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1

1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Controlled Variables Selection for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process' Controlled Variables Selection for a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Controlled Variables Selection for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process' Controlled Variables Selection for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process Mehdi Panahi Sigurd for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process' Skogestad plantwide control procedure* I Top Down · Step 1: Identify

Skogestad, Sigurd

2

Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

Options for Gas-to-Liquids Technology in Alaska  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purposes of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10 percent. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinquish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

Robertson, Eric Partridge

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Options for gas-to-liquids technology in Alaska  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10%. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinguish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

Robertson, E.P.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Selection of Controlled Variables for a Natural Gas to Liquids Process Mehdi Panahi and Sigurd Skogestad*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selection of Controlled Variables for a Natural Gas to Liquids Process Mehdi Panahi and Sigurd variables (CVs) for a natural gas to hydrocarbon liquids (GTL) process based on the idea of self of operation are studied. In mode I, where the natural gas flow rate is given, there are three unconstrained

Skogestad, Sigurd

6

GTL technologies focus on lowering costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Difficulties in the development of major natural-gas production projects and the limitations imposed by saturated markets for LNG or pipeline gas have focused attention on alternative gas utilization approaches. At the same time, technology improvements have transformed the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) conversion of natural gas-to-liquid (GTL) hydrocarbons from a technically interesting but uneconomic option into an option worthy of serious consideration. This two-part series reviews GTL technology developments which have led to today`s situation (Part 1) and examines the economics of GTL conversion (Part 2). The economic viability of GTL projects mainly depends on feed-gas pricing, investment costs, and the potential to produce liquids with natural-gas production.

Corke, M.J. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., London (United Kingdom)

1998-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

7

An Assessment of Energy and Environmental Issues Related to the Use of Gas-to-Liquid Fuels in Transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO2 emissions produced during the conversion process.

Greene, D.L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the conversion process.

Greene, D.L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration.

Alleman, T. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Barton, G.; Rumminger, M.; Duggal, V.; Nelson, C.; Ray, M.; Cherrillo, R. A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

STUDY OF TRANSPORTATION OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE (ANS) TO MARKETS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Alaskan North Slope is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the US where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundance resource. The throughput of oil through the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) has been on decline and is expected to continue to decline in future. It is projected that by the year 2015, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level that there will be a critical need for pumping additional liquid from GTL process to provide an adequate volume for economic operation of TAPS. The pumping of GTL products through TAPS will significantly increase its economic life. Transporting GTL products from the North Slope of Alaska down to the Marine terminal at Valdez is no doubt the great challenge facing the Gas to Liquids options of utilizing the abundant natural gas resource of the North Slope. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate and assess the economic feasibility of transporting GTL products through the TAPS. Material testing program for GTL and GTL/Crude oil blends was designed and implemented for measurement of physical properties of GTL products. The measurement and evaluation of the properties of these materials were necessary so as to access the feasibility of transporting such materials through TAPS under cold arctic conditions. Results of the tests indicated a trend of increasing yield strength with increasing wax content. GTL samples exhibited high gel strengths at temperatures as high as 20 F, which makes it difficult for cold restart following winter shutdowns. Simplified analytical models were developed to study the flow of GTL and GTL/crude oil blends through TAPS in both commingled and batch flow models. The economics of GTL transportations by either commingled or batching mode were evaluated. The choice of mode of transportation of GTL products through TAPS would depend on the expected purity of the product and a trade-off between loss in product value due to contamination and cost of keeping the product pure at the discharge terminal.

Godwin A. Chukwu, Ph.D., P.E.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Verification of Shell GTL Fuel as CARB Alternative Diesel  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

with existing infrastructure GTL provides a bridge to Biomass to Liquids and Coal to Liquids technologies Life cycle analysis: GTL vs. Refinery system GTL less...

14

Computational Resources for GTL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report summarizes the work conducted under our three year DOE GTL grant ($459,402). The work involved a number of areas, including standardization, the Systems Biology Workbench, Visual Editors, collaboration with other groups and the development of new theory and algorithms. Our work has played a key part in helping to further develop SBML, the de facto standard for System Biology Model exchange and SBGN, the developing standard for visual representation for biochemical models. Our work has also made significant contributions to developing SBW, the systems biology workbench which is now very widely used in the community (roughly 30 downloads per day for the last three years, which equates to about 30,000 downloads in total). We have also used the DOE funding to collaborate extensively with nine different groups around the world. Finally we have developed new methods to reduce model size which are now used by all the major simulation packages, including Matlab. All in all, we consider the last three years to be highly productive and influential in the systems biology community. The project resulted in 16 peer review publications.

Herbert M. Sauro

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

15

Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

TRANSPORTATION ISSUES IN THE DELIVERY OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE TO MARKET  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Alaskan North Slope (ANS) is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the United States where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Because the domestic gas market in the continental United States is located thousands of miles from the ANS, transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS to the market is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundant resource. The focus of this project is to study the operational challenges involved in transporting the gas in converted liquid (GTL) form through the existing Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). A three-year, comprehensive research program was undertaken by the Petroleum Development Laboratory, University of Alaska Fairbanks, under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40016 to study the feasibility of transporting GTL products through TAPS. Cold restart of TAPS following an extended winter shutdown and solids deposition in the pipeline were identified as the main transportation issues in moving GTL products through the pipeline. The scope of work in the current project (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41248) included preparation of fluid samples for the experiments to be conducted to augment the comprehensive research program.

Godwin Chukwu

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing...

18

GTL-1 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the Gas Test Loop (GTL-1) miniplate experiment is to confirm acceptable performance of high-density (i.e., 4.8 g-U/cm3) U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel plates clad in Al-6061 and irradiated under the relatively aggressive Booster Fast Flux Loop (BFFL) booster fuel conditions, namely a peak plate surface heat flux of 450 W/cm2. As secondary objectives, several design and fabrication variations were included in the test matrix that may have the potential to improve the high-heat flux, high-temperature performance of the base fuel plate design.1, 2 The following report summarizes the life of the GTL-1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

ConocoPhillips and Nexant Corporatin 2004deerabbott.pdf More Documents & Publications Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects...

20

GTL Resources Plc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URIFrontier,Jump to:Wilmette,TransportYuasa CorpNewGTL

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

R. Maly Research and Technology, Stuttgart Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance 10th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction Conference August 29 - September 2,...

22

Sandia National Laboratories: lower GTL conversion costs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbine blade manufacturinglife-cycleionlow-temperature dieselCO2GTL

23

Catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Proposed Renewal of the Harvard/MIT DOE GTL Systems Biology Center 2007-2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposed Renewal of the Harvard/MIT DOE GTL Systems Biology Center 2007-2012 CONTENTS I1-SysBio renewal proposal is configured to either stand alone with existing collaborations or to potentially act

Church, George M.

25

Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In his Advanced Energy Initiative announced in January 2006, President George W. Bush committed the nation to new efforts to develop alternative sources of energy to replace imported oil and fossil fuels. Developing cost-effective and energy-efficient methods of producing renewable alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass and solar-derived biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy production methods will not suffice. The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission and goals. Developing energy-efficient and cost-effective methods of producing alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy-production methods will not suffice. The focus on microbes (for cellular mechanisms) and plants (for source biomass) fundamentally exploits capabilities well known to exist in the microbial world. Thus 'proof of concept' is not required, but considerable basic research into these capabilities remains an urgent priority. Several developments have converged in recent years to suggest that systems biology research into microbes and plants promises solutions that will overcome critical roadblocks on the path to cost-effective, large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol and other renewable energy from biomass. The ability to rapidly sequence the DNA of any organism is a critical part of these new capabilities, but it is only a first step. Other advances include the growing number of high-throughput techniques for protein production and characterization; a range of new instrumentation for observing proteins and other cell constituents; the rapid growth of commercially available reagents for protein production; a new generation of high-intensity light sources that provide precision imaging on the nanoscale and allow observation of molecular interactions in ultrafast time intervals; major advances in computational capability; and the continually increasing numbers of these instruments and technologies within the national laboratory infrastructure, at universities, and in private industry. All these developments expand our ability to elucidate mechanisms present in living cells, but much more remains to be done. The Centers are designed to accomplish GTL program objectives more rapidly, more effectively, and at reduced cost by concentrating appropriate technologies and scientific expertise, from genome sequence to an integrated systems understanding of the pathways and internal structures of microbes and plants most relevant to developing bioenergy compounds. The Centers will seek to understand the principles underlying the structural and functional design of selected microbial, plant, and molecular systems. This will be accomplished by building technological pathways linking the genome-determined components in an organism with bioenergy-relevant cellular systems that can be characterized sufficiently to generate realistic options for biofuel development. In addition, especially in addressing what are believed to be nearer-term approaches to renewable energy (e.g., producing cellulosic ethanol cost-effectively and energy-efficiently), the Center research team must understand in depth the current industrial-level roadblocks and bottlenecks (see section, GTL's Vision for Biological Energy Alternatives, below). For the Centers, and indeed the entire BER effort, to be successful, Center research must be integrated with individual investigator research, and coordination of activities,

Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL; Drell, Dr. Daniel [Office of Science, Department of Energy; Weatherwax, Sharlene [U.S. Department of Energy; Carruthers, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Genomics:GTL Contractor-Grantee Workshop IV and Metabolic Engineering Working Group Inter-Agency Conference on Metabolic Engineering 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Welcome to the 2006 joint meeting of the fourth Genomics:GTL Contractor-Grantee Workshop and the six Metabolic Engineering Working Group Inter-Agency Conference. The vision and scope of the Genomics:GTL program continue to expand and encompass research and technology issues from diverse scientific disciplines, attracting broad interest and support from researchers at universities, DOE national laboratories, and industry. Metabolic engineering's vision is the targeted and purposeful alteration of metabolic pathways to improve the understanding and use of cellular pathways for chemical transformation, energy transduction, and supramolecular assembly. These two programs have much complementarity in both vision and technological approaches, as reflected in this joint workshop. GLT's challenge to the scientific community remains the further development and use of a broad array of innovative technologies and computational tools to systematically leverage the knowledge and capabilities brought to us by DNA sequencing projects. The goal is to seek a broad and predictive understanding of the functioning and control of complex systems--individual microbes, microbial communities, and plants. GTL's prominent position at the interface of the physical, computational, and biological sciences is both a strength and challenge. Microbes remain GTL's principal biological focus. In the complex 'simplicity' of microbes, they find capabilities needed by DOE and the nation for clean and secure energy, cleanup of environmental contamination, and sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide that contributes to global warming. An ongoing challenge for the entire GTL community is to demonstrate that the fundamental science conducted in each of your research projects brings us a step closer to biology-based solutions for these important national energy and environmental needs.

Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Sustainable use of California biomass resources can help meet state and national bioenergy targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

waste in landfills, or biogas from municipal wastewaterheat for industrial uses. Biogas potential from landfills,Bio]gas-to-liquids (GTL) Gas Biogas Biomethane Compressed

Jenkins, Bryan M; Williams, Robert B; Gildart, Martha C; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Hartsough, Bruce; Dempster, Peter G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

As-Run Thermal Analysis of the GTL-1 Experiment Irradiated in the ATR South Flux Trap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The GTL-1 experiment was conducted to assess corrosion the performance of the proposed Boosted Fast Flux Loop booster fuel at heat flux levels {approx}30% above the design operating condition. Sixteen miniplates fabricated from 25% enriched, high-density U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel with 6061 aluminum cladding were subjected to peak beginning of cycle (BOC) heat fluxes ranging from 411 W/cm2 to 593 W/cm2. Miniplates fabricated with three different fuel variations (without fines, annealed, and with standard powder) performed equally well, with negligible irradiation-induced swelling and a normal fission density gradient. Both the standard and the modified prefilm procedures produced hydroxide films that adequately protected the miniplates from failure. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux for an as-run cycle average effective south lobe power of 25.4 MW(t). Results of the thermal analysis are given at four times during the cycle: BOC at 0 effective full power days (EFPD), middle of cycle (MOC) at 18 EFPD, MOC at 36 EFPD, and end of cycle at 48.9 EFPD. The highest temperatures and heat fluxes occur at the BOC and decrease in a linear manner throughout the cycle. Miniplate heat flux levels and fuel, cladding, hydroxide, and coolant-hydroxide interface temperatures were calculated using the average measured hydroxide thickness on each miniplate. The hydroxide layers are the largest on miniplates nearest to the core midplane, where heat flux and temperature are highest. The hydroxide layer thickness averages 20.4 {mu}m on the six hottest miniplates (B3, B4, C1, C2, C3, and C4). This tends to exacerbate the heating of these miniplates, since a thicker hydroxide layer reduces the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant. These six hottest miniplates have the following thermal characteristics at BOC: (1) Peak fuel centerline temperature >300 C; (2) Peak cladding temperature >200 C; (3) Peak hydroxide temperature >190 C; (4) Peak hydroxide-water interface temperature >140 C; and (5) Peak heat flux >565 W/cm2.

Donna P. Guillen

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Sandia National Laboratories: GTL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS Exhibit at Explora MuseumFloatingFront

30

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Source  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

natural gas plant liquids (NGPL), and refinery gain. The term other liquids refers to oil shale (i.e., kerogen-to-liquids), gas-to-liquids (GTL), coal-to-liquids (CTL), and...

31

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

natural gas plant liquids (NGPL), and refinery gain. The term other liquids refers to oil shale (i.e., kerogen-to-liquids), gas-to-liquids (GTL), coal-to-liquids (CTL), and...

32

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Source  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal- and biomass-to-liquids (CBTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and oil shale (derived from kerogen). See more legs Legislation and Regulations Updates on liquid...

33

a l b L b f ^ J M P U P E O M N P F = = | = = ^ p r i l = O M...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

natural gas plant liquids (NGPL), and refinery gain. The term other liquids refers to oil shale (i.e., kerogen-to-liquids), gas-to-liquids (GTL), coal-to-liquids (CTL), and...

34

Biomass and Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-D: Natural Gas & Biomass to Liquids Josephine Elia, Graduate Student, Princeton University

35

Sandia National Laboratories: convert natural gas to liquid fuel for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia, NREL Releasehy-drogenmaterial elements

36

Published on Web Date: December 01, 2010 r 2010 American Chemical Society 3451 DOI: 10.1021/jz1012627 |J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 34513458  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, methane, and ethylene with high current efficiency. These products can be used as feed- stocks dependence on imported pe- troleum, the development and expansion of natural gas to liquid (GTL) and coal monoxide, which is then converted into liquid fuels via the Fischer-Tropsch process,2,3 and both are well

Kenis, Paul J. A.

37

Comparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life-Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from Coal and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal and Natural Gas Figure S1 shows a graphical description of the life cycle of coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). Figure S1: Life Cycle of Coal-Based and Natural Gas-Based Fischer-Tropsch LiquidComparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life- Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from

Jaramillo, Paulina

38

A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of petroleum refineries, considering crude slates, desired product slates, and refinery configuration. * Aspen Plus - a process simulator extensively used to model heat and...

39

Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. Final report, June 1, 1995--January 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The original concept envisioned for the use of Fischer-Tropsch processing (FTP) of United States associated natural gas in this study was to provide a way of utilizing gas which could not be brought to market because a pipeline was not available or for which there was no local use. Conversion of gas by FTP could provide a means of utilizing offshore associated gas which would not require installation of a pipeline or re-injection. The premium quality F-T hydrocarbons produced by conversion of the gas can be transported in the same way as the crude oil or in combination (blended) with it, eliminating the need for a separate gas transport system. FTP will produce a synthetic crude oil, thus increasing the effective size of the resource. The two conventional approaches currently used in US territory for handling of natural gas associated with crude petroleum production are re-injection and pipelining. Conversion of natural gas to a liquid product which can be transported to shore by tanker can be accomplished by FTP to produce hydrocarbons, or by conversion to chemical products such as methanol or ammonia, or by cryogenic liquefaction (LNG). This study considers FTP and briefly compares it to methanol and LNG. The Energy International Corporation cobalt catalyst, ratio adjusted, slurry bubble column F-T process was used as the basis for the study and the comparisons. An offshore F-T plant can best be accommodated by an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage, Offloading vessel) based on a converted surplus tanker, such as have been frequently used around the world recently. Other structure types used in deep water (platforms) are more expensive and cannot handle the required load.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* Bulky on-board storage * Shell companies assess locally whether to supply (eg. Argentina) LPG * Lower sulphur, PM, NOx and SOx * Overall emissions similar to CNG *...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Simulation, integration, and economic analysis of gas-to-liquid processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

specifications. Next, energy and mass integration studies are performed to address the following items: (a) heating and cooling utilities, (b) combined heat and power (process cogeneration), (c) management of process water, (c) optimization of tail-gas allocation...

Bao, Buping

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. [Butyribacterium methylotrophicum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

Jain, M.K.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

than hitherto possible by re- ducing the rate of Hydrogenation To Paraffin (HTP) reactions. Our numerical and simulation results reveal an exponential relationship be- tween reduction in rates of HTP

New South Wales, University of

44

Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

Mills, G. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Process and catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbon mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Synthesis gas containing CO and H.sub.2 is converted to a high-octane hydrocarbon liquid in the gasoline boiling point range by bringing the gas into contact with a heterogeneous catalyst including, in physical mixture, a zeolite molecular sieve, cobalt at 6-20% by weight, and thoria at 0.5-3.9% by weight. The contacting occurs at a temperature of 250.degree.-300.degree. C., and a pressure of 10-30 atmospheres. The conditions can be selected to form a major portion of the hydrocarbon product in the gasoline boiling range with a research octane of more than 80 and less than 10% by weight aromatics.

Rao, V. Udaya S. (Monroeville, PA); Gormley, Robert J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment(October-DecemberBased onIn-Cylinder

48

Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartment of EnergyLight-Duty Diesel

49

Bringing Alaska North Slope Natural Gas to Market (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

At least three alternatives have been proposed over the years for bringing sizable volumes of natural gas from Alaska's remote North Slope to market in the lower 48 states: a pipeline interconnecting with the existing pipeline system in central Alberta, Canada; a gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant on the North Slope; and a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facility at Valdez, Alaska. The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) explicitly models the pipeline and GTL options. The what if LNG option is not modeled in NEMS.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

ClearFuels-Rentech Integrated Biorefinery Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project Final Report describes the validation of the performance of the integration of two technologies that were proven individually on a pilot scale and were demonstrated as a pilot scale integrated biorefinery. The integrated technologies were a larger scale ClearFuels (CF) advanced flexible biomass to syngas thermochemical high efficiency hydrothermal reformer (HEHTR) technology with Rentechs (RTK) existing synthetic gas to liquids (GTL) technology.

Pearson, Joshua [Project Director

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

51

REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

Unknown

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Annual report, September 29, 1992--September 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the project is to develop and optimize a two-stage fermentation process for the conversion of coal derived synthesis gas in an mixture of alcohols. The goals include the development of superior strains with high product tolerance and productivity, optimization of process conditions for high volumetric productivity and product concentrations, integration and optimization of two stage syngas fermentation, evaluation of bioreactor configurations for enhanced mass transfer, evaluation of syngas conversion by a culture of Butyribacterium methyltrophicum and Clostridium acetobutylicum, development of a membrane based pervaporation system for in situ removal of alcohols, and development of a process for reduction of carbon and electron loss. The specific goals for year one (September 1992 - September 1993) were (1) development of a project work plan, (2) development of superior CO-utilizing strains, (3) optimization of process conditions for conversion of synthesis gas to a mixture of acids in a continuously stirred reactor (CSTR), (4) evaluation of different bioreactor configurations for maximization of mass transfer of synthesis gas, (5) development of a membrane based pervaporation system, and (6) reduction of carbon and electron loss via H{sub 2}CO{sub 2} fermentation. Experimentation and progress toward these goals are described in this report.

Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.E.

1993-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

53

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final report, September 29, 1992--December 27, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed research project consists of an integrated, two-stage fermentation and a highly energy-efficient product separation scheme. In the first fermentation, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) into butyric acid and acetic acids which are then converted into butanol, ethanol, and a small amount of acetone in the second stage fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. An advanced separation system process, based on pervaporation, removes the alcohols from the fermentation broth as they are formed, along with some of the hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), to minimize possible inhibition of the fermentations. This bioconversion process offers a critical advantage over conventional, catalytic processes for synthesis gas conversion: the microorganisms are several orders of magnitude more sulfur tolerant than metallic catalysts. The catalysts require sulfur removal to the parts per million level, while the microorganisms are unaffected by H{sub 2}S and carbonyl sulfide (COS) at one part per hundred--roughly the composition of sulfur in raw synthesis gas. During the two-year course of this project, the following major objectives have been accomplished: demonstrated long-term cell recycle of continuous fermentation of synthesis gas; demonstrated cell immobilization of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum; identified trickle-bed reactor as a viable alternative fermentation method; modulated metabolic pathways to increase C4 formation during synthesis gas fermentation; recovered carbon and electrons from H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} with pathway modulation for increased C4 production; developed bacterial strains with improved selectivity for butyrate fermentation; demonstrated two-stage CO to alcohol fermentation; and concentrated alcohol from solventogenic fermentation by pervaporation.

Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.E.

1995-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

Jain, M.K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

56

Utilizing the heat content of gas-to-liquids by-product streams for commercial power generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-SeparationUnit........................................................................18 3.4.3SyngasGeneration..........................................................................18 3.4.4Fischer-Tropsch(FT)Synthesis.....................................................20 viii CHAPTER Page 3.4.5Product...Description TherearethreestagesinvolvedintheconversionofnaturalgasintoGTLfuels-Syngas generation,Fischer-Tropsch(FT)synthesis,andProductupgrade.Adetailedresultofthe processmodelinginAspenPlusisincludedinAppendixB,whiletheactualprocessmap isshowninFigureA1inAppendixAandFigure3.1below. 17...

Adegoke, Adesola Ayodeji

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

57

Rigorous HDD Emissions Capabilities of Shell GTL Fuel  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3 Fuel Description - Reference Fuel Reference ULSD (S15) ex Shell Martinez CA Refinery, exhibits < 2 ppm sulfur 43 cetane number (contains no cetane improver) <10%m...

58

Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Shell GTL Fuel  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SO 2 emissions 4 Sustainability Specific issue of GHG emissions comparison more complex: Carbon efficiency of SMDS process currently lower than than typical leading refinery...

59

Computer simulation of GTL and various problems in thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simulation results show that methane conversion increases with higher reaction temperature and longer residence times. Hydrogen can both inhibit methane decomposition and reduce coke formation. The rich components in the natural gas are found to decompose...

Wang, Xiaonian

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

60

Rigorous HDD Emissions Capabilities of Shell GTL Fuel | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l LPROJECTS IN RENEWABLEOperatedDepartment

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

An Evaluation of Shell GTL Diesel | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment ofEnergy Natural Gas:Austin,An Evaluation of Enhanced GeothermalAn

62

Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Shell GTL Fuel | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd: Scope Change #1

63

World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2009 (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The oil prices reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO) represent the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil in 2007 dollars. Projections of future supply and demand are made for "liquids," a term used to refer to those liquids that after processing and refining can be used interchangeably with petroleum products. In AEO2009, liquids include conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil and natural gas plant liquids -- in addition to unconventional liquids, such as biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In Annual Energy Outlook 2010, the price of light, low-sulfur (or "sweet") crude oil delivered at Cushing, Oklahoma, is tracked to represent movements in world oil prices. The Energy Information Administration makes projections of future supply and demand for "total liquids,"" which includes conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gain -- in addition to unconventional liquids, which include biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

The Potential of GTL Diesel to Meet Future Exhaust Emission Limits  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Rate Rate of Cyl. Pressure Rise Injector Signal Injector Signal Rate of Cyl. Pressure Rise Cylinder Pressure Heat Release Rate -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20...

68

Operability and Emissions from a Medium-Duty Fleet Operating with GTL Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F SSales LLCDiesel Engines |Open Source Software Messner,AirLynnand

69

The Potential of GTL Diesel to Meet Future Exhaust Emission Limits |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyThe Energy Department Feeds11,IndustrialDepartmentThe

70

Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance | Department  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE: ECM Summary ECMWear | Department of Energy Exhaustof

71

Verification of Shell GTL Fuel as CARB Alternative Diesel | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of| Department of Energy Ventilation System to ImproveEnergy

72

Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

74

Microbial Protein-Protein Interactions (MiPPI) Data from the Genomics: GTL Center for Molecular and Cellular Systems (CMCS)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Genomic Science Center for Molecular and Cellular Systems (CMCS), established in 2002, seeks to identify and characterize the complete set of protein complexes within a cell to provide a mechanistic basis for the understanding of biochemical functions. The CMCS is anchored at ORNL and PNNL. CMCS initially focused on the identification and characterization of protein complexes in two microbial systems,Rhodopseudomonas palustris (R. palustris) and Shewanella oneidensis (S. oneidensis). These two organisms have also been the focus of major DOE Genomic Science/Microbial Cell Program (MCP) projects. To develop an approach for identifying the diverse types of complexes present in microbial organisms, CMCS incorporates a number of molecular biology, microbiology, analytical and computational tools in an integrated pipeline.

75

Systems Biology Knowledgebase for a New Era in Biology A Genomics:GTL Report from the May 2008 Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biology has entered a systems-science era with the goal to establish a predictive understanding of the mechanisms of cellular function and the interactions of biological systems with their environment and with each other. Vast amounts of data on the composition, physiology, and function of complex biological systems and their natural environments are emerging from new analytical technologies. Effectively exploiting these data requires developing a new generation of capabilities for analyzing and managing the information. By revealing the core principles and processes conserved in collective genomes across all biology and by enabling insights into the interplay between an organism's genotype and its environment, systems biology will allow scientific breakthroughs in our ability to project behaviors of natural systems and to manipulate and engineer managed systems. These breakthroughs will benefit Department of Energy (DOE) missions in energy security, climate protection, and environmental remediation.

Gregurick, S.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Stevens, R.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Microsoft Word - DOE Final Report 2013 - GTL ER64516-1031199-0013966 Chisholm-Polz-Alm.doc  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite--FORRemarksHEATINGI _FinalFinal Report83 DOE

77

Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

photosynthesis; Genomics: GTL microbial production of hydrogen; funding the first round hydrogen research. Environment - Genomics: GTL -- Harnessing biotechnology to protect the environment; ecology baselines

78

U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Science, Engineering, & Technology - Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use - Genomics: GTL, including

79

Exergy Analysis of a GTL Process Based on Low-Temperature Slurry F-T Reactor Technology with a Cobalt Catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Hans Tropsch; their aim was to use a mixture of CO and H2 (referred to as synthesis gas, syngas) to produce hydrocarbons, chemicals, and liquid fuels. The production of syngas was achieved by coal into syngas and, then, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of syngas into synthetic liquid fuels. A first plant

Kjelstrup, Signe

80

Two-Sided Generalized Topp and Leone (TS-GTL) distributions Donatella Vicari, Department of Statistics, Probability and Applied Statistics, University of Rome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Statistics, Probability and Applied Statistics, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy. E Engineering, SchoolDepartment of of Engineering and Applied Science, The George Washington University, 1776 G of Statistics, Probability and Applied Statistics, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy 2 Corresponding

van Dorp, Johan Ren

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Canadian offshore oil production solution gas utilization alternatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil and gas development in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is in its early stage and the offshore industry emphasis is almost exclusively on oil production. At the Hibernia field, the Gravity Base Structure (GBS) is installed and the first wells are in production. The Terra Nova project, based on a Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) ship shaped concept, is in its engineering and construction stage and first oil is expected by late 2000. Several other projects, such as Husky's White Rose and Chevron's Hebron, have significant potential for future development in the same area. It is highly probably that these projects will employ the FPSO concept. It is also expected that the solution gas disposal issues of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and the operators may be forced to look for alternatives to gas reinjection. Three gas utilization alternatives for a FPSO concept based project have been considered and evaluated in this paper: liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and gas-to-liquids conversion (GTL). The evaluation and the relative ranking of these alternatives is based on a first pass screening type of study which considers the technical and economical merits of each alternative. Publicly available information and in-house data, compiled within Fluor Daniel's various offices, was used to establish the basic parameters.

Wagner, J.V.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

CROSS-SERVICING AGREEMENT  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A. Repair time witl not exceed labor hours specified in the Mitchell on Demand or the Motors Parts and Labor Guide. Labor will be charged at 0 - per hour on Oroup 1 (12,500 GVWR...

84

Assessment of Out-of-State Heavy-Duty Truck Activity Trends In California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highway Patrol ( CHP), 2006. Personal Communication. OtayCA: Caltrans: CARB: CDFA: CEC: CHP: CVIS: g/bhp: g/mi: GVWR:California Highway Patrol (CHP) enforcement facilities and

Lutsey, Nicholas P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Autothermal reforming of natural gas to synthesis gas:reference: KBR paper #2031.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Sued-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO{sub 2} in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct participation of CO{sub 2} in the oxidation chemistry.

Mann, David (KBR, Houston, TX); Rice, Steven, D.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

FD-BPM for Optical Waveguide Structures with Second Order Accuracy An improved FD-BPM was developed which is based on the generalized transmission line(GTL) equa-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FD-BPM for Optical Waveguide Structures with Second Order Accuracy R. Pregla An improved FD-BPMRHH) for discretized transverse fields E and H. This BPM is a wide angle algorithm and also full vectorial a second term on the right sides (for details see [3]). Usually, BPM algorithms are based on the wave

Jahns, Jürgen

87

Earth Sciences Division Research Summaries 2006-2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

global positioning system GTLGenomes to Life (DOE) HBShydrate-bearing sediments ERTelectrical resistance tomography HMRhydrocarbon and mineral resources

DePaolo, Donald

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Reference set of regulons in Desulfovibrionales inferred by comparative genomics approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inferred by comparative genomics approach 1 Lawrenceout large-scale comparative genomics analysis of regulatoryEnvironmental Research, Genomics:GTL Foundational Science

Kazakov, A.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for comparative and functional genomics Paramvir S. DehalUS Department of Energy Genomics: GTL program (grant DE-approach to comparative genomics, including a tree-based

Dehal, Paramvir

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Discovering and validating biological hypotheses from coherent patterns in functional genomics data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

patterns in functional genomics data Marcin P. Joachimiakpatterns in functional genomics data Marcin P. Joachimiakand Environmental Research, Genomics Program:GTL through

Joachimiak, Marcin Pawel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

"The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF FIGURES Figure 1. Gasoline Blending Components v. Alternative Fuels as Sources of Non BENEFITS OF NEAT AND BLENDED GTL FUELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

92

Evaluation of compression members with non-ideal end conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Of Cross-Section 48 is shown in Figure 18 and can be computed by: + ? ri dG + ? r dG (y) n 3 n . 2 GT 4 L GT GTL 4 ? ? (r, ? h, ) 'dGTL ? ? (r, ? h, ) dGTL [y (y, . +y) ' (yoi'y) ' (84) +hi]' where: h, = height of outer trapezoid (in), bio = top... trapezoid (in), y, = centroid of inner trapezoid (in) defined by: hi (2bLL+bii) (86) and, dort top length of transformed grout (in) defined by: b, i dGTL n (87) The total moment of inertia measured by the DCB method is defined by: LOCe ZL3CGL...

Marek, David Leslie

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Environmental Genomics Reveals a Single-Species Ecosystem Deep Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Genomics Reveals a Single-Species EcosystemTechnology Program, DOE Joint Genomics Institute, Berkeley,and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL program through

Arkin, Adam P.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Transportation and its Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007). Natural Gas (CNG / LNG / GTL) Natural gas, which iscompressed (CNG) or liquefied (LNG) form Chapter 5 Transportthe hydrogen section. CNG and LNG combustion characteristics

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Integrated Omics in Systems Biology: The New Frontier for Environmental Biotechnology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biology Comparative Genomics Metabolomics DNA Microarraysand Environmental Research, Genomics Program:GTL throughINSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL GENOMICS UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA

Hazen, Terry C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

The development and application of an integrated functional genomics platform in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

integrated functional genomics data will be used to build aan integrated functional genomics platform in Desulfovibrioand Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL program through

Deutschbauer, Adam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Discovering and validating biological hypotheses from coherent patterns in functional genomics data using associative biclustering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

patterns in functional genomics data using associativeand Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL program throughof Energy Functional genomics confronts researchers with a

Joachimiak, Marcin P.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Microbes Online: an integrated portal for comparative functional genomics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

comparative functional genomics of bacteria, archaea, fungifor comparative functional genomics Paramvir S. Dehal 1,2* (and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL program through

Arkin, Adam P.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Resource for the exploration of regulons accurately predicted by the methods of comparative genomics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the methods of comparative genomics. Pavel S. Novichkov 1 ,Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL program through con-a computational comparative genomics approach is coming of

Novichkov, Pavel S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

ESPP Functional Genomics and Imaging Core: Cell wide analysis of Metal-Reducing Bacteria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Environmental Research, Genomics:GTL Program throughESPP Functional Genomics and Imaging Core: Cell widemetals. The Functional Genomics and Imaging Core (FGIC)

Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Membrane Applications at Ceramatec  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

at Ceramatec Solid Electrolyte Ion Conductors CO 2 to Syngas GTL Advanced Batteries oxygen Fluorine Hydrogen Alkali metals Specialty Chemicals Waste Remediation Disinfection...

102

Automotive Fuels ? The Challenge for Sustainable Mobility  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

GTL Fuel launched in: Austria, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland and Thailand Premium Fuels V-Power fuels: Best performance in Latest engine technology * In 60...

103

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced automotive diesel Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by Mass Spectrometry Modelling... diesels from methane (GTL) and from biomass, ethanol, biogas, natural gas, hydrogen Activities Source: Birmingham, University of - School of...

104

48669Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 154 / Wednesday, August 9, 2000 / Proposed Rules Type of motor vehicle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vehicle Service Brake Systems Emergency brake sys- tems: applica- tion and brak- ing distance in feet from initial speed of 20 mph Braking force as a percent- age of gross vehicle or combination weight mph B. Property-carrying vehicles: (1) Single unit vehicles having a manufacturer's GVWR of 10

105

Shell. The Evolution of Movement Continues  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

such as Gas to Liquids CO 2 * Increased use of bio-component blends * Improved refinery efficiency * Energy companies and auto manufacturers to work together to maximise...

106

Energy Department Announces $66 Million for Transformational...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

(REMOTE), provides 34 million to find advanced biocatalyst technologies that can convert natural gas to liquid fuel for transportation. Deputy Director Martin made the project...

107

ARPA-E Announces $40 Million for Research Projects to Develop...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

second program will develop biological technologies that will improve the conversion of natural gas to liquids for transportation fuels, designed to reduce vehicle emissions...

108

ClearFuels-Rentech Pilot-Scale Biorefinery  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The ClearFuels-Rentech pilot-scale biorefinery will use Fisher-Tropsch gas-to-liquids technology to create diesel and jet fuel.

109

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

natural-gas-to-liquids process. 13 Includes liquids produced from kerogen (oil shale, not to be confused with tight oil (shale oil). Note: Ethanol is represented in...

110

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

natural-gas-to-liquids process. 13 Includes liquids produced from kerogen (oil shale, not to be confused with tight oil (shale oil)). - - Not applicable. Note: Ethanol...

111

MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the US Department of Energy Genomics: GTL program (DE-AC02-Web site for comparative genomics. Genome Res, 15, 1015-comparative and functional genomics Paramvir S. Dehal 1,2* ,

Dehal, Paramvir S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Comparative genomics in acid mine drainage biofilm communities reveals metabolic and structural differentiation of co-occurring archaea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

co-occurring archaea. BMC Genomics 2013 14:485. Submit yourgenomes. Yelton et al. BMC Genomics 2013, 14:485 http://work was supported by DOE Genomics: GTL project Grant No.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Characterization of a unique embedded gene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Plasmids were either transformed into host cells or stored in ? 20'C as water solutions. The oligonucleotides were purchased from Gene Technologies Laboratory (GTL) in the Department of Biology at Texas A&M University (TAMU). In all experiments involving...

Zhang, Ning

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

MicrobesOnline: An Integrated Portal For Comparative Functional Genomics (R-018)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

andEnvironmentalResearch, Genomics:GTL Program throughComparative Functional Genomics (R-018) Y. Wayne Huang 1,2 ,genomeusingcomparativegenomicsandsequence motif

Huang, Y. Wayne

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Future Fuels: Issues and Opportunities  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

R Y S L E R G R O U P Fuel Quality Issues * Cetane * Lubricity * Aromatics * Sulfur * Biodiesel - adequate quality standards needed * GTL, CTL, and BTL -- The Future 9142005 2 C...

116

Microsoft Word - TEV 672 Rev 2.docx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to GTL Delivered at 675C and 7 MPa Electricity Generated by a Rankine cycle, 43% efficiency The HTGR would produce high-temperature heat andor electricity and be physically...

117

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Document details the evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch diesel, a gas-to-liquid fuel, in medium-duty delivery vehicles at Yosemite Waters. The study was conducted by NREL at the company's Fullerton, California, bottling headquarters.

Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Alleman, T. L.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

A View from the Bridge  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oils Biomass to DME Biomass to Liquids Non-Conv. Oil (oil sands, etc...) Gas to Liquids Coal to Liquids Gas, Coal to DME Near-Term Mid-Term Long-Term Projected Mainstream...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Microsoft Word - INL NGNP-HTGR Final Report with INL Comments...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

o Coal to Methanol to Gasoline x TEV 671 o Coal to Substitute Natural Gas x TEV 672 o Coal to Liquids o Gas to Liquids x TEV 674 Date: 2212011 NGNP-HTGR Assisted Conventional...

122

Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Virtual Library on Genetics from Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The World Wide Web (WWW) Virtual Library is a collaborative effort to provide topic indices that break down into many subtopics guiding users to vast resources of information around the world. ORNL hosts the Virtual Library on Genetics as part of the WWWVL's Biosciences topic area. The VL on Genetics is also a collection of links to information resources that supported the DOE Human Genome Project. That project has now evolved into Genomics: GTL. GTL is DOE's next step in genomics--builds on data and resources from the Human Genome Project, the Microbial Genome Program, and systems biology. GTL will accelerate understanding of dynamic living systems for solutions to DOE mission challenges in energy and the environment. The section of the Virtual Library on Genetics that is titled Organisms guides users to genetic information resources and gene sequences for animals, insects, microbes, and plant life.

124

Report on the Imaging Workshop for the Genomes to Life Program, April 16-18, 2002  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a result of the Imaging Workshop for the Genomes to Life (GTL) program held April 16-19, 2002, in Charlotte, North Carolina. The meeting was sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science. The purpose of the workshop was to project a broad vision for future needs and determine the value of imaging to GTL program research. The workshop included four technical sessions with plenary lectures on biology and technology perspectives and technical presentations on needs and approaches as they related to the following areas of the GTL program: (1) Molecular machines (protein complexes); (2) Intracellular and cellular structure, function, and processes; (3) Multicellular: Monoclonal and heterogeneous multicellular systems, cell-cell signaling, and model systems; and (4) Cells in situ and in vivo: Bacteria in the natural environment, microenvironment, and in vivo systems.

Colson, STEVEN

2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

125

The effects of washing upon the bacterial flora of the stallion prepuce  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~soasarg s ( pfg t*d) ~v ~~t Pseudomonas spp. ~tpy pp. ( g 1 s p ltl ) ~tpy ?pp. ( gl s gtl ) Streptococcus e uisimilis ~tr*pt* oc s spp. non ta h olytlc) ~St p ?pp. (gt h lytl) ( tld ttflhl) St pt ? ~ale 5 ~py * *pg. * API identification system... pp. tttaspp. Klebsiella pneumoniae g ? ?s spp. Proteus snconstans Proteus mi rabi li s l)roteus spp. Proteus vulgaris p d ~* ~ooas * g a( aplgm td) ~p* as ~top Pseudomonas spp. ~p y ? spp, ( q l s* p*sltlv*) ~st py o*?spp. ( aq las gtl...

Tobin, Nancy Batterton

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Gene expression of beta-defensins in chicken white blood cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technologies Lab, Texas A&M University (http://www.idmb.tamu.edu/gtl/) for sequencing (a total of 5 cBDs were sent for sequencing). Bioinformatics program Blast 2 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ blast/bl2seq/wblast2.cgi) was used to align the chicken genomic... sequence from UCSC genome browser with the five chicken beta-defensins? sequencing results received from the Gene Technologies Lab, Texas A&M University (http://www.idmb.tamu.edu/gtl/). 24 Transcription Starting Site (TSS) Detection Two...

Supak, Tiffany Marie

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

127

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics School of Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

control, (3) heat transfer in turbine blading, (4) gas turbine engine noise reduction and aero-acoustics noise below the background noise level in a well populated area. The Gas Turbine Laboratory maintains is conducted at the Gas Turbine Laboratory (GTL) which has had a worldwide reputation for research and teaching

de Weck, Olivier L.

128

The effect of gibberellic acid on ion uptake and the radiobiosynthesis of gebberellic acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. , Takai, M. , Tamuraf S f and Sumiki, Y. , Bul. A r. Chem. ~S. J, ~1, 267-277 (1955), f. S B k Gtl- berellin, Abs. 468, V. S. D. A. (1957) 29. Watanabe, R. , and Scully, N. T. unpublished report (1957). 30. White, W. L. , Mandels& G. R. , and Siu, R. G...

Sprayberry, Billy Alan

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Mycorrhizal fungi in roots of Texas crops  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were y 1. '1 t G~t~l( ht hyhd h ypi 1 thick outer wall and thin inner membrane (Fig. 14, p. 31) . Blackberry (Rubus sp. ) Root and Soil Material The blackberry sample was collected at Stephenville, Texas. Four different spore types were found...

Yeh, May-Wei Mavix

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Computer modeling of free fall phenomenon to improve primary cementing design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tlty l. it itin?! Ante Vc. 'De?th t t t i! ! 'Ann?!!' . . '. ''"fit? ~n:'tttittlttn ttertty Csneel imnry' c'ellrentin sknvlstnt Ynu neve net verirdied tire d sin yet. Gn yeu want tn verily the Q delta st R Gtl, m . , -, ;. ;:, , i n enibya...

Marhaendrajana, Taufan

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

The location of polynomial zeros by a combination of Bernoulli's Method and iterative factorization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) f? hen the ters& (3-1)' (]+1 is replaced by I(&jkk)k-&1-g q~l k-gtl-q q i Thus for right-hand. side of (0) (BHS), there results n - K?, w, In the above study it was remarked that the determinant for the matrix oi' (4) could be evaluated...

Ary, James Alfred

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Quadratic Diffusion Monte-Carlo Algorithms for Solving Atomic Many-Body Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, or LGV2c, then, as discussed in Sec. II, the normalization energy would converge quadratically, despite that fact that the ground state of (28} only converges linearly. Genuine second-order algorithms can be obtained via ?ht(EL E)/2 gtL ht(EL E)/27'=e...

Chin, Siu A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

An ecological study of an oyster population, including selected associated organisms in West Bay, Galveston, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

97 L*gthd*tb' f lid measured, January 1968. 99 10 Length distribution of all Crassostrea ~vir inica measured, February 1968 101 L gtl d' 'b tt f 11 C measured, March 1968. 103 12 Lerigth distribution of all Crassostrea ~vir inica measured...

Gillard, Robert Moore

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Effect of Vibrio anguillarum endotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism and cortisol actions in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of endotoxin on glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and glucose utilization. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 155, 216-218. Fletcher, T. C. &. White, A. (1987). Metabolic and immunological effects of e dotodn in the pl ic, ~Pl ecte gtl (L. ) J. P h' Biol. 31, 81...

Fajardo, Elizabeth Deirdre

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Design criteria for the flow of sewage in installations comparable to the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. -c - . . I, & - . '. I )I ), l. r. : i . . ". ' ti Jns, tire (e . &! t GI . r&. I' &, d Sacer' cauic ( ~. . . &. c(" c ~ . . c) ua3 taken , '- t"; C. Gtl'?Ct; . :f . . &C Sy c . )Ccn, , ' ', '1 c &. . . G, 1 H, L. . I I' c& tl!1'CJ . ''. , Gc...

Jones, Mortimer Drahn

1948-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Complement fixation antigen production for Theileria in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the hemoparasites is accomplished with greater frequency in the arthropods than in circulating blood of the vertebrate lost. Rees and Mohler (22) and later Mott and Gates (16) in demonstrat- gtl p * f pl t-f' ' g t'ih d' f ~Al 1 t' ~ * M' dth p 'h'1'tp f 1 g...

Gadir, Faisal Abdel

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-to-liquid (GTL) projects. In contrast the low forecast would be consistent with conditions that limit the demand;7/2/2013 2 Demand Forecast Overview Today's Presentations relate to Box 1 and 2 6 ) Forecast Demand for New Requirements net Of retirements (by fuel) 10) Produce "Price Effect " Demand Forecast 4) Determine Consumer

138

Energy Department awards $92 million http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2005-10/ddoe-eda100305.php 1 of 2 10/7/2005 1:19 PM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and one private company. The grants are part of the Office of Science's Genomics: GTL research program in genomics research over the past 20 years now help allow scientists rapidly decode and interpret the complete DNA sequence of any organism. Because genomics reveals the blueprint for life, it is the starting

Lovley, Derek

139

Mobility with Hydrogen Fuel Cells Becomes Reality! 2Daimler AG / 09.02.2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bio-Mass Natural Gas Crude Oil Conventional fuels sulphur-free, free of aromatic compounds fuels system & stack Electric engine H2 tank system Infrastructure Hydrogen costs Reliable refueling technology Synthetic fuels (GTL) sulphur-free, free of aromatic compounds Natural Gas (CNG) 1. Gen. Bio-Fuels (Ethanol

California at Davis, University of

140

Quantum mechanicalrapid prototyping applied to methane activation Richard P. Muller, Dean M. Philipp, and William A. Goddard III  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

example. The conversion of natural gas to liquid products such as alcohols is of great economic importance of industrially important catalytic processes. This, combined with the continued dramatic decreases in the costs. The technologies currently practised in industry first involve conversion of CH4 to syngas (carbon monoxide plus

Goddard III, William A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Direct fired heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Northwest Power and Conservation Council 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and demand. Unlike the natural gas price forecast, the oil and coal forecasts have little effect to reflect the differing views on the supply and demand for natural gas. The high price forecast reflects States; and increased demand from gas-to-liquid projects. In contrast, the low forecast reflects

143

Fuel Cells for Critical Communications Backup Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen is from fossil fuels ~49% from natural gas ~29% liquid hydrocarbons ~18% coal with and ~4 transition period only) Coal (with carbon sequestration) Renewable Sources: · Wind · Biomass · Solar will drive consumption in excess of 40% over the next five years ­ Oil-sands processing, gas-to-liquids

144

Nano-scale Sensor Networks for Chemical Eisa Zarepour1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nano-scale Sensor Networks for Chemical Catalysis Eisa Zarepour1 Mahbub Hassan1 Chun Tung Chou1- searchers are now investigating the viability of nano-scale sensor networks (NSNs), which are formed natural gas to liquid fuel. Given that reliable wireless communi- cation at nano-scale is at very early

New South Wales, University of

145

Boosted Fast Flux Loop Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Boosted Fast Flux Loop (BFFL) project was initiated to determine basic feasibility of designing, constructing, and installing in a host irradiation facility, an experimental vehicle that can replicate with reasonable fidelity the fast-flux test environment needed for fuels and materials irradiation testing for advanced reactor concepts. Originally called the Gas Test Loop (GTL) project, the activity included (1) determination of requirements that must be met for the GTL to be responsive to potential users, (2) a survey of nuclear facilities that may successfully host the GTL, (3) conceptualizing designs for hardware that can support the needed environments for neutron flux intensity and energy spectrum, atmosphere, flow, etc. needed by the experimenters, and (4) examining other aspects of such a system, such as waste generation and disposal, environmental concerns, needs for additional infrastructure, and requirements for interfacing with the host facility. A revised project plan included requesting an interim decision, termed CD-1A, that had objectives of' establishing the site for the project at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), deferring the CD 1 application, and authorizing a research program that would resolve the most pressing technical questions regarding GTL feasibility, including issues relating to the use of booster fuel in the ATR. Major research tasks were (1) hydraulic testing to establish flow conditions through the booster fuel, (2) mini-plate irradiation tests and post-irradiation examination to alleviate concerns over corrosion at the high heat fluxes planned, (3) development and demonstration of booster fuel fabrication techniques, and (4) a review of the impact of the GTL on the ATR safety basis. A revised cooling concept for the apparatus was conceptualized, which resulted in renaming the project to the BFFL. Before the subsequent CD-1 approval request could be made, a decision was made in April 2006 that further funding for the project would be suspended. Remaining funds have been used to prepare and irradiate mini-plates of the proposed booster fuel. The current baseline design is for a set of three test positions inside an in-pile tube with a thermal neutron absorber and heat sink made of aluminum mixed with hafnium. Operating the ATR at power levels needed to achieve the required fast flux will result in an estimated increase in ATR fuel consumption between 15 and 20% above present rates and a reduction in the time between fuel replacements. Preliminary safety analyses conducted have indicted safe operation of the ATR with the GTL under normal, abnormal, and postulated accident conditions. More comprehensive analyses are needed.

Boosted Fast Flux Loop Project Staff

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Heat transfer in an oil-steam direct-contact condensation system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BE. ". T T". 3~NSR~~B XII ~k?i GTL STi;, . '~, B~!DEC'. ". COilrTga~T CQND~~. ""S/Pi'XO1'l 5 "ST8$4 A Ti%692$ QQ ~ (;~, f I, , ~J lLTK ~ WF X sg&TQ& Lj 3'; /z+ 1' , 4* . "$ ", &?[pl, 'L t j ttjt. , '. ". h ( l; 'I 'll6 XC(tU, ". "' ' f CD . . VL...

Waln, Christopher Alexander

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

The Euphausiacea of the Gulf of Mexico and Northwestern Caribbean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

N t li ~iS Nematoscelis tenella Sars S~tl h hh i t S ~St i hi iii H ~gtl h' i t S S~tt h i ~tt S ~dt i*hi ~t* i aS S~tl h ' ' S S~tt*h i l 'iS Nematobrachion ~boo is Caiman Nematobrachion ~flexi s Caiman N t*h h ~*H Those marked...

James, Bela Michael

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Development of large flow counters for detection of low intensity cosmic ray particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of positive ella=. . sc surround-ng the anode. Tire sheath. o char ge begins its c=. f. G. 'w=. zc. w +h 'az = cce c at on because o ti:e stzoz ? e ectric mGtlG G 1, . C lc. rc Co 11 u C S C rc "'"y f GI 1 t' e C1CC' 1C icic . :-. ;;. -. 'o . . --. ' . ilc...

Bull, Kenneth Winson

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

A polarographic study of the nitro group in p-nitroacetophenone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'f'usion currents Determznation of' the relationship between the diffusion current, concentration, and mercury head. Recordir g of the polarograms. Chaptez III. ZXPERI. 'IZNTAL RESUI TS. Calibrated polarographic sensitivitzes. . . . . . . . . Polarographic... cell resistances 2/gtl/6 Values of the half-wave potentials and the diffusion currents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Values of F~, and Id as a function of concenfration. . . Value of r~ and Id as a functzon of mercury head. Typical polarograms...

Stout, Roy Franklin

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Conversion economics for Alaska North Slope natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the Prudhoe Bay field, this preliminary analysis provides an indication that major gas sales using a gas pipeline/LNG plant scenario, such as Trans Alaska Gas System, or a gas-to-liquids process with the cost parameters assumed, are essentially equivalent and would be viable and profitable to industry and beneficial to the state of Alaska and the federal government. The cases are compared for the Reference oil price case. The reserves would be 12.7 BBO for the base case without major gas sales, 12.3 BBO and 20 Tcf gas for the major gas sales case, and 14.3 BBO for the gas-to-liquids conversion cases. Use of different parameters will significantly alter these results; e.g., the low oil price case would result in the base case for Prudhoe Bay field becoming uneconomic in 2002 with the operating costs and investments as currently estimated.

Thomas, C.P.; Robertson, E.P.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

The synthesis and characterization of new iron coordination complexes utilizing an asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors are investigating the structure/activity relationships of the bacterial enzyme, methane monooxygenase, which catalyzes the specific oxidation of methane to methanol. They then utilize this information to design and synthesize inorganic coordination complexes that mimic the function of the native enzyme but are more robust and have higher catalytic site density. They envision these catalysts to be useful in process catalytic reactors in the conversion of methane in natural gas to liquid methanol.

Baldwin, D.; Watkins, B.E.; Satcher, J.H.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

The synthesis and characterization of new iron coordination complexes utilizing an asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are investigating the structure/activity relationships of the bacterial enzyme methane monooxygenase, which catalyzes the specific oxidation of methane to methanol. We then utilize this information to design and synthesize inorganic coordination complexes that mimic the function of the native enzyme but are more robust and have higher catalytic site density. We envision these catalysts to be useful in process catalytic reactors in the conversion of methane in natural gas to liquid ethanol.

Watkins, B.E.; Satcher, J.H.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Entrepreneurialship Considerations in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear Power Reactors #12;8 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy ENERGY SOURCES ·Coal SOURCES cont. · Bio Fuels · Gas to Liquids · Solar · Geothermal #12;10 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U, 0.08 Wind, 0.32 Geothermal, 0.35 Hydroelectric, 2.46 Biomass, 3.62 Coal, 22% Nuclear electric power

154

Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Discovery of N-(4-(2-Amino-3-chloropyridin-4-yloxy)-3-fluorophenyl)-4-ethoxy-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamide (BMS-777607), a Selective and Orally Efficacious Inhibitor of the Met Kinase Superfamily  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Substituted N-(4-(2-aminopyridin-4-yloxy)-3-fluoro-phenyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamides were identified as potent and selective Met kinase inhibitors. Substitution of the pyridine 3-position gave improved enzyme potency, while substitution of the pyridone 4-position led to improved aqueous solubility and kinase selectivity. Analogue 10 demonstrated complete tumor stasis in a Met-dependent GTL-16 human gastric carcinoma xenograft model following oral administration. Because of its excellent in vivo efficacy and favorable pharmacokinetic and preclinical safety profiles, 10 has been advanced into phase I clinical trials.

Schroeder, Gretchen M.; An, Yongmi; Cai, Zhen-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Tao; Clark, Cheryl; Cornelius, Lyndon A.M.; Dai, Jun; Gullo-Brown, Johnni; Gupta, Ashok; Henley, Benjamin; Hunt, John T.; Jeyaseelan, Robert; Kamath, Amrita; Kim, Kyoung; Lippy, Jonathan; Lombardo, Louis J.; Manne, Veeraswamy; Oppenheimer, Simone; Sack, John S.; Schmidt, Robert J.; Shen, Guoxiang; Stefanski, Kevin; Tokarski, John S.; Trainor, George L.; Wautlet, Barri S.; Wei, Donna; Williams, David K.; Zhang, Yingru; Zhang, Yueping; Fargnoli, Joseph; Borzilleri, Robert M.; (BMS)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Genomic Data and Annotation from the SEED  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The SEED Project has been extended to support metagenomic samples and concomitant analytical tools. Moreover, the number of genomes being introduced into SEED is growing very rapidly. Building a framework to support this growth while providing highly accurate annotations is centrally important to SEED. The projects subsystem-based annotation strategy has become the technological foundation for addressing these challenges.(copied from Appendix 7 of Systems Biology Knowledgebase for a New Era in Biology, A Genomics:GTL Report from the May 2008 Workshop, DOE/SC-0113, Grequrick, S; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stevens, R., Pub March 1, 2009.)

Fonstein, Michael; Kogan, Yakov; Osterman, Andrei; Overbeek, Ross; Vonstein, Veronika The Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes (FIG)

157

Physically-based demand modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)) ] t = E[ J' exp [- F(t -t )] T (~ ) dt1 1 os 1 t exp F ~2 ] T (zZ) dz2 0 t t = exp (- 2Ft) 7 f exp LP(&1 + 2 ] C(~2 - ~1) 0 0 d~) d Let the function g be given by 1 + 2)] ELT ( 1) T 34 t t t g(Tly T2) dT1 dT2 J J' g('Tl, s2) dT) dT2 0 0 0 0... + f J g(~1, ~2) d~2 d~l 0 0 The arguments of g are dummy variables, so t t J g(tl, tZ) dtl dt2 = f I g(t2, tl ) d~2 d~ 0 0 0 0 Since g tl' 2 g t2' tl t t '2 J' J' g(~1, ~2) dvl dt2= 2 J' J' g(xl, v2) deal d 2. 0 0 0 0 Now an assumption is made...

Calloway, Terry Marshall

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

RESEARCH GUIDANCE STUDIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this quarter, in task area 1, work was performed on three separate areas of activity. These were (1) review of the proposed and final EPA Tier 2 regulations, (2) assistance in preparation of an ultra-clean transportation fuels report for the deputy assistant secretary for Fossil Energy, (3) preparation of a detailed trip report from attending the Clean Fuels 2000 conference in San Diego. In task area 4, three activities were undertaken: an update of coproduction, an analysis of the potential for gasification of petroleum coke in U.S. refineries, and preparation and presentation of a paper at the Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems conference in Clearwater. In task area 5, a presentation was prepared for the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Annual Convention to be held in New Orleans in April. This presentation was an overview of GTL technology including the current costs and product values. In addition the potential risks of the technology were addressed and the potential contribution of GTL products to the future world fuel market was discussed.

Unknown

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Final technical report, June 1993--July 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research project was to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) to convert natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) to convert CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data generated in this project were for use in evaluating the commercial potential of the process.

Erekson, E.J.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Proceedings of the natural gas research and development contractors review meeting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this meeting was to present results of the research in the DOE-sponsored Natural Gas Program, and simultaneously to provide a forum for real-time technology transfer, to the active research community, to the interested public, and to the natural gas industry, who are the primary users of this technology. The current research focus is to expand the base of near-term and mid-term economic gas resources through research activities in Eastern Tight Gas, Western Tight Gas, Secondary Gas Recovery (increased recovery of gas from mature fields); to enhance utilization, particularly of remote gas resources through research in Natural Gas to Liquids Conversion; and to develop additional, long term, potential gas resources through research in Gas Hydrates and Deep Gas. With the increased national emphasis on the use of natural gas, this forum has been expanded to include summaries of DOE-sponsored research in energy-related programs and perspectives on the importance of gas to future world energy. Thirty-two papers and fourteen poster presentations were given in seven formal, and one informal, sessions: Three general sessions (4 papers); Western Tight Gas (6 papers); Eastern Tight Gas (8 papers); Conventional/Speculative Resources (8 papers); and Gas to Liquids (6 papers). Individual reports are processed separately on the data bases.

Malone, R.D.; Shoemaker, H.D.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gtl gas-to-liquids gvwr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

METLIN: MS/MS metabolite data from the MAGGIE Project  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

METLIN is a metabolite database for metabolomics containing over 50,000 structures, it also represents a data management system designed to assist in a broad array of metabolite research and metabolite identification by providing public access to its repository of current and comprehensive MS/MS metabolite data. An annotated list of known metabolites and their mass, chemical formula, and structure are available on the METLIN website. Each metabolite is conveniently linked to outside resources such as the the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) for further reference and inquiry. MS/MS data is also available on many of the metabolites. The list is expanding continuously as more metabolite information is being deposited and discovered. [from http://metlin.scripps.edu/] Metlin is a component of the MAGGIE Project. MAGGIE is funded by the DOE Genomics: GTL and is an acronym for "Molecular Assemblies, Genes, and Genomics Integrated Efficiently."

162

Biochemistry of ethylene in plants and other problems related to leaf abscission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??nh, ioi,nli m? ,?n gtvdmt?,d?n ?gt?,dmhi ?gml Cm?nsi? F?m? vdlnhidmht? gtvdm??gmlt,m?gtl m? ,?n t?snmsi n?,gt?, ?gml C m ? n s i ?????????????????????????? ??? ??? Fgt?dh?i m? gtvdmts,m?gtli m? ,?n ?t,ng?im?sc?n ?gt?,dmhi mc,tdhnv co dmh...?n???th?n ??gmlt,m?gt??o m? Cm?nsi n?,gt?,i???????????????????????????? ??? ??? Fgt?dh?i m? gtvdmts,m?gtli m? ,?n ?t,ng?im?sc?n ?gt?,dmhi mc,tdhnv co dmh?n???th?n ??gmlt,m?? gt??o m? Cm?nsi n?,gt?,i?????????????????????? ??? ??? Fgt?dh?i m? gtvdmts,m?gtli m...

Herrero, Fay Alberto

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Gas Test Loop Facilities Alternatives Assessment Report Rev 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An important task in the Gas Test Loop (GTL) conceptual design was to determine the best facility to serve as host for this apparatus, which will allow fast-flux neutron testing in an existing nuclear facility. A survey was undertaken of domestic and foreign nuclear reactors and accelerator facilities to arrive at that determination. Two major research reactors in the U.S. were considered in detail, the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), each with sufficient power to attain the required neutron fluxes. HFIR routinely operates near its design power limit of 100 MW. ATR has traditionally operated at less than half its design power limit of 250 MW. Both of these reactors should be available for at least the next 30 years. The other major U.S. research reactor, the Missouri University Research Reactor, does not have sufficient power to reach the required neutron flux nor do the smaller research reactors. Of the foreign reactors investigated, BOR-60 is perhaps the most attractive. Monju and BN 600 are power reactors for their respective electrical grids. Although the Joyo reactor is vigorously campaigning for customers, local laws regarding transport of radioactive material mean it would be very difficult to retrieve test articles from either Japanese reactor for post irradiation examination. PHENIX is scheduled to close in 2008 and is fully booked until then. FBTR is limited to domestic (Indian) users only. Data quality is often suspect in Russia. The only accelerator seriously considered was the Fuel and Material Test Station (FMTS) currently proposed for operation at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron spectrum in FMTS is similar to that found in a fast reactor, but it has a pronounced high-energy tail that is atypical of fast fission reactor spectra. First irradiation in the FMTS is being contemplated for 2008. Detailed review of these facilities resulted in the recommendation that the ATR would be the best host for the GTL.

William J. Skerjanc; William F. Skerjanc

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Thermal Analysis of a Uranium Silicide Miniplate Irradiation Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper outlines the thermal analysis for the irradiation of high density uranium-silicide (U3Si2 dispersed in an aluminum matrix and clad in aluminum) booster fuel for a Boosted Fast Flux Loop designed to provide fast neutron flux test capability in the ATR. The purpose of this experiment (designated as Gas Test Loop-1 [GTL-1]) is two-fold: (1) to assess the adequacy of the U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel and the aluminum alloy 6061 cladding, and (2) to verify stability of the fuel cladding boehmite pre-treatment at nominal power levels in the 430 to 615 W/cm2 (2.63 to 3.76 Btu/sin2) range. The GTL-1 experiment relies on a difficult balance between achieving a high heat flux, yet keeping fuel centerline temperature below a specified maximum value throughout an entire operating cycle of the reactor. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux levels and to reveal which experiment parameters place constraints on reactor operations. Analyses were performed to determine the bounding lobe power level at which the experiment could be safely irradiated, yet still provide meaningful data under nominal operating conditions. Then, simulations were conducted for nominal and bounding lobe power levels under steady-state and transient conditions with the experiment in the reactor. Reactivity changes due to a loss of commercial power with pump coast-down to emergency flow or a standard in-pile tube pump discharge break were evaluated. The time after shutdown for which the experiment can be adequately cooled by natural convection cooling was determined using a system thermal hydraulic model. An analysis was performed to establish the required in-reactor cooling time prior to removal of the experiment from the reactor. The inclusion of machining tolerances in the numerical model has a large effect on heat transfer.

Donna Post Guillen

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Design of a Gas Test Loop Facility for the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of Nuclear Energy within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE-NE) has identified the need for irradiation testing of nuclear fuels and materials, primarily in support of the Generation IV (Gen-IV) and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) programs. These fuel development programs require a unique environment to test and qualify potential reactor fuel forms. This environment should combine a high fast neutron flux with a hard neutron spectrum and high irradiation temperature. An effort is presently underway at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to modify a large flux trap in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to accommodate such a test facility [1,2]. The Gas Test Loop (GTL) Project Conceptual Design was initiated to determine basic feasibility of designing, constructing, and installing in a host irradiation facility, an experimental vehicle that can replicate with reasonable fidelity the fast-flux test environment needed for fuels and materials irradiation testing for advanced reactor concepts. Such a capability will be needed if programs such as the AFCI, Gen-IV, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), and space nuclear propulsion are to meet development objectives and schedules. These programs are beginning some irradiations now, but many call for fast flux testing within this decade.

C. A. Wemple

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Syntroleum plant is mechanically complete and currently undergoing start-up. The fuel production and demonstration plan is near completion. The study on the impact of small footprint plant (SFP) fuel on engine performance is about half-completed. Cold start testing has been completed. Preparations have been completed for testing the fuel in diesel electric generators in Alaska. Preparations are in progress for testing the fuel in bus fleets at Denali National Park and the Washington Metropolitan Transit Authority. The experiments and analyses conducted during this project show that Fischer-Tropsch (FT) gas-to-liquid diesel fuel can easily be used in a diesel engine with little to no modifications. Additionally, based on the results and discussion presented, further improvements in performance and emissions can be realized by configuring the engine to take advantage of FT diesel fuel's properties. The FT fuel also shows excellent cold start properties and enabled the engine tested to start at more the ten degrees than traditional fuels would allow. This plant produced through this project will produce large amounts of FT fuel. This will allow the fuel to be tested extensively, in current, prototype, and advanced diesel engines. The fuel may also contribute to the nation's energy security. The military has expressed interest in testing the fuel in aircraft and ground vehicles.

Steve Bergin

2003-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

168

Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Biomimetic methane oxidation. Final report, October 1, 1989--June 1, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transportation fuels are a critical energy commodity and they impact nearly every sector of this country. The need for transportation fuels is projected well into the next century. Consequently, there is a strong emphasis on the economical conversion of other domestic fossil energy resources to liquid hydrocarbons that can be used as transportation fuels. Natural gas is currently a readily available resource that has a positive future outlook considering its known and anticipated reserves. There is intense government and industrial interest in developing economic technologies to convert natural gas to liquid fuels. Methane, CH{sub 4}, is the primary hydrocarbon (85-95%) in natural gas. This document covers the following: production soluable of methane monooxygenase; production of particulate methane monooxygenase; production of methane monooxygenase in continuous culture; subunit resolution for active site identification of methylosinus trichosporium OB3b soluble methane monooxygenase; the synthesis and characterization of new copper coordination complexes contairing the asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand application to enzyme active site modeling; the synthesis and characterization of new iron coordination complexes utilizing an asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand; further characterization of new bionuclear iron complexes.

Watkins, B.E.; Satcher, J.H. Jr.; Droege, M.W.; Taylor, R.T.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Proceedings of the fuels technology contractors review meeting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fuels Technology Contractors Review Meeting was held November 16-18, 1993, at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). METC periodically provides an opportunity to bring together all of the R&D participants in a DOE-sponsored contractors review meeting to present key results of their research and to provide technology transfer to the active research community and to the interested public. This meeting was previously called the Natural Gas Technology Contractors Review Meeting. This year it was expanded to include DOE-sponsored research on oil shale and tar sands and so was retitled the Fuels Technology Contractors Review Meeting. Current research activities include efforts in both natural gas and liquid fuels. The natural gas portion of the meeting included discussions of results summarizing work being conducted in fracture systems, both natural and induced; drilling, completion, and stimulation research; resource characterization; delivery and storage; gas to liquids research; and environmental issues. The meeting also included project and technology summaries on research in oil shale, tar sands, and mild coal gasification, and summaries of work in natural-gas fuel cells and natural-gas turbines. The format included oral and poster session presentations. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

Malone, R.D. [ed.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.

Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; Donald Lyons; Chris Atkinson; Wenwei Xie; Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

173

Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the OH stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.

Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno [Grupo de Fsica Matemtica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)] [Grupo de Fsica Matemtica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Cabral, Benedito J. Costa, E-mail: ben@cii.fc.ul.pt [Grupo de Fsica Matemtica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal) [Grupo de Fsica Matemtica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Qumica e Bioqumica, Faculdade de Cincias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto de Fsica da Universidade de So Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 So Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

174

Major Modification Determination Process Utilized for Proposed Idaho National Laboratory Projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past three years, several new projects with the potential for major modifications to existing facilities have been considered for implementation at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These projects were designated to take place in existing nuclear facilities with existing documented safety analyses. 10 CFR 830.206 requires the contractor for a major modification to a Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to obtain Department of Energy (DOE) approval for the nuclear facility design criteria to be used for preparation of a preliminary documented safety analysis (PDSA), as well as creation and approval of the PDSA, before the contractor can procure materials or components or begin construction on the project. Given the significant effort and expense of preparation and approval of a PDSA, a major modification determination for new projects is warranted to determine if the rigorous requirements of a major modification are actually required. Furthermore, performing a major modification determination helps to ensure that important safety aspects of a project are appropriately considered prior to modification construction or equipment procurement. The projects considered for major modification status at the INL included: treatment and packaging of unirradiated, sodium-bonded highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and miscellaneous casting scrap in the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF); post irradiation examination of Advance Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) fuel in the MFC Analytical Laboratory (AL); the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) gas test loop (GTL); and the hydraulic shuttle irradiation system (HSIS) at ATR. The major modification determinations for three of the proposed projects resulted in a negative major modification. On the other hand, the major modification determination for the GTL project concluded that the project would require a major modification. This paper discusses the process, methods, and considerations used by the INL for the four major modification determinations. Three of the four major modification determinations discussed herein were completed using the guidance specified in the draft of DOE STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. DOE-STD-1189 was released as a draft document in March 2007 and provides guidance for integrating safety considerations into the early design activities for constructing new facilities or making modifications to existing nuclear facilities. The fourth major modification determination was prepared prior to the existence of DOE STD-1189 and was evaluated solely by the definition of a major modification given in 10 CFR 830.206. For all four projects, consideration was given to: Facility hazard categorization change and material inventory Facility footprint change with the potential to adversely affect credited safety function New or changed processes resulting in a change to the safety basis The use of new technology or equipment not approved for use in the facility The need for new or revised safety basis controls Hazards not previously evaluated in the safety basis.

Michael A. Lehto, Ph.D.; Boyd D. Christensen

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

6th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and the Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology is an annual two-day event gathering the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investigating complex systems. In recognition of the fundamental similarity between the scientific problems addressed in environmental science and systems biology studies at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels, the 2007 Symposium featured global leaders in Systems Biology and the Environment. The objective of the 2007 Systems Biology and the Environment International Symposium was to stimulate interdisciplinary thinking and research that spans systems biology and environmental science. This Symposium was well aligned with the DOEs Genomics:GTL program efforts to achieve scientific objectives for each of the three DOE missions: Develop biofuels as a major secure energy source for this century, Develop biological solutions for intractable environmental problems, and Understand biosystems climate impacts and assess sequestration strategies Our scientific program highlighted world-class research exemplifying these priorities. The Symposium featured 45 minute lectures from 12 researchers including: Penny/Sallie Chisholm of MIT gave the keynote address Tiny Cells, Global Impact: What Prochlorococcus Can Teach Us About Systems Biology, plus Jim Fredrickson of PNNL, Nitin Baliga of ISB, Steve Briggs of UCSD, David Cox of Perlegen Sciences, Antoine Danchin of Institut Pasteur, John Delaney of the U of Washington, John Groopman of Johns Hopkins, Ben Kerr of the U of Washington, Steve Koonin of BP, Elliott Meyerowitz of Caltech, and Ed Rubin of LBNL. The 2007 Symposium promoted DOEs three mission areas among scientists from multiple disciplines representing academia, non-profit research institutions, and the private sector. As in all previous Symposia, we had excellent attendance of participants representing 20-30 academic or research-oriented facilities along with 25-30 private corporations from 5-10 countries. To broaden the audience for the Symposium and ensure the continued accessibility of the presentations, we made the presentation videos available afterward on the ISBs website.

Galitski, Timothy, P.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLOW MODEL FOR FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The model includes heat generation due to the exothermic chemical reaction, as well as heat removal from a constant temperature heat exchanger. Results of the CMFD simulations (similar to those shown in Figure 1) will be presented.

Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Real-Time Gene Expression Profiling of Live Shewanella Oneidensis Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this proposal is to make real-time observations of gene expression in live Shewanella oneidensis cells with high sensitivity and high throughput. Gene expression, a central process to all life, is stochastic because most genes often exist in one or two copies per cell. Although the central dogma of molecular biology has been proven beyond doubt, due to insufficient sensitivity, stochastic protein production has not been visualized in real time in an individual cell at the single-molecule level. We report the first direct observation of single protein molecules as they are generated, one at a time in a single live E. coli cell, yielding quantitative information about gene expression [Science 2006; 311: 1600-1603]. We demonstrated a general strategy for live-cell single-molecule measurements: detection by localization. It is difficult to detect single fluorescence protein molecules inside cytoplasm - their fluorescence is spread by fast diffusion to the entire cell and overwhelmed by the strong autofluorescence. We achieved single-molecule sensitivity by immobilizing the fluorescence protein on the cell membrane, where the diffusion is much slowed. We learned that under the repressed condition protein molecules are produced in bursts, with each burst originating from a stochastically-transcribed single messenger RNA molecule, and that protein copy numbers in the bursts follow a geometric distribution. We also simultaneously published a paper reporting a different method using ?-glactosidase as a reporter [Nature 440, 358 (2006)]. Many important proteins are expressed at low levels, inaccessible by previous proteomic techniques. Both papers allowed quantification of protein expression with unprecedented sensitivity and received overwhelming acclaim from the scientific community. The Nature paper has been identified as one of the most-cited papers in the past year [http://esi-topics.com/]. We have also an analytical framework describing the steady-state distribution of protein concentration in live cells, considering that protein production occurs in random bursts with an exponentially distributed number of molecules. This model allows for the extraction of kinetic parameters of gene expression from steady-state distributions of protein concentration in a cell population, which are available from single cell data obtained by fluorescence microscopy. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168302 (2006)]. A major objective in the Genome to Life (GtL) program is to monitor and understand the gene expression profile of a complete bacterial genome. We developed genetic and imaging methods for sensitive protein expression profiling in individual S. oneidensis cell. We have made good progress in constructing YFP-library with several hundred chromosomal fusion proteins and studied protein expression profiling in living Shewanella oneidensis cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the average abundance of specific proteins, as well as their noise in gene expression level across a population. We also explored ways to adapt our fluorescence measurement for other growth conditions, such as anaerobic growth.

Xiaoliang Sunney Xie

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

179

A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be attractive under many circumstances. For nearly all of the cases examined in the study, the IRR lies between 14% and 18%, assuming a 25-year levelized world oil price of $50/bbl--the US Department of Energy's 2006 reference oil price projection. The IRRs would rise to as high as 35% if positive incremental environmental benefits associated with biorefinery products are monetized (e.g., if an excise tax credit for the liquid fuel is available comparable to the one that exists for ethanol in the United States today). Moreover, if future crude oil prices are higher ($78/bbl levelized price, the US Department of Energy's 2006 high oil price scenario projection, representing an extrapolation of mid-2006 price levels), the calculated IRR exceeds 45% in some cases when environmental attributes are also monetized. In addition to the economic benefits to kraft pulp/paper producers, biorefineries widely implemented at pulp mills in the U.S. would result in nationally-significant liquid fuel production levels, petroleum savings, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and criteria-pollutant reductions. These are quantified in this study. A fully-developed pulpmill biorefinery industry could be double or more the size of the current corn-ethanol industry in the United States in terms of annual liquid fuel production. Forest biomass resources are sufficient in the United States to sustainably support such a scale of forest biorefining in addition to the projected growth in pulp and paper production.

Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

180

Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures, pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

Joseph Rabovitser

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z