Sample records for gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr

  1. 1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Controlled Variables Selection for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process' Controlled Variables Selection for a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Controlled Variables Selection for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process' Controlled Variables Selection for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process Mehdi Panahi Sigurd for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process' Skogestad plantwide control procedure* I Top Down · Step 1: Identify

  2. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  3. Utilizing the heat content of gas-to-liquids by-product streams for commercial power generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adegoke, Adesola Ayodeji

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gas-to-liquids (GTL) processes produce a large fraction of by-products whose disposal or handling ordinarily becomes a cost rather than benefit. As an alternative strategy to market stranded gas reserves, GTL...

  4. Options for Gas-to-Liquids Technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purposes of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10 percent. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinquish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  5. Options for gas-to-liquids technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, E.P.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10%. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinguish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  6. Simulation, integration, and economic analysis of gas-to-liquid processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Buping

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas-to-liquid (GTL) process involves the chemical conversion of natural gas (or other gas sources) into synthetic crude that can be upgraded and separated into different useful hydrocarbon fractions including liquid transportation fuels. A leading...

  7. Selection of Controlled Variables for a Natural Gas to Liquids Process Mehdi Panahi and Sigurd Skogestad*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Selection of Controlled Variables for a Natural Gas to Liquids Process Mehdi Panahi and Sigurd variables (CVs) for a natural gas to hydrocarbon liquids (GTL) process based on the idea of self of operation are studied. In mode I, where the natural gas flow rate is given, there are three unconstrained

  8. GTL technologies focus on lowering costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corke, M.J. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., London (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Difficulties in the development of major natural-gas production projects and the limitations imposed by saturated markets for LNG or pipeline gas have focused attention on alternative gas utilization approaches. At the same time, technology improvements have transformed the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) conversion of natural gas-to-liquid (GTL) hydrocarbons from a technically interesting but uneconomic option into an option worthy of serious consideration. This two-part series reviews GTL technology developments which have led to today`s situation (Part 1) and examines the economics of GTL conversion (Part 2). The economic viability of GTL projects mainly depends on feed-gas pricing, investment costs, and the potential to produce liquids with natural-gas production.

  9. An Assessment of Energy and Environmental Issues Related to the Use of Gas-to-Liquid Fuels in Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO2 emissions produced during the conversion process.

  10. An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the conversion process.

  11. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  12. STUDY OF TRANSPORTATION OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE (ANS) TO MARKETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godwin A. Chukwu, Ph.D., P.E.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alaskan North Slope is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the US where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundance resource. The throughput of oil through the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) has been on decline and is expected to continue to decline in future. It is projected that by the year 2015, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level that there will be a critical need for pumping additional liquid from GTL process to provide an adequate volume for economic operation of TAPS. The pumping of GTL products through TAPS will significantly increase its economic life. Transporting GTL products from the North Slope of Alaska down to the Marine terminal at Valdez is no doubt the great challenge facing the Gas to Liquids options of utilizing the abundant natural gas resource of the North Slope. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate and assess the economic feasibility of transporting GTL products through the TAPS. Material testing program for GTL and GTL/Crude oil blends was designed and implemented for measurement of physical properties of GTL products. The measurement and evaluation of the properties of these materials were necessary so as to access the feasibility of transporting such materials through TAPS under cold arctic conditions. Results of the tests indicated a trend of increasing yield strength with increasing wax content. GTL samples exhibited high gel strengths at temperatures as high as 20 F, which makes it difficult for cold restart following winter shutdowns. Simplified analytical models were developed to study the flow of GTL and GTL/crude oil blends through TAPS in both commingled and batch flow models. The economics of GTL transportations by either commingled or batching mode were evaluated. The choice of mode of transportation of GTL products through TAPS would depend on the expected purity of the product and a trade-off between loss in product value due to contamination and cost of keeping the product pure at the discharge terminal.

  13. Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  14. Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  15. TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN THE DELIVERY OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE TO MARKET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godwin Chukwu

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alaskan North Slope (ANS) is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the United States where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Because the domestic gas market in the continental United States is located thousands of miles from the ANS, transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS to the market is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundant resource. The focus of this project is to study the operational challenges involved in transporting the gas in converted liquid (GTL) form through the existing Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). A three-year, comprehensive research program was undertaken by the Petroleum Development Laboratory, University of Alaska Fairbanks, under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40016 to study the feasibility of transporting GTL products through TAPS. Cold restart of TAPS following an extended winter shutdown and solids deposition in the pipeline were identified as the main transportation issues in moving GTL products through the pipeline. The scope of work in the current project (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41248) included preparation of fluid samples for the experiments to be conducted to augment the comprehensive research program.

  16. Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing...

  17. GTL-1 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Gas Test Loop (GTL-1) miniplate experiment is to confirm acceptable performance of high-density (i.e., 4.8 g-U/cm3) U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel plates clad in Al-6061 and irradiated under the relatively aggressive Booster Fast Flux Loop (BFFL) booster fuel conditions, namely a peak plate surface heat flux of 450 W/cm2. As secondary objectives, several design and fabrication variations were included in the test matrix that may have the potential to improve the high-heat flux, high-temperature performance of the base fuel plate design.1, 2 The following report summarizes the life of the GTL-1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

  18. Verification of Shell GTL Fuel as CARB Alternative Diesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biomass to Liquids and Coal to Liquids technologies Life cycle analysis: GTL vs. Refinery system GTL less impact on on air acidification and smog formation Comparable...

  19. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ConocoPhillips and Nexant Corporatin 2004deerabbott.pdf More Documents & Publications Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects...

  20. Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    50 % GTL in EU-Diesel shows almost the same properties as neat GTL: a large reduction in soot emission and a higher EGR tolerance 19 DaimlerChrysler, RT, R. R. Maly,...

  1. Utilizing the heat content of gas-to-liquids by-product streams for commercial power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adegoke, Adesola Ayodeji

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    &PIfortheLNG,GTL,andIntegratedGTLPower- GenerationProjects?????????????????? 41 A1 OverviewofGTLProcessDesignedwithAspenPlus...???? 51 1 CHAPTERI INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Naturalgasisaclean,versatileandthereforedesirablesourceoffuel.Astrongfactorthat defines..., usingtheheatcontentofthesteamstreamand/orthetail-gasstream. TheIntegratedGTLPower-Generationprocesswasmodeledusingacombination Aspen Plus, for the GTL process and Steam System Assessment Tool (DOE), for the power generation. The design of the integrated GTL Power-generation process...

  2. Enhanced catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  3. Catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  4. Genomics :GTL project quarterly report April 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Martino, Anthony A.; Palenik, Brian; Heffelfinger, Grant S.; Xu, Ying; Geist, Al; Gorin, Andrey

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This SAND report provides the technical progress through April 2005 of the Sandia-led project, ''Carbon Sequestration in Synechococcus Sp.: From Molecular Machines to Hierarchical Modeling'', funded by the DOE Office of Science GenomicsGTL Program. Understanding, predicting, and perhaps manipulating carbon fixation in the oceans has long been a major focus of biological oceanography and has more recently been of interest to a broader audience of scientists and policy makers. It is clear that the oceanic sinks and sources of CO{sub 2} are important terms in the global environmental response to anthropogenic atmospheric inputs of CO{sub 2} and that oceanic microorganisms play a key role in this response. However, the relationship between this global phenomenon and the biochemical mechanisms of carbon fixation in these microorganisms is poorly understood. In this project, we will investigate the carbon sequestration behavior of Synechococcus Sp., an abundant marine cyanobacteria known to be important to environmental responses to carbon dioxide levels, through experimental and computational methods. This project is a combined experimental and computational effort with emphasis on developing and applying new computational tools and methods. Our experimental effort will provide the biology and data to drive the computational efforts and include significant investment in developing new experimental methods for uncovering protein partners, characterizing protein complexes, identifying new binding domains. We will also develop and apply new data measurement and statistical methods for analyzing microamy experiments. Computational tools will be essential to our efforts to discover and characterize the function of the molecular machines of Synechococcus. To this end, molecular simulation methods will be coupled with knowledge discovery from diverse biological data sets for high-throughput discovery and characterization of protein-protein complexes. In addition, we will develop a set of novel capabilities for inference of regulatory pathways in microbial genomes across multiple sources of information through the integration of computational and experimental technologies. These capabilities will be applied to Synechococcus regulatory pathways to characterize their interaction map and identify component proteins in these pathways. We will also investigate methods for combining experimental and computational results with visualization and natural language tools to accelerate discovery of regulatory pathways. The ultimate goal of this effort is develop and apply new experimental and computational methods needed to generate a new level of understanding of how the Synechococcus genome affects carbon fixation at the global scale. Anticipated experimental and computational methods will provide ever-increasing insight about the individual elements and steps in the carbon fixation process, however relating an organism's genome to its cellular response in the presence of varying environments will require systems biology approaches. Thus a primary goal for this effort is to integrate the genomic data generated from experiments and lower level simulations with data from the existing body of literature into a whole cell model. We plan to accomplish this by developing and applying a set of tools for capturing the carbon fixation behavior of complex of Synechococcus at different levels of resolution. Finally, the explosion of data being produced by high-throughput experiments requires data analysis and models which are more computationally complex, more heterogeneous, and require coupling to ever increasing amounts of experimentally obtained data in varying formats. These challenges are unprecedented in high performance scientific computing and necessitate the development of a companion computational infrastructure to support this effort.

  5. The Potential of GTL Diesel to Meet Future Exhaust Emission Limits

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    volumetric fuel consumption Vehicle: MB E220 CDI GTL diesel fuel offers high emission reduction potential for non-adapted engines. These benefits can be utilized in existing...

  6. Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL; Drell, Dr. Daniel [Office of Science, Department of Energy; Weatherwax, Sharlene [U.S. Department of Energy; Carruthers, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In his Advanced Energy Initiative announced in January 2006, President George W. Bush committed the nation to new efforts to develop alternative sources of energy to replace imported oil and fossil fuels. Developing cost-effective and energy-efficient methods of producing renewable alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass and solar-derived biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy production methods will not suffice. The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission and goals. Developing energy-efficient and cost-effective methods of producing alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy-production methods will not suffice. The focus on microbes (for cellular mechanisms) and plants (for source biomass) fundamentally exploits capabilities well known to exist in the microbial world. Thus 'proof of concept' is not required, but considerable basic research into these capabilities remains an urgent priority. Several developments have converged in recent years to suggest that systems biology research into microbes and plants promises solutions that will overcome critical roadblocks on the path to cost-effective, large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol and other renewable energy from biomass. The ability to rapidly sequence the DNA of any organism is a critical part of these new capabilities, but it is only a first step. Other advances include the growing number of high-throughput techniques for protein production and characterization; a range of new instrumentation for observing proteins and other cell constituents; the rapid growth of commercially available reagents for protein production; a new generation of high-intensity light sources that provide precision imaging on the nanoscale and allow observation of molecular interactions in ultrafast time intervals; major advances in computational capability; and the continually increasing numbers of these instruments and technologies within the national laboratory infrastructure, at universities, and in private industry. All these developments expand our ability to elucidate mechanisms present in living cells, but much more remains to be done. The Centers are designed to accomplish GTL program objectives more rapidly, more effectively, and at reduced cost by concentrating appropriate technologies and scientific expertise, from genome sequence to an integrated systems understanding of the pathways and internal structures of microbes and plants most relevant to developing bioenergy compounds. The Centers will seek to understand the principles underlying the structural and functional design of selected microbial, plant, and molecular systems. This will be accomplished by building technological pathways linking the genome-determined components in an organism with bioenergy-relevant cellular systems that can be characterized sufficiently to generate realistic options for biofuel development. In addition, especially in addressing what are believed to be nearer-term approaches to renewable energy (e.g., producing cellulosic ethanol cost-effectively and energy-efficiently), the Center research team must understand in depth the current industrial-level roadblocks and bottlenecks (see section, GTL's Vision for Biological Energy Alternatives, below). For the Centers, and indeed the entire BER effort, to be successful, Center research must be integrated with individual investigator research, and coordination of activities,

  7. Sustainable use of California biomass resources can help meet state and national bioenergy targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Bryan M; Williams, Robert B; Gildart, Martha C; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Hartsough, Bruce; Dempster, Peter G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waste in landfills, or biogas from municipal wastewaterheat for industrial uses. Biogas potential from landfills,Bio]gas-to-liquids (GTL) Gas Biogas Biomethane Compressed

  8. Genomics:GTL Contractor-Grantee Workshop IV and Metabolic Engineering Working Group Inter-Agency Conference on Metabolic Engineering 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Welcome to the 2006 joint meeting of the fourth Genomics:GTL Contractor-Grantee Workshop and the six Metabolic Engineering Working Group Inter-Agency Conference. The vision and scope of the Genomics:GTL program continue to expand and encompass research and technology issues from diverse scientific disciplines, attracting broad interest and support from researchers at universities, DOE national laboratories, and industry. Metabolic engineering's vision is the targeted and purposeful alteration of metabolic pathways to improve the understanding and use of cellular pathways for chemical transformation, energy transduction, and supramolecular assembly. These two programs have much complementarity in both vision and technological approaches, as reflected in this joint workshop. GLT's challenge to the scientific community remains the further development and use of a broad array of innovative technologies and computational tools to systematically leverage the knowledge and capabilities brought to us by DNA sequencing projects. The goal is to seek a broad and predictive understanding of the functioning and control of complex systems--individual microbes, microbial communities, and plants. GTL's prominent position at the interface of the physical, computational, and biological sciences is both a strength and challenge. Microbes remain GTL's principal biological focus. In the complex 'simplicity' of microbes, they find capabilities needed by DOE and the nation for clean and secure energy, cleanup of environmental contamination, and sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide that contributes to global warming. An ongoing challenge for the entire GTL community is to demonstrate that the fundamental science conducted in each of your research projects brings us a step closer to biology-based solutions for these important national energy and environmental needs.

  9. As-Run Thermal Analysis of the GTL-1 Experiment Irradiated in the ATR South Flux Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna P. Guillen

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The GTL-1 experiment was conducted to assess corrosion the performance of the proposed Boosted Fast Flux Loop booster fuel at heat flux levels {approx}30% above the design operating condition. Sixteen miniplates fabricated from 25% enriched, high-density U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel with 6061 aluminum cladding were subjected to peak beginning of cycle (BOC) heat fluxes ranging from 411 W/cm2 to 593 W/cm2. Miniplates fabricated with three different fuel variations (without fines, annealed, and with standard powder) performed equally well, with negligible irradiation-induced swelling and a normal fission density gradient. Both the standard and the modified prefilm procedures produced hydroxide films that adequately protected the miniplates from failure. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux for an as-run cycle average effective south lobe power of 25.4 MW(t). Results of the thermal analysis are given at four times during the cycle: BOC at 0 effective full power days (EFPD), middle of cycle (MOC) at 18 EFPD, MOC at 36 EFPD, and end of cycle at 48.9 EFPD. The highest temperatures and heat fluxes occur at the BOC and decrease in a linear manner throughout the cycle. Miniplate heat flux levels and fuel, cladding, hydroxide, and coolant-hydroxide interface temperatures were calculated using the average measured hydroxide thickness on each miniplate. The hydroxide layers are the largest on miniplates nearest to the core midplane, where heat flux and temperature are highest. The hydroxide layer thickness averages 20.4 {mu}m on the six hottest miniplates (B3, B4, C1, C2, C3, and C4). This tends to exacerbate the heating of these miniplates, since a thicker hydroxide layer reduces the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant. These six hottest miniplates have the following thermal characteristics at BOC: (1) Peak fuel centerline temperature >300 C; (2) Peak cladding temperature >200 C; (3) Peak hydroxide temperature >190 C; (4) Peak hydroxide-water interface temperature >140 C; and (5) Peak heat flux >565 W/cm2.

  10. Strategic Significance of Americas Oil Shale Resource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heavy oil and tar sand, coal liquids, gas-to-liquids (GTL), hydrogen, gas hydrates, and renewable energy resources, as well as oil shale, which is the focus of this re- port....

  11. Biomass and Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-D: Natural Gas & Biomass to Liquids Josephine Elia, Graduate Student, Princeton University

  12. GTL Resources Plc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump1946865°, -86.0529604°Wisconsin:FyreStormGLOBAL FINANCIALGPGSAGTL

  13. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. [Butyribacterium methylotrophicum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. Final report, June 1, 1995--January 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The original concept envisioned for the use of Fischer-Tropsch processing (FTP) of United States associated natural gas in this study was to provide a way of utilizing gas which could not be brought to market because a pipeline was not available or for which there was no local use. Conversion of gas by FTP could provide a means of utilizing offshore associated gas which would not require installation of a pipeline or re-injection. The premium quality F-T hydrocarbons produced by conversion of the gas can be transported in the same way as the crude oil or in combination (blended) with it, eliminating the need for a separate gas transport system. FTP will produce a synthetic crude oil, thus increasing the effective size of the resource. The two conventional approaches currently used in US territory for handling of natural gas associated with crude petroleum production are re-injection and pipelining. Conversion of natural gas to a liquid product which can be transported to shore by tanker can be accomplished by FTP to produce hydrocarbons, or by conversion to chemical products such as methanol or ammonia, or by cryogenic liquefaction (LNG). This study considers FTP and briefly compares it to methanol and LNG. The Energy International Corporation cobalt catalyst, ratio adjusted, slurry bubble column F-T process was used as the basis for the study and the comparisons. An offshore F-T plant can best be accommodated by an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage, Offloading vessel) based on a converted surplus tanker, such as have been frequently used around the world recently. Other structure types used in deep water (platforms) are more expensive and cannot handle the required load.

  15. Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Bulky on-board storage * Shell companies assess locally whether to supply (eg. Argentina) LPG * Lower sulphur, PM, NOx and SOx * Overall emissions similar to CNG *...

  16. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  17. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  18. Simulation, integration, and economic analysis of gas-to-liquid processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Buping

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is their encouragement and love that leads me to insist, to strive all the way toward my goal, and to stick to my interests and dreams. v NOMENCLATURE ASF Anderson-Schulz-Flory Equation ASU Air Separation Unit ATR Autothermal Reactor bbl Barrels BPD..., autothermal reforming ATR, and heat exchange reforming. The choice of the reactor is determined by balancing between the characteristics of each one. SMR doesn?t require oxygen and high temperature, but it produces much higher hydrogen to CO ratio than...

  19. Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    such as methane. Selectivity refers to the ratio of highly useful hydrocarbons to the total product output and intermediates for the pro- duction of other petrochemicals. Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is the main process

  20. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is always evolving, soFuelDepartmentPotawatomi

  1. Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of EnergyFocus Group HSS/UnionGlossaryPartnershipsMarketing

  2. Bringing Alaska North Slope Natural Gas to Market (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At least three alternatives have been proposed over the years for bringing sizable volumes of natural gas from Alaska's remote North Slope to market in the lower 48 states: a pipeline interconnecting with the existing pipeline system in central Alberta, Canada; a gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant on the North Slope; and a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facility at Valdez, Alaska. The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) explicitly models the pipeline and GTL options. The what if LNG option is not modeled in NEMS.

  3. ClearFuels-Rentech Integrated Biorefinery Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, Joshua [Project Director

    2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The project Final Report describes the validation of the performance of the integration of two technologies that were proven individually on a pilot scale and were demonstrated as a pilot scale integrated biorefinery. The integrated technologies were a larger scale ClearFuels’ (CF) advanced flexible biomass to syngas thermochemical high efficiency hydrothermal reformer (HEHTR) technology with Rentech’s (RTK) existing synthetic gas to liquids (GTL) technology.

  4. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  6. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHEEnergyReliability2015GrossA FewA LIMITED LIABILITYA

  7. Rigorous HDD Emissions Capabilities of Shell GTL Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 Fuel Description - Reference Fuel Reference ULSD (S15) ex Shell Martinez CA Refinery, exhibits < 2 ppm sulfur 43 cetane number (contains no cetane improver) <10%m...

  8. Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Shell GTL Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    complex: Carbon efficiency of SMDS process currently lower than than typical leading refinery Benefits upstream & product usage will (more than) offset this Vehicle fuel usage...

  9. Computer simulation of GTL and various problems in thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaonian

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    simulation results show that methane conversion increases with higher reaction temperature and longer residence times. Hydrogen can both inhibit methane decomposition and reduce coke formation. The rich components in the natural gas are found to decompose...

  10. Rigorous HDD Emissions Capabilities of Shell GTL Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofittingFund WebinarsDepartment of23Energy

  11. Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Shell GTL Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments from Tarasa U.S.LLC |AquionMr.August 4,Energy Environmental

  12. An Evaluation of Shell GTL Diesel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NMPerformance | Department ofEnergyAn Evaluation of

  13. NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

  14. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through July 1999.

  15. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through June 1998.

  16. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through November 1999.

  17. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through February 1999.

  18. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

  19. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through September 1999.

  20. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through January 2000.

  1. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through December 1999.

  2. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through October 1999.

  3. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2009 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oil prices reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO) represent the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil in 2007 dollars. Projections of future supply and demand are made for "liquids," a term used to refer to those liquids that after processing and refining can be used interchangeably with petroleum products. In AEO2009, liquids include conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil and natural gas plant liquids -- in addition to unconventional liquids, such as biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  4. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Annual Energy Outlook 2010, the price of light, low-sulfur (or "sweet") crude oil delivered at Cushing, Oklahoma, is tracked to represent movements in world oil prices. The Energy Information Administration makes projections of future supply and demand for "total liquids,"" which includes conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gain -- in addition to unconventional liquids, which include biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  5. Microsoft Word - DOE Final Report 2013 - GTL ER64516-1031199...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of recent horizontal transfer compared to a recent bacteria-wide survey of HGT (Smillie & Smith et al, 2011). Despite the established propensity for recent horizontal transfers to...

  6. Operability and Emissions from a Medium-Duty Fleet Operating with GTL Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment ofOil's Impact onDepartmentDepartment ofDepartmentand

  7. Verification of Shell GTL Fuel as CARB Alternative Diesel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02Report | Department of|Thermoelectrics|Department

  8. The Potential of GTL Diesel to Meet Future Exhaust Emission Limits |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|Industrial Sector, January 2000 |The Planet Janitor©

  9. Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory Board Contributionsreduction systemParticulateWear | Department

  10. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

  11. Mathematical modeling of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in an industrial slurry bubble column - article no. A 23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasim Hooshyar; Shohreh Fatemi; Mohammad Rahmani [University of Tehran (Iran)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase in society's need for fuels and decrease in crude oil resources are important reasons to make more interest for both academic and industry in converting gas to liquids. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is one of the most attractive methods of Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) processes and the reactor in which, this reaction occurs, is the heart of this process. This work deals with modeling of a commercial size slurry bubble column reactor by two different models, i.e. single bubble class model (SBCM) and double bubble class model (DBCM). The reactor is assumed to work in a churn-turbulent flow regime and the reaction kinetic is a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type. Cobalt-based catalyst is used for this study as it plays an important role in preparing heavy cuts and the higher yield of the liquid products. Parameter sensitivity analysis was carried out for different conditions such as catalyst concentration, superficial gas velocity, H{sub 2} over CO ratio, and column diameter. The results of the SBCM and DBCM revealed that there is no significant difference between single and double bubble class models in terms of temperature, concentration and conversion profiles in the reactor, so the simpler SBCM with less number of model parameters can be a good and reliable model of choice for analyzing the slurry bubble column reactors.

  12. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  13. A predictive model for particle size distribution and yield for Bayer precipitation and classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kapraun, Christopher Michael

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOg= NaC1 Org-C = Temp Liquor density Total caustic Dissolved alumina Total alkali Sodium sulfate Sodium chloride Organic carbon Temperature (gtL) (g/L) (gtL) (gti ) (gtL) (gtL) (gtl-) ('C) 22 In this same study, Langa also supplied...

  14. Systems Biology Knowledgebase for a New Era in Biology A Genomics:GTL Report from the May 2008 Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregurick, S.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Stevens, R.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biology has entered a systems-science era with the goal to establish a predictive understanding of the mechanisms of cellular function and the interactions of biological systems with their environment and with each other. Vast amounts of data on the composition, physiology, and function of complex biological systems and their natural environments are emerging from new analytical technologies. Effectively exploiting these data requires developing a new generation of capabilities for analyzing and managing the information. By revealing the core principles and processes conserved in collective genomes across all biology and by enabling insights into the interplay between an organism's genotype and its environment, systems biology will allow scientific breakthroughs in our ability to project behaviors of natural systems and to manipulate and engineer managed systems. These breakthroughs will benefit Department of Energy (DOE) missions in energy security, climate protection, and environmental remediation.

  15. Microbial Protein-Protein Interactions (MiPPI) Data from the Genomics: GTL Center for Molecular and Cellular Systems (CMCS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Genomic Science Center for Molecular and Cellular Systems (CMCS), established in 2002, seeks to identify and characterize the complete set of protein complexes within a cell to provide a mechanistic basis for the understanding of biochemical functions. The CMCS is anchored at ORNL and PNNL. CMCS initially focused on the identification and characterization of protein complexes in two microbial systems,Rhodopseudomonas palustris (R. palustris) and Shewanella oneidensis (S. oneidensis). These two organisms have also been the focus of major DOE Genomic Science/Microbial Cell Program (MCP) projects. To develop an approach for identifying the diverse types of complexes present in microbial organisms, CMCS incorporates a number of molecular biology, microbiology, analytical and computational tools in an integrated pipeline.

  16. Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    photosynthesis; Genomics: GTL microbial production of hydrogen; funding the first round hydrogen research. Environment - Genomics: GTL -- Harnessing biotechnology to protect the environment; ecology baselines

  17. U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Science, Engineering, & Technology - Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use - Genomics: GTL, including

  18. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  19. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  20. Canadian offshore oil production solution gas utilization alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, J.V.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil and gas development in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is in its early stage and the offshore industry emphasis is almost exclusively on oil production. At the Hibernia field, the Gravity Base Structure (GBS) is installed and the first wells are in production. The Terra Nova project, based on a Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) ship shaped concept, is in its engineering and construction stage and first oil is expected by late 2000. Several other projects, such as Husky's White Rose and Chevron's Hebron, have significant potential for future development in the same area. It is highly probably that these projects will employ the FPSO concept. It is also expected that the solution gas disposal issues of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and the operators may be forced to look for alternatives to gas reinjection. Three gas utilization alternatives for a FPSO concept based project have been considered and evaluated in this paper: liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and gas-to-liquids conversion (GTL). The evaluation and the relative ranking of these alternatives is based on a first pass screening type of study which considers the technical and economical merits of each alternative. Publicly available information and in-house data, compiled within Fluor Daniel's various offices, was used to establish the basic parameters.

  1. Two-Sided Generalized Topp and Leone (TS-GTL) distributions Donatella Vicari, Department of Statistics, Probability and Applied Statistics, University of Rome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dorp, Johan René

    of Statistics, Probability and Applied Statistics, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy. E Engineering, SchoolDepartment of of Engineering and Applied Science, The George Washington University, 1776 G of Statistics, Probability and Applied Statistics, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy 2 Corresponding

  2. Exergy Analysis of a GTL Process Based on Low-Temperature Slurry F-T Reactor Technology with a Cobalt Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    and Hans Tropsch; their aim was to use a mixture of CO and H2 (referred to as synthesis gas, syngas) to produce hydrocarbons, chemicals, and liquid fuels. The production of syngas was achieved by coal into syngas and, then, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of syngas into synthetic liquid fuels. A first plant

  3. SSemi-Annual Report July-December

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ..............................................................................................18 Polymetallic Gas to Liquid Catalysts..........................................................................................................................................................................27 Development of Daily Landfill Cover

  4. "The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OF FIGURES Figure 1. Gasoline Blending Components v. Alternative Fuels as Sources of Non Figure 8. Estimated Oil Prices In G-T-L Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Figure 9. Estimated Oil Prices In G-T-L Scenarios

  5. Ultra-Clean Diesel Fuel: U.S. Production and Distribution Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel engines have potential for use in a large number of future vehicles in the US. However, to achieve this potential, proponents of diesel engine technologies must solve diesel's pollution problems, including objectionable levels of emissions of particulates and oxides of nitrogen. To meet emissions reduction goals, diesel fuel quality improvements could enable diesel engines with advanced aftertreatment systems to achieve the necessary emissions performance. The diesel fuel would most likely have to be reformulated to be as clean as low sulfur gasoline. This report examines the small- and large-market extremes for introduction of ultra-clean diesel fuel in the US and concludes that petroleum refinery and distribution systems could produce adequate low sulfur blendstocks to satisfy small markets for low sulfur (30 parts per million) light duty diesel fuel, and deliver that fuel to retail consumers with only modest changes. Initially, there could be poor economic returns on under-utilized infrastructure investments. Subsequent growth in the diesel fuel market could be inconsistent with U.S. refinery configurations and economics. As diesel fuel volumes grow, the manufacturing cost may increase, depending upon how hydrodesulfurization technologies develop, whether significantly greater volumes of the diesel pool have to be desulfurized, to what degree other properties like aromatic levels have to be changed, and whether competitive fuel production technologies become economic. Low sulfur (10 parts per million) and low aromatics (10 volume percent) diesel fuel for the total market could require desulfurization, dearomatization, and hydrogen production investments amounting to a third of current refinery market value. The refinery capital cost component alone would be 3 cents per gallon of diesel fuel. Outside of refineries, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant investment cost would be 3 to 6 cents per gallon. With total projected investments of $11.8 billion (6 to 9 cents per gallon) for the U.S. Gulf Coast alone, financing, engineering, and construction and material availability are major issues that must be addressed, for both refinery and GTL investments.

  6. Investigation of a xenia effect for yield caused by the waxy gene in grain sorghum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhlman, Leslie Charles

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GenotypexTesterxLocation (g-1)(t-1)(l-1) MS GTL ? 2 e + r? 2 gtl Error (r-1)(gtl-1) MS e ? 2 e Total rgtl-1 22 Results and Discussion Analysis by Environments Halfway, Texas 2003 Analysis of variance for grain yield shows significant...

  7. Autothermal reforming of natural gas to synthesis gas:reference: KBR paper #2031.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, David (KBR, Houston, TX); Rice, Steven, D.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Sued-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO{sub 2} in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct participation of CO{sub 2} in the oxidation chemistry.

  8. Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann

    2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Süd-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO2 in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct participation of CO2 in the oxidation chemistry.

  9. CROSS-SERVICING AGREEMENT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A. Repair time witl not exceed labor hours specified in the Mitchell on Demand or the Motors Parts and Labor Guide. Labor will be charged at 0 - per hour on Oroup 1 (12,500 GVWR...

  10. Assessment of Out-of-State Heavy-Duty Truck Activity Trends In California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highway Patrol ( CHP), 2006. Personal Communication. “OtayCA: Caltrans: CARB: CDFA: CEC: CHP: CVIS: g/bhp: g/mi: GVWR:California Highway Patrol (CHP) enforcement facilities and

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    up to 26,000 pounds (lbs.) and up to 25,000 for vehicles with a GVWR greater than or equal to 26,000 lbs. This tax credit expires December 31, 2017. (Reference West Virginia...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFVs include vehicles that operate on a combustible liquid derived from grain starch, oil seed, animal fat, or other biomass, or produced from a biogas source. GVWR Credit Less...

  13. 1 Volume 110 | Number 5/6 May/June 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    power plants, but also those from coal-to-liquids industries, gas-to-liquids industries and oil refining

  14. FD-BPM for Optical Waveguide Structures with Second Order Accuracy An improved FD-BPM was developed which is based on the generalized transmission line(GTL) equa-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    FD-BPM for Optical Waveguide Structures with Second Order Accuracy R. Pregla An improved FD-BPMRHH) for discretized transverse fields E and H. This BPM is a wide angle algorithm and also full vectorial a second term on the right sides (for details see [3]). Usually, BPM algorithms are based on the wave

  15. Department Requests $4.1 Billion Investment As Part of the American...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    program includes increases for several high visibility activities. The microbe based Genomics GTL program research request increases by 49 million over the FY 2006 Appropriation...

  16. DOE Office of Science Publishes Update of Landmark Plan: "Facilities...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    analysis, and analysis and modeling of cellular systems - to enable the Genomics:GTL program to achieve breakthroughs in basic science needed for cost-effective...

  17. MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dehal, Paramvir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for comparative and functional genomics Paramvir S. DehalUS Department of Energy Genomics: GTL program (grant DE-approach to comparative genomics, including a tree-based

  18. Reference set of regulons in Desulfovibrionales inferred by comparative genomics approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazakov, A.E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    inferred by comparative genomics approach 1 Lawrenceout large-scale comparative genomics analysis of regulatoryEnvironmental Research, Genomics:GTL Foundational Science

  19. Discovering and validating biological hypotheses from coherent patterns in functional genomics data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachimiak, Marcin Pawel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    patterns in functional genomics data Marcin P. Joachimiakpatterns in functional genomics data” Marcin P. Joachimiakand Environmental Research, Genomics Program:GTL through

  20. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007). Natural Gas (CNG / LNG / GTL) Natural gas, which iscompressed (CNG) or liquefied (LNG) form Chapter 5 Transportthe hydrogen section. CNG and LNG combustion characteristics

  1. Earth Sciences Division Research Summaries 2006-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DePaolo, Donald

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    global positioning system GTL—Genomes to Life (DOE) HBS—hydrate-bearing sediments ERT—electrical resistance tomography HMR—hydrocarbon and mineral resources

  2. ESPP Functional Genomics and Imaging Core: Cell wide analysis of Metal-Reducing Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL Program throughESPP Functional Genomics and Imaging Core: Cell widemetals. The Functional Genomics and Imaging Core (FGIC)

  3. Resource for the exploration of regulons accurately predicted by the methods of comparative genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novichkov, Pavel S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the methods of comparative genomics. Pavel S. Novichkov 1 ,Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL program through con-a computational comparative genomics approach is coming of

  4. Discovering and validating biological hypotheses from coherent patterns in functional genomics data using associative biclustering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachimiak, Marcin P.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    patterns in functional genomics data using associativeand Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL program throughof Energy Functional genomics confronts researchers with a

  5. Integrated Omics in Systems Biology: The New Frontier for Environmental Biotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biology Comparative Genomics Metabolomics DNA Microarraysand Environmental Research, Genomics Program:GTL throughINSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL GENOMICS UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA

  6. The development and application of an integrated functional genomics platform in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutschbauer, Adam

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    integrated functional genomics data will be used to build aan integrated functional genomics platform in Desulfovibrioand Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL program through

  7. Sustainable use of California biomass resources can help meet state and national bioenergy targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Bryan M; Williams, Robert B; Gildart, Martha C; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Hartsough, Bruce; Dempster, Peter G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liquids (GTL) Gas Biogas Biomethane Compressed biomethane (biogas consists large milk-delivery trucks with com- principally of methane and carbon pressed biomethane

  8. Environmental Genomics Reveals a Single-Species Ecosystem Deep Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arkin, Adam P.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Genomics Reveals a Single-Species EcosystemTechnology Program, DOE Joint Genomics Institute, Berkeley,and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL program through

  9. Microbes Online: an integrated portal for comparative functional genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arkin, Adam P.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comparative functional genomics of bacteria, archaea, fungifor comparative functional genomics Paramvir S. Dehal 1,2* (and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL program through

  10. Shell. The Evolution of Movement Continues

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    such as Gas to Liquids CO 2 * Increased use of bio-component blends * Improved refinery efficiency * Energy companies and auto manufacturers to work together to maximise...

  11. ClearFuels-Rentech Pilot-Scale Biorefinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ClearFuels-Rentech pilot-scale biorefinery will use Fisher-Tropsch gas-to-liquids technology to create diesel and jet fuel.

  12. ARPA-E Announces $40 Million for Research Projects to Develop...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    program will develop biological technologies that will improve the conversion of natural gas to liquids for transportation fuels, designed to reduce vehicle emissions compared to...

  13. 48669Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 154 / Wednesday, August 9, 2000 / Proposed Rules Type of motor vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vehicle Service Brake Systems Emergency brake sys- tems: applica- tion and brak- ing distance in feet from initial speed of 20 mph Braking force as a percent- age of gross vehicle or combination weight mph B. Property-carrying vehicles: (1) Single unit vehicles having a manufacturer's GVWR of 10

  14. 31321Federal Register / Vol. 69, No. 107 / Thursday, June 3, 2004 / Rules and Regulations September 1, 2005, is delivered to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , if there is no owner's manual, in a document: * * * * * (5) When a motor vehicle that has a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less, except a motorcycle or low speed vehicle, and that is manufactured on or after September 1, 2005) For vehicles except trailers: ``Steps for Determining Correct Load Limit-- (1) Locate the statement ``The

  15. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    its lower heating value compared to diesel fuel. Biodiesellower in heating value compared to typical diesel fuel on aGTL diesel fuel, which is due to the lower heating value of

  16. Characterization of a unique embedded gene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ning

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ). Plasmids were either transformed into host cells or stored in ? 20'C as water solutions. The oligonucleotides were purchased from Gene Technologies Laboratory (GTL) in the Department of Biology at Texas A&M University (TAMU). In all experiments involving...

  17. MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dehal, Paramvir S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the US Department of Energy Genomics: GTL program (DE-AC02-Web site for comparative genomics. Genome Res, 15, 1015-comparative and functional genomics Paramvir S. Dehal 1,2* ,

  18. Comparative genomics in acid mine drainage biofilm communities reveals metabolic and structural differentiation of co-occurring archaea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    co-occurring archaea. BMC Genomics 2013 14:485. Submit yourgenomes. Yelton et al. BMC Genomics 2013, 14:485 http://work was supported by DOE Genomics: GTL project Grant No.

  19. MicrobesOnline: An Integrated Portal For Comparative Functional Genomics (R-018)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Y. Wayne

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Environmental Research,  Genomics:GTL Program  through Comparative Functional Genomics (R-018) Y. Wayne Huang 1,2 ,genome using comparative genomics and sequence  motif 

  20. Future Fuels: Issues and Opportunities

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    R Y S L E R G R O U P Fuel Quality Issues * Cetane * Lubricity * Aromatics * Sulfur * Biodiesel - adequate quality standards needed * GTL, CTL, and BTL -- The Future 9142005 2 C...

  1. Imperial College London ChBE London Summer Program 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    Imperial College London ChBE London Summer Program 2015 (June 28­July 31, 2015) 6 credit hours has taught the London Program twice and GTL twice. Deadline for first payment ($500) with application

  2. Detecting Tangled Logic Structures in VLSI Netlists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jindal, Tanuj

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1. Metrics for Tangled Logic Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2. A Method to Find Groups of Tangled-Logic . . . . . . . . 10 3.2.1. Phase I: Linear Ordering Generation . . . . . . . . 11 3.2.2. Phase II: Initial Candidate GTL Generation... . . . . 12 3.2.3. Phase III: GTL Refinement and Pruning . . . . . . 12 IV ALGORITHM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.1. Algorithm Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.1.1. Algorithm...

  3. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

  4. MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    might industry step in to take advantage of such a large differential between oil and gas prices (e.g., natural gas vehicles, increased gas generation, gas-to-liquids)? How rapidly...

  5. Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Alleman, T. L.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Document details the evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch diesel, a gas-to-liquid fuel, in medium-duty delivery vehicles at Yosemite Waters. The study was conducted by NREL at the company's Fullerton, California, bottling headquarters.

  6. Imperial College OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND MEDICINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a high theoretical efficiency, especially at low temperatures, fuel cells emit low or zero levels gas to liquid fuels such as methanol and gasoline. Fuel cells could potentially be used to replace

  7. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Appendix A

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquids process. 12 Includes liquids produced from kerogen (oil shale, not to be confused with tight oil (shale oil)). 13 Includes production of crude oil...

  9. Safety and Techno-Economic Analysis of Solvent Selection for Supercritical Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamad, Natalie

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Fisher-Tropsch Synthesis is a primary pathway for gas-to-liquid technology. In order to overcome commercial problems associated with reaction and transport phenomena, the use of supercritical solvents has been proposed to increase chemical...

  10. A Systems-Integration Approach to Optimizing the Water-Energy Nexus in Energy Surplus Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriel, Kerron Jude

    2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER II TARGETING OF THE WATER-ENERGY NEXUS IN GAS-TO-LIQUID PROCESSES: A COMPARISON OF SYNGAS TECHNOLOGIES ........................................... 3 2.1 Introduction... .................................................................................................. 9 2.5 Process development .......................................................................................................... 10 2.5.1 Syngas production flowsheet...

  11. Virtual Library on Genetics from Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The World Wide Web (WWW) Virtual Library is a collaborative effort to provide topic indices that break down into many subtopics guiding users to vast resources of information around the world. ORNL hosts the Virtual Library on Genetics as part of the WWWVL's Biosciences topic area. The VL on Genetics is also a collection of links to information resources that supported the DOE Human Genome Project. That project has now evolved into Genomics: GTL. GTL is DOE's next step in genomics--builds on data and resources from the Human Genome Project, the Microbial Genome Program, and systems biology. GTL will accelerate understanding of dynamic living systems for solutions to DOE mission challenges in energy and the environment. The section of the Virtual Library on Genetics that is titled Organisms guides users to genetic information resources and gene sequences for animals, insects, microbes, and plant life.

  12. Report on the Imaging Workshop for the Genomes to Life Program, April 16-18, 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colson, STEVEN

    2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a result of the Imaging Workshop for the Genomes to Life (GTL) program held April 16-19, 2002, in Charlotte, North Carolina. The meeting was sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science. The purpose of the workshop was to project a broad vision for future needs and determine the value of imaging to GTL program research. The workshop included four technical sessions with plenary lectures on biology and technology perspectives and technical presentations on needs and approaches as they related to the following areas of the GTL program: (1) Molecular machines (protein complexes); (2) Intracellular and cellular structure, function, and processes; (3) Multicellular: Monoclonal and heterogeneous multicellular systems, cell-cell signaling, and model systems; and (4) Cells in situ and in vivo: Bacteria in the natural environment, microenvironment, and in vivo systems.

  13. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  14. An Investigation of Using Isochoric Data Points in the Development of Natural Gas Equation of State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khazndar, Aoubai M

    2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    gas consumer and will account for 55 percent of total gas use in 2035. This increase of natural gas consumption can be attributed to the big LNG and GTL projects that exist in this region. Qatar more than doubled its LNG liquefaction capacity over... the last 7-years and more than doubled its fuel use in LNG liquefaction plants. [18, 19] In addition to the two GTL facilities (Oryx and Pearl) that are located in Qatar. The Oryx plant consumes 120 billion cubic feet of natural gas per year and produces...

  15. The effects of washing upon the bacterial flora of the stallion prepuce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobin, Nancy Batterton

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~soasarg s ( pfg t*d) ~v ~~t Pseudomonas spp. ~tpy pp. ( g 1 s p ltl ) ~tpy ?pp. ( gl s gtl ) Streptococcus e uisimilis ~tr*pt* oc s spp. non ta h olytlc) ~St p ?pp. (gt h lytl) ( tld ttflhl) St pt ? ~ale 5 ~py * *pg. * API identification system... pp. tttaspp. Klebsiella pneumoniae g ? ?s spp. Proteus snconstans Proteus mi rabi li s l)roteus spp. Proteus vulgaris p d ~* ~ooas * g a( aplgm td) ~p* as ~top Pseudomonas spp. ~p y ? spp, ( q l s* p*sltlv*) ~st py o*?spp. ( aq las gtl...

  16. Gene expression of beta-defensins in chicken white blood cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supak, Tiffany Marie

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Technologies Lab, Texas A&M University (http://www.idmb.tamu.edu/gtl/) for sequencing (a total of 5 cBDs were sent for sequencing). Bioinformatics program Blast 2 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ blast/bl2seq/wblast2.cgi) was used to align the chicken genomic... sequence from UCSC genome browser with the five chicken beta-defensins? sequencing results received from the Gene Technologies Lab, Texas A&M University (http://www.idmb.tamu.edu/gtl/). 24 Transcription Starting Site (TSS) Detection Two...

  17. Energy Department awards $92 million http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2005-10/ddoe-eda100305.php 1 of 2 10/7/2005 1:19 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    and one private company. The grants are part of the Office of Science's Genomics: GTL research program in genomics research over the past 20 years now help allow scientists rapidly decode and interpret the complete DNA sequence of any organism. Because genomics reveals the blueprint for life, it is the starting

  18. The effect of gibberellic acid on ion uptake and the radiobiosynthesis of gebberellic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprayberry, Billy Alan

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . , Takai, M. , Tamuraf S f and Sumiki, Y. , Bul. A r. Chem. ~S. J, ~1, 267-277 (1955), f. S B k Gtl- berellin, Abs. 468, V. S. D. A. (1957) 29. Watanabe, R. , and Scully, N. T. unpublished report (1957). 30. White, W. L. , Mandels& G. R. , and Siu, R. G...

  19. Mycorrhizal fungi in roots of Texas crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, May-Wei Mavix

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were y 1. '1 t G~t~l( ht hyhd h ypi 1 thick outer wall and thin inner membrane (Fig. 14, p. 31) . Blackberry (Rubus sp. ) Root and Soil Material The blackberry sample was collected at Stephenville, Texas. Four different spore types were found...

  20. Computer modeling of free fall phenomenon to improve primary cementing design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marhaendrajana, Taufan

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tlty l. it itin?! Ante Vc. 'De?th t t t i! ! 'Ann?!!' . . '. ''"fit? ~n:'tttittlttn ttertty Csneel imnry' c'ellrentin sknvlstnt Ynu neve net verirdied tire d sin yet. Gn yeu want tn verily the Q delta st R Gtl, m . , -, ;. ;:, , i n enibya...

  1. Quadratic Diffusion Monte-Carlo Algorithms for Solving Atomic Many-Body Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Siu A.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , or LGV2c, then, as discussed in Sec. II, the normalization energy would converge quadratically, despite that fact that the ground state of (28} only converges linearly. Genuine second-order algorithms can be obtained via ?ht(EL E)/2 gtL ht(EL E)/27'=e...

  2. A Monte Carlo study of some unbiased and approximately unbiased ratio estimators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beegle, LeNelle Darlene

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) XN(n-a) where K~ is the average over all possible combinatiozs of a sample elements. For the case a=1, g=tl, the Hartley-Ross unbiased ratio estimator. Mhen awwn-l, R 1 has the simple form R~lV R n-1 n ) 1 nT x The above choices of a(Z ) have...

  3. An ecological study of an oyster population, including selected associated organisms in West Bay, Galveston, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillard, Robert Moore

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    97 L*gthd*tb' f lid measured, January 1968. 99 10 Length distribution of all Crassostrea ~vir inica measured, February 1968 101 L gtl d' 'b tt f 11 C measured, March 1968. 103 12 Lerigth distribution of all Crassostrea ~vir inica measured...

  4. Effect of Vibrio anguillarum endotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism and cortisol actions in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fajardo, Elizabeth Deirdre

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of endotoxin on glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and glucose utilization. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 155, 216-218. Fletcher, T. C. &. White, A. (1987). Metabolic and immunological effects of e dotodn in the pl ic, ~Pl ecte gtl (L. ) J. P h' Biol. 31, 81...

  5. The influence of clover and fertilizer on yield and leaf percentage of four warm-season grasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conrad, Billy Ervin

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of calculation is used. gtl (ly)fdpl f tdg tg(~A'tt cut in the early leaf, late leaf, and flowering stages to sheep. The per- centage of total digestible nutrients was found to be similar in the two leaf stages but much lower in the flowering stage...

  6. Design criteria for the flow of sewage in installations comparable to the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Mortimer Drahn

    1948-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . -c - . . I, & - . '. I )I ), l. r. : i . . ". ' ti Jns, tire (e . &! t GI . r&. I' &, d Sacer' cauic ( ~. . . &. c(" c ~ . . c) ua3 taken , '- t"; C. Gtl'?Ct; . :f . . &C Sy c . )Ccn, , ' ', '1 c &. . . G, 1 H, L. . I I' c& tl!1'CJ . ''. , Gc...

  7. Complement fixation antigen production for Theileria in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadir, Faisal Abdel

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the hemoparasites is accomplished with greater frequency in the arthropods than in circulating blood of the vertebrate lost. Rees and Mohler (22) and later Mott and Gates (16) in demonstrat- gtl p * f pl t-f' ' g t'ih d' f ~Al 1 t' ~ * M' dth p 'h'1'tp f 1 g...

  8. Gill trematodes of certain Centrarchidae from the Little and Navasota Rivers of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allison, Terry Cleveland

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bases; :='. :: f t, sr. c 30 point. No eyespots. Cirrus, if present, not discerned. ply p ' f G~tl p. f d. fh' specimen was on P. annularis from Lake Springfield. This is probably an accidental relationship; perhaps it was picked up from a food...

  9. The Generic Graph Component Library Dr. Dobb's Journal September 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lumsdaine, Andrew

    .nd.edu, and lumsg@lsc.nd.edu, respectively. The Standard Template Library has established a solid foundation generic programming has to offer. In January, 1999, we did a survey of existing graph libraries. Some.mpi-sb.mpg.de/LEDA/leda.html), the Graph Template Library (GTL) (by Michael Forster, Andreas Pick, and Marcus Raitner, http

  10. MIS @ UT Dallas Creating Value Through IT -Driven Business Intelligence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    . Patient Point WebFilings, LLC Aptiva Corporation ESRI PayPal, Inc. World Wide Technology Argus Fischer & Company PDS Tech. Xenosoft Technologies, Inc. Ariba, Inc. Fiserv PDX Inc Yellowbox Solutions AssociationCoopers Zimmer, Inc. Automation Solutions, Inc. GTL USA, Inc. Propelsys Technologies ZINI'S Pizzeria Axometrics

  11. Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics School of Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    is conducted at the Gas Turbine Laboratory (GTL) which has had a worldwide reputation for research and teaching at the forefront of gas turbine technology for over 50 years. The concept of an MIT Gas Turbine Laboratory control, (3) heat transfer in turbine blading, (4) gas turbine engine noise reduction and aero

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Program Past Present Future Syngas Production Emphasis on H2 Production GTL · Platform Technology) Process Overview Air Separation Syngas Generation Fischer- Tropsch Synthesis (F-T)(Carbon Monoxide + Hydrogen) Air Oxygen Jet Fuel, Diesel, Naphtha Syngas Natural Gas +/- Steam About 40% of Capital Cost

  13. Economical analysis of a new gas to ethylene technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abedi, Ali Abdulhamid

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    and from coal and heavy oils by synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. At Texas A&M University, a group of researchers developed a new process that can convert natural gas into liquids (GTL) or to ethylene (GTE). This technology is a direct conversion...

  14. Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

  15. Entrepreneurialship Considerations in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and other customers Bioenergy Climate Energy technologies Ultrascale computing National security Materials SOURCES cont. · Bio Fuels · Gas to Liquids · Solar · Geothermal #12;10 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U's energy Total U.S. energy consumption, 2007 ~102 quads Nonfossil sources ~15 quads Quadrillion Btu Solar

  16. Solvent effects on nuclear shieldings and spinspin couplings of hydrogen selenide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helgaker, Trygve

    , Linko¨ping University, S-58183 Linko¨ping, Sweden Trygve Helgaker Department of Chemistry, University deuteration1 and for which a gas-to-liquid shift of more than 100 ppm has been observed.2,3 Selenium compounds are important in organic chemistry and biochemistry.4­7 Owing to the rather high natural abundance of the spin-1

  17. OTA based active filter design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, John Steven

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I gmZ IC3 ) gmlgmZ ~CZ+C C I (4. aS) comparing (4. 44) and (4. 45), it is seen that gm CZ+C3 ( 4. 46) gm1g!l!2 b ~cr+c& c& gtl!1 gm2 C C1C3 (4. 48) Since C is r. he numerator. wo and b is the denominator wo anti since both b and c...) . bince t'&Ie i no& t to pm3 ''s to tl e pcs iti ve ter i)inal nf &hc CT&& the :leno&nina& or term consists of tlie sun) ot gm an ' gi3. 1'hc &. xpected !1 of th ) s !ov pass expe&'i I&PI) tal cl &'oui't 1 s l/2 since g&tl =amg=&lr&'l. Cr iphic?!ly &t...

  18. A polarographic study of the nitro group in p-nitroacetophenone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stout, Roy Franklin

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'f'usion currents Determznation of' the relationship between the diffusion current, concentration, and mercury head. Recordir g of the polarograms. Chaptez III. ZXPERI. 'IZNTAL RESUI TS. Calibrated polarographic sensitivitzes. . . . . . . . . Polarographic... cell resistances 2/gtl/6 Values of the half-wave potentials and the diffusion currents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Values of F~, and Id as a function of concenfration. . . Value of r~ and Id as a functzon of mercury head. Typical polarograms...

  19. Heat transfer in an oil-steam direct-contact condensation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waln, Christopher Alexander

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BE. ". T T". 3~NSR~~B XII ~k?i GTL STi;, . '~, B~!DEC'. ". COilrTga~T CQND~~. ""S/Pi'XO1'l 5 "ST8$4 A Ti%692$ QQ ~ (;~, f I, , ~J lLTK ~ WF X sg&TQ& Lj 3'; /z+ 1' , 4* . "$ ", &?[pl, 'L t j ttjt. , '. ". h ( l; 'I 'll6 XC(tU, ". "' ' f CD . . VL...

  20. Estimation problems in the space of distorted stochastic processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moutran, Cyril

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) ? (g(t)) dY dg dX dt dt dt (3. 3) Hence ?g I ? (t)I = log[ ? (t)) +?g I ? [g(t)jl dY dg dx dt dt dt (3. 6) Let p = E(log l"? , ', Ig(t)]l) o' = V~(iogl ?, [g(t)]l) Since X(t) is a stationary process rz and oz are two well defined constants. Now...

  1. Cyclogenesis and the low-level jet over the southern Great Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladwig, David Scott

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    16 0 Oq 12 a. 0000 GIIT 9 October 1977 b. 1200 GIlT 9 October 1977 08 gH I 08 I 16 1 r 16 12 12 c. 1800 GMT 9 October 1977 d. 0000 GtlT 10 October 1977 Fig. 8. Same as I-ig. 1 except for 9-11 October 1977. ~o '=0 12 08 LOB L~ 12 /t...

  2. Conversion economics for Alaska North Slope natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.P.; Robertson, E.P.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the Prudhoe Bay field, this preliminary analysis provides an indication that major gas sales using a gas pipeline/LNG plant scenario, such as Trans Alaska Gas System, or a gas-to-liquids process with the cost parameters assumed, are essentially equivalent and would be viable and profitable to industry and beneficial to the state of Alaska and the federal government. The cases are compared for the Reference oil price case. The reserves would be 12.7 BBO for the base case without major gas sales, 12.3 BBO and 20 Tcf gas for the major gas sales case, and 14.3 BBO for the gas-to-liquids conversion cases. Use of different parameters will significantly alter these results; e.g., the low oil price case would result in the base case for Prudhoe Bay field becoming uneconomic in 2002 with the operating costs and investments as currently estimated.

  3. Effects of vapor-liquid equilibrium on wetting efficiency in hydrodesulfurization trickle-bed reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Anna Lisa

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    built-in safety factor when sized upon equal liquid hourly space velocities. The larger volume of the plant reactor avail- able for catalyst allowed for much greater liquid flow rates than pilot units. Despite the greater liquid velocities, some... the capillary pres- sure as a function of the gas-to-liquid feed ratio. When combined with experimentally determined gas and liquid phase kinetics parameters, this model accurately predicts the reactor conversion. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my...

  4. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  5. Genomic Data and Annotation from the SEED

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Fonstein, Michael; Kogan, Yakov; Osterman, Andrei; Overbeek, Ross; Vonstein, Veronika The Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes (FIG)

    The SEED Project has been extended to support metagenomic samples and concomitant analytical tools. Moreover, the number of genomes being introduced into SEED is growing very rapidly. Building a framework to support this growth while providing highly accurate annotations is centrally important to SEED. The project’s subsystem-based annotation strategy has become the technological foundation for addressing these challenges.(copied from Appendix 7 of Systems Biology Knowledgebase for a New Era in Biology, A Genomics:GTL Report from the May 2008 Workshop, DOE/SC-0113, Grequrick, S; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stevens, R., Pub March 1, 2009.)

  6. RESEARCH GUIDANCE STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this quarter, in task area 1, work was performed on three separate areas of activity. These were (1) review of the proposed and final EPA Tier 2 regulations, (2) assistance in preparation of an ultra-clean transportation fuels report for the deputy assistant secretary for Fossil Energy, (3) preparation of a detailed trip report from attending the Clean Fuels 2000 conference in San Diego. In task area 4, three activities were undertaken: an update of coproduction, an analysis of the potential for gasification of petroleum coke in U.S. refineries, and preparation and presentation of a paper at the Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems conference in Clearwater. In task area 5, a presentation was prepared for the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Annual Convention to be held in New Orleans in April. This presentation was an overview of GTL technology including the current costs and product values. In addition the potential risks of the technology were addressed and the potential contribution of GTL products to the future world fuel market was discussed.

  7. The rate of hydrolysis of benzoyl chloride as a function of water concentration in acetone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Minton Jones

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?WY?Y WX RE? u?gEu BI TggEXXWKLE GTL?EX Kh jTgWLWBTBWH? XILGTBWIH jIRgEX 0PWgP WHgRETXE TX BPE gPTR?E BRTHXjER WHgRETXEXV CT?XEX jIR bTBE CPTH?EX 0WBP bEXmEgB BI BPE dILGEHB NWBP BPWX KTXWg mWgB?RE Ij BPE YEgPTHWXYX Ij H?gLEID mPWLWg X?KXBWB?BWIH? IHE... XILGEHB THu RETgBTHB BI KE ?V? ? e? XEg TB ??CV THu ???. ? e??: XEg?: TB ?.?CV r?gEmB jIR BPEXE GTL?EX jIR BPE ?HX?KXBWB?BEu KEH?IhL gPLIRWuE? BPE REXB Ij BPEWR 0IR? uETLX 0WBP BPE EjjEgB Ij X?KXBWB?EHBX IH BPE mTREHB gIYmI?HuV SRTHgP THu FW...

  8. Physically-based demand modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calloway, Terry Marshall

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    )) ] t = E[ J' exp [- F(t -t )] T (~ ) dt1 1 os 1 t exp F ~2 ] T (zZ) dz2 0 t t = exp (- 2Ft) 7 f exp LP(&1 + 2 ] C(~2 - ~1) 0 0 d~) d Let the function g be given by 1 + 2)] ELT ( 1) T 34 t t t g(Tly T2) dT1 dT2 J J' g('Tl, s2) dT) dT2 0 0 0 0... + f J g(~1, ~2) d~2 d~l 0 0 The arguments of g are dummy variables, so t t J g(tl, tZ) dtl dt2 = f I g(t2, tl ) d~2 d~ 0 0 0 0 Since g tl' 2 g t2' tl t t '2 J' J' g(~1, ~2) dvl dt2= 2 J' J' g(xl, v2) deal d 2. 0 0 0 0 Now an assumption is made...

  9. Stringy and Membranic Theory of Swimming of Micro-organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masako Kawamura; Shin'ichi Nojiri; Akio Sugamoto

    1996-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    When the swimming of micro-organisms is viewed from the string and membrane theories coupled to the velocity field of the fluid, a number of interesting results are derived; 1) importance of the area (or volume) preserving algebra, 2) usefulness of the $N$-point Reggeon (membranic) amplitudes, and of the gas to liquid transition in case of the red tide issues, 3) close relation between the red tide issue and the generation of Einstein gravity, and 4) possible understanding of the three different swimming ways of micro-organisms from the singularity structure of the shape space.

  10. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Final technical report, June 1993--July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erekson, E.J.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this research project was to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) to convert natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) to convert CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data generated in this project were for use in evaluating the commercial potential of the process.

  11. Proceedings of the natural gas research and development contractors review meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, R.D.; Shoemaker, H.D.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this meeting was to present results of the research in the DOE-sponsored Natural Gas Program, and simultaneously to provide a forum for real-time technology transfer, to the active research community, to the interested public, and to the natural gas industry, who are the primary users of this technology. The current research focus is to expand the base of near-term and mid-term economic gas resources through research activities in Eastern Tight Gas, Western Tight Gas, Secondary Gas Recovery (increased recovery of gas from mature fields); to enhance utilization, particularly of remote gas resources through research in Natural Gas to Liquids Conversion; and to develop additional, long term, potential gas resources through research in Gas Hydrates and Deep Gas. With the increased national emphasis on the use of natural gas, this forum has been expanded to include summaries of DOE-sponsored research in energy-related programs and perspectives on the importance of gas to future world energy. Thirty-two papers and fourteen poster presentations were given in seven formal, and one informal, sessions: Three general sessions (4 papers); Western Tight Gas (6 papers); Eastern Tight Gas (8 papers); Conventional/Speculative Resources (8 papers); and Gas to Liquids (6 papers). Individual reports are processed separately on the data bases.

  12. METLIN: MS/MS metabolite data from the MAGGIE Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    METLIN is a metabolite database for metabolomics containing over 50,000 structures, it also represents a data management system designed to assist in a broad array of metabolite research and metabolite identification by providing public access to its repository of current and comprehensive MS/MS metabolite data. An annotated list of known metabolites and their mass, chemical formula, and structure are available on the METLIN website. Each metabolite is conveniently linked to outside resources such as the the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) for further reference and inquiry. MS/MS data is also available on many of the metabolites. The list is expanding continuously as more metabolite information is being deposited and discovered. [from http://metlin.scripps.edu/] Metlin is a component of the MAGGIE Project. MAGGIE is funded by the DOE Genomics: GTL and is an acronym for "Molecular Assemblies, Genes, and Genomics Integrated Efficiently."

  13. Nepali Aawaz Volume 1, Issue 15, 7 June 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Kashish Das

    green card- identifying thus the need for a comprehensive strategy to enhance their ability to pursue the lasting opportunities in the States. Accordingly, the one of the keystones of the wide- ranging strategy is a proposal to amend immigration... Gtl/ d ;/sf/sf] afu8f]/ cf?gf] xftdf lng] /0fgLltdf 5g\\,t/ k|ltlglw;ef cl:tTjdf / x]df pgLx? k|fljlws ?kdf ;Qf k|lt:kwf{df xfg]{ 5g, h;/L g]kfnL sf+u]|;sf] dxflwj]zgdf g/xl/ cfrfo{sf Ph]G8f ljhoL eP/ klg lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf;Fu xf/]sf lyP. kvf...

  14. Thermal Analysis of a Uranium Silicide Miniplate Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines the thermal analysis for the irradiation of high density uranium-silicide (U3Si2 dispersed in an aluminum matrix and clad in aluminum) booster fuel for a Boosted Fast Flux Loop designed to provide fast neutron flux test capability in the ATR. The purpose of this experiment (designated as Gas Test Loop-1 [GTL-1]) is two-fold: (1) to assess the adequacy of the U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel and the aluminum alloy 6061 cladding, and (2) to verify stability of the fuel cladding boehmite pre-treatment at nominal power levels in the 430 to 615 W/cm2 (2.63 to 3.76 Btu/s•in2) range. The GTL-1 experiment relies on a difficult balance between achieving a high heat flux, yet keeping fuel centerline temperature below a specified maximum value throughout an entire operating cycle of the reactor. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux levels and to reveal which experiment parameters place constraints on reactor operations. Analyses were performed to determine the bounding lobe power level at which the experiment could be safely irradiated, yet still provide meaningful data under nominal operating conditions. Then, simulations were conducted for nominal and bounding lobe power levels under steady-state and transient conditions with the experiment in the reactor. Reactivity changes due to a loss of commercial power with pump coast-down to emergency flow or a standard in-pile tube pump discharge break were evaluated. The time after shutdown for which the experiment can be adequately cooled by natural convection cooling was determined using a system thermal hydraulic model. An analysis was performed to establish the required in-reactor cooling time prior to removal of the experiment from the reactor. The inclusion of machining tolerances in the numerical model has a large effect on heat transfer.

  15. Dimethyl ether fuel proposed as an alternative to LNG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi; Aoki, Ichizo [Chiyoda Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    To cope with the emerging energy demand in Asia, alternative fuels to LNG must be considered. Alternative measures, which convert the natural gas to liquid fuel, include the Fischer-Tropsch conversion, methanol synthesis, and dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis. Comparisons are evaluated based on both transportation cost and feed-gas cost. The analysis will show that DME, one alternative to LNG as transportation fuel, will be more economical for longer distances between the natural-gas source and the consumer. LNG requires a costly tanker and receiving terminal. The break-even distance will be around 5,000--7,000 km and vary depending on the transported volume. There will be risk, however, since there has never been a DME plant the size of an LNG-equivalent plant [6 million metric tons/year (mty)].

  16. Design of a Gas Test Loop Facility for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. A. Wemple

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Nuclear Energy within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE-NE) has identified the need for irradiation testing of nuclear fuels and materials, primarily in support of the Generation IV (Gen-IV) and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) programs. These fuel development programs require a unique environment to test and qualify potential reactor fuel forms. This environment should combine a high fast neutron flux with a hard neutron spectrum and high irradiation temperature. An effort is presently underway at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to modify a large flux trap in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to accommodate such a test facility [1,2]. The Gas Test Loop (GTL) Project Conceptual Design was initiated to determine basic feasibility of designing, constructing, and installing in a host irradiation facility, an experimental vehicle that can replicate with reasonable fidelity the fast-flux test environment needed for fuels and materials irradiation testing for advanced reactor concepts. Such a capability will be needed if programs such as the AFCI, Gen-IV, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), and space nuclear propulsion are to meet development objectives and schedules. These programs are beginning some irradiations now, but many call for fast flux testing within this decade.

  17. Effect of gas velocity on the weakly nonlinear instability of a planar viscous sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Li-Jun, E-mail: yanglijun@buaa.edu.cn; Chen, Pi-Min; Wang, Chen [School of Astronautics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A weakly nonlinear spatial instability of a two-dimensional planar viscous sheet for sinuous disturbances in a co-flowing inviscid gas stream is investigated theoretically, with an emphasis on the effect of the surrounding gas velocity. The solutions of the second-order interface disturbances are derived and the wave deformation has been computed. The results indicate that the second-order surface disturbance of the fundamental sinuous mode is varicose, which causes the thinning and the subsequent breakup of the liquid sheet. The nonlinear behaviors of the planar sheet are quite sensitive to variations in gas-to-liquid velocity ratio. The deviation of the velocity ratio from the value of unity leads to a larger growth rate, a larger second-order initial amplitude, and a shorter breakup length, and therefore enhances the instability. The growth rates predicted by the present nonlinear analysis according to the shortest breakup length are generally smaller than the linear predictions and can better conform to the experimental measures of Barreras et al. [“Linear instability analysis of the viscous longitudinal perturbation on an air-blasted liquid sheets,” Atomization Sprays 11, 139 (2001)]. Furthermore, the wave deformations of the most unstable disturbances are presented. The nonlinear instability of the planar sheet for a fixed velocity difference is performed. An equal increase of the gas and liquid velocity reduces the spatial growth rate and increases the breakup length, but generally has no influences on the second-order initial amplitude and the wavelength of the disturbance.

  18. ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Bergin

    2003-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Syntroleum plant is mechanically complete and currently undergoing start-up. The fuel production and demonstration plan is near completion. The study on the impact of small footprint plant (SFP) fuel on engine performance is about half-completed. Cold start testing has been completed. Preparations have been completed for testing the fuel in diesel electric generators in Alaska. Preparations are in progress for testing the fuel in bus fleets at Denali National Park and the Washington Metropolitan Transit Authority. The experiments and analyses conducted during this project show that Fischer-Tropsch (FT) gas-to-liquid diesel fuel can easily be used in a diesel engine with little to no modifications. Additionally, based on the results and discussion presented, further improvements in performance and emissions can be realized by configuring the engine to take advantage of FT diesel fuel's properties. The FT fuel also shows excellent cold start properties and enabled the engine tested to start at more the ten degrees than traditional fuels would allow. This plant produced through this project will produce large amounts of FT fuel. This will allow the fuel to be tested extensively, in current, prototype, and advanced diesel engines. The fuel may also contribute to the nation's energy security. The military has expressed interest in testing the fuel in aircraft and ground vehicles.

  19. Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)] [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Cabral, Benedito J. Costa, E-mail: ben@cii.fc.ul.pt [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal) [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O–H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.

  20. Proceedings of the fuels technology contractors review meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, R.D. [ed.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fuels Technology Contractors Review Meeting was held November 16-18, 1993, at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). METC periodically provides an opportunity to bring together all of the R&D participants in a DOE-sponsored contractors review meeting to present key results of their research and to provide technology transfer to the active research community and to the interested public. This meeting was previously called the Natural Gas Technology Contractors Review Meeting. This year it was expanded to include DOE-sponsored research on oil shale and tar sands and so was retitled the Fuels Technology Contractors Review Meeting. Current research activities include efforts in both natural gas and liquid fuels. The natural gas portion of the meeting included discussions of results summarizing work being conducted in fracture systems, both natural and induced; drilling, completion, and stimulation research; resource characterization; delivery and storage; gas to liquids research; and environmental issues. The meeting also included project and technology summaries on research in oil shale, tar sands, and mild coal gasification, and summaries of work in natural-gas fuel cells and natural-gas turbines. The format included oral and poster session presentations. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  1. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  2. Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

  3. Biomimetic methane oxidation. Final report, October 1, 1989--June 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, B.E.; Satcher, J.H. Jr.; Droege, M.W.; Taylor, R.T.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation fuels are a critical energy commodity and they impact nearly every sector of this country. The need for transportation fuels is projected well into the next century. Consequently, there is a strong emphasis on the economical conversion of other domestic fossil energy resources to liquid hydrocarbons that can be used as transportation fuels. Natural gas is currently a readily available resource that has a positive future outlook considering its known and anticipated reserves. There is intense government and industrial interest in developing economic technologies to convert natural gas to liquid fuels. Methane, CH{sub 4}, is the primary hydrocarbon (85-95%) in natural gas. This document covers the following: production soluable of methane monooxygenase; production of particulate methane monooxygenase; production of methane monooxygenase in continuous culture; subunit resolution for active site identification of methylosinus trichosporium OB3b soluble methane monooxygenase; the synthesis and characterization of new copper coordination complexes contairing the asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand application to enzyme active site modeling; the synthesis and characterization of new iron coordination complexes utilizing an asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand; further characterization of new bionuclear iron complexes.

  4. On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; Donald Lyons; Chris Atkinson; Wenwei Xie; Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

    1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.

  5. Implementation Plans for a Systems Microbiology and Extremophile Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction Biological organisms long ago solved many problems for which scientists and engineers seek solutions. Microbes in particular offer an astonishingly diverse set of capabilities that can help revolutionize our approach to solving many important DOE problems. For example, photosynthetic organisms can generate hydrogen from light while simultaneously sequestering carbon. Others can produce enzymes that break down cellulose and other biomass to produce liquid fuels. Microbes in water and soil can capture carbon and store it in the earth and ocean depths. Understanding the dynamic interaction between living organisms and the environment is critical to predicting and mitigating the impacts of energy-production-related activities on the environment and human health. Collectively, microorganisms contain most of the biochemical diversity on Earth and they comprise nearly one-half of its biomass. They primary impact the planet by acting as catalysts of biogeochemical cycles; they capture light energy and fix CO2 in the worlds oceans, they degrade plant polymers and convert them to humus in soils, they weather rocks and facilitate mineral precipitation. Although the ability of selected microorganisms to participate in these processes is known, they rarely live in monoculture but rather function within communities. In spite of this, little is known about the composition of microbial communities and how individual species function within them. We lack an understanding of the nature of the individual organisms and their genes, how they interact to perform complex functions such as energy and materials exchange, how they sense and respond to their environment and how they evolve and adapt to environmental change. Understanding these aspects of microbes and their communities would be transformational with far-reaching impacts on climate, energy and human health. This knowledge would create a foundation for predicting their behavior and, ultimately, manipulating them to solve DOE problems. Recent advances in whole-genome sequencing for a variety of organisms and improvements in high-throughput instrumentation have contributed to a rapid transition of the biological research paradigm towards understanding biology at a systems level. As a result, biology is evolving from a descriptive to a quantitative, ultimately predictive science where the ability to collect and productively use large amounts of biological data is crucial. Understanding how the ensemble of proteins in cells gives rise to biological outcomes is fundamental to systems biology. These advances will require new technologies and approaches to measure and track the temporal and spatial disposition of proteins in cells and how networks of proteins and other regulatory molecules give rise to specific activities. The DOE has a strong interest in promoting the application of systems biology to understanding microbial function and this comprises a major focus of its Genomics:GTL program. A major problem in pursuing what has been termed “systems microbiology” is the lack of the facilities and infrastructure for conducting this new style of research. To solve this problem, the Genomics:GTL program has funded a number of large-scale research centers focused on either mission-oriented outcomes, such as bioenergy, or basic technologies, such as gene sequencing, high-throughput proteomics or the identification of protein complexes. Although these centers generate data that will be useful to the research community, their scientific goals are relatively narrow and are not designed to accommodate the general community need for advanced capabilities for systems microbiology research.

  6. Major Modification Determination Process Utilized for Proposed Idaho National Laboratory Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Lehto, Ph.D.; Boyd D. Christensen

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past three years, several new projects with the potential for major modifications to existing facilities have been considered for implementation at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These projects were designated to take place in existing nuclear facilities with existing documented safety analyses. 10 CFR 830.206 requires the contractor for a major modification to a Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to obtain Department of Energy (DOE) approval for the nuclear facility design criteria to be used for preparation of a preliminary documented safety analysis (PDSA), as well as creation and approval of the PDSA, before the contractor can procure materials or components or begin construction on the project. Given the significant effort and expense of preparation and approval of a PDSA, a major modification determination for new projects is warranted to determine if the rigorous requirements of a major modification are actually required. Furthermore, performing a major modification determination helps to ensure that important safety aspects of a project are appropriately considered prior to modification construction or equipment procurement. The projects considered for major modification status at the INL included: treatment and packaging of unirradiated, sodium-bonded highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and miscellaneous casting scrap in the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF); post irradiation examination of Advance Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) fuel in the MFC Analytical Laboratory (AL); the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) gas test loop (GTL); and the hydraulic shuttle irradiation system (HSIS) at ATR. The major modification determinations for three of the proposed projects resulted in a negative major modification. On the other hand, the major modification determination for the GTL project concluded that the project would require a major modification. This paper discusses the process, methods, and considerations used by the INL for the four major modification determinations. Three of the four major modification determinations discussed herein were completed using the guidance specified in the draft of DOE STD-1189, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process.” DOE-STD-1189 was released as a draft document in March 2007 and provides guidance for integrating safety considerations into the early design activities for constructing new facilities or making modifications to existing nuclear facilities. The fourth major modification determination was prepared prior to the existence of DOE STD-1189 and was evaluated solely by the definition of a major modification given in 10 CFR 830.206. For all four projects, consideration was given to: • Facility hazard categorization change and material inventory • Facility footprint change with the potential to adversely affect credited safety function • New or changed processes resulting in a change to the safety basis • The use of new technology or equipment not approved for use in the facility • The need for new or revised safety basis controls • Hazards not previously evaluated in the safety basis.

  7. ANL technical support program for DOE environmental restoration and waste management. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C. [and others

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program was established for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to evaluate factors that are anticipated to affect waste glass reaction during repository disposal, especially in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. This report covers progress in FY 1994 on the following tasks: (1) Critical Reviews of important parameters that affect the reactivity of glass in an unsaturated environment are being prepared. (2) A series of tests is ongoing to evaluate the reactivity of fully radioactive glasses in a high-level waste repository environment and compare it to the reactivity of synthetic, nonradioactive glasses of similar composition. (3) The effect of radiation upon the durability of waste glasses at a high SA/V ratio and a high gas-to-liquid volume ratio has been assessed. (4) A series of tests is being performed to compare the extent of reaction of nuclear waste glasses at various SA/V ratios. Such differences in the SA/V ratio may significantly affect glass durability. At long-term periods and high SA/V ratios, acceleration in glass reaction has been observed. (5) Tests were initiated on West Valley Reference 6 (WV6) glass and on the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. (6) Tests with the actinide-doped West Valley glass ATM-10 have been in progress for over seven years as a part of work for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). (7) Analytical electron microscopy (AEM) is being used to assess the glass/water reaction pathway by identifying intermediate phases that appear on the reacting glass. Also, colloids from the leach solutions are being studied using AEM.

  8. ANL technical support program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Emery, J.W.; Feng, X.; Gerding, T.J.; Gong, M.; Hoh, J.C.; Mazer, J.J.; Wronkiewicz, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bourcier, W.L.; Morgan, L.E.; Newton, L.; Nielsen, J.K.; Phillips, B.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Li, H.; Tomozawa, M. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program was established for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to evaluate factors that are anticipated to affect waste glass reaction during repository disposal, especially in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. This report covers progress in FY 1992 on the following tasks: 1. A compendium of the characteristics of high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glass has been written. 2. A critical review of important parameters that affect the reactivity of glass in an unsaturated environment is being prepared. 3. A series of tests has been started to evaluate the reactivity of fully radioactive glasses in a high-level waste repository environment and compare it to the reactivity of synthetic, nonradioactive glasses of similar composition. 4. The effect of radiation upon the durability of waste glasses at a high glass surface area-to-liquid volume (SA/V) ratio and a high gas-to-liquid volume ratio will be assessed. These tests address both vapor and high SA/V liquid conditions. 5. A series of tests is being performed to compare the extent of reaction of nuclear waste glasses at various SAN ratios. Such differences in the SAN ratio may significantly affect glass durability. 6. A series of natural analogue tests is being analyzed to demonstrate a meaningful relationship between experimental and natural alteration conditions. 7. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM), infrared spectroscopys and nuclear resonant profiling are being used to assess the glass/water reaction pathway by identifying intermediate phases that appear on the reacting glass. Additionally, colloids from the leach solutions are being studied using AEM. 8. A technical review of AEM results is being provided. 9. A study of water diffusion involving nuclear waste glasses is being performed. 10. A mechanistically based model is being developed to predict the performance of glass over repository-relevant time periods.

  9. 6th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and the Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitski, Timothy, P.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology is an annual two-day event gathering the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investigating complex systems. In recognition of the fundamental similarity between the scientific problems addressed in environmental science and systems biology studies at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels, the 2007 Symposium featured global leaders in “Systems Biology and the Environment.” The objective of the 2007 “Systems Biology and the Environment” International Symposium was to stimulate interdisciplinary thinking and research that spans systems biology and environmental science. This Symposium was well aligned with the DOE’s Genomics:GTL program efforts to achieve scientific objectives for each of the three DOE missions: • Develop biofuels as a major secure energy source for this century, • Develop biological solutions for intractable environmental problems, and • Understand biosystems’ climate impacts and assess sequestration strategies Our scientific program highlighted world-class research exemplifying these priorities. The Symposium featured 45 minute lectures from 12 researchers including: Penny/Sallie Chisholm of MIT gave the keynote address “Tiny Cells, Global Impact: What Prochlorococcus Can Teach Us About Systems Biology”, plus Jim Fredrickson of PNNL, Nitin Baliga of ISB, Steve Briggs of UCSD, David Cox of Perlegen Sciences, Antoine Danchin of Institut Pasteur, John Delaney of the U of Washington, John Groopman of Johns Hopkins, Ben Kerr of the U of Washington, Steve Koonin of BP, Elliott Meyerowitz of Caltech, and Ed Rubin of LBNL. The 2007 Symposium promoted DOE’s three mission areas among scientists from multiple disciplines representing academia, non-profit research institutions, and the private sector. As in all previous Symposia, we had excellent attendance of participants representing 20-30 academic or research-oriented facilities along with 25-30 private corporations from 5-10 countries. To broaden the audience for the Symposium and ensure the continued accessibility of the presentations, we made the presentation videos available afterward on the ISB’s website.

  10. PROGRESS TOWARDS MODELING OF FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The model includes heat generation due to the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. Results of the CMFD simulations (similar to those shown in Figure 1) will be presented.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLOW MODEL FOR FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The model includes heat generation due to the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. Results of the CMFD simulations (similar to those shown in Figure 1) will be presented.

  12. Genomes to Life Project Quartely Report October 2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffelfinger, Grant S.; Martino, Anthony; Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Geist, Al; Gorin, Andrey; Xu, Ying; Palenik, Brian

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This SAND report provides the technical progress through October 2004 of the Sandia-led project, %22Carbon Sequestration in Synechococcus Sp.: From Molecular Machines to Hierarchical Modeling,%22 funded by the DOE Office of Science Genomes to Life Program. Understanding, predicting, and perhaps manipulating carbon fixation in the oceans has long been a major focus of biological oceanography and has more recently been of interest to a broader audience of scientists and policy makers. It is clear that the oceanic sinks and sources of CO2 are important terms in the global environmental response to anthropogenic atmospheric inputs of CO2 and that oceanic microorganisms play a key role in this response. However, the relationship between this global phenomenon and the biochemical mechanisms of carbon fixation in these microorganisms is poorly understood. In this project, we will investigate the carbon sequestration behavior of Synechococcus Sp., an abundant marine cyanobacteria known to be important to environmental responses to carbon dioxide levels, through experimental and computational methods. This project is a combined experimental and computational effort with emphasis on developing and applying new computational tools and methods. Our experimental effort will provide the biology and data to drive the computational efforts and include significant investment in developing new experimental methods for uncovering protein partners, characterizing protein complexes, identifying new binding domains. We will also develop and apply new data measurement and statistical methods for analyzing microarray experiments. Computational tools will be essential to our efforts to discover and characterize the function of the molecular machines of Synechococcus. To this end, molecular simulation methods will be coupled with knowledge discovery from diverse biological data sets for high-throughput discovery and characterization of protein-protein complexes. In addition, we will develop a set of novel capabilities for inference of regulatory pathways in microbial genomes across multiple sources of information through the integration of computational and experimental technologies. These capabilities will be applied to Synechococcus regulatory pathways to characterize their interaction map and identify component proteins in these - 4 - pathways. We will also investigate methods for combining experimental and computational results with visualization and natural language tools to accelerate discovery of regulatory pathways. The ultimate goal of this effort is develop and apply new experimental and computational methods needed to generate a new level of understanding of how the Synechococcus genome affects carbon fixation at the global scale. Anticipated experimental and computational methods will provide ever-increasing insight about the individual elements and steps in the carbon fixation process, however relating an organism's genome to its cellular response in the presence of varying environments will require systems biology approaches. Thus a primary goal for this effort is to integrate the genomic data generated from experiments and lower level simulations with data from the existing body of literature into a whole cell model. We plan to accomplish this by developing and applying a set of tools for capturing the carbon fixation behavior of complex of Synechococcus at different levels of resolution. Finally, the explosion of data being produced by high-throughput experiments requires data analysis and models which are more computationally complex, more heterogeneous, and require coupling to ever increasing amounts of experimentally obtained data in varying formats. These challenges are unprecedented in high performance scientific computing and necessitate the development of a companion computational infrastructure to support this effort. More information about this project, including a copy of the original proposal, can be found at www.genomes-to-life.org Acknowledgment We want to gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the GTL Project Te

  13. Genomes to Life Project Quarterly Report April 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffelfinger, Grant S.; Martino, Anthony; Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Geist, Al; Gorin, Andrey; Xu, Ying; Palenik, Brian

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This SAND report provides the technical progress through April 2005 of the Sandia-led project, %22Carbon Sequestration in Synechococcus Sp.: From Molecular Machines to Hierarchical Modeling,%22 funded by the DOE Office of Science Genomics:GTL Program. Understanding, predicting, and perhaps manipulating carbon fixation in the oceans has long been a major focus of biological oceanography and has more recently been of interest to a broader audience of scientists and policy makers. It is clear that the oceanic sinks and sources of CO2 are important terms in the global environmental response to anthropogenic atmospheric inputs of CO2 and that oceanic microorganisms play a key role in this response. However, the relationship between this global phenomenon and the biochemical mechanisms of carbon fixation in these microorganisms is poorly understood. In this project, we will investigate the carbon sequestration behavior of Synechococcus Sp., an abundant marine cyanobacteria known to be important to environmental responses to carbon dioxide levels, through experimental and computational methods. This project is a combined experimental and computational effort with emphasis on developing and applying new computational tools and methods. Our experimental effort will provide the biology and data to drive the computational efforts and include significant investment in developing new experimental methods for uncovering protein partners, characterizing protein complexes, identifying new binding domains. We will also develop and apply new data measurement and statistical methods for analyzing microarray experiments. Computational tools will be essential to our efforts to discover and characterize the function of the molecular machines of Synechococcus. To this end, molecular simulation methods will be coupled with knowledge discovery from diverse biological data sets for high-throughput discovery and characterization of protein-protein complexes. In addition, we will develop a set of novel capabilities for inference of regulatory pathways in microbial genomes across multiple sources of information through the integration of computational and experimental technologies. These capabilities will be applied to Synechococcus regulatory pathways to characterize their interaction map and identify component proteins in these - 4 -pathways. We will also investigate methods for combining experimental and computational results with visualization and natural language tools to accelerate discovery of regulatory pathways. The ultimate goal of this effort is develop and apply new experimental and computational methods needed to generate a new level of understanding of how the Synechococcus genome affects carbon fixation at the global scale. Anticipated experimental and computational methods will provide ever-increasing insight about the individual elements and steps in the carbon fixation process, however relating an organism's genome to its cellular response in the presence of varying environments will require systems biology approaches. Thus a primary goal for this effort is to integrate the genomic data generated from experiments and lower level simulations with data from the existing body of literature into a whole cell model. We plan to accomplish this by developing and applying a set of tools for capturing the carbon fixation behavior of complex of Synechococcus at different levels of resolution. Finally, the explosion of data being produced by high-throughput experiments requires data analysis and models which are more computationally complex, more heterogeneous, and require coupling to ever increasing amounts of experimentally obtained data in varying formats. These challenges are unprecedented in high performance scientific computing and necessitate the development of a companion computational infrastructure to support this effort. More information about this project can be found at www.genomes-to-life.org Acknowledgment We want to gratefully acknowledge the contributions of: Grant Heffelfinger1*, Anthony Martino2, Brian Palenik6, Andrey Gori

  14. A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be attractive under many circumstances. For nearly all of the cases examined in the study, the IRR lies between 14% and 18%, assuming a 25-year levelized world oil price of $50/bbl--the US Department of Energy's 2006 reference oil price projection. The IRRs would rise to as high as 35% if positive incremental environmental benefits associated with biorefinery products are monetized (e.g., if an excise tax credit for the liquid fuel is available comparable to the one that exists for ethanol in the United States today). Moreover, if future crude oil prices are higher ($78/bbl levelized price, the US Department of Energy's 2006 high oil price scenario projection, representing an extrapolation of mid-2006 price levels), the calculated IRR exceeds 45% in some cases when environmental attributes are also monetized. In addition to the economic benefits to kraft pulp/paper producers, biorefineries widely implemented at pulp mills in the U.S. would result in nationally-significant liquid fuel production levels, petroleum savings, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and criteria-pollutant reductions. These are quantified in this study. A fully-developed pulpmill biorefinery industry could be double or more the size of the current corn-ethanol industry in the United States in terms of annual liquid fuel production. Forest biomass resources are sufficient in the United States to sustainably support such a scale of forest biorefining in addition to the projected growth in pulp and paper production.

  15. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures, pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.