated system is more profitable than the other options considered. Justifying the technology and economics involved in the use of the by-product streams to generate power could increase the net revenue and overall profitability of GTL projects. This technology may be transferable to GTL projects in the world, wherever a market for generated power exists.

Adegoke, Adesola Ayodeji

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration.

Alleman, T. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Barton, G.; Rumminger, M.; Duggal, V.; Nelson, C.; Ray, M.; Cherrillo, R. A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Economic viability of a floating gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant / Michael Etim Bassey.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Today, a large proportion of the world's plenteous offshore natural gas resource are stranded, flared or re-injected due to constraints pertaining to its utilisation. The… (more)

Bassey, Michael Etim

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

STUDY OF TRANSPORTATION OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE (ANS) TO MARKETS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Alaskan North Slope is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the US where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundance resource. The throughput of oil through the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) has been on decline and is expected to continue to decline in future. It is projected that by the year 2015, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level that there will be a critical need for pumping additional liquid from GTL process to provide an adequate volume for economic operation of TAPS. The pumping of GTL products through TAPS will significantly increase its economic life. Transporting GTL products from the North Slope of Alaska down to the Marine terminal at Valdez is no doubt the great challenge facing the Gas to Liquids options of utilizing the abundant natural gas resource of the North Slope. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate and assess the economic feasibility of transporting GTL products through the TAPS. Material testing program for GTL and GTL/Crude oil blends was designed and implemented for measurement of physical properties of GTL products. The measurement and evaluation of the properties of these materials were necessary so as to access the feasibility of transporting such materials through TAPS under cold arctic conditions. Results of the tests indicated a trend of increasing yield strength with increasing wax content. GTL samples exhibited high gel strengths at temperatures as high as 20 F, which makes it difficult for cold restart following winter shutdowns. Simplified analytical models were developed to study the flow of GTL and GTL/crude oil blends through TAPS in both commingled and batch flow models. The economics of GTL transportations by either commingled or batching mode were evaluated. The choice of mode of transportation of GTL products through TAPS would depend on the expected purity of the product and a trade-off between loss in product value due to contamination and cost of keeping the product pure at the discharge terminal.

Godwin A. Chukwu, Ph.D., P.E.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Simulation, integration, and economic analysis of gas-to-liquid processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas-to-liquid (GTL) process involves the chemical conversion of natural gas (or other gas sources) into synthetic crude that can be upgraded and separated into different useful hydrocarbon fractions including liquid transportation fuels. A leading GTL technology is the Fischer Tropsch process. The objective of this work is to provide a techno-economic analysis of the GTL process and to identify optimization and integration opportunities for cost saving and reduction of energy usage and environmental impact. First, a basecase flowsheet is synthesized to include the key processing steps of the plant. Then, computer-aided process simulation is carried out to determine the key mass and energy flows, performance criteria, and equipment specifications. Next, energy and mass integration studies are performed to address the following items: (a) heating and cooling utilities, (b) combined heat and power (process cogeneration), (c) management of process water, (c) optimization of tail-gas allocation, and (d) recovery of catalystsupporting hydrocarbon solvents. Finally, an economic analysis is undertaken to determine the plant capacity needed to achieve the break-even point and to estimate the return on investment for the base-case study. After integration, 884 million $/yr is saved from heat integration, 246 million $/yr from heat cogeneration, and 22 million $/yr from water management. Based on 128,000 barrels per day (BPD) of products, at least 68,000 BPD capacity is needed to keep the process profitable, with the return on investment (ROI) of 5.1%. Compared to 8 $/1000 SCF natural gas, 5 $/1000 SCF price can increase the ROI to 16.2%.

Bao, Buping

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

THE PERFORMANCE OF SMDS DIESEL FUEL MANUFACTURED BY SHELL'S GtL TECHNOLOGY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Royal Dutch/Shell Group's (Shell's) Gas to Liquids (GtL) technology, better known as the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis (SMDS) process, converts natural gas into diesel and other products via a modem improved Fisher-Tropsch synthesis. The diesel cut has very good cetane quality, low density, and virtually no sulphur and aromatics; such properties make it valuable as a diesel fuel with lower emissions than conventional automotive gas oil.

Clark, Richard H.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

18

GTL Image Gallery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Genome Project Information • Genomic Science • Microbial Genome Program • sitemap • home Human Genome Project Information • Genomic Science • Microbial Genome Program • sitemap • home Announcing the New Image Gallery Visit the new Image Gallery for an expanded suite of images Biofuels Browse the 2010 "Bioenergy Research Centers: An Overview of the Science" Brochure Gallery. Browse the 2006 "Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda" Report Gallery. Browse more biofuels images (includes the June 2006 "Understanding Biomass" Primer Gallery). Systems Biology Browse the August 2005 "Genomics:GTL Roadmap: Systems Biology for Energy and Environment" Gallery. Basic Genomics Browse the Human Chromosome Gallery. Browse more Basic Genomics images. Carbon Cycling

19

Computational Resources for GTL  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes the work conducted under our three year DOE GTL grant ($459,402). The work involved a number of areas, including standardization, the Systems Biology Workbench, Visual Editors, collaboration with other groups and the development of new theory and algorithms. Our work has played a key part in helping to further develop SBML, the de facto standard for System Biology Model exchange and SBGN, the developing standard for visual representation for biochemical models. Our work has also made significant contributions to developing SBW, the systems biology workbench which is now very widely used in the community (roughly 30 downloads per day for the last three years, which equates to about 30,000 downloads in total). We have also used the DOE funding to collaborate extensively with nine different groups around the world. Finally we have developed new methods to reduce model size which are now used by all the major simulation packages, including Matlab. All in all, we consider the last three years to be highly productive and influential in the systems biology community. The project resulted in 16 peer review publications.

Herbert M. Sauro

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

20

GTL Resources Plc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name GTL Resources Plc Place Yarm, United Kingdom Zip TS15 9BB Sector Biofuels Product GTL is a project developer which has historically focussed on the development...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

GTL-1 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the Gas Test Loop (GTL-1) miniplate experiment is to confirm acceptable performance of high-density (i.e., 4.8 g-U/cm3) U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel plates clad in Al-6061 and irradiated under the relatively aggressive Booster Fast Flux Loop (BFFL) booster fuel conditions, namely a peak plate surface heat flux of 450 W/cm2. As secondary objectives, several design and fabrication variations were included in the test matrix that may have the potential to improve the high-heat flux, high-temperature performance of the base fuel plate design.1, 2 The following report summarizes the life of the GTL-1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

JGI - Sequencing for the DOE Genomics: GTL Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Educational Resources MyJGI: Information for Collaborators Sequencing for the DOE Genomics: GTL Program For status information, see the Genome Projects section. For more...

25

Catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Enhanced catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Computer simulation of GTL and various problems in thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation intends to provide new tuning techniques for several simple cubic equations of state (EOS) to improve their accuracy in calculating fluid phase equilibrium. It also provides graphical tools to predict some phase equilibrium phenomena from activity coefficient models. Finally, it presents simulation results for a new gas-to-liquids process. Saturation Properties for Fluids: By deriving a new identity linking the heat of vaporization for pure components to the EOS, we are able to find new expressions for the two constants a & b in the EOS. These new expressions then allow tuning of both constants a and b to experimental saturation properties at subcritical temperatures. These new tuning procedures prove effective to the point where the simpler Redlich-Kwong EOS provides better results with our procedure than does the usually superior Peng-Robinson EOS with conventional procedures. Activity Coefficient Models: This dissertation shows the flexibility of four activity coefficient models in the prediction of three fluid phase equilibrium phenomena. From these models we successfully developed new graphs that allow one to identify the presence of any of the three phenomena by visual inspection without performing a complex calculation as seen in current texts. Remote Natural Gas: This dissertation presents simulation results of a new gas-to-liquids process which converts natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. Based on the assumption of adiabatic reactions, our simulation results show that methane conversion increases with higher reaction temperature and longer residence times. Hydrogen can both inhibit methane decomposition and reduce coke formation. The rich components in the natural gas are found to decompose very fast and they have a vast quenching effect on the whole reactions. Recycling of unreacted methane also increases overall methane conversion. Finally, our simulator provides very close prediction of the experimental results from a pilot plant. Thus, we conclude that the simulation work is basically successful in fulfilling the goal of this research.

Wang, Xiaonian

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

AN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO THE USE OF GAS-TO-LIQUID FUELS IN TRANSPORTATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

submitted manuscript has been submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE- AC05-96OR22464. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a non- exclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes." ORNL/TM-1999/258 AN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO THE USE OF GAS-TO-LIQUID FUELS IN TRANSPORTATION David L. Greene Center for Transportation Analysis Oak Ridge National Laboratory November 1999 Prepared by the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 managed by LOCKHEED MARTIN ENERGY RESEARCH CORP. for the U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract DE-AC05-96OR22464 iii TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . .

29

Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In his Advanced Energy Initiative announced in January 2006, President George W. Bush committed the nation to new efforts to develop alternative sources of energy to replace imported oil and fossil fuels. Developing cost-effective and energy-efficient methods of producing renewable alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass and solar-derived biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy production methods will not suffice. The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission and goals. Developing energy-efficient and cost-effective methods of producing alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy-production methods will not suffice. The focus on microbes (for cellular mechanisms) and plants (for source biomass) fundamentally exploits capabilities well known to exist in the microbial world. Thus 'proof of concept' is not required, but considerable basic research into these capabilities remains an urgent priority. Several developments have converged in recent years to suggest that systems biology research into microbes and plants promises solutions that will overcome critical roadblocks on the path to cost-effective, large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol and other renewable energy from biomass. The ability to rapidly sequence the DNA of any organism is a critical part of these new capabilities, but it is only a first step. Other advances include the growing number of high-throughput techniques for protein production and characterization; a range of new instrumentation for observing proteins and other cell constituents; the rapid growth of commercially available reagents for protein production; a new generation of high-intensity light sources that provide precision imaging on the nanoscale and allow observation of molecular interactions in ultrafast time intervals; major advances in computational capability; and the continually increasing numbers of these instruments and technologies within the national laboratory infrastructure, at universities, and in private industry. All these developments expand our ability to elucidate mechanisms present in living cells, but much more remains to be done. The Centers are designed to accomplish GTL program objectives more rapidly, more effectively, and at reduced cost by concentrating appropriate technologies and scientific expertise, from genome sequence to an integrated systems understanding of the pathways and internal structures of microbes and plants most relevant to developing bioenergy compounds. The Centers will seek to understand the principles underlying the structural and functional design of selected microbial, plant, and molecular systems. This will be accomplished by building technological pathways linking the genome-determined components in an organism with bioenergy-relevant cellular systems that can be characterized sufficiently to generate realistic options for biofuel development. In addition, especially in addressing what are believed to be nearer-term approaches to renewable energy (e.g., producing cellulosic ethanol cost-effectively and energy-efficiently), the Center research team must understand in depth the current industrial-level roadblocks and bottlenecks (see section, GTL's Vision for Biological Energy Alternatives, below). For the Centers, and indeed the entire BER effort, to be successful, Center research must be integrated with individual investigator research, and coordination of activities,

Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL; Drell, Dr. Daniel [Office of Science, Department of Energy; Weatherwax, Sharlene [U.S. Department of Energy; Carruthers, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper  

SciTech Connect

In his Advanced Energy Initiative announced in January 2006, President George W. Bush committed the nation to new efforts to develop alternative sources of energy to replace imported oil and fossil fuels. Developing cost-effective and energy-efficient methods of producing renewable alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass and solar-derived biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy production methods will not suffice. The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission and goals. Developing energy-efficient and cost-effective methods of producing alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy-production methods will not suffice. The focus on microbes (for cellular mechanisms) and plants (for source biomass) fundamentally exploits capabilities well known to exist in the microbial world. Thus 'proof of concept' is not required, but considerable basic research into these capabilities remains an urgent priority. Several developments have converged in recent years to suggest that systems biology research into microbes and plants promises solutions that will overcome critical roadblocks on the path to cost-effective, large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol and other renewable energy from biomass. The ability to rapidly sequence the DNA of any organism is a critical part of these new capabilities, but it is only a first step. Other advances include the growing number of high-throughput techniques for protein production and characterization; a range of new instrumentation for observing proteins and other cell constituents; the rapid growth of commercially available reagents for protein production; a new generation of high-intensity light sources that provide precision imaging on the nanoscale and allow observation of molecular interactions in ultrafast time intervals; major advances in computational capability; and the continually increasing numbers of these instruments and technologies within the national laboratory infrastructure, at universities, and in private industry. All these developments expand our ability to elucidate mechanisms present in living cells, but much more remains to be done. The Centers are designed to accomplish GTL program objectives more rapidly, more effectively, and at reduced cost by concentrating appropriate technologies and scientific expertise, from genome sequence to an integrated systems understanding of the pathways and internal structures of microbes and plants most relevant to developing bioenergy compounds. The Centers will seek to understand the principles underlying the structural and functional design of selected microbial, plant, and molecular systems. This will be accomplished by building technological pathways linking the genome-determined components in an organism with bioenergy-relevant cellular systems that can be characterized sufficiently to generate realistic options for biofuel development. In addition, especially in addressing what are believed to be nearer-term approaches to renewable energy (e.g., producing cellulosic ethanol cost-effectively and energy-efficiently), the Center research team must understand in depth the current industrial-level roadblocks and bottlenecks (see section, GTL's Vision for Biological Energy Alternatives, below). For the Centers, and indeed the entire BER effort, to be successful, Center research must be integrated with individual investigator research, and coordina

Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL; Drell, Dr. Daniel [Office of Science, Department of Energy; Weatherwax, Sharlene [U.S. Department of Energy; Carruthers, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Energy Department Announces $66 Million for Transformational...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- 34 Million REMOTE will develop transformational biological technologies to convert gas to liquids (GTL) for transportation fuels. Current synthetic gas-to-liquids conversion...

32

Model Documentation Report: International Natural Gas Model 2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

gas-to-liquid (GTL) plants, ... • Natural gas production for five resource categories, ... while LNG contracts may constrain trade in

33

Genomics:GTL Contractor-Grantee Workshop IV and Metabolic Engineering Working Group Inter-Agency Conference on Metabolic Engineering 2006  

SciTech Connect

Welcome to the 2006 joint meeting of the fourth Genomics:GTL Contractor-Grantee Workshop and the six Metabolic Engineering Working Group Inter-Agency Conference. The vision and scope of the Genomics:GTL program continue to expand and encompass research and technology issues from diverse scientific disciplines, attracting broad interest and support from researchers at universities, DOE national laboratories, and industry. Metabolic engineering's vision is the targeted and purposeful alteration of metabolic pathways to improve the understanding and use of cellular pathways for chemical transformation, energy transduction, and supramolecular assembly. These two programs have much complementarity in both vision and technological approaches, as reflected in this joint workshop. GLT's challenge to the scientific community remains the further development and use of a broad array of innovative technologies and computational tools to systematically leverage the knowledge and capabilities brought to us by DNA sequencing projects. The goal is to seek a broad and predictive understanding of the functioning and control of complex systems--individual microbes, microbial communities, and plants. GTL's prominent position at the interface of the physical, computational, and biological sciences is both a strength and challenge. Microbes remain GTL's principal biological focus. In the complex 'simplicity' of microbes, they find capabilities needed by DOE and the nation for clean and secure energy, cleanup of environmental contamination, and sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide that contributes to global warming. An ongoing challenge for the entire GTL community is to demonstrate that the fundamental science conducted in each of your research projects brings us a step closer to biology-based solutions for these important national energy and environmental needs.

Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Genomics:GTL Contractor-Grantee Workshop IV and Metabolic Engineering Working Group Inter-Agency Conference on Metabolic Engineering 2006  

SciTech Connect

Welcome to the 2006 joint meeting of the fourth Genomics:GTL Contractor-Grantee Workshop and the six Metabolic Engineering Working Group Inter-Agency Conference. The vision and scope of the Genomics:GTL program continue to expand and encompass research and technology issues from diverse scientific disciplines, attracting broad interest and support from researchers at universities, DOE national laboratories, and industry. Metabolic engineering's vision is the targeted and purposeful alteration of metabolic pathways to improve the understanding and use of cellular pathways for chemical transformation, energy transduction, and supramolecular assembly. These two programs have much complementarity in both vision and technological approaches, as reflected in this joint workshop. GLT's challenge to the scientific community remains the further development and use of a broad array of innovative technologies and computational tools to systematically leverage the knowledge and capabilities brought to us by DNA sequencing projects. The goal is to seek a broad and predictive understanding of the functioning and control of complex systems--individual microbes, microbial communities, and plants. GTL's prominent position at the interface of the physical, computational, and biological sciences is both a strength and challenge. Microbes remain GTL's principal biological focus. In the complex 'simplicity' of microbes, they find capabilities needed by DOE and the nation for clean and secure energy, cleanup of environmental contamination, and sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide that contributes to global warming. An ongoing challenge for the entire GTL community is to demonstrate that the fundamental science conducted in each of your research projects brings us a step closer to biology-based solutions for these important national energy and environmental needs.

Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Microsoft Word - 201306_Fuels_Industry_Newsletter_June_2013.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

large- and small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG) and gas-to- liquids (GTL). 2. Refining gas and petrochemicals. 3. Developing offshore...

36

NETL: Methane Hydrates - DOE/NETL Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

costs), and the potential for enhancing the possibility of commercial development of a gas-to-liquids (GTL) facility on the North Slope to provide transportation fuels (diesel)...

37

Sustainable use of California biomass resources can help meet state and national bioenergy targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

waste in landfills, or biogas from municipal wastewaterheat for industrial uses. Biogas potential from landfills,Bio]gas-to-liquids (GTL) Gas Biogas Biomethane Compressed

Jenkins, Bryan M; Williams, Robert B; Gildart, Martha C; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Hartsough, Bruce; Dempster, Peter G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

U.S. crude oil production could reach 10 million barrels per day ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... the maximum penetration rate for gas-to-liquids (GTL) is increased and kerogen (oil shale) is assumed to begin development. In the High Oil and Gas Resource ...

39

This Week at NETL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

23, 2013 NETL Conducts Analysis of Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch The key challenges to converting natural gas to liquid (GTL) are (1) the risk...

40

As-Run Thermal Analysis of the GTL-1 Experiment Irradiated in the ATR South Flux Trap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The GTL-1 experiment was conducted to assess corrosion the performance of the proposed Boosted Fast Flux Loop booster fuel at heat flux levels {approx}30% above the design operating condition. Sixteen miniplates fabricated from 25% enriched, high-density U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel with 6061 aluminum cladding were subjected to peak beginning of cycle (BOC) heat fluxes ranging from 411 W/cm2 to 593 W/cm2. Miniplates fabricated with three different fuel variations (without fines, annealed, and with standard powder) performed equally well, with negligible irradiation-induced swelling and a normal fission density gradient. Both the standard and the modified prefilm procedures produced hydroxide films that adequately protected the miniplates from failure. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux for an as-run cycle average effective south lobe power of 25.4 MW(t). Results of the thermal analysis are given at four times during the cycle: BOC at 0 effective full power days (EFPD), middle of cycle (MOC) at 18 EFPD, MOC at 36 EFPD, and end of cycle at 48.9 EFPD. The highest temperatures and heat fluxes occur at the BOC and decrease in a linear manner throughout the cycle. Miniplate heat flux levels and fuel, cladding, hydroxide, and coolant-hydroxide interface temperatures were calculated using the average measured hydroxide thickness on each miniplate. The hydroxide layers are the largest on miniplates nearest to the core midplane, where heat flux and temperature are highest. The hydroxide layer thickness averages 20.4 {mu}m on the six hottest miniplates (B3, B4, C1, C2, C3, and C4). This tends to exacerbate the heating of these miniplates, since a thicker hydroxide layer reduces the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant. These six hottest miniplates have the following thermal characteristics at BOC: (1) Peak fuel centerline temperature >300 C; (2) Peak cladding temperature >200 C; (3) Peak hydroxide temperature >190 C; (4) Peak hydroxide-water interface temperature >140 C; and (5) Peak heat flux >565 W/cm2.

Donna P. Guillen

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Communicating Genomics:GTL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Joint Genome Institute User Meeting Sponsored By U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science March 24-26, 2010 Walnut Creek Marriott Walnut Creek, California iii Contents Speaker Presentations ......................................................................................... 1 Poster Presentations........................................................................................... 11 Attendees............................................................................................................. 67 Author Index ...................................................................................................... 75 iv Posters alphabetical by first author. *Presenting author 1 Speaker Presentations Abstracts alphabetical by speaker

42

Communicating Genomics:GTL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Annual Annual DOE Joint Genome Institute User Meeting Sponsored By U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science March 29-April 1, 2006 Embassy Suites Hotel and DOE Joint Genome Institute Walnut Creek, California iii Contents Agenda .................................................................................................................. iv Speaker Presentations . .........................................................................................1 Abtracts in order of presentation according to agenda (p. iv) Poster Presentations ..............................................................................................9 Posters alphabetical by first author. *Presenting author. Attendees...............................................................................................................75

43

Microsoft Word - 201307_Fuels_Industry_Newsletter_July_2013.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013. Read more: http:www.yourprojectnews.comgas2+gas-to- liquids+(gtl)+pilot+plant+on+target92540.html "Biofuels company Virent cuts staff by a third" By Judy Newman,...

44

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY CONOCO, INC., FOR AN ADVANCE...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

gas to syngas (Conoco's CoPOX T ) and synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids from syngas via Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. It has plans to build a Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) semi-works plant...

45

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Pub  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The use of petroleum-based diesel fuel is also reduced by growing consumption of diesel produced with gas-to-liquids (GTL) technology. Natural gas use in vehicles ...

46

The significance of trace constituents in the solar Sushil K. Atreya  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, both the Bergius and Fisher-Tropsch synthetic fuel processes build up longer chain hydrocarbons from Fischer and Tropsch, low-temperature catalysts were used to promote hydrogen's reaction with coal gas-to-liquids" (GTL) technology based on the Fischer-Tropsch process converts natural gas to liquid fuels. Essentially

Atreya, Sushil

47

AMERICA'S NEW NATURAL GAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, both the Bergius and Fisher-Tropsch synthetic fuel processes build up longer chain hydrocarbons from Fischer and Tropsch, low-temperature catalysts were used to promote hydrogen's reaction with coal gas-to-liquids" (GTL) technology based on the Fischer-Tropsch process converts natural gas to liquid fuels. Essentially

Boufadel, Michel

48

THE LIPID WORLD DANIEL SEGR1, DAFNA BEN-ELI1, DAVID W. DEAMER2 and DORON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, both the Bergius and Fisher-Tropsch synthetic fuel processes build up longer chain hydrocarbons from Fischer and Tropsch, low-temperature catalysts were used to promote hydrogen's reaction with coal gas-to-liquids" (GTL) technology based on the Fischer-Tropsch process converts natural gas to liquid fuels. Essentially

Segrè, Daniel

49

Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. Final report, June 1, 1995--January 31, 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The original concept envisioned for the use of Fischer-Tropsch processing (FTP) of United States associated natural gas in this study was to provide a way of utilizing gas which could not be brought to market because a pipeline was not available or for which there was no local use. Conversion of gas by FTP could provide a means of utilizing offshore associated gas which would not require installation of a pipeline or re-injection. The premium quality F-T hydrocarbons produced by conversion of the gas can be transported in the same way as the crude oil or in combination (blended) with it, eliminating the need for a separate gas transport system. FTP will produce a synthetic crude oil, thus increasing the effective size of the resource. The two conventional approaches currently used in US territory for handling of natural gas associated with crude petroleum production are re-injection and pipelining. Conversion of natural gas to a liquid product which can be transported to shore by tanker can be accomplished by FTP to produce hydrocarbons, or by conversion to chemical products such as methanol or ammonia, or by cryogenic liquefaction (LNG). This study considers FTP and briefly compares it to methanol and LNG. The Energy International Corporation cobalt catalyst, ratio adjusted, slurry bubble column F-T process was used as the basis for the study and the comparisons. An offshore F-T plant can best be accommodated by an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage, Offloading vessel) based on a converted surplus tanker, such as have been frequently used around the world recently. Other structure types used in deep water (platforms) are more expensive and cannot handle the required load.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

50

Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

Mills, G. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. [Butyribacterium methylotrophicum  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

Jain, M.K.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Energy Security in Nova Scotia Larry Hughes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ved March 30, 2007 Interest in the gas-to-liquid process (GTL) using Fischer-Tropsch reactors (F-T) has The Fischer Tropsch (F-T) synthesis was originally devel- oped in Germany in the 1920s by Franz Fischer into syngas and, then, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of syngas into synthetic liquid fuels. A first plant

Hughes, Larry

54

34 AEROSPACE AMERICA/MAY 2011 Copyright 2011 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Long gone are the days when weekend  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ved March 30, 2007 Interest in the gas-to-liquid process (GTL) using Fischer-Tropsch reactors (F-T) has The Fischer Tropsch (F-T) synthesis was originally devel- oped in Germany in the 1920s by Franz Fischer into syngas and, then, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of syngas into synthetic liquid fuels. A first plant

55

Microsoft Word - 201312_Fuels_Industry_Newsletter_December_2013.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

scraps proposed Louisiana GTL complex" scraps proposed Louisiana GTL complex" By Bradley Olson, Hydrocarbon Processing, December 6, 2013 THE HAGUE (Bloomberg) -- Royal Dutch Shell halted plans to build a $20 billion gas-to- liquids plant in Louisiana, citing the potential cost and uncertainty about future crude and natural gas prices. The project would have used natural gas to produce 140,000 bpd of liquid fuels and other products normally made from oil, the company said in a statement. Despite ample United States gas supplies from a boom in shale production, gas-to-liquids isn't "a viable option for Shell in North America," the company said. Shell started the first commercial gas-to-liquids plant in 1993, using a process developed in Germany and used to make fuels during World War II. The company completed the $19 billion

56

Bioconversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April--30 June 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the project is to develop an integrated two-stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syngas; evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syngas; recovery of carbon and electrons from H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}; initiation of pervaporation for recovery of solvents; and selection of solid support material for trickle-bed fermentation. Technical progress included the following. Butyrate production was enhanced during H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} (50/50) batch fermentation. Isolation of CO-utilizing anaerobic strains is in progress. Pressure (15 psig) fermentation was evaluated as a means of increasing CO availability. Polyurethane foam packing material was selected for trickle bed solid support. Cell recycle fermentation on syngas operated for 3 months. Acetate was the primary product at pH 6.8. Trickle bed and gas lift fermentor designs were modified after initial water testing. Pervaporation system was constructed. No alcohol selectivity was shown with the existing membranes during initial start-up.

Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.

1994-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

57

Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

58

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

Jain, M.K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Gasification Users Association (GUA) Update Newsletter: June 2011 Issue  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gasification Users Association (GUA) Update is published quarterly. The following articles are featured in this issue of the GUA Update: Quarterly Summary Ongoing U.S. Energy Program Updates European Union Plans Support of Multiple CCS Projects News Items on Operating IGCC Plants U.S. IGCC Project Updates International IGCC Project Updates International Gasification Projects for Chemicals Biomass and Waste Gasification Projects Coal to SNG Coal to Liquids (CTL) Gas to Liquids (GTL) Underground Co...

2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

60

Gasification Users Association (GUA) Update, September 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gasification Users Association (GUA) Update is published quarterly. The following articles are featured in this issue: Quarterly Summary Ongoing U.S. Energy Program Updates European Union Plans Support of Multiple CCS Projects News Items on Operating IGCC Plants U.S. IGCC Project Updates International IGCC Project Updates International Gasification Projects for Chemicals Biomass and Waste Gasification Projects Coal to SNG Coal to Liquids (CTL) Gas to Liquids (GTL) Underground Coal Gasification (U...

2011-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In AEO2010, the price of light, low-sulfur (or sweet) crude oil delivered at Cushing, Oklahoma, is tracked to represent movements in world oil prices. EIA makes projections of future supply and demand for total liquids, which includes conventional petroleum liquidssuch as conventional crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gainin addition to unconventional liquids, which include biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

Information Center

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

62

REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

Unknown

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Microsoft Word - 201310_Fuels_Industry_Newsletter_October_2013_v2.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

selects Louisiana site for $12.5 billion, world-scale GTL facility" selects Louisiana site for $12.5 billion, world-scale GTL facility" By OGJ editors, Oil & Gas Journal, September 24, 2013 Royal Dutch Shell PLC, in a joint press statement with the state of Louisiana, reported the selection of Ascension Parish as a potential location for a $12.5 billion gas-to-liquids (GTL) facility. If built, the plant, to be located near Sorrento, La., would be one of the first commercial- scale plants of its kind in the US. The project also would create 740 direct jobs, according to an incentive agreement with the state. A decision on whether to begin construction of the facility is pending the completion of site evaluation and preliminary engineering studies, which would take several years, Shell said. "Selecting a site is an important step that allows us to conduct more detailed planning, technical

64

Monetizing stranded gas : economic valuation of GTL and LNG projects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Globally, there are significant quantities of natural gas reserves that lie economically or physically stranded from markets. Options to monetize such reserves include Gas to… (more)

Black, Brodie Gene, 1986-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through December 1999.

NONE

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through June 1998.

NONE

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

NONE

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through January 2000.

NONE

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2009 (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The oil prices reported in AEO2009 represent the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil in 2007 dollars [50]. Projections of future supply and demand are made for liquids, a term used to refer to those liquids that after processing and refining can be used interchangeably with petroleum products. In AEO2009, liquids include conventional petroleum liquidssuch as conventional crude oil and natural gas plant liquidsin addition to unconventional liquids, such as biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

Information Center

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

70

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through October 1999.

NONE

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through November 1999.

NONE

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through February 1999.

NONE

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through September 1999.

NONE

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Proposed Renewal of the Harvard/MIT DOE GTL Systems Biology Center 2007-2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

systems, thermodynamic cycles, combustion and thermochemical analysis, reciprocating engines, gas turbine-time simulations. Emphasizes developing effective interactive media programs for all engineering disciplines

Church, George M.

78

Microsoft Word - batmetpk.html  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lost due to placemant of battery box. WEIGHT Curb Weight: 4000 lbs Test Weight: 4354 lbs Distribution FR: 4753 % Conversion GVWR: 4700 lbs OEM GVWR: 4260 lbs Payload: 346 lbs...

79

Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GTL production CTL production Oil shale production Biofuelsoil and shale have zero Resource- Cost), while in GTL and CTL production,

Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

New Funding Opportunities and Webinars from ARPA-E | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Funding Opportunities and Webinars from ARPA-E New Funding Opportunities and Webinars from ARPA-E New Funding Opportunities and Webinars from ARPA-E March 26, 2013 - 4:05pm Addthis ARPA-E has announced two new funding opportunities: REMOTE (Reducing Emissions Using Methanotrophic Organisms for Transportation Energy) will develop transformational biological technologies to convert gas to liquids (GTL) for transportation fuels. METALS (Modern Electro/Thermochemical Advancements for Light-Metal Systems) will develop innovative technologies for cost-effective processing and recycling of Aluminum, Magnesium and Titanium. METALS will also develop technologies for rapid and efficient light metal sorting to enable domestic recycling. Concept Papers for both new funding opportunities are due by 5 p.m. EST on

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Definition: Diesel fuel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Diesel fuel Diesel fuel Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Diesel fuel A liquid fuel produced from petroleum; used in diesel engines.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Diesel oil and Gazole (fuel) redirect here. Sometimes "diesel oil" is used to mean lubricating oil for diesel engines. Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted. To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly called petrodiesel. Ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) is a standard for defining diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents. As of 2007, almost

82

New Funding Opportunities and Webinars from ARPA-E | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Funding Opportunities and Webinars from ARPA-E New Funding Opportunities and Webinars from ARPA-E New Funding Opportunities and Webinars from ARPA-E March 26, 2013 - 4:05pm Addthis ARPA-E has announced two new funding opportunities: REMOTE (Reducing Emissions Using Methanotrophic Organisms for Transportation Energy) will develop transformational biological technologies to convert gas to liquids (GTL) for transportation fuels. METALS (Modern Electro/Thermochemical Advancements for Light-Metal Systems) will develop innovative technologies for cost-effective processing and recycling of Aluminum, Magnesium and Titanium. METALS will also develop technologies for rapid and efficient light metal sorting to enable domestic recycling. Concept Papers for both new funding opportunities are due by 5 p.m. EST on

83

Argonne Transportation Technology R&D Center - Alternative Fuels -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Fischer-Tropsch Fuels SunDiesel fuel This Sun Diesel BTL fuel, made from wood chips, results in lower particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions. Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels are synthetic diesel fuels produced by converting gaseous hydrocarbons, such as natural gas and gasified coal or biomass, into liquid fuel. These fuels are commonly categorized into the following groups: Biomass to liquids (BTL) Gas to liquids (GTL) Coal to liquids (CTL) Argonne engineers are investigating the performance and emissions data of F-T fuels for both older and newer vehicles. The goal is to provide this data to the U.S. Department of Energy, the auto industry and energy suppliers. Part of the lab's strategy also includes publishing the data to solicit ideas and input from the fuels and combustion community.

84

HIGH EFFICIENCY SYNGAS GENERATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project investigated an efficient and low cost method of auto-thermally reforming natural gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Reforming is the highest cost step in producing products such as methanol and Fisher Tropsch liquids (i.e., gas to liquids); and reducing the cost of reforming is the key to reducing the cost of these products. Steam reforming is expensive because of the high cost of the high nickel alloy reforming tubes (i.e., indirectly fired reforming tubes). Conventional auto-thermal or Partial Oxidation (POX) reforming minimizes the size and cost of the reformers and provides a near optimum mixture of CO and hydrogen. However POX requires pure oxygen, which consumes power and significantly increases the cost to reforming. Our high efficiency process extracts oxygen from low-pressure air with novel oxygen sorbent and transfers the oxygen to a nickel-catalyzed reformer. The syngas is generated at process pressure (typically 20 to 40 bar) without nitrogen dilution and has a 1CO to 2H{sub 2} ratio that is near optimum for the subsequent production of Fisher-Tropsch liquid to liquids and other chemicals (i.e., Gas to Liquids, GTL). Our high process efficiency comes from the way we transfer the oxygen into the reformer. All of the components of the process, except for the oxygen sorbent, are commonly used in commercial practice. A process based on a longlived, regenerable, oxygen transfer sorbent could substantially reduce the cost of natural gas reforming to syngas. Lower cost syngas (CO + 2H{sub 2}) that is the feedstock for GTL would reduce the cost of GTL and for other commercial applications (e.g., methanol, other organic chemicals). The vast gas resources of Alaska's North Slope (ANS) offer more than 22 Tcf of gas and GTL production in this application alone, and could account for as much as 300,000 to 700,000 bpd for 20 to 30+ years. We developed a new sorbent, which is an essential part of the High Efficiency Oxygen Process (HOP). We tested the sorbent and observed that it has both a good oxygen capacity and operates as a highly effective reforming catalyst. We conducted a long duration tests of the sorbent (1,500 hours of continuous operation in the HOP cycle). Although the sorbent lost some oxygen capacity with cycling, the sorbent oxygen capacity stabilized after 1,000 hours and remained constant to the end of the test, 1,500 hour. The activity of the catalyst to reform methane to a hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture was unchanged through the oxidation/reduction cycling. Our cost and performance analyses indicated a significant reduction in the cost of GTL production when using the HOP process integrated into a GTL plant.

Robert J. Copeland; Yevgenia Gershanovich; Brian Windecker

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options  

SciTech Connect

The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Systems Biology Knowledgebase for a New Era in Biology A Genomics:GTL Report from the May 2008 Workshop  

SciTech Connect

Biology has entered a systems-science era with the goal to establish a predictive understanding of the mechanisms of cellular function and the interactions of biological systems with their environment and with each other. Vast amounts of data on the composition, physiology, and function of complex biological systems and their natural environments are emerging from new analytical technologies. Effectively exploiting these data requires developing a new generation of capabilities for analyzing and managing the information. By revealing the core principles and processes conserved in collective genomes across all biology and by enabling insights into the interplay between an organism's genotype and its environment, systems biology will allow scientific breakthroughs in our ability to project behaviors of natural systems and to manipulate and engineer managed systems. These breakthroughs will benefit Department of Energy (DOE) missions in energy security, climate protection, and environmental remediation.

Gregurick, S.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Stevens, R.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Systems Biology Knowledgebase for a New Era in Biology A Genomics:GTL Report from the May 2008 Workshop  

SciTech Connect

Biology has entered a systems-science era with the goal to establish a predictive understanding of the mechanisms of cellular function and the interactions of biological systems with their environment and with each other. Vast amounts of data on the composition, physiology, and function of complex biological systems and their natural environments are emerging from new analytical technologies. Effectively exploiting these data requires developing a new generation of capabilities for analyzing and managing the information. By revealing the core principles and processes conserved in collective genomes across all biology and by enabling insights into the interplay between an organism's genotype and its environment, systems biology will allow scientific breakthroughs in our ability to project behaviors of natural systems and to manipulate and engineer managed systems. These breakthroughs will benefit Department of Energy (DOE) missions in energy security, climate protection, and environmental remediation.

Gregurick, S.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Stevens, R.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Mathematical modeling of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in an industrial slurry bubble column - article no. A 23  

SciTech Connect

The increase in society's need for fuels and decrease in crude oil resources are important reasons to make more interest for both academic and industry in converting gas to liquids. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is one of the most attractive methods of Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) processes and the reactor in which, this reaction occurs, is the heart of this process. This work deals with modeling of a commercial size slurry bubble column reactor by two different models, i.e. single bubble class model (SBCM) and double bubble class model (DBCM). The reactor is assumed to work in a churn-turbulent flow regime and the reaction kinetic is a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type. Cobalt-based catalyst is used for this study as it plays an important role in preparing heavy cuts and the higher yield of the liquid products. Parameter sensitivity analysis was carried out for different conditions such as catalyst concentration, superficial gas velocity, H{sub 2} over CO ratio, and column diameter. The results of the SBCM and DBCM revealed that there is no significant difference between single and double bubble class models in terms of temperature, concentration and conversion profiles in the reactor, so the simpler SBCM with less number of model parameters can be a good and reliable model of choice for analyzing the slurry bubble column reactors.

Nasim Hooshyar; Shohreh Fatemi; Mohammad Rahmani [University of Tehran (Iran)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Qatar - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, ... voluntary report- ing, ... Qatar's Oryx GTL project is in operation and the Pearl GTL project is expected to begin ...

90

Process Design and Optimization of Biorefining Pathways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthesis and screening of technology alternatives is a key process-development activity in the process industries. Recently, this has become particularly important for the conceptual design of biorefineries. A structural representation (referred to as the chemical species/conversion operator) is introduced. It is used to track individual chemicals while allowing for the processing of multiple chemicals in processing technologies. The representation is used to embed potential configurations of interest. An optimization approach is developed to screen and determine optimum network configurations for various technology pathways using simple data. The design of separation systems is an essential component in the design of biorefineries and hydrocarbon processing facilities. This work introduces methodical techniques for the synthesis and selection of separation networks. A shortcut method is developed for the separation of intermediates and products in biorefineries. The optimal allocation of conversion technologies and recycle design is determined in conjunction with the selection of the separation systems. The work also investigates the selection of separation systems for gas-to-liquid (GTL) technologies using supercritical Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The task of the separation network is to exploit the pressure profile of the process, the availability of the solvent as a process product, and the techno-economic advantages of recovering and recycling the solvent. Case studies are solved to illustrate the effectiveness of the various techniques developed in this work. The result shows 1, the optimal pathway based on minimum payback period for cost efficiency is pathway through alcohol fermentation and oligomerized to gasoline as 11.7 years with 1620 tonne/day of feedstock. When the capacity is increased to 120,000 BPD of gasoline production, the payback period will be reduced to 3.4 years. 2, from the proposed separation configuration, the solvent is recovered 99% from the FT products, while not affecting the heavier components recovery and light gas recovery, and 99% of waster is recycled. The SCF-FT case is competitive with the traditional FT case with similar ROI 0.2. 3, The proposed process has comparable major parts cost with typical GTL process and the capital investment per BPD is within the range of existing GTL plant.

Bao, Buping

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Exergy Analysis of a GTL Process Based on Low-Temperature Slurry F-T Reactor Technology with a Cobalt Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Hans Tropsch; their aim was to use a mixture of CO and H2 (referred to as synthesis gas, syngas) to produce hydrocarbons, chemicals, and liquid fuels. The production of syngas was achieved by coal into syngas and, then, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of syngas into synthetic liquid fuels. A first plant

Kjelstrup, Signe

92

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Early Release Reference Case  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas-to-Liquids Heat and Power 5/ Natural Gas to Liquids Production 6/ Electric Power 7/ Transportation 8/ Pipeline Fuel. Lease and Plant Fuel 9/ Total ...

93

EIA - AEO2010 - World oil prices and production trends in AEO2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

World oil prices and production trends in AEO2010 World oil prices and production trends in AEO2010 Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 World oil prices and production trends in AEO2010 In AEO2010, the price of light, low-sulfur (or “sweet”) crude oil delivered at Cushing, Oklahoma, is tracked to represent movements in world oil prices. EIA makes projections of future supply and demand for “total liquids,” which includes conventional petroleum liquids—such as conventional crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gain—in addition to unconventional liquids, which include biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil. World oil prices can be influenced by a multitude of factors. Some tend to be short term, such as movements in exchange rates, financial markets, and weather, and some are longer term, such as expectations concerning future demand and production decisions by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 2009, the interaction of market factors led prompt month contracts (contracts for the nearest traded month) for crude oil to rise relatively steadily from a January average of $41.68 per barrel to a December average of $74.47 per barrel [38].

94

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

TIRES Tire Mfg: Triangle Tire Model: Radial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

505 lb Delivered Curb Weight: 2498 lb Distribution FR: 5149 % GVWR: 2998 lb GAWR FR: 17001550 lb Payload 2 : 500 lb Performance Goal: 400 lb DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 97.0 inches...

96

TIRES Tire Mfg: Triangle Tire Model: Radial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

472 lb Delivered Curb Weight: 2472 lb Distribution FR: 5149 % GVWR: 2998 lb GAWR FR: 17971562 lb Payload 2 : 526 lb Performance Goal: 400 lb DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 98.0 inches...

97

26 ford 4-p car data sheet.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

92 lb Delivered Curb Weight: 1431 lb Distribution FR: 4654% GVWR: 2300 lb GAWR FR: 8401530 lb Payload: 899 lb 3 Performance Goal: 400 lb DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 77.9 inches Track...

98

29 nash car data sheet.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

54 lb Delivered Curb Weight: 1961 lb Distribution FR: 5050 % GVWR: 2593 lb GAWR FR: 11041489 lb Payload: 640 lb 2 Performance Goal: 400 lb DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 86.6 Track FR:...

99

25 ford 2-p car sheet data.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

48 lb Delivered Curb Weight: 1355 lb Distribution FR: 4456% GVWR: 1900 lb GAWR FR: 7501230 lb Payload: 551 lb 3 Performance Goal: 400 lb DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 67.9 inches Track...

100

Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CTL production Oil shale production Biofuels productionshale have zero Resource- Cost), while in GTL and CTL production,

Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Meetings & Workshop | VIMSS - Virtual Institute for Microbial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Meetings & Workshops DOE Genomics: GTL Annual Contractor-Grantee Workshop February 11-14 North Bethesda, MD...

102

Ultra-Clean Diesel Fuel: U.S. Production and Distribution Capability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel engines have potential for use in a large number of future vehicles in the US. However, to achieve this potential, proponents of diesel engine technologies must solve diesel's pollution problems, including objectionable levels of emissions of particulates and oxides of nitrogen. To meet emissions reduction goals, diesel fuel quality improvements could enable diesel engines with advanced aftertreatment systems to achieve the necessary emissions performance. The diesel fuel would most likely have to be reformulated to be as clean as low sulfur gasoline. This report examines the small- and large-market extremes for introduction of ultra-clean diesel fuel in the US and concludes that petroleum refinery and distribution systems could produce adequate low sulfur blendstocks to satisfy small markets for low sulfur (30 parts per million) light duty diesel fuel, and deliver that fuel to retail consumers with only modest changes. Initially, there could be poor economic returns on under-utilized infrastructure investments. Subsequent growth in the diesel fuel market could be inconsistent with U.S. refinery configurations and economics. As diesel fuel volumes grow, the manufacturing cost may increase, depending upon how hydrodesulfurization technologies develop, whether significantly greater volumes of the diesel pool have to be desulfurized, to what degree other properties like aromatic levels have to be changed, and whether competitive fuel production technologies become economic. Low sulfur (10 parts per million) and low aromatics (10 volume percent) diesel fuel for the total market could require desulfurization, dearomatization, and hydrogen production investments amounting to a third of current refinery market value. The refinery capital cost component alone would be 3 cents per gallon of diesel fuel. Outside of refineries, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant investment cost would be 3 to 6 cents per gallon. With total projected investments of $11.8 billion (6 to 9 cents per gallon) for the U.S. Gulf Coast alone, financing, engineering, and construction and material availability are major issues that must be addressed, for both refinery and GTL investments.

Hadder, G.R.

2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Fischer-Tropsch fuel for use by the U.S. military as battlefield-use fuel of the future  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Defense (DoD) has been interested in low-sulfur, environmentally cleaner Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels since 2001 because they want to be less dependent upon foreign crude oil and ensure the security of the supply. A three-phase Joint Battlefield-Use Fuel of the Future (BUFF) program was initiated to evaluate, demonstrate, certify, and implement turbine fuels produced from alternative energy resources for use in all of its gas turbine and diesel engine applications. Sasol Synfuels International (Pty) Ltd. and Sasol Chevron Holdings Ltd., among others, were invited to participate in the program with the objective to supply the DoD with a FT BUFF that conforms to Jet Propulsion 8 (JP-8) and JP-5 fuel volatility and low-temperature fluidity requirements. Although the DoD is more interested in coal-to-liquid (CTL) technology, the product from a gas-to-liquid (GTL) Products Work-Up Demonstration Unit in Sasolburg, South Africa, was used to evaluate (on a bench scale) the possibility of producing a BUFF fraction from the Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate (Sasol SPD) low-temperature FT (LTFT) process and Chevron Isocracking technology. It was concluded from the study that the production of a synthetic FT BUFF is feasible using the Sasol SPD LTFT technology together with the current Chevron isocracking technology. The product yield for a BUFF conforming to JP-8 requirements is 30 vol % of the fractionator feed, whereas the product yield for a BUFF conforming to the JP-5 volatility requirement is slightly less than 22 vol % of the fractionator feed. Also concluded from the study was that the end point of the Sasol SPD LTFT BUFF will be restricted by the freezing point requirement of the DoD and not the maximum viscosity requirement. One would therefore need to optimize the hydrocracking process conditions to increase the Sasol SPD LTFT BUFF product yield. 16 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Delanie Lamprecht [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Kinetics simulation for natural gas conversion to unsaturated C? hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural gas resource is abundant and can be found throughout the world. But most natural gas reserves are at remote sites and considered stranded because of the extremely expensive transportation cost. Therefore advanced gas-to-liquid (GTL) techniques are being studied to convert natural gas to useful hydrocarbon liquids, which can be transported with far less cost. Direct pyrolysis of methane, followed by catalytic reaction, is a promising technology that can be commercialized in industry. In this process, methane is decomposed to ethylene, acetylene and carbon. Ethylene and acetylene are the desired products, while carbon formation should be stopped in the decomposition reaction. Some researchers have studied the dilution effect of various inert gases on carbon suppression. All previous results are based on the isothermal assumption. In this thesis, our simulator can be run under adiabatic conditions. We found there was a crossover temperature for carbon formation in the adiabatic case. Below the crossover temperature, the carbon formation from pure methane feed is higher than the one from a methane/hydrogen feed, while above the crossover temperature, the carbon formation from pure methane feed is lower than the one from a methane/hydrogen feed. In addition to the pure methane and methane/hydrogen feed, we also simulated the rich natural gas feed, rich natural gas with combustion gas, rich natural gas with combustion gas and methane recycle. We found the outlet temperature increases only slightly when we increase the initial feed temperature. Furthermore, the combustion gas or the recycled methane has a dilute effect, which increases the total heat capacity of reactants. The outlet temperature from the cracker will not drop so much when these gases are present, causing the methane conversion to increase correspondingly. Up to now there is no adiabatic simulator for methane pyrolysis. This work has significant meaning in practice, especially for rich natural gases.

Yang, Li

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Autothermal reforming of natural gas to synthesis gas:reference: KBR paper #2031.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Sued-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO{sub 2} in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct participation of CO{sub 2} in the oxidation chemistry.

Mann, David (KBR, Houston, TX); Rice, Steven, D.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Süd-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO2 in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct participation of CO2 in the oxidation chemistry.

Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann

2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

107

Functional and structural diversity of the microbial communities associated with the use of Fischer–Tropsch GTL Primary Column Bottoms as process cooling water / van Niekerk B.F.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Despite emerging water shortages, most water is only used once, and often with low efficiency. However, with appropriate treatment, water can be re–used to reduce… (more)

Van Niekerk, Bertina Freda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas-to-Liquids Heat and Power 5/ NGS000:fa_Gas2LiqLiqPrd Natural Gas to Liquids Production 6/ NGS000:ea_ElectricPower Electric Power 7/ NGS000:ea_Transportatio

109

Research Home  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cancer & Radiation Radiochemistry & Instrumentation Genome Dynamics BioenergyGTL Technology Centers Resources Research Research in the Life Sciences Division contributes to...

110

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2008 - Natural Gas Demand  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... (such as oil shale, CTL, and GTL). In the AEO2008 low price case, CTL production begins in 2011, using only U.S. facilities now under construction, ...

111

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Radiation Research Related...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Related Databases Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) The European Radiobiology Archives Genomics: GTL - Systems Biology for...

112

MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for comparative and functional genomics Paramvir S. DehalUS Department of Energy Genomics: GTL program (grant DE-approach to comparative genomics, including a tree-based

Dehal, Paramvir

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Discovering and validating biological hypotheses from coherent patterns in functional genomics data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

patterns in functional genomics data Marcin P. Joachimiakpatterns in functional genomics data” Marcin P. Joachimiakand Environmental Research, Genomics Program:GTL through

Joachimiak, Marcin Pawel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Identification of Small RNAs in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science,Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL Foundational Science

Burns, Andrew

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Two Component Signal Transduction in Desulfovibrio Species  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science,Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL Foundational Science

Luning, Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Functional Ecological Gene Networks to Reveal the Changes Among Microbial Interactions Under Elevated Carbon Dioxide Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science,Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL Foundational Science

Deng, Ye

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Stepping Up the Pace of Discovery: the Genomes to Life Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Genomes to Life (GTL), the U.S. Department ofEnergy Office of Science's systems biology program,focuses on environmental microbiology. Over the next 10to 20 years, GTL's key goal is to understand the lifeprocesses of thousands of microbes and microbial ...

Marvin Frazier; David Thomassen; Aristides Patrinos; Gary Johnson; Carl E. Oliver; Edward Uberbacher

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Report on three Genomes to Life Workshops: Data Infrastructure, Modeling and Simulation, and Protein Structure Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On July 22, 23, 24, 2003, three one day workshops were held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Each was attended by about 30 computational biologists, mathematicians, and computer scientists who were experts in the respective workshop areas The first workshop discussed the data infrastructure needs for the Genomes to Life (GTL) program with the objective to identify gaps in the present GTL data infrastructure and define the GTL data infrastructure required for the success of the proposed GTL facilities. The second workshop discussed the modeling and simulation needs for the next phase of the GTL program and defined how these relate to the experimental data generated by genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The third workshop identified emerging technical challenges in computational protein structure prediction for DOE missions and outlining specific goals for the next phase of GTL. The workshops were attended by representatives from both OBER and OASCR. The invited experts at each of the workshops made short presentations on what they perceived as the key needs in the GTL data infrastructure, modeling and simulation, and structure prediction respectively. Each presentation was followed by a lively discussion by all the workshop attendees. The following findings and recommendations were derived from the three workshops. A seamless integration of GTL data spanning the entire range of genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics will be extremely challenging but it has to be treated as the first-class component of the GTL program to assure GTL's chances for success. High-throughput GTL facilities and ultrascale computing will make it possible to address the ultimate goal of modern biology: to achieve a fundamental, comprehensive, and systematic understanding of life. But first the GTL community needs to address the problem of the massive quantities and increased complexity of biological data produced by experiments and computations. Genome-scale collection, analysis, dissemination, and modeling of those data are the key to success of GTL. Localizing these activities within each experimental facility that generates the data will ease integration and organization. However, integration and coordination of these activities across the facilities will be extremely critical to assure high-throughput knowledge synthesis and engage the broader biology community. Ultimately, the success of the data infrastructure will be judged by how well it is accepted by and serves the biology community.

Geist, GA

2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

119

ZeroPoint Clean Technology Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

York Zip 13676 Sector Biomass Product Developing of biomass gasification technology and gas-to-liquids processes. References ZeroPoint Clean Technology Inc1 LinkedIn...

120

Final_Tech_Session_Schedule_and_Location.xls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are in Great Demand... Membrane reactors, Synthesis gas separations (Power systems, IGCC, Gas-To-Liquids, Hydrogen production, Carbon sequestration), Fuel Cells (Reforming -...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

heat and power (CHP) plants and a small number of industrial electricity-only plants, and natural gas-to-liquids heatpower production; excludes consumption by nonutility...

122

ARPA-E Announces $40 Million for Research Projects to Develop...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

second program will develop biological technologies that will improve the conversion of natural gas to liquids for transportation fuels, designed to reduce vehicle emissions...

123

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas Renewables Purchased Electricity tons carbon dioxide equivalent) ... Natural Gas to Liquids Heat and Power UIC000:fa_LeaseandPlant Lease and Plant Fuel

124

Overview - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... (tar sands, oil shales) or created liquids (gas-to-liquids, coal oil). Canadian and Venezuelan heavy oil and tar sands and similar deposits are ...

125

Transportation and its Infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Buses: Interim EvaluationECMT, 2007). Natural Gas (CNG / LNG / GTL) Natural gas,It may be stored in compressed (CNG) or liquefied (LNG) form

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells - Refining the Message Initiating a National Dialogue and Educational Agenda  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

unconventional sources such as tar sands, FT GTL, heavy oils,unconventional sources, we know we are not going to “run-out of oil”,oil supply. So an important question is whether unconventional

Eggert, Anthony; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom; Ogden, Joan M; Sperling, Dan; Winston, Emily

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Microsoft PowerPoint - Proceedings Cover Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2005. WRI Liquid Fuel Alternatives Scorecard -2 depends -1 Hydrogen -2 -2 -1 Oil Shale -1 +2 +1 Biofuels +1 +1 +3 End-Use -1 -2 +1 Heavy Oil -1 -1 +1 GTL -1 -3 0 CTL Cost...

128

Sylvia Williams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sylvia Williams Bus. Development Mgr. Global GTL Development, Shell International Gas, Ltd., UK This speaker was a visiting speaker who delivered a talk or talks on the date(s)...

129

Microsoft PowerPoint - Metagenome_ASM_2008.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL Program through contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 between Lawrence Berkeley National...

130

MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the US Department of Energy Genomics: GTL program (DE-AC02-Web site for comparative genomics. Genome Res, 15, 1015-comparative and functional genomics Paramvir S. Dehal 1,2* ,

Dehal, Paramvir S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

KKellerASM2008.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL Program through contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 between Lawrence Berkeley National...

132

ESPP2_MicroCOSM_2008-02-12.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL Program through contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 between Lawrence Berkeley National...

133

Comparative genomics in acid mine drainage biofilm communities reveals metabolic and structural differentiation of co-occurring archaea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

co-occurring archaea. BMC Genomics 2013 14:485. Submit yourgenomes. Yelton et al. BMC Genomics 2013, 14:485 http://work was supported by DOE Genomics: GTL project Grant No.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

PNovichkovASM2008.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL Program through contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 between Lawrence Berkeley National...

135

The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute Microbial Genome Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Community Sequencing Program (CSP). 24 proposals accepted 10http://www.jgi.doe.gov/CSP/ US DOE Joint Genome InstituteGTL) Community Sequencing Program (CSP) JGI Internal Program

Lapidus, Alla

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Bringing Alaska North Slope Natural Gas to Market (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

At least three alternatives have been proposed over the years for bringing sizable volumes of natural gas from Alaskas remote North Slope to market in the lower 48 States: a pipeline interconnecting with the existing pipeline system in central Alberta, Canada; a GTL plant on the North Slope; and a large LNG export facility at Valdez, Alaska. NEMS explicitly models the pipeline and GTL options [63]. The what if LNG option is not modeled in NEMS.

Information Center

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

THERMAL HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF A GAS TEST LOOP SYSTEM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses thermal hydraulic calculations for a Gas Test Loop (GTL) system designed to provide a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for testing fuels and materials for advanced concept nuclear reactors. To assess the performance of candidate reactor fuels, these fuels must be irradiated under actual fast reactor flux conditions and operating environments, preferably in an existing irradiation facility [1]. Potential users of the GTL include the Generation IV Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative and Space Nuclear Programs.

Donna Post Guillen; James E. Fisher

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Development and validation of a citrate synthase directed quantitative PCR marker for soil bacterial communities  

SciTech Connect

Molecular innovations in microbial ecology are allowing scientists to correlate microbial community characteristics to a variety of ecosystem functions. However, to date the majority of soil microbial ecology studies target phylogenetic rRNA markers, while a smaller number target functional markers linked to soil processes. We validated a new primer set targeting citrate synthase (gtlA), a central enzyme in the citric acid cycle linked to aerobic respiration. Primers for a 225 bp fragment suitable for qPCR were tested for specificity and assay performance verified on multiple soils. Clone libraries of the PCR-amplified gtlA gene exhibited high diversity and recovered most major groups identified in a previous 16S rRNA gene study. Comparisons among bacterial communities based on gtlA sequencing using UniFrac revealed differences among the experimental soils studied. Conditions for gtlA qPCR were optimized and calibration curves were highly linear (R2 > 0.99) over six orders of magnitude (4.56 10^5 to 4.56 10^11 copies), with high amplification efficiencies (>1.7). We examined the performance of the gtlA qPCR across a variety of soils and ecosystems, spanning forests, old fields and agricultural areas. We were able to amplify gtlA genes in all tested soils, and detected differences in gtlA abundance within and among environments. These results indicate that a fully developed gtlA-targeted qPCR approach may have potential to link microbial community characteristics with changes in soil respiration.

Castro Gonzalez, Hector F [ORNL; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Austin, Emily E [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Crawford, Kerri M [Rice University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

--No Title--  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

got 3 gas to liquids going on out there, you have 4 the beginnings of coal to liquid technology, 5 you've got biofuels, which start off as a 6 solid. Now you in fact have a --...

142

Future Synthetic Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 During this presentation, we will give some background on Gas To Liquids - the synthetic fuel used in transport- its beneficial emission properties...

143

Microsoft Word - 201304_Fuels_Industry_Newsletter_April_2013...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Primus Green Energy to Support Gas-to-Liquids Research at Princeton University" Primus Green Energy, March 21, 2013 Hillsborough, N.J. and Princeton, N.J. (March 21, 2013) -...

144

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2007 with Projections to 2030 - Market...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

in 2030. In AEO2007, CTL technology is represented as an IGCC coal plant equipped with a Fischer-Tropsch reactor to convert the synthesis gas to liquids. Of the total amount of...

145

Annual Energy Outlook 2007: With Projections to 2030  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

2030. In AEO2007, CTL technology is repre- sented as an IGCC coal plant equipped with a Fischer-Tropsch reactor to convert the synthesis gas to liquids. Of the total amount of...

146

NETL: News Release - 23rd University Coal Grant Solicitation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is an objective of the Vision 21 program; Conversion of Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas to Fischer-Tropsch Liquids - converting coal-based gas to liquids using iron-based catalysts....

147

AEO2012 considers three cases for the future of world oil prices ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... coal-to-liquids, biomass-to-liquids, gas-to-liquids, extra-heavy oils, and oil shale. Download CSV Data. The Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (AEO2012) ...

148

Figure 7. U.S. dry natural gas consumption by sector, 2005-2040 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 7. U.S. dry natural gas consumption by sector, 2005-2040 (trllion cubic feet) Residential Commercial Transportation Gas to liquids

149

HOW DO WE CONVERT THE TRANSPORT SECTOR TO RENEWABLE ENERGY AND IMPROVE THE SECTOR'S INTERPLAY WITH THE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, oil sands, oil shale, uranium, and hydrogen as an energy carrier. The final chapter deplores by a transition to tar sands, heavy oil, gas-to-liquid synfuels, coal-to-liquid synfuels, and oil shale, all

150

Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Document details the evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch diesel, a gas-to-liquid fuel, in medium-duty delivery vehicles at Yosemite Waters. The study was conducted by NREL at the company's Fullerton, California, bottling headquarters.

Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Alleman, T. L.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Universittsmedizin Gttingen Publikationen und Hochschulschriften 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and their mutagenicity from the combustion of biodiesel, vegetable oil, gas-to-liquid and petrodiesel fuels. FUEL, 88) Susceptibility to fraud in systematic reviews: lessons from the Reuben case. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 111(6): 1279-89. 10

Gollisch, Tim

152

Virtual Library on Genetics from Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The World Wide Web (WWW) Virtual Library is a collaborative effort to provide topic indices that break down into many subtopics guiding users to vast resources of information around the world. ORNL hosts the Virtual Library on Genetics as part of the WWWVL's Biosciences topic area. The VL on Genetics is also a collection of links to information resources that supported the DOE Human Genome Project. That project has now evolved into Genomics: GTL. GTL is DOE's next step in genomics--builds on data and resources from the Human Genome Project, the Microbial Genome Program, and systems biology. GTL will accelerate understanding of dynamic living systems for solutions to DOE mission challenges in energy and the environment. The section of the Virtual Library on Genetics that is titled Organisms guides users to genetic information resources and gene sequences for animals, insects, microbes, and plant life.

153

Report on the Imaging Workshop for the Genomes to Life Program, April 16-18, 2002  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a result of the Imaging Workshop for the Genomes to Life (GTL) program held April 16-19, 2002, in Charlotte, North Carolina. The meeting was sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science. The purpose of the workshop was to project a broad vision for future needs and determine the value of imaging to GTL program research. The workshop included four technical sessions with plenary lectures on biology and technology perspectives and technical presentations on needs and approaches as they related to the following areas of the GTL program: (1) Molecular machines (protein complexes); (2) Intracellular and cellular structure, function, and processes; (3) Multicellular: Monoclonal and heterogeneous multicellular systems, cell-cell signaling, and model systems; and (4) Cells in situ and in vivo: Bacteria in the natural environment, microenvironment, and in vivo systems.

Colson, STEVEN

2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

154

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIGHTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

27 lbs 27 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 3618 lbs Distribution F/R: 58/42 % GVWR: 4680 lbs GAWR F/R: 2440/2440 lbs Payload: 1062 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 103.2 inches Track F/R: 61.1/60.2 inches Length: 174.5 inches Width: 71.4 inches Height: 69.5 inches Ground Clearance: 7.8 inches Performance Goal: 5.0 inches TIRES Tire Mfg: Continental Tire Model: EcoPlus Tire Size: P235/70R16

155

Insight REV dbk.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

67 lbs 67 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 1959 lbs Distribution F/R: 61/39 % GVWR: 2380 lbs GAWR F/R: 1355/1035 lbs Payload: 411 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 94.5 inches Track F/R: 56.5/52.2 inches Length: 155.1 inches Width: 66.7 inches Height: 51.5 inches Ground Clearance: 4.6 inches Performance Goal: 5.0 inches TIRES Tire Mfg: Bridgestone Tire Model: Potenza Tire Size: 165/65R14

156

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIGHTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3474 lbs 3474 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 3435 lbs GVWR: 4718 lbs GAWR F/R: 2491/2436 lbs Distribution F/R: % Payload: 1283 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 106.6 in Track F/R: 61.0/61.0 in Length: 181.3 in Width: 71.6 in Height: 65.3 in Ground Clearance: 7.0 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: General Tire Model: Ameri GS60 Tire Size: P215/70R16 Tire Pressure F/R: 35/35 psi

157

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIGHTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

90 lbs 90 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 2936 lbs Distribution F/R: 59/41 % GVWR: 3795 lbs GAWR F/R: 2335/2250 lbs Payload: 905 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 106 inches Track F/R: 59/58 inches Length: 175 inches Width: 67 inches Height: 57.8 inches Ground Clearance: 4.3 inches Performance Goal: 5.0 inches TIRES Tire Mfg: Goodyear Tire Model: Integrity Tire Size: P185/65R15 Tire Pressure F/R: 35/33 psi

158

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIGHTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

40 lbs 40 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 3556 lbs Distribution F/R: 58/42 % GVWR: 4665 lbs GAWR F/R: Unavailable Payload: 1109 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 109.3 in Track F/R: 62.0/61.6 in Length: 189.2 in Width: 71.7 in Height: 57.9 in Ground Clearance: 5.9 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: Michellin Tire Model: Energy MXV458 Tire Size: P215/60R16 Tire Pressure F/R: 32/32

159

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIGHTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5650 lbs 5650 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 5579 lbs Distribution F/R: 51.8/48.2 GVWR: 7100 lbs GAWR F/R: 3200/4100 lbs Payload: 1521 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 116.0 in Track F/R: 68.2/67.0 in Length: 202.0 in Width: 79.0 in Height: 74.6 in Ground Clearance: 9.5 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: Bridgestone Tire Model: Dueler H/R Tire Size: P265/65R18 Tire Pressure F/R: 32 psi

160

Estimation of critical flow velocity for collapse of booster fuel assembly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Gas Test Loop (GTL) system is currently being designed to provide a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for testing fuels and materials for advanced concept nuclear reactors. To assess the performance of candidate reactor fuels, these fuels must be irradiated under actual fast reactor flux conditions and operating environments, preferably in an existing irradiation facility. The GTL system is being designed for operation in the northwest test lobe of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. The Technical and Functional Requirements (T&FRs) for the GTL stipulate a minimum neutron flux intensity (10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s) and fast to thermal neutron ratio (>15) for the test environment. The incorporation of booster fuel within the test lobe is necessary to achieve these neutron flux requirements. The current design of the booster fuel assembly for the GTL calls for 3 concentric rings of 4 ft long uranium silicide fuel plates clad with 6061 aluminum.

Donna Guillen; Mark J. Russell

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The Robust Gas Turbine Project M.I.T. Gas Turbine Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 The Robust Gas Turbine Project M.I.T. Gas Turbine Laboratory Prof. David Darmofal, Prof. Daniel and in-service conditions is a key factor in gas turbine product quality. While a given design may these improved engines. The M.I.T. Gas Turbine Laboratory (GTL) has a long history of developing advanced

Waitz, Ian A.

162

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics School of Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is conducted at the Gas Turbine Laboratory (GTL) which has had a worldwide reputation for research and teaching at the forefront of gas turbine technology for over 50 years. The concept of an MIT Gas Turbine Laboratory control, (3) heat transfer in turbine blading, (4) gas turbine engine noise reduction and aero

de Weck, Olivier L.

163

Prospects, technology outlook and expectations AMOS Kick-off Seminar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reserves Best environmental performance for ship propulsion More tank volume cf conventional ship fuels HFO Distillate Fuels LPG GTL CNG Biogas Hydrogen Battery Nuclear Available + established distribution network prices Uncertainty (refineries' capacity to meet demand for these fuels) Liquid at higher temperatures

Nørvåg, Kjetil

164

Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

165

Microsoft Word - solcar95.html  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FORCE FORCE VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS CONVERTED VEHICLE Base Vehicle: 1995 Geo Metro VIN:2C1MR529XS6783464 Seatbelt Positions: Three Standard Features: Power Brakes Front Disk Brakes Front Wheel Drive Dual Air Bags AM/FM Stereo Radio w/Cassette Electric Heater Options as Tested: None BATTERY Manufacturer: GM Ovonic Type: 13.2EV85 Nickel Metal Hydride Number of Modules: 14 Weight of Module: 18 kg Weight of Pack(s): 254 kg Pack Locations: Undertrunk/Underhood Nominal Module Voltage: 13.2 V Nominal System Voltage: 185 V Nominal Capacity (1C): 85 Ah WEIGHTS Design Curb Weight: 2246 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 2304 lbs Distribution F/R: 50/50 % GVWR: 2755 lbs GAWR F/R: 1432/1366 lbs Payload: 451 lbs Performance Goal: 664 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 93.5 inches

166

Vehicle Specifications Battery Type: Li-Ion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Under hood above powertrain Under hood above powertrain Nominal System Voltage: 333 V Rated Capacity (C/3): 40 Ah Cooling Method: Glycol / Water mix Powertrain Motor Type: DC Brushless Number of Motors: One Motor Cooling Type: Glycol / Water mix Drive Wheels: Rear Wheel Drive Transmission: None (gear ratio only in rear axle) Charger Location: Underhood Charger Port: Driver's side, front quarter panel Type: Conductive (J1772 connector) Input Voltage(s): 120 or 240 VAC Chassis Aluminum Body on Steel Frame Rear Suspension: Solid Axle with Leaf Springs Front Suspension: Dual A-arm with Coil Springs Weights Design Curb Weight: 3250 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 3310 lbs 7 Distribution F/R: 55.2/44.8% GVWR: 4450 lbs Max Payload: 940 lbs + 200 lbs driver 1 Performance Goal Payload: 1000 lbs + 200 lbs driver

167

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS Vehicle Features  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mazda 3 Mazda 3 VIN: JMZBLA4G601111865 Seatbelt Positions: 5 Standard Features: Air Conditioning Power Locks Power Steering Power Brakes Power Windows Cruise Control Front Disc Brakes Rear Disc Brakes Front Wheel Drive Anti-Lock Brakes Traction Control Air Bags AM/FM Stereo with CD Weights Design Curb Weight: 2,954 lb Delivered Curb Weight: 2,850 lb Distribution F/R (%): 63/37 GVWR: 4,050 lb GAWR F/R: 2,057/1,896 lb Payload 1 : 1,096 lb Performance Goal: 400 lb Dimensions Wheelbase: 103.9 in Track F/R: 60.4/59.8 in Length: 175.6 in Width: 69.1 in Height: 57.9 in Ground Clearance: 6.1 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in Tires Manufacturer: Yokohama Model: YK520 Size: P205/55R17 Pressure F/R: 35/33 psi

168

2009 BMW MINI EVAmerica fact sheet.pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3230 lb 3230 lb Delivered Curb Weight: 3306 lb Distribution F/R: 51/49 % GVWR: 3660 lb Payload 2 : 354 lb Performance Goal: 400 lb DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 97.1 inches Track F/R: 57.4/57.8 inches Length: 145.6 inches Width: 66.3 inches Height: 55.4 inches Ground Clearance: 6.0 inches Performance Goal: 5.0 inches CHARGER Level 1: Location: On-board Type: Conductive Input Voltages: 120VAC Level 2: Location: Off-board Type: Conductive Input Voltages: 240 VAC © 2009 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved BASE VEHICLE: 2009 BMW MINI E Seatbelt Positions: Two Standard Features: Front Wheel Drive Front Disc and Rear Disc Brakes Regenerative Braking With Coast Down Three-Point Safety Belts Speedometer Odometer State-Of-Charge Meter BATTERY Type: Lithium Ion Number of Modules: 48

169

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS Vehicle Features Base Vehicle: 2010 Honda  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Honda Honda Civic Hybrid VIN: JHMFA3F24AS005577 Seatbelt Positions: 5 Standard Features: Air Conditioning Power Locks Power Steering Power Brakes Power Windows Cruise Control Front Disc Brakes Rear Disc Brakes Front Wheel Drive Regenerative Braking Anti-Lock Brakes Traction Control Air Bags AM/FM Stereo with CD State of Charge Meter 1 Weights Design Curb Weight: 2877 lb Delivered Curb Weight: 2982 lb Distribution F/R (%): 57/43 GVWR: 3792 lb GAWR F/R: 1973/1841 lb Payload 2 : 810 lb Performance Goal: 400 lb Dimensions Wheelbase: 106.3 in Track F/R: 59.1/60.2 in Length: 177.3 in Width: 69.0 in Height: 56.3 in Ground Clearance: 6.0 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in Tires Manufacturer: Bridgestone

170

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS Vehicle Features Base Vehicle: 2010 Smart  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Smart Smart Fortwo MHD VIN: WME4513341K406476 Seatbelt Positions: 2 Standard Features: Air Conditioning Power Locks Power Steering Power Brakes Power Windows Cruise Control Front Disc Brakes Rear Drum Brakes Rear Wheel Drive Anti-Lock Brakes Traction Control Air Bags AM/FM Stereo with CD player Weights Design Curb Weight:1,818 lb Delivered Curb Weight: 1.742 lb Distribution F/R (%):44/56 GVWR: 2,244 lb GAWR F/R: 968/1,452 lb Payload 1 : 426 lb Performance Goal: 400 lb Dimensions Wheelbase: 73.5 in Track F/R: 50.5/54.5 in Length: 106.1 in Width: 61.4 in Height: 60.7 in Ground Clearance: 6.25 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in Tires Manufacturer: Continental Model: ContiproContact Size: Front -P155/60/R15

171

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Natural Gas Tax to Natural Gas Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Natural Gas Tax Operators of motor vehicles capable of using compressed or liquefied natural gas must pay an annual flat rate privilege tax if the vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000 pounds (lbs.) or less. Natural

172

Introduction of GREET1.7 Excel Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and emissions for NG-based fuels (plus flared gas to liquid fuels; landfill gas to methanol; and biomass;16 GREET Includes a Varity of Hydrogen Production Pathways NNA Flared Gas NA NG NNA NG Central Plant Flared Gas NA NG NNA NG Central Plant Production: No C Sequestration C Sequestration Central Plant

Argonne National Laboratory

173

Gas-liquid interaction in the liquid breakup region of twin-fluid atomization Abstract The interaction between air and liquid in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas-liquid interaction in the liquid breakup region of twin-fluid atomization U. Shavit Abstract for the gas. High gas-to-liquid relative velocity results in an atomization mode which is more ef, drop size is smaller, and spray angle is wider. The in¯uence of the surrounding gas jet on the liquid

Shavit, Uri

174

Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch from biomass; cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch. Ethanol is produced from lignocellulose through The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process is a chemical reaction that converts a synthesis gas to liquid fuels

Sheridan, Jennifer

175

STATE OF CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor NOTICE OF PROPOSED AWARDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of lignocellulosic biomass via gasification and a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process into diesel fuel, and algae/Gas-to-Liquid Fischer-Tropsch Poly-gen SMR Gasification Liquefication CH2 Area wind Area solar Geothermal Unconventional, grease, tallow, waste oil, algae Nuclear Oil resources Unconventional: oil shale liquid, oil sands Coal

176

Direct fired heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Annual Energy Outlook 2012  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

gas heat and power . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.38 1.44 1.48 1.53 1.55 1.51 1.51 0.2% Natural-gas-to-liquids heat and power . . . . . . 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -...

178

L:\\main\\pkc\\aeotabs\\aeo2012\\appa.wpd  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

gas heat and power . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.38 1.44 1.48 1.56 1.56 1.54 1.58 0.4% Natural-gas-to-liquids heat and power . . . . . . 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -...

179

Annual Energy Outlook 2012  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.32 6.76 7.19 7.26 7.32 7.21 7.18 0.2% Natural-gas-to-liquids heat and power . . . . . . 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -...

180

TRPM channels are required for rhythmicity in the ultradian defecation rhythm of C. elegans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.V.) but not the period is altered. A: The mean period for each population of worms and the mean coefficient of variation (C.V.). Error bars are SEM. B: The period of 15 consecutive defecation cycles for representative controls (a-e) and gon-2(RNAi);gtl-1(RNAi) (f- j... al , s ec Cycle number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11121314 15 Wild-type + cat (control) De fe ca tio n in te rv al , s ec Cycle number Wild-type + gon-2;gtl-1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11121314 15 B f h j i g 0 60 120 0 60 120 0 60 120 0 60 120 0 60 120 e 0...

Kwan, Claire S M; Vazquez-Manrique, Rafael P; Ly, Sung; Goyal, Kshamata; Baylis, Howard A

2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Multi-Scale, Sustainable Reaction Engineering - A New Departmental Initiative  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

but it remains a continuing strength for the Department, underpinned by many new developments Illustration by Current/ Future Research Reactor and Reaction Efficiency Sustainable Energy Generation Transport Biofuels Modelling Reactor and Reaction... from Biomass via Iron Oxide Looping Dennis & Scott (2006). A.I.Ch.E.J., 52, 3325-3328. EPSRC Grant EP/F027435/1. Transport Biofuels Biomass Conversion to Fuel - Issues Options (i) gasification/GTL (ii) hydrolysis/fermentation Need...

Dennis, John

2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

182

MAGGIE Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mass spectrometry component of the MAGGIE effort included the generation of novel GTL technologies and comprehensive characterization to elucidate functional relationships and pathways. Toward this goal Component 4 has generated unique surface-based mass spectrometry and bioinformatic technologies as well as helped identified new biological interactions. The informatics and analytical technology platforms that we developed as well as the biochemistry that it has been developed for, are presented in detail in the attached document.

Siuzdak, Gary

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

183

Conversion economics for Alaska North Slope natural gas  

SciTech Connect

For the Prudhoe Bay field, this preliminary analysis provides an indication that major gas sales using a gas pipeline/LNG plant scenario, such as Trans Alaska Gas System, or a gas-to-liquids process with the cost parameters assumed, are essentially equivalent and would be viable and profitable to industry and beneficial to the state of Alaska and the federal government. The cases are compared for the Reference oil price case. The reserves would be 12.7 BBO for the base case without major gas sales, 12.3 BBO and 20 Tcf gas for the major gas sales case, and 14.3 BBO for the gas-to-liquids conversion cases. Use of different parameters will significantly alter these results; e.g., the low oil price case would result in the base case for Prudhoe Bay field becoming uneconomic in 2002 with the operating costs and investments as currently estimated.

Thomas, C.P.; Robertson, E.P.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

The synthesis and characterization of new iron coordination complexes utilizing an asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We are investigating the structure/activity relationships of the bacterial enzyme methane monooxygenase, which catalyzes the specific oxidation of methane to methanol. We then utilize this information to design and synthesize inorganic coordination complexes that mimic the function of the native enzyme but are more robust and have higher catalytic site density. We envision these catalysts to be useful in process catalytic reactors in the conversion of methane in natural gas to liquid ethanol.

Watkins, B.E.; Satcher, J.H.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

The synthesis and characterization of new iron coordination complexes utilizing an asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors are investigating the structure/activity relationships of the bacterial enzyme, methane monooxygenase, which catalyzes the specific oxidation of methane to methanol. They then utilize this information to design and synthesize inorganic coordination complexes that mimic the function of the native enzyme but are more robust and have higher catalytic site density. They envision these catalysts to be useful in process catalytic reactors in the conversion of methane in natural gas to liquid methanol.

Baldwin, D.; Watkins, B.E.; Satcher, J.H.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

186

Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

187

APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV / Pick-up Truck Platform  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to determine the influence of diesel fuel composition on the ability of NOX adsorber catalyst (NAC) technology, in conjunction with diesel particle filters (DPFs), to achieve stringent emissions levels with a minimal fuel economy impact. The test bed for this project was intended to be a light-duty sport utility vehicle (SUV) with a goal of achieving light-duty Tier 2-Bin 5 tail pipe emission levels (0.07 g/mi. NOX and 0.01 g/mi. PM). However, with the current US market share of light-duty diesel applications being so low, no US 2002 model year (MY) light-duty truck (LDT) or SUV platforms equipped with a diesel engine and having a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) less than 8500 lb exist. While the current level of diesel engine use is relatively small in the light-duty class, there exists considerable potential for the diesel engine to gain a much larger market share in the future as manufacturers of heavy light-duty trucks (HLDTs) attempt to offset the negative impact on cooperate average fuel economy (CAFE) that the recent rise in market share of the SUVs and LDTs has caused. The US EPA Tier 2 emission standards also contain regulation to prevent the migration of heavy light-duty trucks and SUV's to the medium duty class. This preventive measure requires that all medium duty trucks, SUV's and vans in the 8,500 to 10,000 lb GVWR range being used as passenger vehicles, meet light-duty Tier 2 standards. In meeting the Tier 2 emission standards, the HLDTs and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) will face the greatest technological challenges. Because the MDPV is the closest weight class and application relative to the potential upcoming HLDTs and SUV's, a weight class compromise was made in this program to allow the examination of using a diesel engine with a NAC-DPF system on a 2002 production vehicle. The test bed for this project is a 2500 series Chevrolet Silverado equipped with a 6.6L Duramax diesel engine certified to 2002 MY Federal heavy-duty and 2002 MY California medium-duty emission standards. The stock vehicle included cooled air charge (CAC), turbocharger (TC), direct fuel injection (DFI), oxidation catalyst (OC), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)

Webb, C; Weber, P; Thornton,M

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

188

Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Genomic Data and Annotation from the SEED  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The SEED Project has been extended to support metagenomic samples and concomitant analytical tools. Moreover, the number of genomes being introduced into SEED is growing very rapidly. Building a framework to support this growth while providing highly accurate annotations is centrally important to SEED. The project’s subsystem-based annotation strategy has become the technological foundation for addressing these challenges.(copied from Appendix 7 of Systems Biology Knowledgebase for a New Era in Biology, A Genomics:GTL Report from the May 2008 Workshop, DOE/SC-0113, Grequrick, S; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stevens, R., Pub March 1, 2009.)

Fonstein, Michael; Kogan, Yakov; Osterman, Andrei; Overbeek, Ross; Vonstein, Veronika The Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes (FIG)

190

untitled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

720 lbs 720 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 3698 lbs Distribution F/R (%): 60.4/39.6 GVWR: 4701 lbs GAWR F/R: 2492/2209 lbs Payload 5 : 850 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 107.4 in Track F/R: 61.7/61.3 in Length: 190.6 in Width: 72.2 in Height: 56.9 in Ground Clearance: 7 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: Michelin Tire Model: Energy MXV4 SS Tire Size: P225/50VR17 Tire Pressure F/R: 33/33 psi Spare Installed: Yes ENGINE Model: 2.5L Atkinson Cycle Output: 156 hp @ 6000 rpm Configuration: Inline Four-cylinder Displacement: 2.5 L Fuel Tank Capacity: 17.5 gal Fuel Type: Unleaded Gasoline © 2009 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved VEHICLE FEATURES Base Vehicle: 2010 Ford Fusion Hybrid VIN: 3FADP0L34AR144757 Seatbelt Positions: Five

191

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIghTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

365 lbs 365 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 4510 lbs Distribution F/R: 57/43 % GVWR: 5520 lbs GAWR F/R: 2865/2865 lbs Payload: 1010 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 107.0 inches Track F/R: 62/61.2 inches Length: 187.2 inches Width: 72.6 inches Height: 66.4 inches Ground Clearance: 7.1 inches Performance Goal: 5.0 inches TIRES Tire Mfg: Goodyear Tire Model: Eagle RS-A Tire Size: P215/55R18 Tire Pressure F/R: 30/30 psi Spare Installed: Yes ENgINE Model: 3MZ-FE Output: 208 hp @ 5600 rpm Configuration: DOHC V6 Displacement: 3.3 L Fuel Tank Capacity: 17.2 Gallons Fuel Type: Unleaded Gasoline © 2010 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved VEhICLE FEATuRES Base Vehicle: 2006 Lexus RX 400h VIN: JTJHW31U160002575 Seatbelt Positions: Five

192

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIghTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2650 lbs 2650 lbs Delivered Curb Weight 9 : 2615 lbs Distribution F/R 9 (%): 58.6/41.4 GVWR: 3164 lbs GAWR F/R: 1797/1378lbs Payload 5 : 564 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 95.9 in Track F/R: 59.6/59.1 in Length: 160.6 in Width: 68.5 in Height: 54.9 in Ground Clearance: 5.3 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: Dunlop Tire Model: SP Sport 1000m Tire Size: 195 / 55 R16 86V Tire Pressure F/R: 30/30 psi Spare Installed: Yes ENgINE Model: 1.5 L I4 Output 8 : 122 hp @ 6000 rpm Configuration: Inline Four-cylinder Displacement: 1.5 L Fuel Tank Capacity: 10.6 gal Fuel Type: Unleaded Gasoline © 2010 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved VEhICLE FEATuRES Base Vehicle: 2011 Honda CRZ EX Hybrid VIN: JHMZF1C64BS002982

193

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Pub  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Legislation AEO 2011 Legislation and regulations Legislation AEO 2011 Legislation and regulations 2012 Introduction 1. Greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption standards for heavy-duty vehicles, model years 2014 through 2018 On September 15, 2011, the EPA and NHTSA jointly announced a final rule, called the HD National Program [9], which for the first time established GHG emissions and fuel consumption standards for on-road heavy-duty trucks with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) above 8,500 pounds (Classes 2b through 8) [10] and their engines. The AEO2012 Reference case incorporates the new standards for heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). 2. Cross-State Air Pollution Rule The CSAPR was created to regulate emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants greater than 25 megawatts that generate electric power from fossil fuels. CSAPR is intended to assist States in achieving their National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter and ground-level ozone. Limits on annual emissions of SO2 and NOx are designed to address fine particulate matter. The seasonal NOx limits address ground-level ozone. Twenty-three States are subject to the annual limits, and 25 States are subject to the seasonal limits [12].

194

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIghTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

245 lbs 245 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 4118 lbs GVWR: 5675 lbs GAWR F/R: 2865/3130 lbs Distribution F/R: 59/41 % Payload: 1557 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 106.7 in Track F/R: 61.9/61.1 in Length: 185.3 in Width: 71.5 in Height: 68.6 in Ground Clearance: 5.9 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: Goodyear Tire Model: Integrity Tire Size: P225/65R17 Tire Pressure F/R: 32/32 Spare Installed: Yes ENgINE Model: 3MZ-FE Output: 208 hp @ 5600 rpm Configuration: V6 Displacement: 3.3 L Fuel Tank Capacity: 17.2 gal Fuel Type: Unleaded Gasoline © 2010 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved VEhICLE FEATuRES Base Vehicle: 2006 Highlander VIN: JTEDW21A860005681 Seatbelt Positions: Seven Standard Features: Air Conditioning

195

untitled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2723 lbs 2723 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 2756 lbs Distribution F/R (%): 58/42 GVWR: 3630 lbs GAWR F/R: 1881/1782lbs Payload 5 : 907 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 100.4 in Track F/R: 58.7/58.1 in Length: 172.3 in Width: 66.7 in Height: 56.2 in Ground Clearance: 5.5 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: Dunlop Tire Model: SP31 A/S Tire Size: 175 / 65 R15 84S Tire Pressure F/R: 33/33 psi Spare Installed: Yes ENGINE Model: 1.3 L LDA series I4 Output: 98 hp @ 5800 rpm Configuration: Inline Four-cylinder Displacement: 1.3 L Fuel Tank Capacity: 10.6 gal Fuel Type: Unleaded Gasoline © 2009 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved VEHICLE FEATURES Base Vehicle: 2010 Honda Insight Hybrid VIN: JHMZE2H78AS010141 Seatbelt Positions: Five Standard Features:

196

Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

Kraft, E.H.

2002-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

197

RESEARCH GUIDANCE STUDIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This represents the final report of the current contract. The major accomplishments achieved during the execution of this contract fulfilled the deliverables requirements of the contract. Overall the major accomplishments by Task area are summarized below. In Task area 1, Coal Fuels area, the major accomplishments were the preparation of the comprehensive Multi Year Program Plan (MYPP) for the Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative (UCTFI) team, updating the complex coal fuels production models from coal including the development of a comprehensive coproduction model. In addition work accomplished included an exhaustive analysis of direct coal liquefaction and coprocessing of coals and heavy oils. Also completed was a comprehensive study on the benefits to the nation of an ultra clean fuels from coal program. In Task 4 several accomplishments were made. These included modification of the complex gasification models to include capabilities for analysis of petroleum coke gasification in refineries and for the production of hydrogen with and without carbon dioxide sequestration, development of a sound methodology and results to analyze the potential for market penetration of IGCC in several NERC reliability regions of the U.S. and completion and documentation of several studies on coproduction of power and ultra clean fuels. The major accomplishments in Task 5 included analysis of the options to optimize the value of Alaska North Slope (ANS) natural gas, evaluation of the impact of ceramic membranes on the GTL process, and analysis of the real value of the GTL product.

David Gray

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Preliminary Screening -- Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In principle, syngas (primarily consisting of CO and H2) can be produced from any hydrocarbon feedstock, including: natural gas, naphtha, residual oil, petroleum coke, coal, and biomass. The lowest cost routes for syngas production, however, are based on natural gas, the cheapest option being remote or stranded reserves. Economic considerations dictate that the current production of liquid fuels from syngas translates into the use of natural gas as the hydrocarbon source. Nevertheless, the syngas production operation in a gas-to-liquids plant amounts to greater than half of the capital cost of the plant. The choice of technology for syngas production also depends on the scale of the synthesis operation. Syngas production from solid fuels can require an even greater capital investment with the addition of feedstock handling and more complex syngas purification operations. The greatest impact on improving the economics of gas-to liquids plants is through (1) decreasing capital costs associated with syngas production and (2) improving the thermal efficiency with better heat integration and utilization. Improved thermal efficiency can be obtained by combining the gas-to-liquids plant with a power generation plant to take advantage of the availability of low-pressure steam. The extensive research and development efforts devoted to syngas conversion to fuels and chemicals are documented in a vast amount of literature that tracks the scientific and technological advancements in syngas chemistry. The purpose of this report is to review the many syngas to products processes and summarize the salient points regarding the technology status and description, chemistry, catalysts, reactors, gas cleanliness requirements, process and environmental performances, and economics. Table 1 lists the products examined in this study and gives some facts about the technology as well as advantages and disadvantages. Table 2 summarizes the catalysts, process conditions, conversions, and selectivities for the various syngas to products processes. Table 3 presents catalyst poisons for the various products.

Spath, P. L.; Dayton, D. C.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Proceedings of the natural gas research and development contractors review meeting  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this meeting was to present results of the research in the DOE-sponsored Natural Gas Program, and simultaneously to provide a forum for real-time technology transfer, to the active research community, to the interested public, and to the natural gas industry, who are the primary users of this technology. The current research focus is to expand the base of near-term and mid-term economic gas resources through research activities in Eastern Tight Gas, Western Tight Gas, Secondary Gas Recovery (increased recovery of gas from mature fields); to enhance utilization, particularly of remote gas resources through research in Natural Gas to Liquids Conversion; and to develop additional, long term, potential gas resources through research in Gas Hydrates and Deep Gas. With the increased national emphasis on the use of natural gas, this forum has been expanded to include summaries of DOE-sponsored research in energy-related programs and perspectives on the importance of gas to future world energy. Thirty-two papers and fourteen poster presentations were given in seven formal, and one informal, sessions: Three general sessions (4 papers); Western Tight Gas (6 papers); Eastern Tight Gas (8 papers); Conventional/Speculative Resources (8 papers); and Gas to Liquids (6 papers). Individual reports are processed separately on the data bases.

Malone, R.D.; Shoemaker, H.D.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hisense USA Corp. Hisense USA Corp. 1 Case Number: 20 10-CE- 12 1 1 (Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and ) freezers) ) ) 1 NOTICE OF PROPOSED CIVIL PENALTY Date issued: September 8,2010 Number of alleged violations: 17 Maximum possible assessment: $986,660 Proposed civil penalty: $124,100 The Office of the General Counsel of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) alleges that Hisense USA Corp. (Hisense) violated certain provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42 U.S.C. 5 6201 et seq., 10 C.F.R. Part 430, or both. ~ ~ e c i f i c a l ' l ~ , DOE alleges: 1. Hisense manufactures andlor privately labels a variety of residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers, including models: GTL12HBXRBS, GTR1 OHAXRWW, GTRl2HBXR*, RD-11 DR1 HA, RD-16WRlHA, RS-

202

Poster  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(d) Contaminant degradation genes (d) Contaminant degradation genes (c) Carbon fixation genes SUMMARY ABSTRACT RESULTS BACKGROUND ESPP2 (MDCASE) is part of the Virtual Institute for Microbial Stress and Survival (VIMSS) supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL Program through contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U. S. Department of Energy. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Functional Gene Array-Based Analysis of Microbial Community Structure in a Gradient of Nitrate and Heavy Metal Contaminated Groundwaters P. J. Waldron 1,2 , L. Y. Wu 1,2 , J. D. Van Nostrand 1,2 , D. B. Watson 2,3 , Z. He 1,2 , C. W. Schadt 2,3 , T. C. Hazen 2,4 , P. M. Jardine 2,3 , J. Zhou 1,2 1 University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK;

203

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small-Scale Biorefineries Project Overview Small-Scale Biorefineries Project Overview July, 14 2008 Final Two Selections for up to $40 million - Announced July 14, 2008 for up to $40 million Applicant Total Cost DOE Share Cost Share Annual Production capacity Project Location Feedstock Technology Verenium $91,347,330 TBD* TBD* 1,500,000 Jennings, LA bagasse, energy crops, ag waste, & wood residues Biochemical Flambeau LLC $84,000,000 $30,000,000 64.4% 6,000,000 Park Falls, WI Forest residues GTL (FT) *Based on negotiations. Round two selections - Announced April 18, 2008 for up to $114 million ICM $86,030,900 $30,000,000 65% 1,500,000 St. Joseph, MO Switchgrass, Forage sorghum, stover Biochemical Lignol Innovations $88,015,481 $30,000,000 66% 2,500,000 Commerce City, CO Woody Biomass -

204

SStolyarASM2008.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Microbial Stress and Survival (VIMSS) supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL Program through contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U. S. Department of Energy. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 2 2291 2292 2293 2290 2289 DVU2286 2287 Tn 0430 0429 0432 0431 Kan R 0433 Figure 1. RESULTS Growth of D. vulgaris echA mutant in syntrophic association with M. maripaludis without sulfate. Figure 4. Figure 5. * Although growth rates of both mutants on sulfate with pyruvate or lactate were comparable to the wild type, hydrogen evolution was much greater for the echA mutant during growth in batch culture with lactate and sulfate (Figure 2A, B and D).

205

ASM2008-Bender.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Survival (VIMSS) supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL Program through contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U. S. Department of Energy. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 2 CONCLUSIONS SUMMARY RESULTS ABSTRACT MATERIALS AND METHODS Cloning and Sequencing of Small RNAs 1: cDNA 2: No template 3: No reverse transcriptrase 4: 100 bp ladder 1-3: library clones 4: plasmid only 5: 100 bp ladder 6-8: library clones cDNA for library PCR verification of sRNA clone inserts 9: plasmid only 10: neg. control 11: primer positive control 12: 100 bp ladder 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 DVU0678 message: 34 AA hypothetical protein

206

ShutkinESPP2_PM_PhilCHI0608.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scientific Research Project Management Scientific Research Project Management Amy Shutkin, CPM ashutkin@lbl.gov Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Physical Biosciences Division http://vimss.lbl.gov ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ESPP2 is part of the Virtual Institute for Microbial Stress and Survival supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Genomics Program:GTL through contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U. S. Department of Energy. 2 Managing Projects and Resources for Effective Project Management June 5-6, 2008 | Philadelphia, PA 2 Scientific Research Project Management * VIMSS is Switzerland * Team Science Approach * Communications * Milestones & Budgets * Dashboards http://vimss.lbl.gov

207

Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

26) Gayle Technologies, Inc. (GTI) - 26) Gayle Technologies, Inc. (GTI) - State-of-Health by Ultrasonic Battery Monitoring with In-Service Testing Program or Field Office: Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy LocationCs) CCity/County/State): Nashville, TN; Oklahoma City, OK; Knoxville, TN Proposed Action Description: Funding will support efforts to develop an ultrasonic monitoring system for in-service battery health monitoring. Proposed work will consist of: (1) development and fabrication of the ultrasonic monitoring system and a battery test bed at GTl's facility in Nashville, TN; (2) performing failure mode analysis of battery cells at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's facility in Oak Ridge, TN; and (3) testing the ultrasonic monitoring system using battery cells, modules, and packs at ATC New Technologies' facility in Oklahoma City, OK.

208

BNL | Paul I. Freimuth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paul I. Freimuth Paul I. Freimuth Research Interests One aspect of our research program aims to understand the folding behavior of proteins during overexpression, when molecular chaperone activity may be limiting. Protein overexpression technology has greatly facilitated structural and functional analyses of individual proteins, and it will also be a key technology for large scale characterization of proteomes as planned in the DOE's GTL program, for example. Molecular chaperones promote folding by lowering the free energy barrier to the unfolding of intermediate states. Deficits in chaperone activity therefore can lead to the kinetic trapping of folding intermediates, which eventually may aggregate. Our recent studies suggest that intramolecular electrostatic attractive and repulsive forces may be important factors in determining the

209

METLIN: MS/MS metabolite data from the MAGGIE Project  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

METLIN is a metabolite database for metabolomics containing over 50,000 structures, it also represents a data management system designed to assist in a broad array of metabolite research and metabolite identification by providing public access to its repository of current and comprehensive MS/MS metabolite data. An annotated list of known metabolites and their mass, chemical formula, and structure are available on the METLIN website. Each metabolite is conveniently linked to outside resources such as the the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) for further reference and inquiry. MS/MS data is also available on many of the metabolites. The list is expanding continuously as more metabolite information is being deposited and discovered. [Copied from http://metlin.scripps.edu/]

Metlin is a component of the MAGGIE Project. MAGGIE is funded by the DOE Genomics: GTL and is an acronym for "Molecular Assemblies, Genes, and Genomics Integrated Efficiently."

210

Thermal Analysis of a Uranium Silicide Miniplate Irradiation Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper outlines the thermal analysis for the irradiation of high density uranium-silicide (U3Si2 dispersed in an aluminum matrix and clad in aluminum) booster fuel for a Boosted Fast Flux Loop designed to provide fast neutron flux test capability in the ATR. The purpose of this experiment (designated as Gas Test Loop-1 [GTL-1]) is two-fold: (1) to assess the adequacy of the U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel and the aluminum alloy 6061 cladding, and (2) to verify stability of the fuel cladding boehmite pre-treatment at nominal power levels in the 430 to 615 W/cm2 (2.63 to 3.76 Btu/s•in2) range. The GTL-1 experiment relies on a difficult balance between achieving a high heat flux, yet keeping fuel centerline temperature below a specified maximum value throughout an entire operating cycle of the reactor. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux levels and to reveal which experiment parameters place constraints on reactor operations. Analyses were performed to determine the bounding lobe power level at which the experiment could be safely irradiated, yet still provide meaningful data under nominal operating conditions. Then, simulations were conducted for nominal and bounding lobe power levels under steady-state and transient conditions with the experiment in the reactor. Reactivity changes due to a loss of commercial power with pump coast-down to emergency flow or a standard in-pile tube pump discharge break were evaluated. The time after shutdown for which the experiment can be adequately cooled by natural convection cooling was determined using a system thermal hydraulic model. An analysis was performed to establish the required in-reactor cooling time prior to removal of the experiment from the reactor. The inclusion of machining tolerances in the numerical model has a large effect on heat transfer.

Donna Post Guillen

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Thermal Hydraulic Effect of Fuel Plate Surface Roughness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents surface roughness measurements characteristic of the pre-film layer applied to a typical Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel plate. This data is used to estimate the friction factor for thermal hydraulic flow calculations of a Gas Test Loop (GTL) system proposed for incorporation into ATR to provide a fast neutron flux environment for the testing of nuclear fuels and materials. To attain the required neutron flux, the design includes booster fuel plates clad with the same aluminum alloy as the ATR driver fuel and cooled with water supplied by the ATR primary coolant pumps. The objectives of this study are to: (1) determine the surface roughness of the protective boehmite layer applied to the ATR driver fuel prior to reactor operations in order to specify the machining tolerances for the surface finish on simulated booster fuel plates in a GTL hydraulic flow test model, and (2) assess the consequent thermal hydraulic impact due to surface roughness on the coolability of the booster fuel with a similar pre-film layer applied. While the maximum roughness of this coating is specified to be 1.6 µm (63 microinches), no precise data on the actual roughness were available. A representative sample coupon autoclaved with the ATR driver fuel to produce the pre-film coating was analyzed using optical profilometry. Measurements yielded a mean surface roughness of 0.53 µm (21 microinches). Results from a sensitivity study show that a ±15% deviation from the mean measured surface finish would have a minimal effect on coolant temperature, coolant flow rate, and fuel temperature. However, frictional losses from roughnesses greater than 1.5 µm (~60 microinches) produce a marked decrease in flow rate, causing fuel and coolant temperatures to rise sharply.

Donna Post Guillen; Timothy S. Yoder

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

PNNL: Biological Sciences: Fundamental and Computational Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

We perform Biological Systems Science research using prediction and We perform Biological Systems Science research using prediction and experimentation to understand the design of biological systems, translating the genome to functional capabilities for applications to energy, environment, and health. Microbial community research at PNNL is focusing on environment and energy processes, and rational design and development of new bioprocesses, while our health-related research is centering on how multicellular systems, tissues and organisms respond to disease and exposure to the environment. Dayle Smith PNNL and Collaborators Receive ARPA-E Award for Gas-to-Liquid Fuel Biocatalysis Congratulations to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory computational scientist Dr. Dayle Smith, who is part of a team that recently received a

213

RFC Sand Creek Development LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RFC Sand Creek Development LLC RFC Sand Creek Development LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name RFC Sand Creek Development LLC Place Aurora, Colorado Zip 80014 Product Subsidiary of Republic Financial Corporation set up to invest in Sand Creek Energy LLC, a planned gas to liquid facility. Coordinates 39.325162°, -79.54975° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.325162,"lon":-79.54975,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

214

Microsoft PowerPoint - Proceedings Cover Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RECOVERY OF LIQUID CO2 AND PARTICULATES FROM BIOMASS-FIRED RECOVERY OF LIQUID CO2 AND PARTICULATES FROM BIOMASS-FIRED POWER PLANTS USING PRESSURIZED COMBUSTION Alex G. Fassbender, P.E. Robert S. Henry ThermoEnergy Power Systems, LLC. www.thermoenergy.com Thomas E. Carnahan, Ph.D. University of Nevada, Reno www.unr.edu SUMMARY The novel i pressurized oxy-fuel or air-blown approach known as the ThermoEnergy Integrated Power System (TIPS) is a carbon-capture capable concept designed to produce electricity and steam from high-moisture fuels with near zero air emission of priority and toxic pollutants. The increased system pressure enables use of gas-to-liquid steam-hydroscrubbing to collect and remove pollutants and recover latent heat from water entrained or produced in the combustion process. The pressurized oxy-fuel approach also enables CO

215

Air Liquide Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Group Group Jump to: navigation, search Name Air Liquide Group Place Paris, France Zip 75321 Sector Hydro, Hydrogen Product Paris-based manufacturer of industrial and medical gases. The company is working on hydrogen production and gas-to-liquid technology. Coordinates 48.85693°, 2.3412° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.85693,"lon":2.3412,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

216

International Energy Outlook 2000 - Contacts  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The International Energy Outlook is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). General questions concerning the contents of the report should be referred to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222), Director, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. Specific questions about the report should be referred to Linda E. Doman (202/586-1041) or the following analysts: Report Contact World Energy Consumption Linda E. Doman - 202/586-1041 linda.doman@eia.doe.gov World Oil Markets G. Daniel Butler - 202/586-9503 gbutler@eia.doe.gov Bruce Bawks - 202/586-6579 bruce.bawks@eia.doe.gov Natural Gas Phyllis Martin - 202/586-9592 phyllis.martin@eia.doe.gov Gas-to-Liquids Technology William Trapmann - 202/586-6408 william.trapmann@eia.doe.gov Coal Michael Mellish - 202/586-2136

217

Microsoft Word - 201301_Fuels_News_Search.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Sasol advances gas-to-liquids plan in Louisiana" By Staff and Wire Reporters, TRIBLIVE/Business, December 4, 2012 South African chemical and energy company Sasol Ltd. said it could spend up to $21 billion to build a complex in Louisiana to turn natural gas into chemicals, diesel and other fuels. Part of that could be a $5 billion to $7 billion chemical plant, similar to the type of plant a Shell subsidiary has discussed building in Western Pennsylvania. The market for these plants, known as ethane crackers, is becoming increasingly crowded because of the supply of cheap natural gas from shale. Some experts have estimated that only half of the 10 potential projects may make it, with major competition for supplies, customers and even construction support. About half have committed

218

Investigation of Effects of Coal and Biomass Contaminants on the Performance of Water-Gas-Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of Coal Effects of Coal and Biomass Contaminants on the Performance of Water-Gas-Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Background Coal-Biomass-to-Liquids (CBTL) processes gasify coal, biomass, and mixtures of coal/ biomass to produce synthesis gas (syngas) that can be converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Positive benefits of these processes include the use of feedstocks from domestic sources and lower greenhouse gas production than can be achieved from using conventional petroleum-based fuels. However, syngas generated by coal and biomass co-gasification contains a myriad of trace contaminants that may poison the water- gas-shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts used in the gas-to-liquid processes. While the effect of coal contaminants on FT processes is well studied, more research

219

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical reaction media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the proposed research is to develop novel reactor operating strategies for the catalytic conversion of syngas to transportation grade fuels and oxygenates using near-critical (nc) fluids as reaction media. This will be achieved through systematic investigations aimed at a better fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical rate processes underlying catalytic syngas conversion in nc reaction media. Syngas conversion to fuels and fuel additives on Fe catalysts (Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) was investigated. Specific objectives are to investigate the effects of various nc media, their flow rates and operating pressure on syngas conversion, reactor temperature profiles, product selectivity and catalyst activity in trickle-bed reactors. Solvents that exhibit gas to liquid-like densities with relatively moderate pressure changes (from 25 to 60 bars) at typical syngas conversion temperatures (in the 220-280{degree}C range) will be chosen as reaction media.

Subramaniam, B.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Stora Enso, North America  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stora Enso North America Stora Enso North America Corporate Headquarters: Wisconsin Rapids, WI Global Headquarters: Helsinki, Finland Proposed Facility Location: Wisconsin Rapids, WI Description: The project will construct and operate a thermal gasification and gas-to-liquids plant at Wisconsin Rapids Mill and produce liquid biofuels that will ultimately be converted into renewable diesel. CEO or Equivalent: Mark A. Suwyn, Chairman and CEO Participants: TRI; Syntroleum; DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and the Alabama Center for Paper and Bioresource Engineering at Auburn University Production: * 370 barrels per day (approximately under 5,500,000 gallons per year) of Fischer-Tropsch liquids Technology and Feedstocks: * 497 bone dry tons per day of woody biomass comprised of mill residues and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

International Energy Outlook 2013  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2013 Projections of liquid fuels and other petroleum production in five cases Table G3.World nonpetroleum liquids production by region and country, Reference case, 2010-2040 (million barrels per day) Region/country History (estimates) Projections Average annual percent change, 2010-2040 2010 2011 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OPEC a 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 12.5 Biofuels b 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -- Coal-to-liquids 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -- Gas-to-liquids 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 12.5 Non-OPEC 1.6 1.6 1.9 2.3 2.8 3.3 3.8 4.3 3.5 OECD 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.7 2.4 Biofuels b 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.8 Coal-to-liquids 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 15.0 Gas-to-liquids

222

An integrative approach to energy, carbon, and redox metabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

SciTech Connect

The broader goal of this project was to merge knowledge from genomic, metabolic, ultrastructural and other perspectives to understand how cyanobacteria live, adapt and are regulated. This understanding aids in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology efforts using this group of organisms that contribute greatly to global photosynthetic CO2 fixation and that are closely related to the ancestors of chloroplasts. This project focused on photosynthesis and respiration in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which is spontaneously transformable and has a known genome sequence. Modification of these fundamental processes in this organism can lead to improved carbon sequestration and hydrogen production, as well as to generation of high-quality biomass. In our GTL-supported studies at Arizona State University we focus on cell structure and cell physiology in Synechocystis, with particular emphasis on thylakoid membrane formation and on metabolism related to photosynthesis and respiration. Results on (a) thylakoid membrane biogenesis, (b) fluxes through central carbon utilization pathways, and (c) distribution mechanisms between carbon storage compounds are presented. Together, these results help pave the way for metabolic engineering efforts that are likely to result in improved solar-powered carbon sequestration and bioenergy conversion. Fueled by the very encouraging results obtained in this project, we already have attracted interest from major companies in the use of cyanobacteria for biofuel production.

Vermaas, Willem F.J.

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

223

Thermal evaluation of uranium silicide miniplates irradiated at high heat flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gas Test Loop (GTL)-1 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to assess corrosion performance of proposed booster fuel at heat flux levels ~30% above the design operating condition. Sixteen miniplates fabricated from 25% enriched, high-density (4.8 g U/cm3) U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel with 6061 aluminum cladding were subjected to peak beginning of cycle (BOC) heat fluxes ranging from 411 to 593 W/cm2. No adverse impacts to the miniplates were observed at these high heat flux levels. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux for an as-run cycle average effective ATR south lobe power of 25.4 MW(t). Miniplate heat flux levels and fuel, cladding, hydroxide, and coolant–hydroxide interface temperatures were calculated using the average hydroxide thickness on each miniplate measured during post-irradiation examination. The purpose of this study was to obtain a best estimate of the as-run experiment temperatures to aid in establishing acceptable heat flux levels and designing fuel qualification experiments for this fuel type.

Donna P. Guillen

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.

Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; Donald Lyons; Chris Atkinson; Wenwei Xie; Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

225

Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

The Fuel Processing Research Facility - A Platform for the Conduct of Synthesis Gas Technology R&D  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vision 21 is the U. S. Department of Energy's initiative to deploy high efficiency, ultraclean co-production coal conversion power plants in the twenty-first century. These plants will consist of power and co-production modules, which are integrated to meet specific power and chemical markets. A variety of fuel gas processing technology issues involving gas separations, cleanup, gas-to-liquid fuels production and chemical synthesis, to mention a few, will be addressed by the program. The overall goal is to effectively eliminate, at competitive costs, environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels for producing electricity and transportation fuels. The Fuel Processing Research Facility (FPRF) was developed as a fuel-flexible platform to address many of these technology needs. The facility utilizes a simplified syngas generator that is capable of producing 2,000 standard cubic feet per hour of 900 degree Celsius and 30 atmosphere synthesis gas that can be tailored to the gas composition of interest. It was built on a ''mid-scale'' level in an attempt to successfully branch the traditionally difficult scale-up from laboratory to pilot scale. When completed, the facility will provide a multi-faceted R&D area for the testing of fuel cells, gas separation technologies, and other gas processing unit operations.

Monahan, Michael J.; Berry, David A.; Gardner, Todd H.; Lyons, K. David

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

228

Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly report No. 10, October--December 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the work performed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) during the tenth program quarter from October 1 to December 31, 1995. The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this quarter, progress in the following areas has been made: Short duration activity test on catalyst IGT-MS-103 showed no deactivation over a 6 hour period and preliminary data of CS{sub 2} reaction with H{sub 2} at 400 {minus} 410{degree}C and at atmospheric pressure indicates that IGT-HS-103 is an active catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis from CS{sub 2} and H{sub 2}.

Erekson, E.J.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Research Opportunities for Fischer-Tropsch Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was discovered in Germany in the 1920's and has been studied by every generation since that time. As technology and chemistry, in general, improved through the decades, new insights, catalysts, and technologies were added to the Fischer-Tropsch process, improving it and making it more economical with each advancement. Opportunities for improving the Fischer-Tropsch process and making it more economical still exist. This paper gives an overview of the present Fischer-Tropsch processes and offers suggestions for areas where a research investment could improve those processes. Gas-to-liquid technology, which utilizes the Fischer Tropsch process, consists of three principal steps: Production of synthesis gas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from natural gas, the production of liquid fuels from syngas using a Fischer-Tropsch process, and upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Each step will be studied for opportunities for improvement and areas that are not likely to reap significant benefits without significant investment.

Jackson, Nancy B.

1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

230

Safety and Techno-Economic Analysis of Solvent Selection for Supercritical Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fisher-Tropsch Synthesis is a primary pathway for gas-to-liquid technology. In order to overcome commercial problems associated with reaction and transport phenomena, the use of supercritical solvents has been proposed to increase chemical conversion and improve temperature control. One of the major challenges in designing the supercritical FTS systems is the solvent selection. Numerous alternatives exist and should be screened based on relevant criteria. The main aim of the thesis was to develop a safety metric that can be incorporated in the selection of an optimal supercritical solvent or a mixture of solvents. The objective was to minimize the cost while satisfying safety constraints or to establish tradeoffs between cost and safety. Hydrocarbons from C3 to C9 were identified as feasible solvents for FTS purposes. The choice of these solvents is dependent on their mixture critical temperature and pressure requirements that need to be satisfied upon entry into the FTS reactor. A safety metric system was developed in order to compare the risk issues associated with using the aforementioned solvents. In addition, an economic analysis of using the different solvents was performed. Finally, a case study was solved to illustrate the use of the proposed metrics and the selection of solvents based on safety and techno-economic criteria.

Hamad, Natalie

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Biomimetic methane oxidation. Final report, October 1, 1989--June 1, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transportation fuels are a critical energy commodity and they impact nearly every sector of this country. The need for transportation fuels is projected well into the next century. Consequently, there is a strong emphasis on the economical conversion of other domestic fossil energy resources to liquid hydrocarbons that can be used as transportation fuels. Natural gas is currently a readily available resource that has a positive future outlook considering its known and anticipated reserves. There is intense government and industrial interest in developing economic technologies to convert natural gas to liquid fuels. Methane, CH{sub 4}, is the primary hydrocarbon (85-95%) in natural gas. This document covers the following: production soluable of methane monooxygenase; production of particulate methane monooxygenase; production of methane monooxygenase in continuous culture; subunit resolution for active site identification of methylosinus trichosporium OB3b soluble methane monooxygenase; the synthesis and characterization of new copper coordination complexes contairing the asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand application to enzyme active site modeling; the synthesis and characterization of new iron coordination complexes utilizing an asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand; further characterization of new bionuclear iron complexes.

Watkins, B.E.; Satcher, J.H. Jr.; Droege, M.W.; Taylor, R.T.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Proceedings of the fuels technology contractors review meeting  

SciTech Connect

The Fuels Technology Contractors Review Meeting was held November 16-18, 1993, at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). METC periodically provides an opportunity to bring together all of the R&D participants in a DOE-sponsored contractors review meeting to present key results of their research and to provide technology transfer to the active research community and to the interested public. This meeting was previously called the Natural Gas Technology Contractors Review Meeting. This year it was expanded to include DOE-sponsored research on oil shale and tar sands and so was retitled the Fuels Technology Contractors Review Meeting. Current research activities include efforts in both natural gas and liquid fuels. The natural gas portion of the meeting included discussions of results summarizing work being conducted in fracture systems, both natural and induced; drilling, completion, and stimulation research; resource characterization; delivery and storage; gas to liquids research; and environmental issues. The meeting also included project and technology summaries on research in oil shale, tar sands, and mild coal gasification, and summaries of work in natural-gas fuel cells and natural-gas turbines. The format included oral and poster session presentations. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

Malone, R.D. [ed.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Syntroleum plant is mechanically complete and currently undergoing start-up. The fuel production and demonstration plan is near completion. The study on the impact of small footprint plant (SFP) fuel on engine performance is about half-completed. Cold start testing has been completed. Preparations have been completed for testing the fuel in diesel electric generators in Alaska. Preparations are in progress for testing the fuel in bus fleets at Denali National Park and the Washington Metropolitan Transit Authority. The experiments and analyses conducted during this project show that Fischer-Tropsch (FT) gas-to-liquid diesel fuel can easily be used in a diesel engine with little to no modifications. Additionally, based on the results and discussion presented, further improvements in performance and emissions can be realized by configuring the engine to take advantage of FT diesel fuel's properties. The FT fuel also shows excellent cold start properties and enabled the engine tested to start at more the ten degrees than traditional fuels would allow. This plant produced through this project will produce large amounts of FT fuel. This will allow the fuel to be tested extensively, in current, prototype, and advanced diesel engines. The fuel may also contribute to the nation's energy security. The military has expressed interest in testing the fuel in aircraft and ground vehicles.

Steve Bergin

2003-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

235

Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly progress report, June--September 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each utilize catalysts and sulfur containing intermediates: (1) to convert natural gas to CS{sub 2}, and (2) to convert CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this first quarter, progress in the following areas has been made. One high surface area molybdenum catalyst has been prepared. An existing unit at IGT is being modified to accommodate the sulfur feedstocks and the higher temperatures(> 1300{degrees}K) required for studying the reactions of hydrogen sulfide and methane as proposed in Tasks 2 through 5. An HP 5890 gas chromatograph with a TCD(thermal conductivity detector) for detecting fixed gases including hydrogen and an FPD(flame photometric detector) for detecting sulfur compounds was purchased using SMP funds and has been received.

Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Bioechnology of indirect liquefaction. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project on biotechnology of indirect liquefaction was focused on conversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels using a two-stage, acidogenic and solventogenic, anaerobic bioconversion process. The acidogenic fermentation used a novel and versatile organism, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, which was fully capable of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source for organic acid production. In extended batch CO fermentations the organism was induced to produce butyrate at the expense of acetate at low pH values. Long-term, steady-state operation was achieved during continuous CO fermentations with this organism, and at low pH values (a pH of 6.0 or less) minor amounts of butanol and ethanol were produced. During continuous, steady-state fermentations of CO with cell recycle, concentrations of mixed acids and alcohols were achieved (approximately 12 g/l and 2 g/l, respectively) which are high enough for efficient conversion in stage two of the indirect liquefaction process. The metabolic pathway to produce 4-carbon alcohols from CO was a novel discovery and is believed to be unique to our CO strain of B. methylotrophicum. In the solventogenic phase, the parent strain ATCC 4259 of Clostridium acetobutylicum was mutagenized using nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate. The E-604 mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum showed improved characteristics as compared to parent strain ATCC 4259 in batch fermentation of carbohydrates.

Datta, R.; Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.J.; Soni, B.; Zeikus, J.G.; Grethlein, H.

1990-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

237

Bioechnology of indirect liquefaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project on biotechnology of indirect liquefaction was focused on conversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels using a two-stage, acidogenic and solventogenic, anaerobic bioconversion process. The acidogenic fermentation used a novel and versatile organism, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, which was fully capable of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source for organic acid production. In extended batch CO fermentations the organism was induced to produce butyrate at the expense of acetate at low pH values. Long-term, steady-state operation was achieved during continuous CO fermentations with this organism, and at low pH values (a pH of 6.0 or less) minor amounts of butanol and ethanol were produced. During continuous, steady-state fermentations of CO with cell recycle, concentrations of mixed acids and alcohols were achieved (approximately 12 g/l and 2 g/l, respectively) which are high enough for efficient conversion in stage two of the indirect liquefaction process. The metabolic pathway to produce 4-carbon alcohols from CO was a novel discovery and is believed to be unique to our CO strain of B. methylotrophicum. In the solventogenic phase, the parent strain ATCC 4259 of Clostridium acetobutylicum was mutagenized using nitrosoguanidine and ethyl methane sulfonate. The E-604 mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum showed improved characteristics as compared to parent strain ATCC 4259 in batch fermentation of carbohydrates.

Datta, R.; Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.J.; Soni, B.; Zeikus, J.G.; Grethlein, H.

1990-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

238

Major Modification Determination Process Utilized for Proposed Idaho National Laboratory Projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past three years, several new projects with the potential for major modifications to existing facilities have been considered for implementation at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These projects were designated to take place in existing nuclear facilities with existing documented safety analyses. 10 CFR 830.206 requires the contractor for a major modification to a Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to obtain Department of Energy (DOE) approval for the nuclear facility design criteria to be used for preparation of a preliminary documented safety analysis (PDSA), as well as creation and approval of the PDSA, before the contractor can procure materials or components or begin construction on the project. Given the significant effort and expense of preparation and approval of a PDSA, a major modification determination for new projects is warranted to determine if the rigorous requirements of a major modification are actually required. Furthermore, performing a major modification determination helps to ensure that important safety aspects of a project are appropriately considered prior to modification construction or equipment procurement. The projects considered for major modification status at the INL included: treatment and packaging of unirradiated, sodium-bonded highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and miscellaneous casting scrap in the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF); post irradiation examination of Advance Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) fuel in the MFC Analytical Laboratory (AL); the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) gas test loop (GTL); and the hydraulic shuttle irradiation system (HSIS) at ATR. The major modification determinations for three of the proposed projects resulted in a negative major modification. On the other hand, the major modification determination for the GTL project concluded that the project would require a major modification. This paper discusses the process, methods, and considerations used by the INL for the four major modification determinations. Three of the four major modification determinations discussed herein were completed using the guidance specified in the draft of DOE STD-1189, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process.” DOE-STD-1189 was released as a draft document in March 2007 and provides guidance for integrating safety considerations into the early design activities for constructing new facilities or making modifications to existing nuclear facilities. The fourth major modification determination was prepared prior to the existence of DOE STD-1189 and was evaluated solely by the definition of a major modification given in 10 CFR 830.206. For all four projects, consideration was given to: • Facility hazard categorization change and material inventory • Facility footprint change with the potential to adversely affect credited safety function • New or changed processes resulting in a change to the safety basis • The use of new technology or equipment not approved for use in the facility • The need for new or revised safety basis controls • Hazards not previously evaluated in the safety basis.

Michael A. Lehto, Ph.D.; Boyd D. Christensen

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Boosted Fast Flux Loop Alternative Cooling Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gas Test Loop (GTL) Project was instituted to develop the means for conducting fast neutron irradiation tests in a domestic radiation facility. It made use of booster fuel to achieve the high neutron flux, a hafnium thermal neutron absorber to attain the high fast-to-thermal flux ratio, a mixed gas temperature control system for maintaining experiment temperatures, and a compressed gas cooling system to remove heat from the experiment capsules and the hafnium thermal neutron absorber. This GTL system was determined to provide a fast (E > 0.1 MeV) flux greater than 1.0E+15 n/cm2-s with a fast-to-thermal flux ratio in the vicinity of 40. However, the estimated system acquisition cost from earlier studies was deemed to be high. That cost was strongly influenced by the compressed gas cooling system for experiment heat removal. Designers were challenged to find a less expensive way to achieve the required cooling. This report documents the results of the investigation leading to an alternatively cooled configuration, referred to now as the Boosted Fast Flux Loop (BFFL). This configuration relies on a composite material comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) in an aluminum matrix to transfer heat from the experiment to pressurized water cooling channels while at the same time providing absorption of thermal neutrons. Investigations into the performance this configuration might achieve showed that it should perform at least as well as its gas-cooled predecessor. Physics calculations indicated that the fast neutron flux averaged over the central 40 cm (16 inches) relative to ATR core mid-plane in irradiation spaces would be about 1.04E+15 n/cm2-s. The fast-to-thermal flux ratio would be in excess of 40. Further, the particular configuration of cooling channels was relatively unimportant compared with the total amount of water in the apparatus in determining performance. Thermal analyses conducted on a candidate configuration showed the design of the water coolant and Al-Hf alloy heat sink system is capable of maintaining all system components below their maximum temperature limits. The maximum temperature of this conduction cooling system, 224.2°C (435.6 °F) occurs in a small, localized region in the heat sink structure near the core mid-plane. The total coolant flow rate requirement for this configuration is 207 L/min (54.7 gpm). The calculated Flow Instability Ratio and Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio for this configuration under nominal conditions are 6.5 and 8.0, respectively, which safely exceed the minimum values of 2.0. Materials and fabrication issues inspection revealed that the neutron absorber would probably best be made from powdered Al3Hf mixed with aluminum powder and extruded or hot isostatically pressed. Although Al3Hf has not been specifically studied extensively, its mechanical and chemical properties should be very much like Al3Zr, which has been studied. Its behavior under irradiation should be very satisfactory, and resistance to corrosion will be investigated to a limited extent in planned miniplate irradiation tests in ATR. Pressurized water systems needed to effect heat removal are already available in the ATR complex, and mixed gas temperature control systems needed to trim experiment temperatures have been engineered and need only be fabricated and installed. In sum, it appears the alternately cooled configuration arrived at can be very successful. The cost estimate for this configuration indicates to

Glen R. Longhurst; Donna Post Guillen; James R. Parry; Douglas L. Porter; Bruce W. Wallace

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Implementation Plans for a Systems Microbiology and Extremophile Research Facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Introduction Biological organisms long ago solved many problems for which scientists and engineers seek solutions. Microbes in particular offer an astonishingly diverse set of capabilities that can help revolutionize our approach to solving many important DOE problems. For example, photosynthetic organisms can generate hydrogen from light while simultaneously sequestering carbon. Others can produce enzymes that break down cellulose and other biomass to produce liquid fuels. Microbes in water and soil can capture carbon and store it in the earth and ocean depths. Understanding the dynamic interaction between living organisms and the environment is critical to predicting and mitigating the impacts of energy-production-related activities on the environment and human health. Collectively, microorganisms contain most of the biochemical diversity on Earth and they comprise nearly one-half of its biomass. They primary impact the planet by acting as catalysts of biogeochemical cycles; they capture light energy and fix CO2 in the worlds oceans, they degrade plant polymers and convert them to humus in soils, they weather rocks and facilitate mineral precipitation. Although the ability of selected microorganisms to participate in these processes is known, they rarely live in monoculture but rather function within communities. In spite of this, little is known about the composition of microbial communities and how individual species function within them. We lack an understanding of the nature of the individual organisms and their genes, how they interact to perform complex functions such as energy and materials exchange, how they sense and respond to their environment and how they evolve and adapt to environmental change. Understanding these aspects of microbes and their communities would be transformational with far-reaching impacts on climate, energy and human health. This knowledge would create a foundation for predicting their behavior and, ultimately, manipulating them to solve DOE problems. Recent advances in whole-genome sequencing for a variety of organisms and improvements in high-throughput instrumentation have contributed to a rapid transition of the biological research paradigm towards understanding biology at a systems level. As a result, biology is evolving from a descriptive to a quantitative, ultimately predictive science where the ability to collect and productively use large amounts of biological data is crucial. Understanding how the ensemble of proteins in cells gives rise to biological outcomes is fundamental to systems biology. These advances will require new technologies and approaches to measure and track the temporal and spatial disposition of proteins in cells and how networks of proteins and other regulatory molecules give rise to specific activities. The DOE has a strong interest in promoting the application of systems biology to understanding microbial function and this comprises a major focus of its Genomics:GTL program. A major problem in pursuing what has been termed “systems microbiology” is the lack of the facilities and infrastructure for conducting this new style of research. To solve this problem, the Genomics:GTL program has funded a number of large-scale research centers focused on either mission-oriented outcomes, such as bioenergy, or basic technologies, such as gene sequencing, high-throughput proteomics or the identification of protein complexes. Although these centers generate data that will be useful to the research community, their scientific goals are relatively narrow and are not designed to accommodate the general community need for advanced capabilities for systems microbiology research.

Wiley, H. S.

2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Specification of Surface Roughness for Hydraulic Flow Test Plates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study was performed to determine the surface roughness of the corrosion layer on aluminum clad booster fuel plates for the proposed Gas Test Loop (GTL) system to be incorporated into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. A layer of boehmite (a crystalline, non-porous gamma-alumina hydrate) is typically pre-formed on the surface of the fuel cladding prior to exposure to reactor operation to prevent the uncontrolled buildup of corrosion product on the surface. A representative sample coupon autoclaved with the ATR driver fuel to produce the boehmite layer was analyzed using optical profilometry to determine the mean surface roughness, a parameter that can have significant impact on the coolant flow past the fuel plates. This information was used to specify the surface finish of mockup fuel plates for a hydraulic flow test model. The purpose of the flow test is to obtain loss coefficients describing the resistance of the coolant flow paths, which are necessary for accurate thermal hydraulic analyses of the water-cooled booster fuel assembly. It is recommended that the surface roughness of the boehmite layer on the fuel cladding be replicated for the flow test. While it is very important to know the order of magnitude of the surface roughness, this value does not need to be matched exactly. Maintaining a reasonable dimensional tolerance for the surface finish on each side of the 12 mockup fuel plates would ensure relative uniformity in the flow among the four coolant channels. Results obtained from thermal hydraulic analyses indicate that ±15% deviation from a surface finish (i.e., Ra) of 0.53 ìm would have a minimal effect on coolant temperature, coolant flow rate, and fuel temperature.

Donna Post Guillen; Timothy S. Yoder

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Economical analysis of a new gas to ethylene technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ethylene is one of the most important petrochemical intermediates and feedstocks for many different products. The motivating force of this work is to compare a new process of ethylene production developed at Texas A&M University to the most common processes. Ethylene is produced commercially using a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from ethane to heavy fuel oils. Of them, the thermal cracking of ethane and propane using a fired tubular heater is the most common process in the United States. In Europe and Japan, where natural gas is not abundant, thermal cracking of naphtha using a fired heater is the most common process. In addition to these processes; ethylene could also be produced from crude oil by autothermic and fluidized bed techniques and from coal and heavy oils by synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. At Texas A&M University, a group of researchers developed a new process that can convert natural gas into liquids (GTL) or to ethylene (GTE). This technology is a direct conversion method that does not require producing syngas. When selecting a process for ethylene production, the dominant factor is the selection of hydrocarbon feedstocks. Based upon plant capacity of 321 million pounds of ethylene per year, this study has shown that using natural gas, as a feedstock, is more economical than using ethane, propane, naphtha, and other feedstocks. Therefore, it is more economical to convert natural gas directly to ethylene than separating ethane or propane from natural gas and then converting it to ethylene. A process simulation package ProMax is used to run the GTE process; and a software program, Capcost, is used to evaluate fixed capital costs of the GTE process. Finally, the cost index is used to update the cost of the other processes of ethylene production today.

Abedi, Ali Abdulhamid

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

ANL technical support program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Annual report, October 1991--September 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A program was established for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to evaluate factors that are anticipated to affect waste glass reaction during repository disposal, especially in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. This report covers progress in FY 1992 on the following tasks: 1. A compendium of the characteristics of high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glass has been written. 2. A critical review of important parameters that affect the reactivity of glass in an unsaturated environment is being prepared. 3. A series of tests has been started to evaluate the reactivity of fully radioactive glasses in a high-level waste repository environment and compare it to the reactivity of synthetic, nonradioactive glasses of similar composition. 4. The effect of radiation upon the durability of waste glasses at a high glass surface area-to-liquid volume (SA/V) ratio and a high gas-to-liquid volume ratio will be assessed. These tests address both vapor and high SA/V liquid conditions. 5. A series of tests is being performed to compare the extent of reaction of nuclear waste glasses at various SAN ratios. Such differences in the SAN ratio may significantly affect glass durability. 6. A series of natural analogue tests is being analyzed to demonstrate a meaningful relationship between experimental and natural alteration conditions. 7. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM), infrared spectroscopys and nuclear resonant profiling are being used to assess the glass/water reaction pathway by identifying intermediate phases that appear on the reacting glass. Additionally, colloids from the leach solutions are being studied using AEM. 8. A technical review of AEM results is being provided. 9. A study of water diffusion involving nuclear waste glasses is being performed. 10. A mechanistically based model is being developed to predict the performance of glass over repository-relevant time periods.

Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Emery, J.W.; Feng, X.; Gerding, T.J.; Gong, M.; Hoh, J.C.; Mazer, J.J.; Wronkiewicz, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bourcier, W.L.; Morgan, L.E.; Newton, L.; Nielsen, J.K.; Phillips, B.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Li, H.; Tomozawa, M. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLOW MODEL FOR FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory at the Idaho National Laboratory was established to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective of reducing dependence on imported fossil fuels. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions are performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime, which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer. Our team is developing a research tool to aid in understanding the physicochemical processes occurring in the SBCR. A robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) consisting of thirteen species, which are CO reactant, H2 reactant, hydrocarbon product, and H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid plus catalyst is outlined. Mechanistic submodels for interfacial momentum transfer in the churn-turbulent flow regime are incorporated, along with bubble breakup/coalescence and two-phase turbulence submodels. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield. The model includes heat generation produced by the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. A property method approach is employed to incorporate vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) in a robust manner. Physical and thermodynamic properties as functions of changes in both pressure and temperature are obtained from VLE calculations performed external to the CMFD solver. The novelty of this approach is in its simplicity, as well as its accuracy over a specified temperature and pressure range.

Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Energy technology assessments for energy security -- Working Group report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the first phase of the evaluation process the group identified technology areas that are clearly important for reducing US vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. The important technologies were then evaluated against the following specific criteria: Additions to world oil and gas reserves outside the Middle East; increase in efficiency in the oil consuming sectors; displacement of petroleum-based fuels; reduction in demand for oil-fueled transportation; increase in the ability to switch quickly away from petroleum based fuels; increases in domestic and international oil stocks; reduction in world oil demand; and additions to domestic, non-petroleum electrical generating capacity (important in the ultimate term). The technology areas deemed by the members of the working group to be most important are: (1) In the near term, technologies related to improved recovery of natural gas, the conversion of natural gas to liquids, advanced liquefaction of coal, the development of alternatively fueled vehicles, automobiles and light truck improvements to increase efficiency, and vehicles that operate on alternative fuels. (2) In the long term, these technologies, as well as those related to hydrogen production, storage and utilization, biomass derived fuels, electric and hybrid vehicles, building heating and cooling using solar energy, more efficient appliances, improved HVAC, and advanced building materials and envelopes were also judged to be most important. (3) In the ultimate term (>2030) other technologies have the possibility to join with these to increase energy security. These are improved oil and gas exploration and extraction, heavy oil and hydrocarbon conversion, gas recovery from unconventional sources, advanced fission reactors and fuel cycles, solar generation of electricity, and fusion energy. An increase in US electrical generating capacity is also thought to bear directly on energy security in this time-frame.

Lamont, A.D.; Schock, R.N.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Final Report for NFE-07-00912: Development of Model Fuels Experimental Engine Data Base & Kinetic Modeling Parameter Sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The automotive and engine industries are in a period of very rapid change being driven by new emission standards, new types of after treatment, new combustion strategies, the introduction of new fuels, and drive for increased fuel economy and efficiency. The rapid pace of these changes has put more pressure on the need for modeling of engine combustion and performance, in order to shorten product design and introduction cycles. New combustion strategies include homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), partial-premixed combustion compression ignition (PCCI), and dilute low temperature combustion which are being developed for lower emissions and improved fuel economy. New fuels include bio-fuels such as ethanol or bio-diesel, drop-in bio-derived fuels and those derived from new crude oil sources such as gas-to-liquids, coal-to-liquids, oil sands, oil shale, and wet natural gas. Kinetic modeling of the combustion process for these new combustion regimes and fuels is necessary in order to allow modeling and performance assessment for engine design purposes. In this research covered by this CRADA, ORNL developed and supplied experimental data related to engine performance with new fuels and new combustion strategies along with interpretation and analysis of such data and consulting to Reaction Design, Inc. (RD). RD performed additional analysis of this data in order to extract important parameters and to confirm engine and kinetic models. The data generated was generally published to make it available to the engine and automotive design communities and also to the Reaction Design Model Fuels Consortium (MFC).

Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the work performed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) during the second program quarter from October 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993, under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92114. This program has co-ordinated funding for Task 1 from IGT`s Sustaining Membership Program (SMP), while DOE is funding Tasks 2--8. Progress in all tasks are reported. The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each utilize catalysts and sulfur containing intermediates: (1) to convert natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) to convert CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this quarter, progress in the following areas has been made. An existing unit at IGT was modified to accommodate the sulfur feedstocks and the higher temperatures (>1300{degree}K) required for studying the reactions of hydrogen sulfide and methane as proposed in Tasks 2--5. An HP 5890 gas chromatograph with a TCD (thermal conductivity detector) for detecting fixed gases including hydrogen and an FPD (flame photometric detector) for detecting sulfur compounds was purchased using SMP funds and has been installed and calibrated. A total of seventy runs on MoS{sub 2}, WS{sub 2}, ZrS{sub 2} catalysts as well as quartz wool were performed. As high as 61% H{sub 2}S conversion was observed.

Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly progress report, January 1994--March 1994, final version  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the work performed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) during the third program quarter from January 1, 1994 to March 31, 1994, under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92114. This program has coordinated funding for Task I from IGT`s Sustaining Membership Program(SMP), while DOE is funding Tasks 2 through 8. Progress in all tasks is reported here. The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each utilize catalysts and sulfur containing intermediates: (1) to convert natural gas to CS{sub 2}, and (2) to convert CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this quarter, progress in the following areas has been made. Five catalysts for step I have been prepared. A total of thirty runs with catalysts, IGT-MS-103 and IGT-MS-105, were performed. At 5 seconds residence time and above 1000 {degrees}C the hydrogen sulfide decomposition approached equilibrium. H{sub 2}S conversion was 80% at 1131 {degrees}C. A total of fourteen runs were performed for carbon deposition/regeneration studies. Six catalysts as well as quartz wool were used in these studies. During the methane decomposition runs, carbon formation was found on the catalyst surface. During the subsequent hydrogen sulfide regeneration runs, a significant amount of carbon disulfide was detected in the product stream. Equilibrium calculations for the reaction of carbon with sulfur and with hydrogen sulfide were also performed in this quarter. At 1227{degrees}C, 1 atm, as high as 80% carbon conversion can be obtained at equilibrium.

Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

6th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and the Environment  

SciTech Connect

Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology is an annual two-day event gathering the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investigating complex systems. In recognition of the fundamental similarity between the scientific problems addressed in environmental science and systems biology studies at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels, the 2007 Symposium featured global leaders in “Systems Biology and the Environment.” The objective of the 2007 “Systems Biology and the Environment” International Symposium was to stimulate interdisciplinary thinking and research that spans systems biology and environmental science. This Symposium was well aligned with the DOE’s Genomics:GTL program efforts to achieve scientific objectives for each of the three DOE missions: • Develop biofuels as a major secure energy source for this century, • Develop biological solutions for intractable environmental problems, and • Understand biosystems’ climate impacts and assess sequestration strategies Our scientific program highlighted world-class research exemplifying these priorities. The Symposium featured 45 minute lectures from 12 researchers including: Penny/Sallie Chisholm of MIT gave the keynote address “Tiny Cells, Global Impact: What Prochlorococcus Can Teach Us About Systems Biology”, plus Jim Fredrickson of PNNL, Nitin Baliga of ISB, Steve Briggs of UCSD, David Cox of Perlegen Sciences, Antoine Danchin of Institut Pasteur, John Delaney of the U of Washington, John Groopman of Johns Hopkins, Ben Kerr of the U of Washington, Steve Koonin of BP, Elliott Meyerowitz of Caltech, and Ed Rubin of LBNL. The 2007 Symposium promoted DOE’s three mission areas among scientists from multiple disciplines representing academia, non-profit research institutions, and the private sector. As in all previous Symposia, we had excellent attendance of participants representing 20-30 academic or research-oriented facilities along with 25-30 private corporations from 5-10 countries. To broaden the audience for the Symposium and ensure the continued accessibility of the presentations, we made the presentation videos available afterward on the ISB’s website.

Galitski, Timothy, P.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Microbially-Enhanced Redox Solution Reoxidation for Sour Natural Gas Sweetening  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The specific objective of this project are to advance the technology and improve the economics of the commercial iron-based chelate processes such as LO-CAT II and SulFerox process utilizing biologically enhanced reoxidation of the redox solutions used in these processes. The project is based on the use of chelated ferric iron as the catalyst for the production of elemental sulfur, and then oxidizing bacteria, such as Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans (ATCC 23270) as an oxidizer. The regeneration of Fe{sup 3+} - chelate is accomplished by the use of these same microbes under mild conditions at 25-30 C and at atmospheric pressure to minimize the chelate degradation process. The pH of the redox solution was observed to be a key process parameter. Other parameters such as temperature, total iron concentration, gas to liquid ratio and bacterial cell densities also influence the overall process. The second part of this project includes experimental data and a kinetic model of microbial H{sub 2}S removal from sour natural gas using thiobacillus species. In the experimental part, a series of experiments were conducted with a commercial chelated iron catalyst at pH ranges from 8.7 to 9.2 using a total iron concentration range from 925 ppm to 1050 ppm in the solution. Regeneration of the solution was carried out by passing air through the solution. Iron oxidizing bacteria were used at cell densities of 2.3 x 10{sup 7}cells/ml for optimum effective performance. In the modeling part, oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} ions by the iron oxidizing bacteria - Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans was studied for application to a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The factors that can directly affect the oxidation rate such as dilution rate, temperature, and pH were analyzed. The growth of the microorganism was assumed to follow Monod type of growth kinetics. Dilution rate had influence on the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron. Higher dilution rates caused washout of the biomass. The oxidation rate was highly pH sensitive. Specific growth is a function of pH of the both. The specific growth rate had a maximum value at around 2.2. A dynamic model for a packed bed fluid reactor is also developed and simulated. A feedback control loop is proposed to control the production under feed disturbances.

Kenneth Brezinsky

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Effect of Channel Configurations for Tritium Transfer in Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a very High temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) concept, will provide the first demonstration of a closed-loop Brayton cycle at a commercial scale of a few hundred megawatts electric and hydrogen production. The power conversion system (PCS) for the NGNP will take advantage of the significantly higher reactor outlet temperatures of the VHTR to provide higher efficiencies than can be achieved in the current generation of light water reactors. Besides demonstrating a system design that can be used directly for subsequent commercial deployment, the NGNP will demonstrate key technology elements that can be used in subsequent advanced power conversion systems for other Generation IV reactors. In anticipation of the design, development and procurement of an advanced power conversion system for the NGNP, the system integration of the NGNP and hydrogen plant was initiated to identify the important design and technology options that must be considered in evaluating the performance of the proposed NGNP. In the VHTR system, an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), which transfers heat from the reactor core to the electricity or hydrogen production system is one key component, and its effectiveness is directly related to the system overall efficiency. In the VHTRs, the gas fluids used for coolant generally have poor heat transfer capability, so it requires very large surface area for a given condition. For this reason, a compact heat exchanger (CHE), which is widely used in industry especially for gasto-gas or gas-to-liquid heat exchange is considered as a potential candidate for an IHX replacing the classical shell and tube type heat exchanger. A compact heat exchanger is arbitrary referred to be a heat exchanger having a surface area density greater than 700 m2/m3. The compactness is usually achieved by fins and micro-channels, and leads to the enormous heat transfer enhancement and size reduction. The surface area density is the total heat transfer area divided by the volume of the heat exchanger. In the case of PCHE units, the heat transfer surface area density may be as high as 2,500 m2/m3. This high compactness implies an appreciable reduction in material reducing cost. In this study, heat transfer and tritium penetration analyses have been performed for two different channel configurations of the PCHE; (1) standard and (2) off-set. One of the goals of this study was to determine whether offsetting the hot and cold streams would significantly reduce the tritium flux, and whether or not it would affect the heat transfer significantly.

Chang Oh; Eung Kim; Robert Shrake; Mike Patterson

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

PROGRESS TOWARDS MODELING OF FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The model includes heat generation due to the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. Results of the CMFD simulations (similar to those shown in Figure 1) will be presented.

Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Steven P. Antal

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLOW MODEL FOR FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The model includes heat generation due to the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. Results of the CMFD simulations (similar to those shown in Figure 1) will be presented.

Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Real-Time Gene Expression Profiling of Live Shewanella Oneidensis Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this proposal is to make real-time observations of gene expression in live Shewanella oneidensis cells with high sensitivity and high throughput. Gene expression, a central process to all life, is stochastic because most genes often exist in one or two copies per cell. Although the central dogma of molecular biology has been proven beyond doubt, due to insufficient sensitivity, stochastic protein production has not been visualized in real time in an individual cell at the single-molecule level. We report the first direct observation of single protein molecules as they are generated, one at a time in a single live E. coli cell, yielding quantitative information about gene expression [Science 2006; 311: 1600-1603]. We demonstrated a general strategy for live-cell single-molecule measurements: detection by localization. It is difficult to detect single fluorescence protein molecules inside cytoplasm - their fluorescence is spread by fast diffusion to the entire cell and overwhelmed by the strong autofluorescence. We achieved single-molecule sensitivity by immobilizing the fluorescence protein on the cell membrane, where the diffusion is much slowed. We learned that under the repressed condition protein molecules are produced in bursts, with each burst originating from a stochastically-transcribed single messenger RNA molecule, and that protein copy numbers in the bursts follow a geometric distribution. We also simultaneously published a paper reporting a different method using ?-glactosidase as a reporter [Nature 440, 358 (2006)]. Many important proteins are expressed at low levels, inaccessible by previous proteomic techniques. Both papers allowed quantification of protein expression with unprecedented sensitivity and received overwhelming acclaim from the scientific community. The Nature paper has been identified as one of the most-cited papers in the past year [http://esi-topics.com/]. We have also an analytical framework describing the steady-state distribution of protein concentration in live cells, considering that protein production occurs in random bursts with an exponentially distributed number of molecules. This model allows for the extraction of kinetic parameters of gene expression from steady-state distributions of protein concentration in a cell population, which are available from single cell data obtained by fluorescence microscopy. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168302 (2006)]. A major objective in the Genome to Life (GtL) program is to monitor and understand the gene expression profile of a complete bacterial genome. We developed genetic and imaging methods for sensitive protein expression profiling in individual S. oneidensis cell. We have made good progress in constructing YFP-library with several hundred chromosomal fusion proteins and studied protein expression profiling in living Shewanella oneidensis cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the average abundance of specific proteins, as well as their noise in gene expression level across a population. We also explored ways to adapt our fluorescence measurement for other growth conditions, such as anaerobic growth.

Xiaoliang Sunney Xie

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

255

The Molecular Basis for Metabolic and Energetic Diversity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have used experimental and computational analysis of R. sphaeroides photosynthesis and other gene expression networks (Kaplan, Gomelsky, Donohue) (3-9, 12, 13, 15-18, 20). We have identified many new candidate photosynthesis genes with expression patterns that varied as a function of light intensity. Results from these experiments suggest there are many more light-regulated aspects of the photosynthetic lifestyle of this bacterium than previously appreciated. Ongoing genetic analysis confirms that mutations in some of these newly-identified photosynthesis block the ability of cells to use solar energy in the laboratory. We also carried out transcriptome and computational analysis of individual R. sphaeroides regulons. This identified additional genes that are directly regulated by individual transcription factors and refined the consensus sequence for master regulators of photosystem development. We also showed that PpsR indirectly regulates genes that do not contain the PpsR-binding sites, e.g. puf and puhA operons. This suggests that PpsR plays a more global role as a regulator of photosystem development than what was assumed before. A similar computational and microarray analysis of PrrA target genes has identified many new candidate promoters that are controlled by this master regulator of photosynthesis. We have begun bioinformatic, genetic and biochemical experiments aimed at elucidating the interactions of transcriptional pathways controlling photosystem development (PrrBA and AppA-PpsR). We carried out computational analysis designed to cluster oxygen-dependent genes in R. sphaeroides based on the transcriptome data for cells grown between 30% and 0% oxygen. As a result, new statistical tools for clustering expression profiles from DNA microarrays have been developed. We have analyzed the assembly, bioenergetic role and regulatory functions of the aerobic respiratory chain (Donohue, Edwards, Hosler, Kaplan)(10, 11, 14)(Hiser, 2000-4612). We have used computational, genetic and biochemical approaches to map the flow of electrons through the major bioenergetic pathways of this bacterium. From this, we have formulated and tested predictions for the major and minor routes of electron transport to the 5 predicted terminal oxidases; these are now being tested by genetic and physiological experiments. We have demonstrated a direct role for the R. sphaeroides cyt cbb{sub 3} terminal oxidase of the aerobic respiratory chain in controlling the activity of a master energy homeostasis pathway, PrrBA. This presents an opportunity for analyzing the ability of a cytochrome oxidase to act as a direct modulator of a second bioenergetic machine like the photosynthetic apparatus. Given the important bioenergetic and regulatory role of the aerobic respiratory chain, we have analyzed assembly of this machine. One of these proteins, Cox11p is a copper protein that plays a critical, yet poorly-understood, role cytochrome oxidase assembly in many bacteria and organelles. We have (for the first time) succeeded in expressing the soluble domain of Cox11p as a fusion protein with thioredoxin in E. coli and shown that the protein binds copper. This and a series of mutant Cox11p proteins are being used to analyze the role of copper in this protein and determine the role of Cox11p homologs in assembly of Cu-dependent bioenergetic machines. In collaboration with GTL researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we analyzed and localized the R. sphaeroides proteome (Kaplan, Donohue, Smith)(1, 2, 19). We have determined the entire proteome of cells grown under different energy states and localizes what fraction of the proteome is contained in the major subcellular fractions of the cell, including the photosynthetic apparatus. This has identified many new and unknown proteins within this specialized solar energy harvesting machine that we would like to analyze with future DOE support.

Timothy Donohue, PI

2007-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

256

Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications  

SciTech Connect

The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures, pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

Joseph Rabovitser

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

257

A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be attractive under many circumstances. For nearly all of the cases examined in the study, the IRR lies between 14% and 18%, assuming a 25-year levelized world oil price of $50/bbl--the US Department of Energy's 2006 reference oil price projection. The IRRs would rise to as high as 35% if positive incremental environmental benefits associated with biorefinery products are monetized (e.g., if an excise tax credit for the liquid fuel is available comparable to the one that exists for ethanol in the United States today). Moreover, if future crude oil prices are higher ($78/bbl levelized price, the US Department of Energy's 2006 high oil price scenario projection, representing an extrapolation of mid-2006 price levels), the calculated IRR exceeds 45% in some cases when environmental attributes are also monetized. In addition to the economic benefits to kraft pulp/paper producers, biorefineries widely implemented at pulp mills in the U.S. would result in nationally-significant liquid fuel production levels, petroleum savings, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and criteria-pollutant reductions. These are quantified in this study. A fully-developed pulpmill biorefinery industry could be double or more the size of the current corn-ethanol industry in the United States in terms of annual liquid fuel production. Forest biomass resources are sufficient in the United States to sustainably support such a scale of forest biorefining in addition to the projected growth in pulp and paper production.

Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z