National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gt combustion gas

  1. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lacon, IL)

    2007-10-09

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  2. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  3. System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

    2010-05-25

    The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

  4. GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert; R.A. Newby P.G.A. Cizmas

    2004-05-17

    In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In Task 1, Blade Path Aerodynamics, design options were evaluated using CFD in terms of burnout, increase of power output, and possible hot streaking. It was concluded that Vane 1 injection in a conventional 4-stage turbine was preferred. Vane 2 injection after vane 1 injection was possible, but of marginal benefit. In Task 2, Combustion and Emissions, detailed chemical kinetics modeling, validated by Task 3, Sub-Scale Testing, experiments, resulted in the same conclusions, with the added conclusion that some increase in emissions was expected. In Task 4, Conceptual Design and Development Plan, Siemens Westinghouse power cycle analysis software was used to evaluate alternative in situ reheat design options. Only single stage reheat, via vane 1, was found to have merit, consistent with prior Tasks. Unifying the results of all the tasks, a conceptual design for single stage reheat utilizing 24 holes, 1.8 mm diameter, at the trailing edge of vane 1 is presented. A development plan is presented.

  5. Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Discusses a novel TEG which utilizes a proprietary stack designed thermoelectric engine to achieve high power density and reduced system weight and volume PDF icon deer11_lagrandeur.pdf More Documents & Publications TEG On-Vehicle Performance & Model Validation Thermoelectric Generator Performance for Passenger Vehicles

  6. Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J.

    2007-05-01

    The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETLs Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

  7. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  8. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

    1993-01-01

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  9. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  10. Combustible gas sensor interference test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    Result of Laboratory Interference testing of the Sierra Monitor Corporation Gas Sensor, number model 4101-2, are documented.

  11. Enhanced Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines By Employing Spinning Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geyko, Vasily; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-27

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A gain in fuel efficiency of several percent is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in the efficiency.

  12. Compounded turbocharged rotary internal combustion engine fueled with natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, P.E.

    1992-10-15

    This patent describes a compounded engine. It comprises: a first Wankel engine having a housing with a trochoidal inner surface containing a generally triangular shaped rotor, the engine containing a fuel supply system suitable for operating the engine with natural gas as a fuel; a turbocharge compressing air for combustion by the engine, the turbocharger being driven by the exhaust gases which exit from the engine; a combustion chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust from the engine after that exhaust has passed through the turbocharger, the chamber having an ignition device suitable for igniting hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust, whereby the engine timing, and the air and fuel mixture of the engine are controlled so that when the engine exhaust reaches the combustion chamber the exhaust contains a sufficient amount of oxygen and hydrocarbons to enable ignition and combustion of the engine exhaust in the combustion chamber without the addition of fuel or air, and whereby the engine operating conditions are controlled to vary the performance of the secondary combustor; and a controllable ignition device to ignite the exhaust gases in the combustion chamber at predetermined times.

  13. GT Solar Technologies formerly GT Equipment Technologies | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies formerly GT Equipment Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: GT Solar Technologies (formerly GT Equipment Technologies) Place: Merrimack, New Hampshire...

  14. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for todays engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  15. High Performance Alkaline Fuel Cell Membranes > Research Highlights >

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell

  16. Method for increasing the calorific value of gas produced by the in situ combustion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z. (Morgantown, WV)

    1978-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of relatively high Btu gas by the in situ combustion of subterranean coal. The coal bed is penetrated with a horizontally-extending borehole and combustion is initiated in the coal bed contiguous to the borehole. The absolute pressure within the resulting combustion zone is then regulated at a desired value near the pore pressure within the coal bed so that selected quantities of water naturally present in the coal will flow into the combustion zone to effect a hydrogen and carbon monoxide-producing steam-carbon reaction with the hot carbon in the combustion zone for increasing the calorific value of the product gas.

  17. Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) > Analytical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources > Research > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Analytical Resources In This Section Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) Electron Microscopy X-Ray Diffraction Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) DEMS and in situ FTIR Direct alcohol fuel cells are those which utilize small organic molecules, such as methanol or ethanol, as fuels without first reforming them to hydrogen gas. These devices promise to be an efficient means of converting

  18. Jeff Neaton > Director

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theory of Nanostructured Materials Facility Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory > Faculty Directory > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Jeff Neaton Director Theory of Nanostructured Materials Facility Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Research Group Webpage jbneaton@lbl.gov Research Dr. Neaton seeks to develop theories of nanoscale materials and phenomena with the aim to guide and explain experiments. A broad array of "first-principles" simulation tools is drawn upon for this work,

  19. Darrell Schlom > Professor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Science and Engineering > Faculty Directory > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Profile Photo Darrell Schlom Professor Materials Science and Engineering Research Group Webpage schlom@cornell.edu Darrell Schlom is a Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Cornell University. After receiving a B.S. degree from Caltech, he did graduate work at Stanford University receiving an M.S. in Electrical Engineering and a Ph.D. in Materials Science and

  20. Thomas Mallouk > Pennsylvania State University > Scientific Advisory Board

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Thomas Mallouk Pennsylvania State University

  1. M. Stanley Whittingham > Binghamton University > Scientific Advisory Board

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell M. Stanley Whittingham Binghamton University

  2. Michelle Buchanan > Oak Ridge National Laboratory > Scientific Advisory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Board > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Michelle Buchanan Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  3. Axially staged combustion system for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-12-15

    An axially staged combustion system is provided for a gas turbine engine comprising a main body structure having a plurality of first and second injectors. First structure provides fuel to at least one of the first injectors. The fuel provided to the one first injector is adapted to mix with air and ignite to produce a flame such that the flame associated with the one first injector defines a flame front having an average length when measured from a reference surface of the main body structure. Each of the second injectors comprising a section extending from the reference surface of the main body structure through the flame front and having a length greater than the average length of the flame front. Second structure provides fuel to at least one of the second injectors. The fuel passes through the one second injector and exits the one second injector at a location axially spaced from the flame front.

  4. Sensitivity of natural gas HCCI combustion to fuel and operating parameters using detailed kinetic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S; Dibble, R; Flowers, D; Smith, J R; Westbrook, C K

    1999-07-19

    This paper uses the HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport) chemical kinetics code to analyze natural gas HCCI combustion in an engine. The HCT code has been modified to better represent the conditions existing inside an engine, including a wall heat transfer correlation. Combustion control and low power output per displacement remain as two of the biggest challenges to obtaining satisfactory performance out of an HCCI engine, and these are addressed in this paper. The paper considers the effect of natural gas composition on HCCI combustion, and then explores three control strategies for HCCI engines: DME (dimethyl ether) addition, intake heating and hot EGR addition. The results show that HCCI combustion is sensitive to natural gas composition, and an active control may be required to compensate for possible changes in composition. The three control strategies being considered have a significant effect in changing the combustion parameters for the engine, and should be able to control HCCI combustion.

  5. Utilizing the Rapid Ignition Region of HCCI to Attain > 60% BTE |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Rapid Ignition Region of HCCI to Attain > 60% BTE Utilizing the Rapid Ignition Region of HCCI to Attain > 60% BTE HCCI is inherently able to produce such rapid combustion (10 … 100µs) that it is effectively constant volume combustion. Constant volume combustion offers significant opportunity for dramatically improving ICRE BTE. However, to be used with conventional ICRE slider-crank kinematics, HCCI must transformed to a moderated mode of combustion that is far

  6. John Marohn > Professor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry and Chemical Biology > Faculty Directory > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Marohn Professor Chemistry and Chemical Biology Research Group Webpage jam99@cornell.edu John Marohn earned a B.S. in Chemistry and a B.A. in Physics from the University of Rochester (Rochester, New York), carried out his Ph.D. work with Daniel P. Weitekamp in the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at the California Institute of Technology (Pasadena, California), and did postdoctoral

  7. Optical backscatter probe for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parks, James E; Partridge, William P

    2013-05-28

    A system for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream is disclosed. The system transmits light into a combustion gas stream, and thereafter detects a portion of the transmitted light as scattered light in an amount corresponding to the amount of particulates in the emissions. Purge gas may be supplied adjacent the light supply and the detector to reduce particles in the emissions from coating or otherwise compromising the transmission of light into the emissions and recovery of scattered light from the emissions.

  8. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and injector development, multiple concepts including high thermal resistance thermal barrier coatings (TBC), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC), and monolithic ceramics were evaluated before down-selection to the most promising candidate materials for field evaluation. Preliminary, component and sub-scale testing was conducted to determine material properties and demonstrate proof-of-concept. Full-scale rig and engine testing was used to validated engine performance prior to field evaluation at a Qualcomm Inc. cogeneration site located in San Diego, California. To ensure that the CFCC liners with the EBC proposed under this program would meet the target life, field evaluations of ceramic matrix composite liners in Centaur{reg_sign} 50 gas turbine engines, which had previously been conducted under the DOE sponsored Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program (DE-AC02-92CE40960), was continued under this program at commercial end-user sites under Program Subtask 1A - Extended CFCC Materials Durability Testing. The goal of these field demonstrations was to demonstrate significant component life, with milestones of 20,000 and 30,000 hours. Solar personnel monitor the condition of the liners at the field demonstration sites through periodic borescope inspections and emissions measurements. This program was highly successful at evaluating advanced materials and down-selecting promising solutions for use in gas turbine combustions systems. The addition of the advanced materials technology has enabled the predicted life of the Mercury 50 combustion system to reach 30,000 hours, which is Solar's typical time before overhaul for production engines. In particular, a 40 mil thick advanced Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) system was selected over various other TBC systems, ODS liners and CFCC liners for the 4,000-hour field evaluation under the program. This advanced TBC is now production bill-of-material at various thicknesses up to 40 mils for all of Solar's advanced backside-cooled combustor liners (Centaur 50, Taurus 60, Mars 100, Taurus 70,

  9. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program. Emissions measurements were obtained over a variety of operating conditions. A kinetics model is formulated to describe the emissions performance. The model is a tool for determining the conditions for low emission performance. The flow field was also modeled using CFD. A first prototype was developed for low emission performance on natural gas. The design utilized the tools anchored to the atmospheric prototype performance. The 1/6 scale combustor was designed for low emission performance in GE's FA+e gas turbine. A second prototype was developed to evaluate changes in the design approach. The prototype was developed at a 1/10 scale for low emission performance in GE's FA+e gas turbine. The performance of the first two prototypes gave a strong indication of the best design approach. Review of the emission results led to the development of a 3rd prototype to further reduce the combustor emissions. The original plan to produce a scaled-up prototype was pushed out beyond the scope of the current program. The 3rd prototype was designed at 1/10 scale and targeted further reductions in the full-speed full-load emissions.

  10. Method to prevent recession loss of silica and silicon-containing materials in combustion gas environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brun, Milivoj Konstantin (Ballston Lake, NY); Luthra, Krishan Lal (Niskayuna, NY)

    2003-01-01

    While silicon-containing ceramics or ceramic composites are prone to material loss in combustion gas environments, this invention introduces a method to prevent or greatly reduce the thickness loss by injecting directly an effective amount, generally in the part per million level, of silicon or silicon-containing compounds into the combustion gases.

  11. Condition Based Monitoring of Gas Turbine Combustion Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulerich, Nancy; Kidane, Getnet; Spiegelberg, Christine; Tevs, Nikolai

    2012-09-30

    The objective of this program is to develop sensors that allow condition based monitoring of critical combustion parts of gas turbines. Siemens teamed with innovative, small companies that were developing sensor concepts that could monitor wearing and cracking of hot turbine parts. A magnetic crack monitoring sensor concept developed by JENTEK Sensors, Inc. was evaluated in laboratory tests. Designs for engine application were evaluated. The inability to develop a robust lead wire to transmit the signal long distances resulted in a discontinuation of this concept. An optical wear sensor concept proposed by K Sciences GP, LLC was tested in proof-of concept testing. The sensor concept depended, however, on optical fiber tips wearing with the loaded part. The fiber tip wear resulted in too much optical input variability; the sensor could not provide adequate stability for measurement. Siemens developed an alternative optical wear sensor approach that used a commercial PHILTEC, Inc. optical gap sensor with an optical spacer to remove fibers from the wearing surface. The gap sensor measured the length of the wearing spacer to follow loaded part wear. This optical wear sensor was developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. It was validated in lab tests and installed on a floating transition seal in an F-Class gas turbine. Laboratory tests indicate that the concept can measure wear on loaded parts at temperatures up to 800{degrees}C with uncertainty of < 0.3 mm. Testing in an F-Class engine installation showed that the optical spacer wore with the wearing part. The electro-optics box located outside the engine enclosure survived the engine enclosure environment. The fiber optic cable and the optical spacer, however, both degraded after about 100 operating hours, impacting the signal analysis.

  12. Hybrid lean premixing catalytic combustion system for gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Critchley, Ian L.

    2003-12-09

    A system and method of combusting a hydrocarbon fuel is disclosed. The system combines the accuracy and controllability of an air staging system with the ultra-low emissions achieved by catalytic combustion systems without the need for a pre-heater. The result is a system and method that is mechanically simple and offers ultra-low emissions over a wide range of power levels, fuel properties and ambient operating conditions.

  13. Obafemi Otelaja &gt; Graduate Student - Robinson Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Obafemi Otelaja Graduate Student - Robinson Group ooo24@cornell.edu

  14. Kendra Letchworth Weaver &gt; Graduate Student - Arias Group &gt; Researchers,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Postdocs & Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Kendra Letchworth Weaver Graduate Student - Arias Group kll67

  15. Device to lower NOx in a gas turbine engine combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laster, Walter R; Schilp, Reinhard; Wiebe, David J

    2015-02-24

    An emissions control system for a gas turbine engine including a flow-directing structure (24) that delivers combustion gases (22) from a burner (32) to a turbine. The emissions control system includes: a conduit (48) configured to establish fluid communication between compressed air (22) and the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24). The compressed air (22) is disposed at a location upstream of a combustor head-end and exhibits an intermediate static pressure less than a static pressure of the combustion gases within the combustor (14). During operation of the gas turbine engine a pressure difference between the intermediate static pressure and a static pressure of the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24) is effective to generate a fluid flow through the conduit (48).

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    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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  17. Erosion-Corrosion of Iron and Nickel Alloys at Elevated Temperature in a Combustion Gas Environment

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Erosion-Corrosion of Iron and Nickel Alloys at Elevated Temperature in a Combustion Gas Environment J.H. Tylczak* 1 1 National Energy Technology Laboratory, USA joseph.tylczak@netl.doe.gov Abstract This paper reports on the results of a study that compares the erosion-corrosion behavior of a variety of alloys (Fe- 2¼Cr 1Mo, 304 SS, 310 SS, Incoloy 800, Haynes 230 and a Fe 3 Al) in a combustion environment. Advanced coal combustion environments, with higher temperatures, are driving

  18. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  19. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  20. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captured CO{sub 2} are generally about 11-14% lower using the NZE CPU compared to using a conventional CPU. For older plants with high air intrusion, the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and capture CO{sub 2} are about 18-24% lower using the NZE CPU. Lower capture costs for NZE CPU are due to lower capital investment in FGD/SCR and higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In summary, as a result of this project, we now have developed one technology option for NZE CPU based on the activated carbon process and coldbox-VPSA hybrid process. This technology is projected to work for both low and high sulfur coal plants. The NZE CPU technology is projected to achieve near zero stack emissions

  1. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

  2. Reduced and Validated Kinetic Mechanisms for Hydrogen-CO-sir Combustion in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yiguang Ju; Frederick Dryer

    2009-02-07

    Rigorous experimental, theoretical, and numerical investigation of various issues relevant to the development of reduced, validated kinetic mechanisms for synthetic gas combustion in gas turbines was carried out - including the construction of new radiation models for combusting flows, improvement of flame speed measurement techniques, measurements and chemical kinetic analysis of H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent mixtures, revision of the H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} kinetic model to improve flame speed prediction capabilities, and development of a multi-time scale algorithm to improve computational efficiency in reacting flow simulations.

  3. Gas Turbine Reheat Using In-Situ Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.E. Lippert; D.M. Bachovchin

    2004-03-31

    Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) is developing in-situ reheat (fuel injection via airfoil injection) as a means for increasing cycle efficiency and power output, with possibly reduced emissions. In addition to kinetic modeling and experimental task, CFD modeling (by Texas A&M) of airfoil injection and its effects on blade aerodynamics and turbine performance. This report discusses validation of the model against single-vane combustion test data from Siemens Westinghouse, and parametric studies of injection reheat in a modern turbine. The best location for injection is at the trailing edge of the inlet guide vane. Combustion is incomplete at trailing edges of subsequent vanes. Recommendations for further development are presented.

  4. Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart; FINNEY, Charles E A

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

  5. Graphene/Platinum/Nafion Hybrids via Ice Templating &gt; Research Highlights &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell

  6. Raymond Burns &gt; Product Research Technologist - Exxon Mobile &gt; Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alumni &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Raymond Burns Product Research Technologist - Exxon Mobile raymond.burns@gmail.com Formerly a member of the DiSalvo Group, Ray earned his PhD in August 2013

  7. Jayaprakash Navaneedhakrishnan &gt; Chief Scientist - NOHMs Technologies &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Alumni &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Jayaprakash Navaneedhakrishnan Chief Scientist - NOHMs Technologies info@nohms.com Formerly a postdoc with the Archer Group, Jayaprakash is now working with NOHMS Technologies R&D efforts

  8. Cyclic Combustion Variations in Dual Fuel Partially Premixed Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2012-05-09

    Dual fuel pilot ignited natural gas engines are identified as an efficient and viable alternative to conventional diesel engines. This paper examines cyclic combustion fluctuations in conventional dual fuel and in dual fuel partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC). Conventional dual fueling with 95% (energy basis) natural gas (NG) substitution reduces NOx emissions by almost 90%t relative to straight diesel operation; however, this is accompanied by 98% increase in HC emissions, 10 percentage points reduction in fuel conversion efficiency (FCE) and 12 percentage points increase in COVimep. Dual fuel LTC is achieved by injection of a small amount of diesel fuel (2-3 percent on an energy basis) to ignite a premixed natural gas???????¢????????????????air mixture to attain very low NOx emissions (less than 0.2 g/kWh). Cyclic variations in both combustion modes were analyzed by observing the cyclic fluctuations in start of combustion (SOC), peak cylinder pressures (Pmax), combustion phasing (Ca50), and the separation between the diesel injection event and Ca50 (termed ???????¢????????????????relative combustion phasing???????¢???????????????). For conventional dual fueling, as % NG increases, Pmax decreases, SOC and Ca50 are delayed, and cyclic variations increase. For dual fuel LTC, as diesel injection timing is advanced from 20???????????????° to 60???????????????°BTDC, the relative combustion phasing is identified as an important combustion parameter along with SoC, Pmax, and CaPmax. For both combustion modes, cyclic variations were characterized by alternating slow and fast burn cycles, especially at high %NG and advanced injection timings. Finally, heat release return maps were analyzed to demonstrate thermal management strategies as an effective tool to mitigate cyclic combustion variations, especially in dual fuel LTC.

  9. L&gt; -i 6, SO &gt; 0 ,0

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    L&gt; -i 6, SO &gt; 0 ,0 X ~ CtI~ti)' CAO~ &gt; Q8 o ' 080' 0,, 00, 08 0e 08 0, 0' en en en en;' en en en en: en: en e n 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0&gt; 0 0 0 n e n e n e n e 0 ' ~~~fi M, 0 0 0 0 0< 0 0 0 004 r~~~ 0 0 0 0 00 0 rl uCt u -X 0~ 0&gt; 0 66 00 0 0 0 75 'CD 8 .8 8 8 , '0 03 0 0 0 0 a00 0 0 0l 0 0 0 C)' 0CD C.' en, C QA00 7E 000 0' co4 (4 ( -l (4 N (4 ( N (4 (' N ( ' n e Q0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 t14 N~ oZ Z -~ ~ ~ ~~~~1 0Z< E- oooo 00 .0 &gt; 333~ 0 4 0 FZt i 0 C 0 0C)00w o

  10. Richard Robinson &gt; Assistant Professor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Science and Engineering &gt; Faculty Directory &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Robinson Assistant Professor Materials Science and Engineering Research Group Webpage rdr82@cornell.edu Research Professor Robinson's research focuses on nanostructured materials for alternative energy applications. Our goal is to utilize the advanced properties of nanomaterials to build efficient thermoelectrics and fuel cells. By altering the size, shape, and composition of our particles we

  11. Craig Fennie &gt; Assistant Professor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applied and Engineering Physics &gt; Faculty Directory &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Craig Fennie Assistant Professor Applied and Engineering Physics Research Group Webpage cjf76@cornell.edu After receiving his doctoral degree in physics from Rutgers, Dr. Fennie spent two years at The Center for Nanoscale Materials at Argonne National Laboratory as the Nicholas Metropolis Fellow. He joined the Cornell faculty in July of 2008 and works in the broad area of

  12. Combined catalysts for the combustion of fuel in gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anoshkina, Elvira V.; Laster, Walter R.

    2012-11-13

    A catalytic oxidation module for a catalytic combustor of a gas turbine engine is provided. The catalytic oxidation module comprises a plurality of spaced apart catalytic elements for receiving a fuel-air mixture over a surface of the catalytic elements. The plurality of catalytic elements includes at least one primary catalytic element comprising a monometallic catalyst and secondary catalytic elements adjacent the primary catalytic element comprising a multi-component catalyst. Ignition of the monometallic catalyst of the primary catalytic element is effective to rapidly increase a temperature within the catalytic oxidation module to a degree sufficient to ignite the multi-component catalyst.

  13. LASER STABILIZATION FOR NEAR ZERO NO{sub x} GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek Khanna

    2002-09-30

    Historically, the development of new industrial gas turbines has been primarily driven by the intent to achieve higher efficiency, lower operating costs and lower emissions. Higher efficiency and lower cost is obtained through higher turbine operating temperatures, while reduction in emissions is obtained by extending the lean operating limit of the combustor. However reduction in the lean stability limit of operation is limited greatly by the chemistry of the combustion process and by the occurrence of thermo-acoustic instabilities. Solar Turbines, CFD Research Corporation, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have teamed to advance the technology associated with laser-assisted ignition and flame stabilization, to a level where it could be incorporated onto a gas turbine combustor. The system being developed is expected to enhance the lean stability limit of the swirl stabilized combustion process and assist in reducing combustion oscillations. Such a system has the potential to allow operation at the ultra-lean conditions needed to achieve NO{sub x} emissions below 5 ppm without the need of exhaust treatment or catalytic technologies. The research effort was focused on analytically modeling laser-assisted flame stabilization using advanced CFD techniques, and experimentally demonstrating the technology, using a solid-state laser and low-cost durable optics. A pulsed laser beam was used to generate a plasma pool at strategic locations within the combustor flow field such that the energy from the plasma became an ignition source and helped maintain a flame at ultra lean operating conditions. The periodic plasma generation and decay was used to nullify the fluctuations in the heat release from the flame itself, thus decoupling the heat release from the combustor acoustics and effectively reducing the combustion oscillations. The program was built on an existing technology base and includes: extending LANL's existing laser stabilization experience to a sub-scale combustor rig, performing and validating CFD predictions, and ultimately conducting a full system demonstration in a multi-injector combustion system at Solar Turbines.

  14. Erosion-Corrosion of Iron and Nickel Alloys at Elevated Temperature in a Combustion Gas Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tylczak, Joseph

    2014-05-02

    This paper reports on the results of a study that compares the erosion-corrosion behavior of a variety of alloys (Fe- 2Cr 1Mo, 304 SS, 310 SS, Incoloy 800, Haynes 230 and a Fe3Al) in a combustion environment. Advanced coal combustion environments, with higher temperatures, are driving re-examination of traditional and examination of new alloys in these hostile environments. In order to simulate conditions in advanced coal combustion boilers, a special erosion apparatus was used to allow for impingement of particles under a low abrasive flux in a gaseous environment comprised of 20 % CO2, 0.05 % HCl, 77 % N2, 3 % O2, and 0.1 % SO2. Tests were conducted at room temperature and 700 C with ~ 270 ?m silica, using an impact velocity of 20 m/s in both air and the simulated combustion gas environment. The erosion-corrosion behavior was characterized by gravimetric measurements and by examination of the degraded surfaces optically and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At room temperature most of the alloys had similar loss rates. Not surprisingly, at 700 C the lower chrome-iron alloy had a very high loss rate. The nickel alloys tended to have higher loss rates than the high chrome austenitic alloys.

  15. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1992-06-10

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

  16. Apostolos Enotiadis &gt; Postdoc - Giannelis Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Apostolos Enotiadis Postdoc - Giannelis Group ae176@cornell.edu Born in Chalkida, Greece, Apostolos graduated from the Materials Science and Engineering Department at Ioannina University in Greece and completed his Master's degree (Onassis Foundation Scholarship) and PhD (Academy of Athens Scholarship) in 2011 at the same University. His research involved the synthesis and characterization of hybrid layered materials (clays, graphene

  17. Benjamin Richards &gt; Member - Hanrath Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Benjamin Richards Member - Hanrath Group btr22@cornell.edu Ben received his B.S. from Cornell University in 2011 and is now a nanoscience practitioner. After graduating from Cornell University, Ben received the unique opportunity to continue his undergraduate research-developing high-throughput Ge/Si nanowire synthesis processes. Originally, his research was solely intended to be implemented in battery applications; recently, he has

  18. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

    1997-01-01

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

  19. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1997-08-05

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

  20. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  1. Combustion characteristics of pulverized coal and air/gas premixed flame in a double swirl combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamal, M.M.

    2009-07-01

    An experimental work was performed to investigate the co-firing of pulverized coal and premixed gas/air streams in a double swirl combustor. The results showed that the NOx emissions are affected by the relative rates of thermal NOx formation and destruction via the pyrolysis of the fuel-N species in high temperature fuel-rich zones. Various burner designs were tested in order to vary the temperature history and the residence time across both coal and gas flames inside the furnace. It was found that by injecting the coal with a gas/air mixture as a combined central jet surrounded by a swirled air stream, a double flame envelope develops with high temperature fuel-rich conditions in between the two reaction zones such that the pyrolysis reactions to N{sub 2} are accelerated. A further reduction in the minimum NOx emissions, as well as in the minimum CO concentrations, was reported for the case where the coal particles are fed with the gas/air mixture in the region between the two swirled air streams. On the other hand, allocating the gas/air mixture around the swirled air-coal combustion zone provides an earlier contact with air and retards the NOx reduction mechanism in such a way that the elevated temperatures around the coal particles allow higher overall NOx emissions. The downstream impingement of opposing air jets was found more efficient than the impinging of particle non-laden premixed flames for effective NOx reduction. In both cases, there is an upstream flow from the stagnation region to the coal primary combustion region, but with the case of air impingement, the hot fuel-rich zone develops earlier. The optimum configuration was found by impinging all jets of air and coal-gas/air mixtures that pronounced minimum NOx and CO concentrations of 310 and 480ppm, respectively.

  2. Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ronald, Pamela

    The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

  3. Panel 2, Hydrogen Delivery in the Natural Gas Pipeline Network

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the Natural Gas Pipeline Network DOE'S HYDROGEN ENERGY STORAGE FOR GRID AND TRANSPORTATION SERVICES WORKSHOP Sacramento, CA May 14, 2014 Brian Weeks Gas Technology Institute 2 2 Topics for Today &gt;GTI Introduction &gt;Natural Gas Infrastructure is Undergoing Changes &gt;Questions that have been addressed &gt;Two Scenarios &gt;Unanswered Questions &gt;CEC's Mobile Hydrogen Station 3 3 Company Overview ESTABLISHED 1941 &gt; Independent, not-for-profit company established by natural gas

  4. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  5. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  6. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  7. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  8. Stirling Engine Natural Gas Combustion Demonstration Program. Final report, October 1989-January 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, W.; Moryl, J.; Riecke, G.

    1991-02-01

    Fueled on natural gas, the Stirling engine is an inherently clean, quiet, and efficient engine. With increasing environmental concern for air quality and the increasingly more stringent requirements for low engine exhaust emissions, the Stirling engine may be an attractive alternative to internal combustion (IC) engines. The study has demonstrated that ultra low emissions can be attained with a Stirling-engine-driven electric generator configured to burn natural gas. Combustion parameters were optimized to produce the lowest possible exhaust emissions for a flame-type combustor without compromising overall engine thermal efficiency. A market application survey and manufacturing cost analysis indicate that a market opportunity potentially exists in the volumes needed to economically manufacture a newly designed Stirling engine (Mod III) for stationary applications and hybrid vehicles. The translation of such potential markets into actual markets does, however, pose difficult challenges as substantial investments are required. Also, the general acceptance of a new engine type by purchasers requires a considerable amount of time.

  9. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, L.K.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising; a rotary compressor mechanism; a rotary expander mechanism; and combustion chamber means disposed between the compressor mechanism and the expander mechanism, whereby compressed air is delivered to the combustion chamber through the compressor discharge port, and pressurized gas is delivered from the combustion chamber into the expander mechanism through the pressurized gas intake port.

  10. Advanced Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Combustion Fact Sheet Key Contacts Advanced Combustion Background Conventional coal-fired power plants utilize steam turbines to generate electricity, which operate at efficiencies of 35-37 percent. Operation at higher temperatures and pressures can lead to higher efficiencies. Oxy-combustion comes with an efficiency loss, so it will actually increase the amount of CO2 to be captured. But without so much N2 in the flue gas, it will be easier and perhaps more efficient to capture,

  11. Solutions for VOC and HAPS control on natural gas fired internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcus, J.Z.; Sleigh, S.; Cotherman, R.

    1996-12-31

    Natural gas fired stationary internal combustion engines (IC engines) emit volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as part of their normal operations. VOC and HAP emissions are coming under increased scrutiny with the advent of such Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 regulations as Title I`s Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT), Title III`s Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) and Title V`s Operating Permit Program (Title V). In addition, many states are imposing more stringent emission limits on these sources. These emissions may also contribute to the reportable chemicals from the total facility under SARA Title III. Numerous facilities nationwide are interested in reducing these emissions in order to comply with current requirements, to opt out of requirements or to reduce reportable chemicals. This paper will examine the source of these emissions, and discuss combustion control technologies and system operating flexibility, end-of-pipe control technologies, and system tuning opportunities which have the potential to reduce VOC and HAP emissions from IC engines. Data will be presented on potential emission reduction efficiencies achievable using the various control options. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

    2011-10-16

    Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

  13. GT Equipment Techologies (Gti) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techologies (Gti) Jump to: navigation, search Name: GT Solar Address: 243 Daniel Webster Highway Place: Merrimack, NH Zip: 03054 Sector: Solar Website: www.gtsolar.com...

  14. Multi-zone modelling of partially premixed low-temperature combustion in pilot-ignited natural-gas engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2010-06-29

    Detailed results from a multi-zone phenomenological simulation of partially premixed advanced-injection low-pilot-ignited natural-gas low-temperature combustion are presented with a focus on early injection timings (the beginning of (pilot) injection (BOI)) and very small diesel quantities (2-3 per cent of total fuel energy). Combining several aspects of diesel and spark ignition engine combustion models, the closed-cycle simulation accounted for diesel autoignition, diesel spray combustion, and natural-gas combustion by premixed turbulent flame propagation. The cylinder contents were divided into an unburned zone, several pilot fuel zones (or 'packets') that modelled diesel evaporation and ignition, a flame zone for natural-gas combustion, and a burned zone. The simulation predicted the onset of ignition, cylinder pressures, and heat release rate profiles satisfactorily over a wide range of BOIs (20-60???° before top dead centre (before TDC)) but especially well at early BOIs. Strong coupling was observed between pilot spray combustion in the packets and premixed turbulent combustion in the flame zone and, therefore, the number of ignition centres (packets) profoundly affected flame combustion. The highest local peak temperatures (greater than 2000 K) were observed in the packets, while the flame zone was much cooler (about 1650 K), indicating that pilot diesel spray combustion is probably the dominant source of engine-out emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO x). Further, the 60???° before TDC BOI yielded the lowest average peak packet temperatures (about 1720 K) compared with the 20???° before TDC BOI (about 2480 K) and 40???° before TDC BOI (about 2700 K). These trends support experimental NO x trends, which showed the lowest NO x emissions for the 60???°, 20???°, and 40???° before TDC BOIs in that order. Parametric studies showed that increasing the intake charge temperature, pilot quantity, and natural-gas equivalence ratio all led to higher peak heat release rates and hotter packets but the pilot quantity and intake temperature affected the potential for NO x formation to a greater extent.

  15. Kayla Nguyen &gt; Graduate Student - Muller Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Kayla Nguyen Graduate Student - Muller Group kn324

  16. Kiran Mathew &gt; Graduate Student - Hennig Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Kiran Mathew Graduate Student - Hennig Group km4

  17. Kristina Hugar &gt; Graduate Student - Coates Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Kristina Hugar Graduate Student - Coates Group kmh2

  18. Mark Mathias &gt; General Motors - Fuel Cell Research &gt; Scientific Advisory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Board &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Mark Mathias General Motors - Fuel Cell Research

  19. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  20. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  1. Low temperature combustion using nitrogen enrichment to mitigate NOx from large bore natural gas fueled engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biruduganti, M.; Gupta, S.; Sekar, R.; Energy Systems

    2010-01-01

    Low temperature combustion is identified as one of the pathways to meet the mandatory ultra low NO{sub x} emissions levels set by the regulatory agencies. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a well known technique to realize low NO{sub x} emissions. However, EGR has many built-in adverse ramifications that negate its advantages in the long term. This paper discusses nitrogen enrichment of intake air using air separation membranes as a better alternative to the mature EGR technique. This investigation was undertaken to determine the maximum acceptable level of nitrogen enrichment of air for a single-cylinder spark-ignited natural gas engine. NO{sub x} reduction as high as 70% was realized with a modest 2% nitrogen enrichment while maintaining power density and simultaneously improving fuel conversion efficiency (FCE). Any enrichment beyond this level degraded engine performance in terms of power density, FCE, and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The effect of ignition timing was also studied with and without N{sub 2} enrichment. Finally, lean burn versus stoichiometric operation utilizing nitrogen enrichment was compared. Analysis showed that lean burn operation along with nitrogen enrichment is one of the effective pathways for realizing better FCE and lower NO{sub x} emissions.

  2. On use of CO{sub 2} chemiluminescence for combustion metrics in natural gas fired reciprocating engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, S. B.; Bihari, B.; Biruduganti, M.; Sekar, R.; Zigan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Flame chemiluminescence is widely acknowledged to be an indicator of heat release rate in premixed turbulent flames that are representative of gas turbine combustion. Though heat release rate is an important metric for evaluating combustion strategies in reciprocating engine systems, its correlation with flame chemiluminescence is not well studied. To address this gap an experimental study was carried out in a single-cylinder natural gas fired reciprocating engine that could simulate turbocharged conditions with exhaust gas recirculation. Crank angle resolved spectra (266-795 nm) of flame luminosity were measured for various operational conditions by varying the ignition timing for MBT conditions and by holding the speed at 1800 rpm and Brake Mean effective Pressure (BMEP) at 12 bar. The effect of dilution on CO*{sub 2}chemiluminescence intensities was studied, by varying the global equivalence ratio (0.6-1.0) and by varying the exhaust gas recirculation rate. It was attempted to relate the measured chemiluminescence intensities to thermodynamic metrics of importance to engine research -- in-cylinder bulk gas temperature and heat release rate (HRR) calculated from measured cylinder pressure signals. The peak of the measured CO*{sub 2} chemiluminescence intensities coincided with peak pressures within {+-}2 CAD for all test conditions. For each combustion cycle, the peaks of heat release rate, spectral intensity and temperature occurred in that sequence, well separated temporally. The peak heat release rates preceded the peak chemiluminescent emissions by 3.8-9.5 CAD, whereas the peak temperatures trailed by 5.8-15.6 CAD. Such a temporal separation precludes correlations on a crank-angle resolved basis. However, the peak cycle heat release rates and to a lesser extent the peak cycle temperatures correlated well with the chemiluminescent emission from CO*{sub 2}. Such observations point towards the potential use of flame chemiluminescence to monitor peak bulk gas temperatures as well as peak heat release rates in natural gas fired reciprocating engines.

  3. SILICON CARBIDE MICRO-DEVICES FOR COMBUSTION GAS SENSING UNDER HARSH CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruby N. Ghosh; Peter Tobias; Roger G. Tobin

    2004-10-01

    A sensor based on the wide bandgap semiconductor, silicon carbide (SiC), has been developed for the detection of combustion products in power plant environments. The sensor is a catalytic gate field effect device that can detect hydrogen containing species in chemically reactive, high temperature environments. For these capacitive sensors we have determined that the optimum sensor operating point in terms of sensor lifetime and response time is at midgap. Detailed measurements of the oxide leakage current as a function of temperature were performed to investigate the high temperature reliability of the devices. In addition, robust metallization and electrical contacting techniques have been developed for device operation at elevated temperatures. To characterize the time response of the sensor responses in the millisecond range, a conceptually new apparatus has been built. Using laser induced fluorescence imaging techniques we have shown that the gas underneath the sensor can be completely exchanged with a time constant under 1 millisecond. Ultrahigh vacuum studies of the surface chemistry of the platinum gate have shown that sensor deactivation by adsorbed sulfur is a possible problem. Investigations on the chemical removal of sulfur by catalytic oxidation or reduction are continuing.

  4. Tomás Arias &gt; Professor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Physics &gt; Faculty Directory &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Tomás Arias Professor Department of Physics Research Group Webpage taa2@cornell.edu Research Linking the ab initio quantum mechanical description of materials to the physical behavior of real materials, involving identification of problems where the quantum perspective can make a significant impact, exploitation of theoretical techniques and supercomputer architectures to carry out large scale quantum

  5. Geoff Coates &gt; Tisch University Professor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry and Chemical Biology &gt; Faculty Directory &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Geoff Coates Tisch University Professor Chemistry and Chemical Biology Research Group Webpage gc39@cornell.edu During the summer of 1997, Dr. Coates joined the faculty of Cornell University as an Assistant Professor of Chemistry. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 2001 and Professor in 2002, and is currently Associate Chair of his Department. He was an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow, and

  6. Lena F. Kourkoutis &gt; Assistant Professor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applied and Engineering Physics &gt; Faculty Directory &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Lena F. Kourkoutis Assistant Professor Applied and Engineering Physics lena.f.kourkoutis@cornell.edu Dr. Kourkoutis is no stranger to Cornell, having received her PhD back in 2009, and then continued on as a Postdoctoral Associate. She then went to Germany as a Humboldt Fellow at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry. in 2012, she returned to the Department of Applied & Engineering

  7. Lynden Archer &gt; Marjorie L. Hart Chair

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering &gt; Faculty Directory &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Lynden Archer Marjorie L. Hart Chair Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Research Group Webpage laa25@cornell.edu Professor Archer received the Career Award from the National Science Foundation, 1996, Dupont Young Professor Award 1996-1999, 3M Company Non-Tenured Faculty Award 1995, and the George Armistead Faculty Fellowship 1999-2000. Research Polymer liquids are classified as complex

  8. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

  9. Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Combustion To develop a more thorough understanding of combustion, scientists and engineers must be able to analyze the interaction of many different chemical species at high temperatures and pressures. Making combustion more efficient requires a holistic view of chemical reactions that integrate theoretical and applied chemistry, physics, and advanced computing. Combustion research at Argonne emphasizes studies of the dynamics and rates of gas-phase chemical reactions and the

  10. Shreyas Honrao &gt; Graduate Student - Hennig Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Shreyas Honrao Graduate Student - Hennig Group sh879@cornell.edu

  11. Ryo Wakabayashi &gt; Graduate Student - DiSalvo Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Ryo Wakabayashi Graduate Student - DiSalvo Group rhw224@cornell.edu

  12. Abigail Van Wassen &gt; Graduate Student - Abruña Group &gt; Researchers,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Postdocs & Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Abigail Van Wassen Graduate Student - Abruña Group arv45@cornell.edu

  13. Hongsen Wang &gt; Research Assoc - Abruña Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Hongsen Wang Research Assoc - Abruña Group hw99@cornell.edu

  14. Deniz Gunceler &gt; Graduate Student - Arias Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Deniz Gunceler Graduate Student - Arias Group dg544@cornell.edu

  15. David Toledo &gt; Graduate Student - Robinson Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell David Toledo Graduate Student - Robinson Group dpt34@cornell.edu

  16. Barnaby Levin &gt; Graduate Student - Muller Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Barnaby Levin Graduate Student - Muller Group bl487@cornell.edu

  17. Eva Smith &gt; Graduate Student - Fennie Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Eva Smith Graduate Student - Fennie Group ehs73@cornell.edu

  18. Megan Holtz &gt; Graduate Student - Muller Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Megan Holtz Graduate Student - Muller Group meh282@cornell.edu

  19. Joerg Werner &gt; Graduate Student - Wiesner Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Joerg Werner Graduate Student - Wiesner Group jgw72@cornell.edu

  20. Katharine Silberstein &gt; Graduate Student - Abruña group &gt; Researchers,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Postdocs & Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Katharine Silberstein Graduate Student - Abruña group kes272@cornell.edu

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England; Stephanie Wien; Mingchih O. Chang

    2002-08-01

    This report provides results from the first year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operations. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation test results for a refinery gas-fired process heater and plans for cogeneration gas turbine tests and pilot-scale tests are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods to compare PM2.5 mass and chemical speciation. Test plans are presented for a gas turbine facility that will be tested in the fourth quarter of 2002. A preliminary approach for pilot-scale tests is presented that will help define design constraints for a new dilution sampler design that is smaller, lighter, and less costly to use.

  2. Flue Gas Perification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Fogash

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the countrys significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO2 stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO2 derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  3. Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO{sub 2} Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogash, Kevin

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the countrys significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO{sub 2} stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO{sub 2} derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  4. Silicon Carbide Micro-devices for Combustion Gas Sensing under Harsh Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruby Ghosh; Reza Loloee; Roger Tobin

    2008-09-30

    A sensor based on the wide bandgap semiconductor, silicon carbide (SiC), has been developed for the detection of combustion products in power plant environments. The sensor is a catalytic gate field effect device, Pt/SiO{sub 2}/SiC that can detect hydrogen-containing species in chemically reactive, high temperature (600 C) environments. We demonstrate that the device can be used as a hydrogen monitor in syngas applications of common interferants as well as sulfur and water vapor. These measurements were made in the Catalyst Screening Unit at NETL, Morgantown under atmospheric conditions. The sensor response to hydrogen gas at 350 C is 240 mV/decade, this is significantly higher than the device response to room temperature gas or that predicted from vacuum chamber studies. The enhanced catalytic activity of the platinum sensing film under energy plant operating conditions was investigated via AFM, x-ray diffraction, TEM and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Our characterization indicated that exposure to high temperature gases significantly modifies the morphology of the Pt catalytic film and the Pt/SiO{sub 2} interfacial region, which we tentatively attribute to the enhanced hydrogen sensitivity of the sensing film. A model for the hydrogen/oxygen response of the SiC device under atmospheric conditions was developed. It is based on two independent phenomena: a chemically induced shift in the metal-semiconductor work function difference and the passivation/creation of charged states at the SiO{sub 2}-SiC interface. The optimum operating set point for the SiC sensor with respect to response time and long term reliability was determined to be close to mid-gap. Ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) techniques were used to investigate the effects of sulfur contamination on the Pt gate. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide, even in the presence of hydrogen or oxygen at partial pressures of 20-600 times greater than the H2S level, rapidly coated the gate with a monolayer of sulfur. Although hydrogen exposure could not remove the adsorbed sulfur, oxygen was effective at removing sulfur with no evidence of irreversible changes in device behavior. The role of oxygen in the functioning of the SiC sensors was also investigated. All of the results are consistent with oxygen acting through its surface reactions with hydrogen, including the need for oxygen to reset the device to a fully hydrogen-depleted state and competition between hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen diffusion to metal/oxide interface sites. A strong sensor response to the unsaturated linear hydrocarbon propene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) was observed.

  5. GT Merge Process: Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, M P; Dodge, D; Myers, S C

    2008-06-10

    This document summarizes the process used to merge GT25 and better data between LANL and LLNL for use in a tomographic inversion for Pn velocity of Eurasia. The merge process is automated and includes extensive quality control operations at each step. Events in common between the labs are identified and resolved using GT level criteria. Arrivals in common between the labs are also resolved through the use of agreed upon arrival author rankings. Finally, baselined origin times are computed for all crustal events using either teleseismic P-arrivals and the iasp91 model or, in certain regions, regional P-arrivals and regional velocity models that are known to be consistent with teleseismic iasp91 P-wave predictions. We combine the core tables from each lab and first resolve unique and common GT events between LANL and LLNL. Phase names are then checked and possibly adjusted for consistency. Next, we merge at the pick level so that each distinct EVENT-STATION-PHASE tuple has a unique arrival. All BMEB (Bondar-Myers-Engdahl-Bergman) GT are evaluated for adherence to their criteria, and possibly re-calculated. Finally, new origin times are computed (baselining) for the merged GT events. In addition to the reconciliation of events and picks between LANL and LLNL, the merge process involves several quality control steps that are intended to remove outlier and irrelevant data from the final results.

  6. Heat-pipe gas-combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine. Final report, May 1990-September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., (STM) has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion System (HPGC) suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator and a film cooled gas combustor. A principal component of the HPGC is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. The report presents test results of endurance tests run on a Gas-Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE). Tests on a dynamometer test stand yielded 67 hours of engine operation at power levels over 10 kW (13.5 hp) with 26 hours at power levels above 15 kW (20 hp). Total testing of the engine, including both motoring tests and engine operation, yielded 245 hours of engine run time.

  7. Effects of Combustion-Induced Vortex Breakdown on Flashback Limits of Syngas-Fueled Gas Turbine Combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahsan Choudhuri

    2011-03-31

    Turbine combustors of advanced power systems have goals to achieve very low pollutants emissions, fuel variability, and fuel flexibility. Future generation gas turbine combustors should tolerate fuel compositions ranging from natural gas to a broad range of syngas without sacrificing operational advantages and low emission characteristics. Additionally, current designs of advanced turbine combustors use various degrees of swirl and lean premixing for stabilizing flames and controlling high temperature NOx formation zones. However, issues of fuel variability and NOx control through premixing also bring a number of concerns, especially combustor flashback and flame blowout. Flashback is a combustion condition at which the flame propagates upstream against the gas stream into the burner tube. Flashback is a critical issue for premixed combustor designs, because it not only causes serious hardware damages but also increases pollutant emissions. In swirl stabilized lean premixed turbine combustors onset of flashback may occur due to (i) boundary layer flame propagation (critical velocity gradient), (ii) turbulent flame propagation in core flow, (iii) combustion instabilities, and (iv) upstream flame propagation induced by combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB). Flashback due to first two foregoing mechanisms is a topic of classical interest and has been studied extensively. Generally, analytical theories and experimental determinations of laminar and turbulent burning velocities model these mechanisms with sufficient precision for design usages. However, the swirling flow complicates the flashback processes in premixed combustions and the first two mechanisms inadequately describe the flashback propensity of most practical combustor designs. The presence of hydrogen in syngas significantly increases the potential for flashback. Due to high laminar burning velocity and low lean flammability limit, hydrogen tends to shift the combustor operating conditions towards flashback regime. Even a small amount of hydrogen in a fuel blend triggers the onset of flashback by altering the kinetics and thermophysical characteristics of the mixture. Additionally, the presence of hydrogen in the fuel mixture modifies the response of the flame to the global effects of stretch and preferential diffusion. Despite its immense importance in fuel flexible combustor design, little is known about the magnitude of fuel effects on CIVB induced flashback mechanism. Hence, this project investigates the effects of syngas compositions on flashback resulting from combustion induced vortex breakdown. The project uses controlled experiments and parametric modeling to understand the velocity field and flame interaction leading to CIVB driven flashback.

  8. Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

    1993-06-29

    A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

  9. Stratified charge and homogeneous charge flowfields in natural gas fueled rotary engines. Interim report on task 2. 1. 7 combustion/stratification studies'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.

    1988-12-09

    Natural gas stratification and combustion in a rotary engine are studied with a three-dimensional model. The validated model could be employed as a useful tool in selection of optimum spark plug locations, number of spark plugs, spark timings, pocket geometry, and optimization studies of natural gas fired rotary engines.

  10. CONCEPTUAL STUDIES OF A FUEL-FLEXIBLE LOW-SWIRL COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR THE GAS TURBINE IN CLEAN COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.O.; Littlejohn, David; Therkelsen, Peter; Cheng, Robert K.; Ali, S.

    2009-11-30

    This paper reports the results of preliminary analyses that show the feasibility of developing a fuel flexible (natural gas, syngas and high-hydrogen fuel) combustion system for IGCC gas turbines. Of particular interest is the use of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's DLN low swirl combustion technology as the basis for the IGCC turbine combustor. Conceptual designs of the combustion system and the requirements for the fuel handling and delivery circuits are discussed. The analyses show the feasibility of a multi-fuel, utility-sized, LSI-based, gas turbine engine. A conceptual design of the fuel injection system shows that dual parallel fuel circuits can provide range of gas turbine operation in a configuration consistent with low pollutant emissions. Additionally, several issues and challenges associated with the development of such a system, such as flashback and auto-ignition of the high-hydrogen fuels, are outlined.

  11. Constant Volume During Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Constant Volume During Combustion Constant Volume During Combustion This presentation covers constant volume during combustion and discusses how it can alter the kinematics of piston to crankshaft travel. PDF icon deer08_joniec.pdf More Documents & Publications Utilizing the Rapid Ignition Region of HCCI to Attain &gt; 60% BTE 50% thermo-mechanical efficiency utilizing a free-piston engine in Hybrid vehicles DOE-HDBK-1018/1-93

  12. Applied combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  13. Gabriel Rodriguez-Calero &gt; Postdoc - Abruña Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Gabriel Rodriguez-Calero Postdoc - Abruña Group gr235@cornell.edu Gabriel received his PhD in Summer 2014

  14. Jeung Gon Kim &gt; Principle Research Engineer - Samsung Cheil Industries &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Alumni &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Jeung Gon Kim Principle Research Engineer - Samsung Cheil Industries Former Postdoc with the Coates Group, Jeung Gon returned to Korea to work with Samsung

  15. Low Temperature Combustion using nitrogen enrichment to mitigate nox from large bore natural gas-filled engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biruduganti, M. S.; Gupta, S. B.; Sekar, R. R.

    2008-01-01

    Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) is identified as one of the pathways to meet the mandatory ultra low NOx emissions levels set by regulatory agencies. This phenomenon can be realized by utilizing various advanced combustion control strategies. The present work discusses nitrogen enrichment using an Air Separation Membrane (ASM) as a better alternative to the mature Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR) technique currently in use. A 70% NOx reduction was realized with a moderate 2% nitrogen enrichment while maintaining power density and simultaneously improving Fuel Conversion Efficiency (FCE). The maximum acceptable Nitrogen Enriched Air (NEA) in a single cylinder spark ignited natural gas engine was investigated in this paper. Any enrichment beyond this level degraded engine performance both in terms of power density and FCE, and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions. The effect of ignition timing was also studied with and without N2 enrichment. Finally, lean burn versus stoichiometric operation utilizing NEA was compared. Analysis showed that lean burn operation along with NEA is one of the effective pathways for realizing better FCE and lower NOx emissions.

  16. Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a gasification with CO{sub 2} capture process simulator with a combined cycle power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTARs IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

  17. Control methods and valve arrangement for start-up and shutdown of pressurized combustion and gasification systems integrated with a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Provol, Steve J. (Carlsbad, CA); Russell, David B. (San Diego, CA); Isaksson, Matti J. (Karhula, FI)

    1994-01-01

    A power plant having a system for converting coal to power in a gas turbine comprises a coal fed pressurized circulating bed for converting coal to pressurized gases, a gas turbine having a compressor for pressurizing air for the pressurized circulating bed and expander for receiving and expanding hot combustion gases for powering a generator, a first fast acting valve for controlling the pressurized air, a second fast acting valve means for controlling pressurized gas from the compressor to the expander.

  18. Nebraska Electric G&T Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric G&T Coop Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nebraska Electric G&T Coop Inc Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 402.564.8142 Website: www.negt.coop Outage Hotline:...

  19. Table 1.15 Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels, 1980-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels, 1980-2011 Year Petroleum Products Natural Gas 4 Coal Total Percent of Total Energy Consumption Asphalt and Road Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1 Lubricants Petro- chemical Feedstocks 2 Petroleum Coke Special Naphthas Other 3 Total Physical Units 5<//td&gt; 1980 145 230 58 253 14 [R] 37 58 795 [R] 639 2.4 [ – –] [ – –] 1981 125 229 56 216 15 [R] 27 54 722 [R] 518 [R] 2.1 [ – –] [ – –] 1982 125 256 51 157 15 [R] 25 48 678 [R] 448 [R] 1.4 [ – –] [

  20. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-12-01

    General Electric Global Research will define, develop, and test new fuel nozzle technology concepts for gas turbine operation on a wide spectrum of opportunity fuels and/or fuel blends. This will enable gas turbine operation on ultra-low Btu fuel streams such as very weak natural gas, highly-diluted industrial process gases, or gasified waste streams that are out of the capability range of current turbine systems.

  1. Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  2. Engine Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engine Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  3. Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

    2011-07-01

    As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

  4. From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Yellow Alert: Heater Malfunction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mon, 05 Jan 1998 09:38:52 -0800 From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Yellow Alert: Heater Malfunction The attached Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Lessons Learned, Yellow/Caution, is an advisory about a recent incident involving new gas-fired unit heaters, and a resultant natural gas leak discovered during initial operations. If you have any questions or need further information, please contact Henry M. (Matt) Jones, PNNL, F&O Lessons Learned Coordinator, (509) 376-

  5. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  6. Yu Ho (Ric) Wen &gt; Postdoc - Archer Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Yu Ho (Ric) Wen Postdoc - Archer Group yw563@cornell.edu Ric completed his PhD from National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan. His current research involves rheology and structure of tethered hybrid materials and their applications to lubricants

  7. Tobias Hoheisel &gt; Patent Attorney Candidate - Cohausz & Florack &gt; Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alumni &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Hoheisel Patent Attorney Candidate - Cohausz & Florack th399@cornell.edu Tobias finished his postdoc with the Wiesner Group in July 2013. He has gone on to work in Düsseldorf, Germany with the firm Cohausz & Florack, Patent Attorneys and Attorneys-at-Law

  8. Chinmayee Subban &gt; Postdoc - Université de Picardie Jules Verne &gt; Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alumni &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Chinmayee Subban Postdoc - Université de Picardie Jules Verne chinmayeesubban@gmail.com Formerly a graduate student with the DiSalvo Group, she earned her PhD in August 2012. She is now a postdoc with Professor Jean-Marie Tarascon at the Université de Picardie Jules Verne

  9. Jimmy O'Dea &gt; Congressional Fellow - MRS/OSA Science & Engineering &gt; Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alumni &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Jimmy O'Dea Congressional Fellow - MRS/OSA Science & Engineering jro66@cornell.edu Formerly a member of the Marohn Group, Jimmy has gone to Washington, DC as part of the Congressional Fellows program

  10. Kevin Noonan &gt; Asst. Professor - Carnegie Mellon University &gt; Center Alumni

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Kevin Noonan Asst. Professor - Carnegie Mellon University noonan@andrew.cmu.edu Formerly a postdoc with the Coates Lab, he is now an at CMU working on research related to Polymer Chemistry, Organometallics, Homogeneous Catalysis and Organophosphorus Chemistry

  11. DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Chemistry/DISI Combustion - DISI Combustionadmin2015-10-28T02:44:30+00:00

  12. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and...

  13. Coal combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  14. Peter Beaucage &gt; Graduate Student - Wiesner Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Beaucage Graduate Student - Wiesner Group pab275@cornell.edu Peter Beaucage is from Cincinnati, Ohio and received his BS in Chemical Engineering from the University of Cincinnati. He joined the Wiesner group in 2013 and is currently working with the EMC2 center on using copolymers to create mesoporous metal oxides, nitrides, and other inorganic materials for energy applications. He is a joint student with the Gruner group in Physics,

  15. Anne LaPointe &gt; Director, Catalyst Discovery and Development Laboratory &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers, Postdocs & Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Anne LaPointe Director, Catalyst Discovery and Development Laboratory aml329@cornell.edu Dr. LaPointe received her PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and then went on to a Postdoc at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. He research interests are in catalysis, high throughput experimentation, organometallic chemistry and polymer chemistry

  16. Batteries & Fuel Cells - Research Thrust Leader &gt; Frank DiSalvo &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Leadership Team &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Frank DiSalvo fjd3@cornell.edu Research The DiSalvo Group's research focuses on the synthesis, characterization and potential applications of new solid state materials. Current research interests include: 1) the development of general methods for the synthesis of compositionally and structurally complex intermetallic nano-particles for possible application as fuel cell catalysts, 2) the discovery and application of mesostructured

  17. Batteries & Fuel Cells - Research Thrust Leader &gt; Tobias Hanrath &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Leadership Team &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Tobias Hanrath th358@cornell.edu Research There is a tremendous opportunity space for nanostructured materials to play a key role in next generation energy technologies. Our research efforts focus on the fundamental study of optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals; this work is inspired by the potential application of these materials in solar energy conversion and energy storage devices. The semiconductor

  18. Jessica Burton &gt; Graduate Student - Schlom Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Jessica Burton Graduate Student - Schlom Group jmb738@cornell.edu For my undergraduate education, I attended the University of California, Berkeley where I received my B.S. in Materials Science and Engineering in 2012. Following graduate school I hope to become a professor. In my free time I like to cook, read, and run marathons

  19. Mukul Tikekar &gt; Graduate Student - Archer Group &gt; Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Mukul Tikekar Graduate Student - Archer Group mdt78@cornell.edu Mukul hails from Mumbai, India. He finished his undergraduate education in a Dual Degree - Bachelor of Technology and Master of Technology program in Mechanical Engineering at Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Currently a PhD student with the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, he is jointly advised by Prof Donald Koch and Prof Lynden Archer on modeling of

  20. Improving Fuel Cell Electrodes Two-Steps at a Time &gt; Research Highlights &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High

  1. Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry &gt; Research Highlights &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High

  2. Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell &gt; Research Highlights &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High

  3. Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries &gt; Research Highlights &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High

  4. Morgan Stefik &gt; Postdoc - École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Alumni &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Morgan Stefik Postdoc - École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne morgan.stefik@epfl.ch Dr. Stefik received his PhD in 2009 and continued as a postdoc with the Wiesner Group. He is currently working in the Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces with the Dr. Michael Graetzel at EPFL

  5. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2011-03-01

    A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

  6. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  7. Tire gassification and combustion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nance, D.; Towne, G.A.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a system for disposing of a material such as vehicle tires and similar substantially organic matter and generating useful heat therefrom. It comprises gasification means for holding an amount of the material to be disposed while the material is allowed to partially combust and for containing combustible gas produced thereby, the gasification means comprising a substantially air tight gasification chamber having at least one access way for inserting the material therein; inlet means for receiving a controlled amount of oxygen containing gas into the gasification means, the inlet means comprising a tuyere disposed in the air tight gasification chamber and a blower connected to the tuyere; removal means for removing the combustible gas from the gasification means, the removal means comprising a gas outlet located above the tuyere in the gasification chamber such that substantially amounts of the combustible gases produced by the partially combusted material exits through the gas outlet; primary combustion means for receiving and mixing the combustible gas removed from the gasification means with an oxygen containing gas and burning the combustible gas; and means for directing the combustion products to a heat utilizing device.

  8. Jennifer Schaefer &gt; NRC Postdoctoral Fellow - National Institute of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Standards and Technology &gt; Center Alumni &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Jennifer Schaefer NRC Postdoctoral Fellow - National Institute of Standards and Technology Formerly a graduate student with the Archer Group, Jennifer received her PhD in 2014

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

  10. Catalytic Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Combustion Catalytic Combustion Advanced Catalytic Combustion System Reduces NOx Emissions Natural-gas-fired turbine systems currently require complex after-treatment systems to clean the exhaust of harmful emissions. Many of these emissions could be reduced by lower operating temperatures during the combustion process. With the support and recognition from many organizations, including AMO, the California Air Resources Board, the California Energy Commission, and the U.S.

  11. Spatially distributed flame transfer functions for predicting combustion dynamics in lean premixed gas turbine combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, K.T.; Lee, J.G.; Quay, B.D.; Santavicca, D.A.

    2010-09-15

    The present paper describes a methodology to improve the accuracy of prediction of the eigenfrequencies and growth rates of self-induced instabilities and demonstrates its application to a laboratory-scale, swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed, gas turbine combustor. The influence of the spatial heat release distribution is accounted for using local flame transfer function (FTF) measurements. The two-microphone technique and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence intensity measurements are used to determine the input (inlet velocity perturbation) and the output functions (heat release oscillation), respectively, for the local flame transfer functions. The experimentally determined local flame transfer functions are superposed using the flame transfer function superposition principle, and the result is incorporated into an analytic thermoacoustic model, in order to predict the linear stability characteristics of a given system. Results show that when the flame length is not acoustically compact the model prediction calculated using the local flame transfer functions is better than the prediction made using the global flame transfer function. In the case of a flame in the compact flame regime, accurate predictions of eigenfrequencies and growth rates can be obtained using the global flame transfer function. It was also found that the general response characteristics of the local FTF (gain and phase) are qualitatively the same as those of the global FTF. (author)

  12. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  13. Measurements and calculations of oscillations and phase relations in the driven gas-phase combustion of acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, K.K.; Hjelmfelt, A.; Ross, J. (Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California (USA))

    1991-09-01

    Oscillations in light emission and species concentrations, are measured as periodic perturbations are simultaneously applied to the input rates of acetaldehyde and oxygen in the gas-phase combustion of acetaldehyde in a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor for conditions where the autonomous reaction itself is oscillatory. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of a five-variable thermokinetic model. We measure periodic responses in the fundamental entrainment band (ratio of frequency of perturbation to frequency of response equal to unity) for four different values of phase shift between the acetaldehyde and oxygen perturbation wave forms as we vary the frequency and amplitude of the external periodic perturbations. Outside of the entrainment bands we find quasiperiodic response. We determine the phases of the light emission and six species concentrations, as measured with a mass spectrometer, with respect to the periodic perturbation, the variation of these phases across the fundamental entrainment band for different values of reactant phase shift and for different amplitudes of perturbation, and the effects of the phase shift between the two input perturbations on the light emission response of the system for different frequencies of perturbation. Both the experiments and calculations predict a widening of the entrainment band with an increase in perturbation amplitude, and the same variation in bandwidths for the four values of reactant phase shift studied. The experiments and calculations also predict the same general trends in light phase and species phases (difference between the light emission and species concentrations with respect to the perturbing wave form) as the band is traversed for different amplitudes of perturbation and for different values of reactant phase shift.

  14. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO₂ Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO₂ stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO₂ capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental, health and safety risks have been addressed through experimental tests, consultation with vendors and engineering analysis. Multiple rounds of TEA were performed to improve the GPS-based PCC process design and operation, and to compare the energy use and cost performance of a nominal 550-MWe supercritical pulverized coal (PC) plant among the DOE/NETL report Case 11 (the PC plant without CO₂ capture), the DOE/NETL report Case 12 (the PC plant with benchmark MEA-based PCC), and the PC plant using GPS-based PCC. The results reveal that the net power produced in the PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 647 MWe, greater than that of the Case 12 (550 MWe). The 20-year LCOE for the PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 97.4 mills/kWh, or 152% of that of the Case 11, which is also 23% less than that of the Case 12. These results demonstrate that the GPS-based PCC process is energy-efficient and cost-effective compared with the benchmark MEA process.

  15. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  16. Table 8.5c Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: Electric Power Sector by Plant Type, 1989-2011 (Breakout of Table 8.5b)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5c Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: Electric Power Sector by Plant Type, 1989-2011 (Breakout of Table 8.5b) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu Electricity-Only Plants 11<//td&gt; 1989 767,378,330 25,574,094 241,960,194 3,460 517,385 270,124,673

  17. Tobias Hanrath &gt; Research Thrust Leader - Fuel Cells and Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assistant Professor Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering &gt; Faculty Directory &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Hanrath Research Thrust Leader - Fuel Cells and Batteries Assistant Professor Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Research Group Webpage th358@cornell.edu Research There is a tremendous opportunity space for nanostructured materials to play a key role in next generation energy technologies. Our research efforts focus on the fundamental study of optoelectronic

  18. David Muller &gt; Research Thrust Leader - Complex Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Professor Applied and Engineering Physics &gt; Faculty Directory &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell David Muller Research Thrust Leader - Complex Oxides Professor Applied and Engineering Physics Research Group Webpage dm24@cornell.edu He joined the Applied and Engineering Physics faculty at Cornell University in July 2003, is a graduate of the University of Sydney and completed his Ph.D. in physics at Cornell in 1996. David was a member of the technical staff at Bell Laboratories

  19. Joel Brock &gt; Research Thrust Leader - Complex Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Professor Applied and Engineering Physics &gt; Faculty Directory &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Joel Brock Research Thrust Leader - Complex Oxides Professor Applied and Engineering Physics Research Group Webpage jdb20@cornell.edu Dr. Brock is a Professor in the School of Applied and Engineering Physics and a member of the graduate fields of Applied Physics and of Materials Science and Engineering. He is a principal investigator of both the Dynamics of Growth of Complex Materials

  20. Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs &gt; Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highlights &gt; Research &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries

  1. Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels/Spray Combustion - Spray Combustionadmin2015-10-28T02:17:06+00:00

  2. Sealed Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet discusses the benefits of sealed combustion appliance units in order to ensure good indoor air quality.

  3. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Wednesday, 22 October 2014 11:43 Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and other carbon-based compounds. It's a discovery that could help combustion chemists make more efficient, less polluting fuels and help materials scientists fine-tune their carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets for faster, smaller electronics. In

  4. A WAJU&gt; FJi~E PLAN

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    WAJU&gt; FJi~E PLAN Fiscal Yci\r 2015 and 2016 for Wastrcn*I~ncrgX Mission Support, LLC f1'aclllty Support Services Contract Number DE-CJ000~004 Period of Performance October 1, 2014 through January 25, 2016 Rcvhllon l (Contract Extension Period ,July 26, 2015 through January 25, 2016) CONCUR: ,#~--- Dale Jo~.:~4.~--;;*~f&gt;ortsmoutl1'sltc Le-air-'" - -- Po1~~111h/P11ducnh Project Office f ~~-LL~~J,,, .;i!i .. .... ~... 7fr_f/!~- v111oen* Adams, Portsinouth Sito Director, Federal

  5. Ignition of a combustible gas mixture by a high-current electric discharge in a closed volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Gritsinin, S. I.; Kop'ev, V. A.; Kossyi, I. A.; Kuleshov, P. S.; Popov, N. A.; Starik, A. M.; Tarasova, N. M.

    2009-06-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies and numerical calculations of the ignition of a stoichiometric CH{sub 4}: O{sub 2} gas mixture by a high-current gliding discharge. It is shown that this type of discharge generates an axially propagating thermal wave (precursor) that penetrates into the gas medium and leads to fast gas heating. This process is followed by an almost simultaneous ignition of the gas mixture over the entire reactor volume.

  6. Internal combustion rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.P.

    1993-08-24

    An internal combustion rotary engine is described comprising: an internal combustion chamber wherein a combustible fuel-air mixture is ignited for producing a driving gas flow; a central rotor having an outer surface in which at least one group of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the central rotor; and at least one annular rotor each enclosing the central rotor having an inner surface in which a corresponding number of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the annular rotor; when the curved channels in the central rotor communicate with the curved channels in the annular rotor, the driving gas flow circumferentially-and-axially passing between the outer surface of the central rotor and the inner surface of the annular rotor for rotating the central rotor and the annular rotor in opposite directions.

  7. Oxy-Combustion | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxy-combustion-is a promising technology for capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel power plants, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the cost, energy...

  8. Table 8.6c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu Commercial Sector 11<//td&gt; 1989 711,212 202,091 600,653 – –

  9. Chemistry: Theory - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theory Chemistry: Theory Presentations from 2010 CEFRC First Annual Conference MultireferenceCorrelated WavefunctionCalculations and Reaction Flux Analyses of Methyl Ester Combustion Emily A. Carter, Princeton University Constructing Accurate Combustion Chemistry Models William H. Green, MIT Theoretical Gas Phase Chemical Kinetics Stephen J. Klippenstein, Argonne National Laboratory Theoretical Chemical Kinetics and Combustion Modeling James A. Miller, Argonne National Laboratory Computation of

  10. Characterization of suspended flue gas particle systems with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IMPACTORS; PERFORMANCE TESTING; FLUE GAS; PARTICLE SIZE; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; AIR FILTERS; DISTRIBUTION; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; SORTING; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; COMBUSTION;...

  11. Third millenium ideal gas and condensed phase thermochemical database for combustion (with update from active thermochemical tables).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burcat, A.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry; Technion - Israel Inst. of Tech.

    2005-07-29

    The thermochemical database of species involved in combustion processes is and has been available for free use for over 25 years. It was first published in print in 1984, approximately 8 years after it was first assembled, and contained 215 species at the time. This is the 7th printed edition and most likely will be the last one in print in the present format, which involves substantial manual labor. The database currently contains more than 1300 species, specifically organic molecules and radicals, but also inorganic species connected to combustion and air pollution. Since 1991 this database is freely available on the internet, at the Technion-IIT ftp server, and it is continuously expanded and corrected. The database is mirrored daily at an official mirror site, and at random at about a dozen unofficial mirror and 'finger' sites. The present edition contains numerous corrections and many recalculations of data of provisory type by the G3//B3LYP method, a high-accuracy composite ab initio calculation. About 300 species are newly calculated and are not yet published elsewhere. In anticipation of the full coupling, which is under development, the database started incorporating the available (as yet unpublished) values from Active Thermochemical Tables. The electronic version now also contains an XML file of the main database to allow transfer to other formats and ease finding specific information of interest. The database is used by scientists, educators, engineers and students at all levels, dealing primarily with combustion and air pollution, jet engines, rocket propulsion, fireworks, but also by researchers involved in upper atmosphere kinetics, astrophysics, abrasion metallurgy, etc. This introductory article contains explanations of the database and the means to use it, its sources, ways of calculation, and assessments of the accuracy of data.

  12. Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Duty/Spray Combustion - Spray Combustionadmin2015-10-28T02:00:56+00:00 Optically accessible high-temperature, high-pressure spray chamber Optically accessible high-temperature, high-pressure spray chamber Fuel spray injection is expected to be one of the key elements for enabling high-efficiency, low-emission engines of the future. Understanding the details of the spray combustion process is therefore now more important than ever. But investigating engine combustion processes is

  13. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-05

    Topics covered in this presentation include: the continued importance of coal; related materials challenges; combining oxy-combustion & A-USC steam; and casting large superalloy turbine components.

  14. "Optimization of efficiency of internal combustion engines via...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization of efficiency of internal combustion engines via using spinning gas and non-spectroscopic method of determining gas constituents through rotation ..--.. Inventors...

  15. Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong Zhaoping . E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng; Huang Yaji; Zhou Hongcang; Lan Jixiang

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

  16. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    This report is a presentation of work carried out on Phase II of the HIPPS program under DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 from June 1995 to March 2001. The objective of this report is to emphasize the results and achievements of the program and not to archive every detail of the past six years of effort. These details are already available in the twenty-two quarterly reports previously submitted to DOE and in the final report from Phase I. The report is divided into three major foci, indicative of the three operational groupings of the program as it evolved, was restructured, or overtaken by events. In each of these areas, the results exceeded DOE goals and expectations. HIPPS Systems and Cycles (including thermodynamic cycles, power cycle alternatives, baseline plant costs and new opportunities) HITAF Components and Designs (including design of heat exchangers, materials, ash management and combustor design) Testing Program for Radiative and Convective Air Heaters (including the design and construction of the test furnace and the results of the tests) There are several topics that were part of the original program but whose importance was diminished when the contract was significantly modified. The elimination of the subsystem testing and the Phase III demonstration lessened the relevance of subtasks related to these efforts. For example, the cross flow mixing study, the CFD modeling of the convective air heater and the power island analysis are important to a commercial plant design but not to the R&D product contained in this report. These topics are of course, discussed in the quarterly reports under this contract. The DOE goal for the High Performance Power Plant System ( HIPPS ) is high thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. Specifically, the goal is a 300 MWe plant with > 47% (HHV) overall efficiency and {le} 0.1 NSPS emissions. This plant must fire at least 65% coal with the balance being made up by a premium fuel such as natural gas. To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization issues of fabrication and reliability, availability and maintenance. The program that has sought to develop and implement these HIPPS designs is outlined below.

  17. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    Gas Technology Institute will collaborate with Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, West Virginia University, Vronay Engineering Services, KAR Engineering Associates, Pioneer Air Systems, and Energy Concepts Company to recover waste heat from reciprocating engines. The project will integrate waste heat recovery along with gas clean-up technology system improvements. This will address fuel quality issues that have hampered expanded use of opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester biogas, and coal mine methane. This will enable increased application of CHP using renewable and domestically derived opportunity fuels.

  19. Loop-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Slagle, Frank D. (Kingwood, WV); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

  20. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Landfill gas (LFG), composed largely of methane and carbon dioxide, is used in over 450 operational projects in 43 states. These projects convert a large source of greenhouse gases into a fuel that...

  1. Upper Missouri G&T El Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    G&T El Coop Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Upper Missouri G&T El Coop Inc Place: Montana Phone Number: 406-433-4100 Website: uppermo.com Outage Hotline: 406-433-4100...

  2. Sam Rayburn G&T Elec Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sam Rayburn G&T Elec Coop Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sam Rayburn G&T Elec Coop Inc Place: Texas Phone Number: (936) 560-9532 Outage Hotline: (936) 560-9532 References:...

  3. Geology of Geothermal Test Hole GT-2 Fenton Hill Site, July 1974...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Test Hole GT-2 Fenton Hill Site, July 1974 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geology of Geothermal Test Hole GT-2 Fenton Hill...

  4. Fleming gift creates graduate fellowships in biomolecular engineering &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EMC2 News &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Fleming gift creates graduate fellowships in biomolecular engineering August 1st, 2015 › Summer 2015 by Emily Sanders Hopkins Trustee Emeritus Sam Fleming '62 and his wife, Nancy Fleming. In March, longtime Cornell University supporters Trustee Emeritus Sam Fleming '62 and his wife, Nancy Fleming, made a $5 million gift to create new graduate fellowships in the School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Of this latest gift from a

  5. Real-time measurements of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. w. Hahn; K. r. Hencken; H. A. Johnsen; J. R. Ross; P. M. Walsh

    1998-12-10

    Particulate matter emissions and some components of the particles were measured in the exhaust from combustion equipment used in oil and gas production operations near Bakersfield, California. The combustion sources included a 22.5 MW (electric) turbine generator, a 342-Bhp rich-burn spark ignition engine, and a 50 million Btu/h steam generator, all fired using natural gas. The particle components and measurement techniques were as follows: (1) Calcium, magnesium, sodium, silicon, and iron were measured using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), (2) particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected using the charge produced by photoionization, (3) particles having sizes between 0.1 and 7.5 {micro}m were counted using an instrument based on light scattering, and (4) total particulate matter was measured according to US EPA Method 5. Not all of the methods were applied to all of the sources. Measurements were also made in the ambient air near the combustion air inlets to the units, for comparison with the concentrations in the exhaust, but the inlet and outlet measurements were not done simultaneously. Calcium, sodium, and silicon were found in the exhaust from the steam generator at concentrations similar to those in the ambient air near the inlet to the burner. Sodium and silicon were observed in the engine exhaust at levels a factor of four higher than their concentrations in the air. The principal metal observed in the engine exhaust was calcium, a component of the lubricating oil, at a concentration of 11.6 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The air entering the gas turbine is filtered, so the average concentrations of metals in the turbine exhaust under steady operating conditions were even lower than in the air. During start-up following a shut-down to wash the turbine, silicon and iron were the major species in the stack, at concentrations of 6.4 and 16.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. A possible source of silicon is the water injected into the turbine for NO{sub x} control. Iron-containing particles are expected to be scale from ferrous metals. A commercial photoelectric aerosol sensor was used to measure PAH adsorbed on particles in the exhaust from the steam generator and the rich-burn engine. The conversion of the instrument readings to PAH concentrations is dependent upon the specific distribution of PAH species present. Using the typical calibration factor recommended by the instrument manufacturer, the estimated average concentration of particle-bound PAH was below the instrument detection limit (3--10 ng/m{sup 3}) in the stack gas from the steam generator, and was estimated to be 0.045--0.15 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the exhaust from the rich-burn engine. Particle mass concentrations estimated from number concentrations determined using the particle counting and sizing instrument were only small fractions of the concentrations measured using Method 5. This is thought to be due primarily to the limited range over which size was quantified (0.1 to 7.5 {micro}m) and the poor efficiency with which the sampling system transferred large particles.

  6. Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automotive/Spray Combustion - Spray Combustionadmin2015-10-28T02:10:49+00:00 Optically accessible high-temperature, high-pressure spray chamber Optically accessible high-temperature, high-pressure spray chamber

  7. Combustion Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pictured here is an animation showing the basic mechanics of how an internal combustion engine works. With support from the Energy Department, General Motors researchers developed a new technology ...

  8. Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressurized Combustion and Gasification - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  9. improve combustion models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    combustion models - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  10. Applied Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbulent Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  11. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and other carbon-based compounds. It's a discovery that could help combustion chemists make more efficient, less polluting fuels and help materials scientists fine-tune their carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets for faster, smaller electronics. In addition, the results could have implications for the burgeoning field of

  12. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and other carbon-based compounds. It's a discovery that could help combustion chemists make more efficient, less polluting fuels and help materials scientists fine-tune their carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets for faster, smaller electronics. In addition, the results could have implications for the burgeoning field of

  13. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and other carbon-based compounds. It's a discovery that could help combustion chemists make more efficient, less polluting fuels and help materials scientists fine-tune their carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets for faster, smaller electronics. In addition, the results could have implications for the burgeoning field of

  14. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and other carbon-based compounds. It's a discovery that could help combustion chemists make more efficient, less polluting fuels and help materials scientists fine-tune their carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets for faster, smaller electronics. In addition, the results could have implications for the burgeoning field of

  15. Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model for Engine Concept Development Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development Presentation shows how 1-cylinder testing, 3D combustion CFD and 1D gas exchange with an advanced combustion model are used together for fast, reliable predictions PDF icon deer12_andersson.pdf More Documents & Publications Partially Premixed Combustion Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control

  16. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature range during Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis Smirniotis

    2002-09-17

    A number basic sorbents based on CaO were synthesized, characterized with novel techniques and tested for sorption of CO{sub 2} and selected gas mixtures simulating flue gas from coal fired boilers. Our studies resulted in highly promising sorbents which demonstrated zero affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO very low affinity for water, ultrahigh CO{sub 2} sorption capacities, and rapid sorption characteristics, CO{sub 2} sorption at a very wide temperature range, durability, and low synthesis cost. One of the 'key' characteristics of the proposed materials is the fact that we can control very accurately their basicity (optimum number of basic sites of the appropriate strength) which allows for the selective chemisorption of CO{sub 2} at a wide range of temperatures. These unique characteristics of this family of sorbents offer high promise for development of advanced industrial sorbents for the effective CO{sub 2} removal.

  17. Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop November 12-13, 2014 Advanced Materials Manufacturing and Innovative Technologies for Natural Gas Pipeline Systems and Components Panel &gt; November 12, 2014 &gt; Pittsburgh, PA &gt; By Daniel Ersoy, GTI Nat. Gas Infrastructure R&D /Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop, Nov. 2014, Pittsburgh, PA 2 Nat. Gas Infrastructure R&D /Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop, Nov. 2014, Pittsburgh, PA 2 GTI Company Overview

  18. Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-combustion capture refers to removing CO2 from fossil fuels before combustion is completed. For example, in gasification processes a feedstock (such as coal) is partially oxidized in steam and oxygen/air under high temperature and pressure to form synthesis gas. This synthesis gas, or syngas, is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, CO2, and smaller amounts of other gaseous components, such as methane. The syngas

  19. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  20. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Fuels Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:17:06+00:00 Fuel...

  1. Sandia Energy - DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DISI Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Automotive DISI Combustion DISI CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:06:42+00:00 DISI...

  2. Sandia Energy - DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DISI Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Combustion Chemistry DISI Combustion DISI CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:44:30+00:00...

  3. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Automotive Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:10:49+00:00...

  4. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Heavy Duty Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:00:56+00:00...

  5. Sandia Energy - DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DISI Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Fuels DISI Combustion DISI CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:15:13+00:00 In order to...

  6. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  7. Chemical Looping Combustion | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Looping Combustion chemical-looping-combustion.jpg An economical option for using our abundant, domestic coal resources while eliminating CO2 emissions may sound like science fiction, but NETL researchers are working to bring this technology of the future into the present. Chemical looping is the solution. This cost-effective indirect combustion technology has CO2 capture "built in," effectively eradicating greenhouse gas emissions from coal. Although still a few years away

  8. Advanced Combustion Technologies | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Advanced Combustion Technologies Advanced Combustion Technologies Joe Yip, a researcher at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, uses laser-based Rayleigh light scattering to measure flame density and speed over a flat flame burner. Oxyfuel combustion, using oxygen in place of air with diluents such as steam or carbon dioxide, can reduce pollutant emissions in advanced power cycles using gas turbines. Photo courtesy of NETL Multimedia. Joe Yip, a researcher at FE's National Energy

  9. Internal Combustion Engine Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Internal Combustion Engine Basics Internal Combustion Engine Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:02pm Addthis Internal combustion engines provide outstanding drivability and durability, with more than 250 million highway transportation vehicles in the United States relying on them. Along with gasoline or diesel, they can also utilize renewable or alternative fuels (e.g., natural gas, propane). They can also be combined with hybrid electric powertrains to increase fuel economy or plug-in hybrid electric

  10. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Transportation Corridors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Map Corridors &gt; Major U.S. Natural Gas Transportation Corridors Map About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Major U.S. Natural Gas Transportation Corridors, 2008

  11. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

  12. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A.; Sheppard, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  13. Hybrid-Electric Porsche GT3R to Make North American Debut | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Hybrid-Electric Porsche GT3R to Make North American Debut Hybrid-Electric Porsche GT3R to Make North American Debut September 24, 2010 - 4:10pm Addthis The Porsche 911 GT3R will make its North American debut at the Petit Le Mans in Georgia next Saturday. | Department of Energy Image | Photo by Erin Pierce The Porsche 911 GT3R will make its North American debut at the Petit Le Mans in Georgia next Saturday. | Department of Energy Image | Photo by Erin Pierce Paul Lester Paul Lester

  14. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  15. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-08

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  16. Regenerative combustion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  17. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  18. Integrated CHP/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to meet local air quality authority emissions restrictions. Integrated Combined Heat and PowerAdvanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to...

  19. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and ...

  20. Energy-Efficient Glass Melting: Submerged Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-01-01

    Oxy-gas-fired submerged combustion melter offers simpler, improved performance. For the last 100 years, the domestic glass industry has used the same basic equipment for melting glass on an industrial scale.

  1. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maupin, Gary D. (Richland, WA); Chick, Lawrence A. (West Richland, WA); Kurosky, Randal P. (Maple Valley, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor.

  2. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maupin, G.D.; Chick, L.A.; Kurosky, R.P.

    1998-01-06

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor. 10 figs.

  3. Manuel Plaza Domínguez &gt; Asst. Professor - Universidad Complutense de

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Madrid &gt; Center Alumni &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Manuel Plaza Domínguez Asst. Professor - Universidad Complutense de Madrid mp676@cornell.edu Formerly a member of the Brock Group as a postdoc, he has since joined the faculty at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid as an Assistant Professor

  4. Internal combustion engine with rotary combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, C.N.; Cross, P.C.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising: a block having at least one cylindrical wall surrounding a piston chamber, piston means located in the piston chamber means operable to reciprocate the piston means in the chamber, head means mounted on the block covering the chamber. The head means has an air and fuel intake passage, and exhaust gas passage, a rotary valve assembly operatively associated with the head means for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gas from rotary valve assembly and the piston chamber. The means has a housing with a bore open to the piston chamber accommodating the rotary valve assembly, the valve assembly comprising a cylindrical sleeve located in the bore, the sleeve having an inner surface, an ignition hole, and intake and exhaust ports aligned with the intake passage and exhaust gas passage, spark generating means mounted on the housing operable to generate a spark. The rotatable valving means is located within the sleeve for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gases out of the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber.

  5. Post combustion trials at Dofasco's KOBM furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco's 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

  6. DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automotive/DISI Combustion - DISI Combustionadmin2015-10-28T02:06:42+00:00 DISI engine in all-metal configuration with lower oil-collection cylinder installed. DISI engine in all-metal configuration with lower oil-collection cylinder installed. In order to reduce our dependence on petroleum and to reduce CO2emissions, it is important to both supplement traditional gasoline with renewable fuels and to improve the fuel efficiency of automotive engines. Under the Energy Independence and Security

  7. DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels/DISI Combustion - DISI Combustionadmin2015-10-28T02:15:13+00:00 In order to reduce our dependence on petroleum and to reduce CO2emissions, it is important to both supplement traditional gasoline with renewable fuels and to improve the fuel efficiency of automotive engines. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, the volume of renewable fuel required to be blended into transportation fuel will increase from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons by 2022. At

  8. Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_pratapas.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Cummins, Inc., June 2011 Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes

  9. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  10. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  11. Combustion synthesis method and products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

    1993-03-30

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  12. Combustion synthesis method and products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J. Birch (San Jose, CA); Kelly, Michael (West Alexandria, OH)

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  13. Advanced Combustion FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxygen production technology, an air separation unit operating a cryogenic distillation process. For further information, see: - Oxy-Combustion - Advanced Combustion...

  14. Combustion Energy Postdoctoral Research Fellowships - Combustion Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontier Research Center Application Schedule Sample Projects How to Apply Combustion Energy Research Fellows 2016 Combustion Summer School News, Events & Publications Contact CEFRC CEFRC In Pictures CEFRC Intranet (Members Only) Home » Combustion Energy Postdoctoral Research Fellowships Program Description Two-year positions as Combustion Energy Research Fellows are available for co-sponsored postdoctoral or more senior research associates to perform joint, high-risk/high-payoff

  15. Natural Gas | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Natural Gas Many heavy-duty fleets depend on diesel fuel. But an increasing number of trucking companies are transitioning their vehicles to run on liquefied natural gas (LNG), reducing fuel costs and harmful emissions in the process. <a href="/node/655801"&gt;Learn more</a&gt; about the Energy Department's work to advance natural gas vehicle technology. | Photo courtesy of New Haven Clean Cities Coalition. Many heavy-duty fleets depend on diesel fuel. But an

  16. Advanced Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    had more section loss in the high water flue gas de-sulfurized condition (FGD) with 20% H2O and without FGD cases. The scale morphologies were 3-layer structures of Fe-Cr-O-S near...

  17. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases Preliminary Year 1 Techno-Economic Study Results and Methodology for Gas Pressurized Stripping Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2013-03-01

    Under the DOE’s Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program, Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) is developing a novel gas pressurized stripping (GPS) process to enable efficient post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) from coal-fired power plants. A technology and economic feasibility study is required as a deliverable in the project Statement of Project Objectives. This study analyzes a fully integrated pulverized coal power plant equipped with GPS technology for PCC, and is carried out, to the maximum extent possible, in accordance to the methodology and data provided in ATTACHMENT 3 – Basis for Technology Feasibility Study of DOE Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL report on “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Original Issue Date, May 2007), NETL Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281, Revision 1, August 2007” was used as the main source of reference to be followed, as per the guidelines of ATTACHMENT 3 of DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL-2007/1281 study compared the feasibility of various combinations of power plant/CO2 capture process arrangements. The report contained a comprehensive set of design basis and economic evaluation assumptions and criteria, which are used as the main reference points for the purpose of this study. Specifically, Nexant adopted the design and economic evaluation basis from Case 12 of the above-mentioned DOE/NETL report. This case corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe (net), supercritical greenfield PC plant that utilizes an advanced MEAbased absorption system for CO2 capture and compression. For this techno-economic study, CCS’ GPS process replaces the MEA-based CO2 absorption system used in the original case. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a full-scale GPS-based PCC design that is integrated with a supercritical PC plant similar to Case 12 of the DOE/NETL report, such that it corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe supercritical PC plant with 90% CO2 capture. This plant has the same boiler firing rate and superheated high pressure steam generation as the DOE/NETL report’s Case 12 PC plant. However, due to the difference in performance between the GPS-based PCC and the MEA-based CO2 absorption technology, the net power output of this plant may not be exactly at 550 MWe.

  18. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 GE Global Research developed and tested new fuel-flexible gas turbine nozzle technology concepts that will enable end users to efficiently generate power and heat from industrial off-gases and gasified industrial,

  19. Oil and Gas Research| GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas We're balancing the increasing demand for finite resources with technology that ensures access to energy for generations to come. Home &gt; Innovation &gt; Oil & Gas How Healthcare + Industry Breeds Better Inspection Technology Healthcare and industrial inspection technologies seem worlds apart; but overlapping areas of expertise like those are among the... Read More » From Blood to Mud: Microclarifier Technology At first glance, blood and mud have absolutely nothing in

  20. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Underground Natural Gas Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities Map Storage &gt; U.S. Underground Natural Gas Storage Facilities Map About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates U.S. Underground Natural Gas Storage Facilities, Close of 2007 more recent map U.S. Underground Natural Gas Storage Facilities, 2008 The EIA has determined that the informational map displays here do not raise security concerns, based on the application of the Federal Geographic Data Committee's

  1. Frank DiSalvo &gt; Research Thrust Leader - Fuel Cells and Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    John A. Newman Professor of Physical Science Chemistry and Chemical Biology &gt; Faculty Directory &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Frank DiSalvo Research Thrust Leader - Fuel Cells and Batteries John A. Newman Professor of Physical Science Chemistry and Chemical Biology Research Group Webpage fjd3@cornell.edu Research The DiSalvo Group's research focuses on the synthesis, characterization and potential applications of new solid state materials. Current research interests include:

  2. Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells &gt; Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highlights &gt; Research &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries

  3. Ultrahigh-pressure polyamorphism in GeO 2 glass with coordination number &gt;6

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Ultrahigh-pressure polyamorphism in GeO 2 glass with coordination number &gt;6 This content will become publicly available on September 14, 2016 Title: Ultrahigh-pressure polyamorphism in GeO 2 glass with coordination number &gt;6 Authors: Kono, Yoshio ; Kenney-Benson, Curtis ; Ikuta, Daijo ; Shibazaki, Yuki ; Wang, Yanbin ; Shen, Guoyin Publication Date: 2016-03-14 OSTI Identifier: 1241555 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Proceedings of the National

  4. Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Heat Pumps (5.4 &gt;=< 20 Tons) |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Heat Pumps (5.4 &gt;=< 20 Tons) Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Heat Pumps (5.4 &gt;=< 20 Tons) Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Project Type New Installation Replacement New Installation Condenser Type Air Source Water Source Air Source Existing Capacity * ton - Existing Cooling Efficiency * EER -

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, clean coal combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered allowable under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  6. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  7. Gas turbine premixing systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  8. Particle Ignition and Char Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ignition and Char Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  9. Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Diesel Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  10. Combustion Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  11. Combustion Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kinetics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  12. Pi-CO₂ aqueous post-combustion CO₂ capture: Proof of concept through thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and gas-lift pump modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blount, G.; Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; O’Neil, K.; Kervévan, C.; Beddelem, M. -H.

    2014-12-31

    Partnering in Innovation, Inc. (Pi-Innovation) introduces an aqueous post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO₂) capture system (Pi-CO₂) that offers high market value by directly addressing the primary constraints limiting beneficial re-use markets (lowering parasitic energy costs, reducing delivered cost of capture, eliminating the need for special solvents, etc.). A highly experienced team has completed initial design, modeling, manufacturing verification, and financial analysis for commercial market entry. Coupled thermodynamic and thermal-hydraulic mass transfer modeling results fully support proof of concept. Pi-CO₂ has the potential to lower total cost and risk to levels sufficient to stimulate global demand for CO₂ from local industrial sources.

  13. Pi-CO? aqueous post-combustion CO? capture: Proof of concept through thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and gas-lift pump modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, G.; Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; ONeil, K.; Kervvan, C.; Beddelem, M. -H.

    2014-12-31

    Partnering in Innovation, Inc. (Pi-Innovation) introduces an aqueous post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO?) capture system (Pi-CO?) that offers high market value by directly addressing the primary constraints limiting beneficial re-use markets (lowering parasitic energy costs, reducing delivered cost of capture, eliminating the need for special solvents, etc.). A highly experienced team has completed initial design, modeling, manufacturing verification, and financial analysis for commercial market entry. Coupled thermodynamic and thermal-hydraulic mass transfer modeling results fully support proof of concept. Pi-CO? has the potential to lower total cost and risk to levels sufficient to stimulate global demand for CO? from local industrial sources.

  14. Utilization of coal mine ventilation exhaust as combustion air in gas-fired turbines for electric and/or mechanical power generation. Semi-annual topical report, June 1995--August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Methane emitted during underground coal mining operations is a hazard that is dealt with by diluting the methane with fresh air and exhausting the contaminated air to the atmosphere. Unfortunately this waste stream may contain more than 60% of the methane resource from the coal, and in the atmosphere the methane acts as a greenhouse gas with an effect about 24.5 times greater than CO{sub 2}. Though the waste stream is too dilute for normal recovery processes, it can be used as combustion air for a turbine-generator, thereby reducing the turbine fuel requirements while reducing emissions. Preliminary analysis indicates that such a system, built using standard equipment, is economically and environmentally attractive, and has potential for worldwide application.

  15. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  16. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Pipeline Development &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expansion Pipelinesk &gt; Development & Expansion About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipeline Development and Expansion Timing | Determining Market Interest | Expansion Options | Obtaining Approval | Prefiling Process | Approval | Construction | Commissioning Timing and Steps for a New Project An interstate natural gas pipeline construction or expansion project takes an average of about three years

  17. Oil shale combustion/retorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted a number of feasibility studies on the combustion and retorting of five oil shales: Celina (Tennessee), Colorado, Israeli, Moroccan, and Sunbury (Kentucky). These studies generated technical data primarily on (1) the effects of retorting conditions, (2) the combustion characteristics applicable to developing an optimum process design technology, and (3) establishing a data base applicable to oil shales worldwide. During the research program, METC applied the versatile fluidized-bed process to combustion and retorting of various low-grade oil shales. Based on METC's research findings and other published information, fluidized-bed processes were found to offer highly attractive methods to maximize the heat recovery and yield of quality oil from oil shale. The principal reasons are the fluidized-bed's capacity for (1) high in-bed heat transfer rates, (2) large solid throughput, and (3) selectivity in aromatic-hydrocarbon formation. The METC research program showed that shale-oil yields were affected by the process parameters of retorting temperature, residence time, shale particle size, fluidization gas velocity, and gas composition. (Preferred values of yields, of course, may differ among major oil shales.) 12 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  18. Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2014-01-21

    A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.

  19. Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2015-01-06

    A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.

  20. Ultrahigh-pressure polyamorphism in GeO 2 glass with coordination number &gt;6

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Ultrahigh-pressure polyamorphism in GeO 2 glass with coordination number &gt;6 Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on September 14, 2016 Title: Ultrahigh-pressure polyamorphism in GeO 2 glass with coordination number &gt;6 Authors: Kono, Yoshio ; Kenney-Benson, Curtis ; Ikuta, Daijo ; Shibazaki, Yuki ; Wang, Yanbin ; Shen, Guoyin Publication Date: 2016-03-14 OSTI

  1. Héctor D. Abruña &gt; Director, Energy Materials Center at Cornell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emile M. Chamot Professor Chemistry and Chemical Biology &gt; Faculty Directory &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Héctor D. Abruña Director, Energy Materials Center at Cornell Emile M. Chamot Professor Chemistry and Chemical Biology Research Group Webpage hda1@cornell.edu Professor Abruña, Emile M. Chamot Professor of Chemistry, completed his graduate studies with Royce W. Murray and Thomas J. Meyer at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1980 and was a

  2. Testing the dynamics of B -&gt;pi pi and constraints onalpha (Journal Article)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Testing the dynamics of B -&gt;pi pi and constraints onalpha Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Testing the dynamics of B -&gt;pi pi and constraints onalpha In charmless nonleptonic B decays to {pi}{pi} or {rho}{rho}, the ''color allowed'' and ''color suppressed'' tree amplitudes can be studied in a systematic expansion in {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub b}) and {Lambda}{sub QCD}/m{sub b}. At leading order in this expansion their relative strong phase vanishes. The

  3. The photon polarization in b -&gt; X gamma in the standard model (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect The photon polarization in b -&gt; X gamma in the standard model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The photon polarization in b -&gt; X gamma in the standard model The standard model prediction for the {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} X{sub s,d}{gamma} decay amplitude with a right-handed photon is believed to be tiny, suppressed by m{sub s,d}/m{sub b}, compared to the amplitude with a left-handed photon. We show that this suppression is fictitious: in inclusive

  4. To: Mansueti, Lawrence <Lawrence.Mansueti@hq.doe.gov&gt;

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    <ecchimento@comcast.net&gt; To: Mansueti, Lawrence <Lawrence.Mansueti@hq.doe.gov&gt; Sent: Fri Nov 18 10:58:43 2005 Subject: Letter (9/12/05) for filing in DOE DCPSC Docket #EO-05-01 Mr. Mansueti, Would you please file for consideration the attached letter, originally sent to FERC, in DOE's Docket No. EO-05-01 regarding the DCPSC complaint? Thank you. Elizabeth Chimento and Poul Hertel 1200 North Pitt Street 1217 Michigan Court Alexandria, VA 22314 Alexandria, VA 22314 September 12, 2005

  5. Natural Gas Productive Capacity for the Lower-48 States 1985 - 2003

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Productive Capacity for the Lower-48 States 1985 - 2003 EIA Home &gt; Natural Gas &gt; Natural Gas Analysis Publications Natural Gas Productive Capacity for the Lower-48 States 1985 - 2003 Printer-Friendly Version gascapdata.xls ratiodata.xls wellcountdata.xls Executive Summary This analysis examines the availability of effective productive capacity to meet the projected wellhead demand for natural gas through 2003. Effective productive capacity is defined as the maximum production available

  6. Effect of air distribution on solid fuel bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, J.T.; Hsu, W.S.; Yo, T.C.

    1996-09-01

    One important aspect of refuse mass-burn combination control is the manipulation of combustion air. Proper air manipulation is key to the achievement of good combustion efficiency and reduction of pollutant emissions. Experiments, using a small fix-grate laboratory furnace with cylindrical combustion chamber, were performed to investigate the influence of undergrate/sidewall air distribution on the combustion of beds of wood cubes. Wood cubes were used as a convenient laboratory surrogate of solid refuse. Specifically, for different bed configurations (e.g. bed height, bed voidage and bed fuel size, etc.), burning rates and combustion temperatures at different bed locations were measured under various air supply and distribution conditions. One of the significant results of the experimental investigation is that combustion, with air injected from side walls and no undergrate air, provide the most efficient combustion. On the other hand, combustion with undergrate air achieves higher combustion rates but with higher CO emissions. A simple one-dimensional model was constructed to derive correlations of combustion rate as functions of flue gas temperature and oxygen concentration. Despite the fact that the model is one dimensional and many detailed chemical and physical processes of combustion are not considered, comparisons of the model predictions and the experimental results indicate that the model is appropriate for quantitative evaluation of bed burning rates.

  7. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  8. Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    combustion system to operate on hydrogen-rich opportunity fuels. Increasing the usability of opportunity fuels will avoid greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of...

  9. Task 2 Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems (NETL-US)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph

    2013-08-28

    Exposures were completed to ~1400 hr. Analysis of kinetics are close to completion. No oxy-combustion gas phase effects were found at 700{degrees}C.

  10. Oxy-Combustion CO2 Control | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (N2) found in air from the combustion process, resulting in flue gas composed of CO2, water (H2O), contaminants from the fuel (including coal ash), and other gases that...

  11. Direct fired absorption machine flue gas recuperator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A recuperator which recovers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine. The recuperator includes a housing with liquid flowing therethrough, the liquid being in direct contact with the combustion gas for increasing the effectiveness of the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid.

  12. Method and system for the removal of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur from combustion processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, John V. (Glendora, CA)

    1987-12-15

    A process for removing oxide contaminants from combustion gas, and employing a solid electrolyte reactor, includes: (a) flowing the combustion gas into a zone containing a solid electrolyte and applying a voltage and at elevated temperature to thereby separate oxygen via the solid electrolyte, (b) removing oxygen from that zone in a first stream and removing hot effluent gas from that zone in a second stream, the effluent gas containing contaminant, (c) and pre-heating the combustion gas flowing to that zone by passing it in heat exchange relation with the hot effluent gas.

  13. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, III, Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2008-10-21

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  14. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2007-06-05

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  15. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  16. Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

    2007-01-02

    The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

  17. Post combustion trials at Dofasco`s KOBM furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

    1992-12-31

    Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco`s 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

  18. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  19. A Study of Advanced Materials for Gas Turbine Coatings at Elevated Temperatures Using Selected Microstructures and Characteristic Environments for Syngas Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravinder Diwan; Patrick Mensah; Guoqiang Li; Nalini Uppu; Strphen Akwaboa; Monica Silva; Ebubekir Beyazoglu; Ogad Agu; Naresh Polasa; Lawrence Bazille; Douglas Wolfe; Purush Sahoo

    2011-02-10

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that can be suitable for use in industrial gas turbine engines have been processed and compared with electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) microstructures for applications in advanced gas turbines that use coal-derived synthesis gas. Thermo-physical properties have been evaluated of the processed air plasma sprayed TBCs with standard APS-STD and vertically cracked APS-VC coatings samples up to 1300 C. Porosity of these selected coatings with related microstructural effects have been analyzed in this study. Wet and dry thermal cycling studies at 1125 C and spalling resistance thermal cycling studies to 1200 C have also been carried out. Type I and Type II hot corrosion tests were carried out to investigate the effects of microstructure variations and additions of alumina in YSZ top coats in multi-layered TBC structures. The thermal modeling of turbine blade has also been carried out that gives the capability to predict in-service performance temperature gradients. In addition to isothermal high temperature oxidation kinetics analysis in YSZ thermal barrier coatings of NiCoCrAlY bond coats with 0.25% Hf. This can affect the failure behavior depending on the control of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) growth at the interface. The TGO growth kinetics is seen to be parabolic and the activation energies correspond to interfacial growth kinetics that is controlled by the diffusion of O{sub 2} in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The difference between oxidation behavior of the VC and STD structures are attributed to the effects of microstructure morphology and porosity on oxygen ingression into the zirconia and TGO layers. The isothermal oxidation resistance of the STD and VC microstructures is similar at temperatures up to 1200 C. However, the generally thicker TGO layer thicknesses and the slightly faster oxidation rates in the VC microstructures are attributed to the increased ingression of oxygen through the grain boundaries of the vertically cracked microstructures. The plasma sprayed TBC microstructure (VC and STD) with NiCoCrAlY-Hf bond coat are stable up to 1100 C. However, as with other TBC structures, a considerable amount of interdiffusion was observed in the different layers, although the TBC growth was self-limiting and parabolic. The addition of Hf to the VC microstructure appears to have some potential for the future development of robust TBCs with improved isothermal and service temperatures in advanced gas turbines.

  20. "Non-spectroscopic Method of Determining Gas Constituents through...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Method of Determining Gas Constituents through Rotation; 13-2808-1, Optimization of Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines via Using Spinning Gas ..--.....

  1. Control system for supercharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamura, H.

    1988-05-24

    A control system for controlling an internal combustion engine is described having a supercharge including a rotatable shaft and an exhaust turbine driven by exhaust gas. The control system comprising: a rotary electric machine mounted on the rotatable shaft of the supercharger for imposing a load on the exhaust turbine of the supercharger; setting means for setting an engine brake mode of the internal combustion engine; and operating means for operating the rotary electric machine when the engine brake mode is set by the setting means.

  2. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  3. Plum Combustion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plum Combustion Place: Atlanta, Georgia Product: Combustion technology, which reduces NOx-emissions. Coordinates: 33.748315, -84.391109 Show Map Loading map......

  4. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, Kwan H. (Lisle, IL); Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1985-01-01

    A process and apparatus for removing sulfur oxide from combustion gas to form Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and for reducing the harmful effects of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 on auxiliary heat exchangers in which a sodium compound is injected into the hot combustion gas forming liquid Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 in a gas-gas reaction and the resultant gas containing Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is cooled to below about 1150.degree. K. to form particles of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 prior to contact with at least one heat exchanger with the cooling being provided by the recycling of combustion gas from a cooled zone downstream from the introduction of the cooling gas.

  5. Prof. Robinson named as an emerging top scientist in Materials Chemistry &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Archived News Stories &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Prof. Robinson named as an emerging top scientist in Materials Chemistry April 23rd, 2014 › MSE Professor and emc2 faculty member, Richard Robinson, has been selected by the Editorial and International Editorial Advisory Boards of the Journal of Materials Chemistry A as one of the emerging top scientists at the early stages of their careers in Materials Chemistry. His Highlight paper on Chemical Transformations of

  6. From Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Blue Alert- Excavation Permits and Surveys

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    101122 -0700 From Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Blue Alert- Excavation Permits and Surveys Title: Blue Alert-Underground Cables Damaged during Excavation Work Identifier 2000-LA-LANL-ESH7-0001 Date 01/07/00 LESSONS LEARNED- Utility survey maps should be included with excavation permit paperwork to ensure that heavy equipment operators are aware of the exact areas included in the survey. Duplicate or triplicate excavation permit forms that generate exact copies should also be

  7. From Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Blue Alert- Unregistered Rad Sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    05 Jan 2000 092137 -0700 From Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Blue Alert- Unregistered Rad Sources Title: Blue Alert- Unregistered Rad Sources Identifier 2000-KO-SNL-0001 Date January 5, 2000 Summary- 1. All rad sources, whether they are accountable or non-accountable, must be controlled as radioactive material in accordance with the requirements of SNL Radiation Protection Procedures Manual (MN471016), Chapter 9, "Radioactive Source Control." Failure to account for and

  8. From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Green Alert: Chemically Eliminate Asbestos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fri, 09 Jan 1998 16:52:55 -0800 From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Green Alert: Chemically Eliminate Asbestos This Project Hanford Lessons Learned Bulletin has potential for saving many thousands of dollars across the DOE complex. Few buildings at Hanford have the type of fireproofing discussed in this lessons learned so the actual cost saving potential at Hanford is minimal. It is forwarded to other DOE sites that may have buildings with sprayed on fireproofing. Please pass

  9. From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Green Alert: VPP Program Saves Lives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    24 Feb 1998 09:44:53 -0700 From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Green Alert: VPP Program Saves Lives Title: GREEN - VPP Program Saves Lives Identifier: INEEL Lessons Learned #98002 Date: January 8, 1998 Lessons Learned: The proactive safety practices and actively caring attitudes that are a part of DOE's VPP Program are designed to extend beyond the workplace into employees' personal lives. The positive behavioral changes can save lives. Summary of Success Story: An employee

  10. Turbocharged two-stroke internal combustion engine with four-stroke capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrahm, R.W.

    1990-03-13

    This patent describes, in a turbocharged two-stroke internal combustion engine without crankcase scavenging and having means for operating the exhaust valves in accordance with either two-stroke or four-stroke operation, a means for enabling the intake of combustible gas into cylinders of the engine during four-stroke operation through a port in each cylinder from a combustible gas source. It comprises: a valve mounted on each port responsive to pressure within the cylinder.

  11. Stratified cross combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoads, J.L.

    1981-06-23

    A piston engine is provided in which adjacent cylinder pairs share a common combustion chamber and the pistons are mounted to reciprocate substantially in phase, one of the pistons in each piston pair receiving a rich mixture which is ignited by a sparkplug in that cylinder, with the other cylinder in the cylinder pair being passive in its preferred form, and receiving through a separate intake valve either pure air or a leaner mixture into which the combusted richer mixture pours, insuring that the greatest combustion possible resulting in the greatest percentage of carbon dioxide formation as opposed to carbon monoxide is created.

  12. Pulsating catalytic combustion of gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gal-Ed, R.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of operating catalytic combustors under pulsating conditions and the circumstances under which acoustic pulsations increase the combustion efficiencies and output of catalytic combustors. An experimental catalytic combustor was developed, and a theoretical model of acoustic motions in non-isothermal, low match number, duct flow was used to predict the acoustic behavior of the combustor. The effects of pulsations were determined by comparing temperature and species concentration data measured during operation with pulsations at different frequencies and pressure amplitudes to similar data measured during non-pulsating combustion. Experiments conducted with lean mixtures of methane or propane with air revealed that acoustic pulsations affected the temperature distribution along the combustor at flow Reynolds numbers less than 17,500. Excitation of pulsations during methane combustion caused shifts in the location of the combustion, and sometimes the onset of extinction of gas phase reactions. This occurred when several catalyst segments were located in the combustion section between an upstream pressure node and a downstream velocity node, defined here as an in phase location. Propane mixtures were used to investigate possible improvements in combustor's performance. Burning propane mixtures on a single catalyst segment at an in phase location showed that the excitation of acoustic pulsations increased the combustion efficiency by 10 to 50%. The changes in the operation of catalytic combustors caused by acoustic waves are explained by acoustic streaming. When the catalyst surfaces are at an in phase location, rotational flows caused by acoustic streaming enhance the reactants and products diffusion rate to and from the catalyst surfaces, respectively, improving combustion efficiency.

  13. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Expansion Process Flow Diagram

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Development & Expansion &gt; Development and Expansion Process Figure About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Development and Expansion Process For Natural Gas Pipeline Projects Figure showing the expansion process

  14. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  15. Serial cooling of a combustor for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abreu, Mario E. (Poway, CA); Kielczyk, Janusz J. (Escondido, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine uses compressed air to cool a combustor liner and uses at least a portion of the same compressed air for combustion air. A flow diverting mechanism regulates compressed air flow entering a combustion air plenum feeding combustion air to a plurality of fuel nozzles. The flow diverting mechanism adjusts combustion air according to engine loading.

  16. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  17. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  18. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  19. Experience in preparing fuel for combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rude, J.

    1995-09-01

    The key phase seems to be that wood is the ORIGINAL FUEL. Certainly as man discovered fire, it was the most obvious as well as abundantly available fuel and it burned very well because man was smart enough to select the dry wood once he understood the basics of combustion. As the needs started to go beyond the most elementary, designs for burning ideal fuels were pretty well perfected, however, the burning of less ideal fuels still remain a challenge. To provide plant steam requirements by burning waste that must be disposed of anyway can reduce operating cost considerably. For most of us involved in producing steam, the experience we have with fuels such as bark, wood waste, sludge, and miscellaneous forms of solid combustible waste material, are a result of burning these fuels in an existing boiler supposedly designed for wood waste or possibly a combination of wood and other fuels such as coal, oil, or gas. For a supplier of fuel preparation systems, the typical application involves the sizing, cleaning, and drying of wood waste, and sludge from a pulp and/or paper mill. Other forms of combustible waste are dealt with occasionally and after proper preparation fired in the combustion system for the purpose of generating hot gas and/or steam for the plant process.

  20. Sandia Energy - Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and modeling of turbulent combustion. Diagram of the new RamanRayleighCO-LIF detection system and table of representative signal-to-noise ratios, comparing the point measurement...

  1. Sandia Energy - Combustion Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    knowledge that combustion is governed by chain reactions of radicals. Diesel and Otto didn't need to know any chemistry beyond fuel + air heat However, in the intervening...

  2. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Janos (Winchester, MA); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL); Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Delmont, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A combustor for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone.

  3. Mathematical modelling of post combustion in Dofasco's KOBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gou, H.; Irons, G.A.; Lu, W.K.

    1992-01-01

    In the AISI Direct Steelmaking program, trials were undertaken in Dofasco's 300 Tonne KOBM to examine post combustion. To support this work, a two-dimensional turbulent mathematical model has been developed to describe gas flow, combustion reactions and heat transfer (radiation and convection) in converter-type steelmaking processes. Gaseous flow patterns, temperature and heat flux distributions in the furnace were calculated with this model. Key findings are: The post combustion ratio is determined from the rates of oxygen supply, oxygen used for decarburization and the remainder available for post combustion, i.e. deducible from a mass balance calculation, comparison between the heat transfer fluxes calculated based on the model and those measured industrially indicates that the conventionally defined heat transfer efficiency over-estimates the heat recovered by the bath by about 20%, and the location of the combustion zone can be controlled, to a certain extent, by adjusting the lance practice.

  4. Mathematical modelling of post combustion in Dofasco`s KOBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gou, H.; Irons, G.A.; Lu, W.K.

    1992-12-31

    In the AISI Direct Steelmaking program, trials were undertaken in Dofasco`s 300 Tonne KOBM to examine post combustion. To support this work, a two-dimensional turbulent mathematical model has been developed to describe gas flow, combustion reactions and heat transfer (radiation and convection) in converter-type steelmaking processes. Gaseous flow patterns, temperature and heat flux distributions in the furnace were calculated with this model. Key findings are: The post combustion ratio is determined from the rates of oxygen supply, oxygen used for decarburization and the remainder available for post combustion, i.e. deducible from a mass balance calculation, comparison between the heat transfer fluxes calculated based on the model and those measured industrially indicates that the conventionally defined heat transfer efficiency over-estimates the heat recovered by the bath by about 20%, and the location of the combustion zone can be controlled, to a certain extent, by adjusting the lance practice.

  5. Combustion mode switching with a turbocharged/supercharged engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mond, Alan; Jiang, Li

    2015-09-22

    A method for switching between low- and high-dilution combustion modes in an internal combustion engine having an intake passage with an exhaust-driven turbocharger, a crankshaft-driven positive displacement supercharger downstream of the turbocharger and having variable boost controllable with a supercharger bypass valve, and a throttle valve downstream of the supercharger. The current combustion mode and mass air flow are determined. A switch to the target combustion mode is commanded when an operating condition falls within a range of predetermined operating conditions. A target mass air flow to achieve a target air-fuel ratio corresponding to the current operating condition and the target combustion mode is determined. The degree of opening of the supercharger bypass valve and the throttle valve are controlled to achieve the target mass air flow. The amount of residual exhaust gas is manipulated.

  6. Environmental impact of fossil fuel combustion in power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    All the recent developments in the combustion systems employed for power generation have been based on environmental considerations. Combustion modifications have been developed and utilised in order to control NO{sub x} emissions and improvements continue to be made as the legislative requirements tighten. Chemical processes and fuel switching are used to control SO{sub x} emissions. After nitrogen, carbon dioxide is the major gas emitted from the combustion process and its potential potency as a greenhouse gas is well documented. Increased efficiency cycles, mainly based on natural gas as the prime fuel, can minimise the amount of CO{sub x} produced per unit of power generated. As the economics of natural gas utilisation become less favourable a return to clean coal technology based power generation processes may be required.

  7. Combustion and Emissions Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion and Emissions Modeling This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - Computational Fluid Dynamics Project Leader Background Modern transportation engines are designed to use the available fuel resources efficiently and minimize harmful emissions. Optimization of these designs is based on a wealth of practical design, construction and operating experiences, and use of modern testing facilities and sophisticated analyses of the combustion

  8. Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, R.T.

    1980-10-09

    A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

  9. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

  10. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

  11. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

  12. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL); Ochs, Thomas Lilburn (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy Ann (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul Chandler (Independence, OR)

    2012-01-03

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  13. partially oxidized combustion interme-diates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    partially oxidized combustion interme-diates - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  14. understanding the low-temperature combustion chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low-temperature combustion chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  15. Cummins Executives Visit Combustion Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cummins Executives Visit Combustion Research Facility - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  16. B.U. Students Talk Energy Research at Lost Dog Cafe &gt; Archived News Stories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Archived News Stories Latest News The perfect atom sandwich requires an extra layer › Cornell boasts 22 'highly cited' researchers › Postdoc brings open access issue to the table › In This Section EMC2 News Archived News Stories B.U. Students Talk Energy Research at Lost Dog Cafe April 10th, 2014 › There was a science café at the Lost Dog Cafe in Binghamton last night. A group of Binghamton University students and professors talked about

  17. 'Exotic' material is like a switch when super thin &gt; Archived News Stories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell 'Exotic' material is like a switch when super thin April 17th, 2014 › By Anne Ju Hanfei Wei An artist's rendering of the thickness-driven, metal-insulator transition in sub-nanometer films of a lanthanum nickelate. Nickel atoms are shown in gold, oxygen atoms in white, and lanthanum atoms in red, and metallicity is achieved in going from two to three atomic layers. Ever-shrinking electronic devices could get down to atomic dimensions with the

  18. ERDA Critical Review Series ERD&gt; S'of HtSTER

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ERDA Critical Review Series ERD&gt; S'of HtSTER The Chemistry of A M E R I C I U M Wallace W. Schulz Technical Information Center, Energy Research and Deyelqpment Adminis^atioJl. , OTSTR1BUT1QN QF THIS D O C U M t N l U a l i N L i l v i r i L ^ DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes

  19. From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Yellow Alert: Fall Results in Injury

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tue, 16 Jun 1998 13:57:16 -0500 From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Yellow Alert: Fall Results in Injury Title: Fall From Ladder Results in Fractured Vertebra Identifier: LLNL-1998-002 Date: January 5, 1998 Lesson Learned Statement: Work at elevated levels needs to be thoroughly evaluated. Discussion of Activities: A subcontractor employee was soldering a pipe while standing 2/3 of the way up a portable ten foot ladder when he lost his balance and fell six feet to the floor

  20. From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Yellow Alert: Small Bench Top Fire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fri, 12 Jun 1998 17:03:23 -0500 From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Yellow Alert: Small Bench Top Fire Title: Bench Top Fire Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner Identifier: LLNL-1998-009 Date: 1/12/98 Lesson Learned Statement: Work requiring the use of alcohol, or other flammable liquids, and open flames should be performed only when the appropriate safeguards and constraints are in place. Discussion of Activities: A fire occurred in a laboratory facility that resulted from

  1. Cornell synchrotron receives up to $100M in NSF support &gt; Archived News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stories &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Cornell synchrotron receives up to $100M in NSF support April 21st, 2014 › By Anne Ju Arduous, year-plus-long scrutiny by the National Science Foundation (NSF) has found the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) rich in scientific discovery and exemplary in its use of government funds. CHESS has received its requested grant renewal of up to $100 million over five years, securing the national X-ray facility's near-term future.

  2. Cornell dots research collaboration leads to $10M cancer center &gt; EMC2 News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell dots research collaboration leads to $10M cancer center September 24th, 2015 › Provided/Wiesner Lab A rendering of the molecular structure of a Cornell dot, which is smaller than 10 nanometers. Provided/Wiesner Lab A transmission electron microscope image of Cornell dots. C dots, which are injected into patients, are designed to either adhere to and light up cancer cells or quickly leave the body. Cornell University, in partnership with Memorial

  3. Letchworth-Weaver awarded 2015 Argonne National Lab Fellowship &gt; EMC2 News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell EMC2 News Latest News Room-temperature lithium metal battery closer to reality › First self-assembled superconductor structure created › McGovern incubator embraces Embark and Ecolectro › In This Section EMC2 News Archived News Stories Letchworth-Weaver awarded 2015 Argonne National Lab Fellowship December 28th, 2014 › Kendra Letchworth-Weaver, currently a graduate student with the Arias Group, was recently awarded the Aneesur Rahman

  4. In the wake of high-profile battery fires, a safer approach emerges &gt;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Archived News Stories &gt; The Energy Materials Center at Cornell In the wake of high-profile battery fires, a safer approach emerges May 14th, 2014 › ACS News Service Weekly PressPac "Suppression of Lithium Dendrite Growth Using Cross-Linked Polyethylene/Polyethylene Oxide Electrolytes: A New Approach for Practical Lithium-Metal Polymer Batteries" Journal of the American Chemical Society The Boeing Dreamliner's battery troubles last year highlighted the potential dangers of

  5. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.L.

    1993-07-20

    A multi bank power plant is described comprising at least a first and a second rotary internal combustion engine connectable together in series, each of the engines comprising: a housing; a cam track internally disposed within the housing and adapted to receive a cam follower; an engine block disposed within the housing and rotatable about a central axis; an output shaft extending axially from each the engine block, each output shaft being coaxial with the other; means for coupling the output shafts together so that the output shafts rotate together in the same direction at the same speed; at least one radially arranged cylinder assembly on each block, each cylinder assembly including a cylinder having a longitudinal axis extending generally radially outwardly from the rotational axis of the block, the cylinder including means defining an end wall, a piston member disposed within the cylinder and adapted to reciprocate within the cylinder; a combustion chamber, means permitting periodic introduction of air and fuel into the combustion chamber, means for causing combustion of a compressed mixture of air and fuel within the combustion chamber, means permitting periodic exhaust of products of combustion of air and fuel from the combustion chamber, and means for imparting forces and motions of the piston within the cylinder to and from the cam track, the means comprising a cam follower operatively connected to the piston; wherein the cam track includes at least a first segment and at least a second segment thereof, the first segment having a generally positive slope wherein the segment has a generally increasing radial distance from the rotational axis of the engine block whereby as a piston moves outwardly in a cylinder on a power stroke while the cam follower is in radial register with the cam track segment, the reactive force of the respective cam follower against the cam track segment acts in a direction tending to impart rotation to the engine block.

  6. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #4 (Fact Sheet), Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency Combustion Efficiency Operating your boiler with an optimum amount of excess air will minimize heat loss up the stack and improve combustion effciency. Combustion effciency is a measure of how effectively the heat content of a fuel is transferred into usable heat. The stack temperature and fue gas oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentrations are primary indicators of combustion effciency. Given complete mixing, a precise or stoichiometric amount of air

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report The Advanced Combustion Engine research and...

  8. Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis of Spray A for different combustion vessels Title Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis of Spray...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report The Advanced Combustion Engine research...

  10. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  11. Advanced clean combustion technology in Shanxi province

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, K.-C.

    2004-07-01

    Biomass energy resources in China are first described, along with biomass gasification R & D now underway. In Shanxi province biomass and other regenerative energy is relatively little used but coal resources are large. Hence Shanxi is mainly developing clean coal technology to meet its economic and environmental protection requirements. Clean combustion research at Taiyuan University of Technology includes cofiring of coal and RDF in FBC, gas purification and adsorption, fundamentals of plasma-aided coal pyrolysis and gasification and coal derived liquid fuels from synthesis gas. 5 refs.

  12. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  13. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  14. Ventura_E_gas.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas Reserve Class No 2004 Gas Reserves 0.1 - 10 MMCF 10.1 - 100 MMCF 100.1 - 1,000 MMCF 1,000 - 10,000 MMCF 10,000 - 100,000 MMCF &gt; 100,000 MMCF Study Area Outline 0 4 8 2 6 Miles ± The mapped oil and gas field boundary outlines were created by the Reserves and Production Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration pursuant to studies required by Section 604 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act Amendments of 2000 (P.L. 106-469). The boundaries are not informed by

  15. Internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  16. 2016 Combustion Summer School - Combustion Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Course Descriptions Lecturers Lecture Notes Logistics & Fees Application Schedule of Events Past Sessions 2016 FAQ Lecture Videos News, Events & Publications Contact CEFRC CEFRC In Pictures CEFRC Intranet (Members Only) Home » 2016 Combustion Summer School 2016 Combustion Summer School Our Mission To provide the next generation of combustion researchers with a comprehensive knowledge in the technical areas of combustion theory, experiment, computation, fundamentals, and

  17. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koszykowski, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  18. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  19. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  20. Fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePori, W.A.; Anthony, R.G.; Lalk, T.R.; Craig, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A 0.61 meter (2 ft) diameter fluidized-bed combustion reactor was used for tests on direct combustion of cotton gin trash. Raw gin trash was continuously augered into the unit with fuel and air rates set to maintain bed temperatures of 760/sup 0/ to 816/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/ to 1500/sup 0/F). Particulate emissions in the hot stack gases were measured and found to be lower than federal standards for incinerators. Mild steel and stainless alloy samples were placed in the hot stack gas stream to study corrosion and erosion of materials. High rates of potassium, calcium, and sodium deposits accumulated on the samples, and high erosion rates were found. A 0.3 meter (13 in) diameter fluidized-bed gasifier was used to convert raw gin trash into a combustible gas with bed temperatures between 683/sup 0/C and 881/sup 0/C (1261/sup 0/F and 1618/sup 0/F). By limiting the amount of oxygen compared to the fuel feed, only partial combustion occurs, producing heat and endothermic gasification chemical reactions. The combustible gas was composed primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. It had a heating value ranging from 3.40 to 4.82 M Joules per standard cubic meter (98 to 142 Btu/scf), and about 50 percent of the heat value of the gin trash was converted into this low energy gas.

  1. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance bimodal agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. A particulate having a size different from the size of the particulate in the gas stream to be cleaned is introduced into the system to effectuate the bimodal process. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, the added particulate may be a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  2. Advanced Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Advanced Combustion Combustion engines drive a large percentage of our nation's transportation vehicles and power generation and manufacturing facilities. Today's combustion engines rely heavily on non-renewable petroleum-based fuels that produce harmful emissions and carbon dioxide. Understanding how those engines work and developing approaches to improving them requires unique multidisciplinary expertise and sophisticated facilities that are available together only at Argonne

  3. Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research Methane Flame Simulations Run 6x Faster on NERSC's Hopper Supercomputer November 25, 2014 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Turbulent combustion simulations, which provide input to the design of more fuel-efficient combustion systems, have gotten their own efficiency boost, thanks to researchers from the Computational Research Division (CRD) at Lawrence Berkeley National

  4. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet outlines how to improve boiler combustion efficiency as part of an optimized steam system.

  5. Transonic Combustion ’ - Injection Strategy Development for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy Development for Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy ...

  6. Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies 2005 ...

  7. Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Computational Fluid Dynamics ...

  8. Oil and Gas Lease Equipment and Operating Costs 1994 Through 2009

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Natural Gas &gt; Publications &gt; Oil and Gas Lease Equipment and Operating Costs 1994 Through 2009 Oil and Gas Lease Equipment and Operating Costs 1994 Through 2009 Released: September 28, 2010 Next Release: Discontinued Excel Spreadsheet Model - 1994-2009 XLS (1,178 KB) Overview Oil and gas well equipment and operating costs, including coal bed methane costs, stopped their upward trend from the 1990s and fell sharply in 2009. The extremely high oil and gas prices during the first half of 2008

  9. Combustion of volatile matter during the initial stages of coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlow, D.; Niksa, S.; Kruger, C.H.

    1990-08-01

    Both the secondary pyrolysis and combustion of the volatiles from a bituminous coal will be studied. Devolatilization and secondary pyrolysis experiments will be conducted in a novel flow reactor in which secondary pyrolysis of the volatiles occurs after devolatilization is complete. This allows unambiguous measurements of the yields from both processes. Measurements will be made for reactor temperatures from 1500 to 1700 K, and a nominal residence time of 200 msec. These conditions are typical of coal combustion. Yields of tar, soot, H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbons will be determined as a function of reactor temperature. The yields will be reported as a function of the temperature of the reactor. The instrumentation for temperature measurements will be developed during future studies. Combustion studies will be conducted in a constant volume bomb, which will be designed and constructed for this study. Tar and soot will be removed before introducing the volatiles to the bomb, so that only the combustion of the light gas volatiles will be considered. The burning velocities of light gas volatiles will be determined both as functions of mixture stoichiometry and the temperature at which the volatiles are pyrolysed. 90 refs., 70 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Coal Combustion Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge.

  11. An Enabling Study of Diesel Low-Temperautre Combustion via Adaptive Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy An Enabling Study of Diesel Low-Temperautre Combustion via Adaptive Control An Enabling Study of Diesel Low-Temperautre Combustion via Adaptive Control Adaptive control strategies based on cylinder pressure and heat release characteristics are implemented to stablilize and enable lw temperature combustion from mid to high loads, at high boost and exhaust gas recirculation. PDF icon deer08_zheng.pdf More Documents & Publications Boosted HCCI for High Power without

  12. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heaters - Fact Sheet 2014 | Department of Energy Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters - Fact Sheet 2014 Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters - Fact Sheet 2014 The goal of this research effort was to develop and demonstrate a combustion system capable of automatic, safe, reliable, efficient, and low-emission operation across a broad range of fuel compositions, including syngas, biogas, natural gas, and refinery

  13. November 30, 2011 | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rating of Post-combustion Gas Permeation Carbon Capture Systems Eric Bloch (Dept. of Chemistry, UC Berkeley) Gas Separations with Redox-Active Metal-Organic Frameworks...

  14. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  15. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  17. Method for detecting gas turbine engine flashback

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Kapil Kumar; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2012-09-04

    A method for monitoring and controlling a gas turbine, comprises predicting frequencies of combustion dynamics in a combustor using operating conditions of a gas turbine, receiving a signal from a sensor that is indicative of combustion dynamics in the combustor, and detecting a flashback if a frequency of the received signal does not correspond to the predicted frequencies.

  18. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  19. Lean Premixed Combustion/Active Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. J. Seery

    2000-02-01

    An experimental comparison between two contrasting fuel-air swirlers for industrial gas turbine applications was undertaken at the United Technologies Research Center. The first, termed an Aerodynamic nozzle, relied on the prevailing aerodynamic forces to stabilize the downstream combustion zone. The second configuration relied on a conventional bluff plate for combustion stability and was hence named a Bluff-Body nozzle. Performance mapping over the power curve revealed the acoustic superiority of the Bluff-Body nozzle. Two dimensional Rayleigh indices calculated from CCD images identified larger acoustic driving zones associated with the Aerodynamic nozzle relative to its bluff counterpart. The Bluff-Body's success is due to increased flame stabilization (superior anchoring ability) which reduced flame motion and thermal/acoustic coupling.

  20. EPRI's coal combustion product use research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladwig, K.

    2008-07-01

    For more than 20 years, EPRI's Coal Combustion Product Use Program has been a leader in providing research to demonstrate the value of using coal combustion products (CCPs) in construction and manufacturing. Work is concentrated on large-volume uses, increasing use in traditional applications, uses in light of changes in CCP quality resulting form increased and new air emissions controls for nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and mercury. Currently, EPRI is investigating opportunities for using higher volumes of Class C ash in concrete; approaches for ensuring that mercury controls do not adversely affect the use of CCPs; agricultural uses for products from flue gas desulfurization; possible markets for spray dryer absorber byproducts; and issues involved with the presence of ammonia in ash. Some recent results and future work is described in this article. 4 photos.

  1. External combustor for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santanam, Chandran B. (Indianapolis, IN); Thomas, William H. (Indianapolis, IN); DeJulio, Emil R. (Columbus, IN)

    1991-01-01

    An external combustor for a gas turbine engine has a cyclonic combustion chamber into which combustible gas with entrained solids is introduced through an inlet port in a primary spiral swirl. A metal draft sleeve for conducting a hot gas discharge stream from the cyclonic combustion chamber is mounted on a circular end wall of the latter adjacent the combustible gas inlet. The draft sleeve is mounted concentrically in a cylindrical passage and cooperates with the passage in defining an annulus around the draft sleeve which is open to the cyclonic combustion chamber and which is connected to a source of secondary air. Secondary air issues from the annulus into the cyclonic combustion chamber at a velocity of three to five times the velocity of the combustible gas at the inlet port. The secondary air defines a hollow cylindrical extension of the draft sleeve and persists in the cyclonic combustion chamber a distance of about three to five times the diameter of the draft sleeve. The hollow cylindrical extension shields the drive sleeve from the inlet port to prevent discharge of combustible gas through the draft sleeve.

  2. Improving the Efficiency of Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines | Department of Energy Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines Improving the Efficiency of Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines This work focused on using camless engine technology to improve the efficiency of a natural gas engine. Late intake close timing and cylinder deactivation were utilized to meet a peak BTE &gt; 40%. PDF icon p-09_giordano.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Cummins,

  3. Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

  4. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD); Chandran, Ravi (Ellicott City, MD)

    1994-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, added particulates may include a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  5. APBF Effects on Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FT001 - APBF Effects on Combustion (advanced petroleum based fuels, DOE project # 18546) Bruce G. Bunting, Jim Szybist, Scott Sluder, John Storey, Sam Lewis, Robert Wagner, Jun Qu, Robert Crawford 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-10, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information DOE management team: Kevin Stork, Drew Ronneberg, Dennis Smith, Steve Przesmitzki 2

  6. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  7. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an

  8. Combustion air preheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, T.A.; Petterson, W.C.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a process for steam cracking hydrocarbons to cracked gases in a tubular furnace heated by burning a mixture of fuel and combustion air and subsequently quenching the cracked gases. Waste heat is recovered in the form of high pressure steam and the combustion air is preheated prior to introduction into the furnace. The improvement described here comprises: (a) superheating the high pressure steam and expanding at least a portion of the superheated high pressure steam through a first turbine to produce shaft work and superheated medium pressure steam at a temperature between 260/sup 0/ and 465/sup 0/ C.; (b) expanding at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure steam through a second turbine to produce shaft work and low pressure steam at a temperature between 120/sup 0/ and 325/sup 0/ C.; and (c) preheating the combustion air by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure stream and at least a portion of the low pressure steam.

  9. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  10. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D.; Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  11. OXIDATION OF FUELS IN THE COOL FLAME REGIME FOR COMBUSTION AND REFORMING FOR FUEL CELLS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NAIDJA,A.; KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.; MAHAJAN,D.

    2002-08-01

    THE REVIEW INTEGRATES RECENT INVESTIGATIONS ON AUTO OXIDATION OF FUEL OILS AND THEIR REFORMING INTO HYDROGEN RICH GAS THAT COULD SERVE AS A FEED FOR FUEL CELLS AND COMBUSTION SYSTEMS.

  12. Energy density dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency in atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, T.; Ezumi, N.; Sawada, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K.

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium in nuclear fusion plants is a key issue for safety. So far, the oxidation procedure using an atmospheric pressure plasma is expected to be part of the recovery method. In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of hydrogen oxidation by plasma chemistry, we have investigated the dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency on gas flow rate and input power in the atmospheric pressure microwave plasma. It has been found that the combustion efficiency depends on energy density of absorbed microwave power. Hence, the energy density is considered as a key parameter for combustion processes. Also neutral gas temperatures inside and outside the plasma were measured by an optical emission spectroscopy method and thermocouple. The result shows that the neutral gas temperature in the plasma is much higher than the outside temperature of plasma. The high neutral gas temperature may affect the combustion reaction. (authors)

  13. Combustion Energy Research Fellows - Combustion Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Combustion Energy Research Fellows Combustion Energy Research Fellows Enoch Dames Co-sponsored by Professor William H. Green, MIT, Professor Ronald K. Hanson, Stanford University, and Professor Hai Wang, University of Southern California. Dr. Dames will apply recently advanced uncertainty quantification/minimization tools and determination of multi-species time histories behind reflected shock waves towards the development of high-fidelity kinetic models for combustion applications.

  14. Vehiculos de combustible flexible: brindando opciones en combustible...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    actualizada para convertidores de combustible alternativo de la EPA en su sitio web, www.epa.govotaq certdearmfrcisd0602.pdf. El E85 afecta el desempeo del...

  15. Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Summary of advanced combustion research at Cummins to explore strategies for fuel economy improvements (PCCI and HECC) and redced engine-out NOx emissions.

  16. Evaluation of industrial combustion control systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presser, C.; Semerjian, H.G.

    1984-10-01

    This study evaluated O/sub 2/ and CO monitoring systems used for combustion controls to provide reliable data on their performance, operating range and accuracy. The study concentrated on three in-situ O/sub 2/ and two in-situ CO monitoring systems which are applicable to furnace and boiler controls. The project provides technical information for cost/benefit analysis of combustion control systems and to help expedite implementation of combustion control technology by industry. The evaluation of the stack gas monitoring systems was carried out for ranges of furnace operating parameters such as fuel to air mixture ratio, burner firing rate, heat extraction rate, fuel type, combustion air preheat temperature, and cyclic operating conditions, which are based on information gathered from typical operational practices of representative industrial furnaces and boilers. The experiments were performed in the NBS experimental furnace under both natural gas and No. 2 fuel oil fired conditions. An on-line gas sampling/analysis system was used as a reference system for comparative evaluation of the stack gas monitors. The system is set up to determine the level of CO, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, NO/NO/sub x/ and total hydrocarbons in the stack gases.

  17. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion ...

  18. Experimental and theoretical evaluation of a toroidal combustion chamber for stratified-charge engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quiros, E.N.; Adams, J.W.; Otis, D.R.; Myers, P.S.

    1990-03-02

    Maximum efficiency of cyclic combustion engines (CCE) is achieved when using stratified charge and high compression ratio with controlled air circulation and combustion. A description is given of a varying-area, toroidal-shaped combustion chamber designed to achieve the above objectives by: obtaining initial circulatory air motion induced by the piston late in the compression stroke; increasing this piston-induced velocity using the momentum of fuel injected tangentially to the center line of the toroid; and by using combustion to further increase the circulation rate. Four combustion chamber configurations were studied in a bomb with zero initial air velocity to ascertain whether significant rotation could be achieved by injection and combustion. Gas pressure was measured and high speed photographs were taken of the injection and combustion process. The ideal situation, at full load, is to have one rotation of the gas during the time allocated to combustion. The experimental results, with zero initial velocity, show that fuel momentum plus combustion produces from one-half to three-quarters of a rotation in the available time. Modeling suggests that the use of initial, piston-induced velocities would result in the desired one rotation in the available time.

  19. How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work The combustion (gas) turbines being installed in many of today's natural-gas-fueled power plants are complex machines, but they basically involve three main sections: The compressor, which draws air into the engine, pressurizes it, and feeds it to the combustion chamber at speeds of hundreds of miles per hour. The combustion system, typically made up of a ring of fuel injectors that inject a steady stream of fuel into combustion

  20. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.orgcalculation-toolsall-tools Cost: Free References: Stationary Combustion Guidance1 The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for...

  1. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Eric

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental understanding of flame lift-off, generate model validation data, and demonstrate LLFC concurrent with FMC efforts. Additionally, LLNL was added to the project during the second year to develop a detailed kinetic mechanism for a key oxygenate to support CFD modeling. Successful completion of this project allowed the team to enhance fundamental understanding of LLFC, improve the state of current combustion models and increase understanding of desired fuel properties. This knowledge also improves our knowledge of how cost effective and environmentally friendly renewable fuels can assist in helping meet future emission and greenhouse gas regulations.

  2. Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    used in DNS studies of combustion is the numerical integration of the reacting, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Although these types of DNS codes have been successful,...

  3. Sandia Energy - Applied Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    submodels that bridge fundamental energy sciences with applied device engineering and optimization. Turbulent-combustion-lab1-300x218 Complementary burner facilities with...

  4. Ultra-lean combustion at high inlet temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Combustion at inlet-air temperatures of 1100 to 1250/sup 0/K was studied for application to advanced automotive gas turbine engines. Combustion was initiated by the hot environment, and therefore no external ignition source was used. Combustion was stabilized without a flameholder. The tests were performed in a 12-cm-diameter test section at a pressure of 2.5 x 10/sup 5/ Pa, with reference velocities of 32 to 60 m/s and at maximum combustion temperatures of 1350 to 1850/sup 0/K. Number 2 diesel fuel was injected by means of a multiple-source fuel injector. Unburned hydrocarbons emissions were negligible for all test conditions. Nitrogen oxides emissions were less than 1.9 g NO/sub 2//kg fuel for combustion temperatures below 1680/sup 0/K. Carbon monoxide emissions were less than 16 g CO/kg fuel for combustion temperatures greater than 1600/sup 0/K, inlet-air temperatures higher than 1150/sup 0/K, and residence times greater than 4.3 ms.

  5. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P. (Windsor, CT); Matthews, Francis T. (Poquonock, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  6. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  7. Rotary reciprical combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, D.H.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a rotary-reciprocal combustion engine having a cycle which includes the four strokes of intake, compression, expansion and exhaustion, the engine. It comprises: a housing formed with a peripheral wall with side walls, a rotor in the housing, the inner surface of the peripheral inner wall being cylindrical; a shaft; mounted in the center of the housing, passing through the rotor's hub and extending through the side walls of the housing, the hub having means to allow the rotor to reciprocate on the shaft while the shaft is rotating with the rotor; a reciprocal and rotary guide having means to guide the rotary and reciprocal motions of the rotor while keeping the rotor's piston in continuous sealing contact with the cylinder chamber walls and varying the volume of the cylinder chambers enabling a compression of a gaseous mixture to take place after aspirating a gaseous mixture; an ignition system having means for igniting compressed gaseous mixture and expansion of the cylinder chambers due to pressure of the combustion products.

  8. Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ]&gt;

  9. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Import/Export Locations

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    List Pipelines &gt; Import/Export Location List About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Currently, there are 58 locations at which natural gas can be exported or imported into the United States, including 9 LNG (liquefied natural gas) facilities in the continental United States and Alaska (There is a tenth U.S. LNG import facility located in Puerto Rico). At 28 of these locations natural gas or LNG currently can only

  10. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Meier, G.H.; Jung. K.; Mu, N.; Yanar, N.M.; Pettit, F.S.

    2012-08-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is based on burning fossil fuels in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air. An optimized oxy-combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion consists almost entirely of CO2 and water vapor. Once the water vapor is condensed, it is relatively easy to sequester the CO2 so that it does not escape into the atmosphere. A variety of laboratory tests comparing air-firing to oxy-firing conditions, and tests examining specific simpler combinations of oxidants, were conducted at 650-700 C. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys, commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The observed corrosion behavior shows accelerated corrosion even with sulfate additions that remain solid at the tested temperatures, encapsulation of ash components in outer iron oxide scales, and a differentiation between oxy-fuel combustion flue gas recirculation choices.

  11. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables such as internal dilution level and charge temperature. As a result, HCCI combustion has limited robustness when variables exceed the required narrow ranges determined in this program. HCCI combustion is also not available for the entire range of production engine speeds and loads, (i.e., the dynamic range is limited). Thus, regular SI combustion must be employed for a majority of the full dynamic range of the engine. This degrades the potential fuel economy impact of HCCI combustion. Currently-available combustion control actuators for the simple valve train system engine do not have the authority for continuous air - fuel or torque control for managing the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI and thus, require further refinement to meet customer refinement expectations. HCCI combustion control sensors require further development to enable robust long-term HCCI combustion control. Finally, the added technologies required to effectively manage HCCI combustion such as electric cam phasers, central direct fuel injection, cylinder pressure sensing, high-flow exhaust gas recirculation system, etc. add excessive on-engine cost and complexity that erodes the production-viability business

  12. advanced combustion engines | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Combustion Engines Improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines is one of the most promising and cost-effective near- to mid-term approaches to increasing...

  13. Biomass Combustion Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Combustion Systems Inc Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBiomassCombustionSystemsInc&oldid768602" Feedback Contact needs updating Image...

  14. Development of Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in Improving Thermal Efficiency Heavy-Duty Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities at Caterpillar Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine...

  15. Advanced Combustion Technologies | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air Separation Oxycombustion cannot be simply substituted for air combustion in existing fossil-fueled power plants due to differences in combustion characteristics. For...

  16. Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Two U.S. Department of Energy Building ...

  17. AVTA: Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Specifications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures AVTA: Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures PDF icon HICEV ...

  18. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  19. Sandia Energy - Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion and Gasification Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Clean FuelsPower Solid Fuels Conversion Pressurized Combustion and Gasification...

  20. Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use of Low Heat Rejection Concepts Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use of ...

  1. Hydrogen engine and combustion control process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Michael R. (Coral Gables, FL); Swain, Matthew N. (Miami, FL)

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen engine with controlled combustion comprises suction means connected to the crankcase reducing or precluding flow of lubricating oil or associated gases into the combustion chamber.

  2. Improved Solvers for Advanced Engine Combustion Simulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document: ace076_mcnenly_2013_o.pdfTechnology Area: Advanced Combustion; Combustion and Emissions ControlPresenter: Matthew McNenlyPresenting Organization: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ...

  3. From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Red Alert: Contamination Spread Outside of RCAs by Fruit Flies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12 Jan 1999 15:30:02 -0600 From: Meredith Brown <racer@lanl.gov&gt; Subject: Red Alert: Contamination Spread Outside of RCAs by Fruit Flies The following Lessons Learned is cleared for public release. John Bickford, Project Hanford Lessons Learned Coordinator (509) 373-7664 http://www.hanford.gov/lessons/sitell/sitehome.htm ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Project Hanford Lessons Learned Title: Contamination Spread Outside of Radiation Control Areas by

  4. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

  5. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.L.; Mosca, J.O.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes a rotary internal combustion engine. It includes a housing; a cam track internally disposed within the housing and adapted to receive a cam follower; an engine block disposed within the housing, the engine block being relatively rotatable within the housing about a central axis; means connectable to an external drive member for translating the relative rotation of the engine block with respect to the housing into useful work; at least one radially arranged cylinder assembly on the block, each cylinder assembly including a cylinder having a longitudinal axis extending generally radially outwardly from the rotational axis of the block, the cylinder including means defining an end wall, a piston member disposed within the cylinder and adapted to reciprocate within the cylinder; the piston, cylinder and cylinder end wall together.

  6. Two-Dimensional Integral Combustion for Multiple Phase Flow

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-05-05

    This ANL multiphase two-dimensional combustion computer code solves conservation equations for gaseous species and solid particles (or droplets) of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by ellipitic-type partial differential equations are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthaply, species, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation for a two-phase reacting flow. Associated submodels include an integral combustion, a two-parameter turbulence, a particle evaporation, and interfacial submodels. A newly-developed integral combustion submodel replacingmore »an Arrhenius-type differential reaction submodel is implemented to improve numerical convergence and enhance numerical stability. The two-parameter turbulence submodel is modified for both gas and solid phases. The evaporation submodel treats size dispersion as well as particle evaporation. Interfacial submodels use correlations to model interfacial momentum and energy transfer.« less

  7. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Thornton, Jimmy D. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, E. David (Morgantown, WV); Fincham, William (Fairmont, WV)

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  8. Combustion measurements of an array of radial jet reattachment flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.

    1999-07-01

    Radial Jet Reattachment Combustion (RJRC) nozzle provides improved fuel/air mixing for use in impingement flame heating. The RJRC nozzle produces a very stable flame with a circumferentially symmetric surface temperature profile and low coefficients of pressure on the impingement surface. The RJRC also produces very little soot. To characterize the performance of an array of RJRC nozzles from combustion point of view, exhaust gas analyses are presented through CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} measurements. The results are also compared to the single RJRC nozzle combustion characteristics. In the array configuration, the highly, moderately, and weakly interactive RJRC nozzles are considered. The interaction among nozzles is highly dependent upon the between-nozzle spacing.

  9. Optimization of Post Combustion in Steelmaking (TRP 9925)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Richard J. Fruehan; Dr. R. J. Matway

    2004-03-31

    In the electric arc furnace (EAF), and the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) for producing steel, the major off gas is carbon monoxide (CO). If the CO can be combusted to CO{sub 2}, and the energy transferred to the metal, this reaction will reduce the energy consumed in the EAF and allow for more scrap melting in the BOF which would significantly lower the energy required to produce steel. This reaction is referred to as post combustion. In order to optimize the post combustion process, computational fluid dynamic models (CFD) of the two steelmaking processes were developed. Before the models could be fully developed information on reactions affecting post combustion had to be obtained. The role of the reaction of CO{sub 2} with scrap (iron) was measured at the temperatures relevant to post combustion in laboratory experiments. The experiments were done to separate the effects of gas phase mass transfer, chemical kinetics, and solid state mass transfer through the iron oxide formed by the reaction. The first CFD model was for the EAF using the FIDAP-CFD{trademark} code. Whereas this model gave some useful results it was incomplete due to problems with the FIDAP program. In the second EAF model, the CFX{trademark} code was used and was much more successful. The full 3-D model included all forms of heat transfer and the back reactions of CO{sub 2} with the metal and scrap. The model for the EAF was a full 3-D model and consisted of a primary oxygen lance with side wall injectors for post combustion. The model could predict the degree of post combustion and heat transfer. The BOF model was a slice of the BOF for which there was symmetry. The model could predict post combustion, heat transfer, temperature profiles and the effect of operating variables such as oxygen flow rates and distribution. The present research developed several new models such as limited combustion and depostcombustion. These were all documented by MSA Pass as a sub-contract. Instruction manuals were developed so the models could be used by industry. The work indicates considerable energy can be generated and usefully used in the BOF and EAF. The processes can be optimized for specific cases using the models developed.

  10. Gasdynamic enhancement of nonpremixed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marble, F.E.

    1994-12-31

    To promote efficient performance of very high speed air-breathing propulsion systems, the combustor Mach number must be of the order of six for a flight Mach number of 18. Because of this high gas speed through the combustor, mixing rates of hydrogen fuel with air must be very rapid in order to allow a combustor of reasonable length. It is proposed to enhance the rate of mixing and combustion of hydrogen and air, and thereby reduce combustor length, through the introduction of streamwise vorticity generated by the interaction of a weak oblique shock wave with the density gradient between air and a cylindrical jet of hydrogen. Because of the high Mach number flow in the combustor, the oblique shock traverses the jet at a small angle with respect to the free stream direction, and the principle of slender body theory allows one conceptually to replace the three-dimensional steady flow with a two-dimensional unsteady flow. As a consequence, two-dimensional time-dependent computational studies and an extensive experimental shock tube investigation were employed to assess mixing rates for the steady flow in the combustor. The results indicated that under realistic conditions, adequate mixing could be accomplished within 1 ms, a rate that was technologically interesting. Encouraged by these experiments, a ``practical`` injector, utilizing shock-enhanced mixing, was designed for a combustor having a free stream Mach number of 6.0. A detailed aerodynamic and mixing investigation was carried out in the Mach 6 High Reynolds Number Tunnel at the NASA-Langley Research Center. The results confirmed both the details and the overall effectiveness of the shock-enhanced mixing concept.

  11. Reduction of combustion emissions using hydrogen peroxide in a pilot scale combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.I.; Corredor, L.F.; Tamara, W.

    1997-12-31

    A hydrogen peroxide injection system was designed and installed in the stack of a 5,274 million J/hr industrial pilot plant scale combustion chamber using natural gas as fuel. The concentration of peroxide in the gas stream was precisely controlled by continuous injection using an electromagnetic dosage pump, the liquid 50% peroxide solution was finely dispersed into the gases by a water cooled custom designed delivery system with a spray nozzle at the tip. Residence times between 0.1 and 1.8 seconds and concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} between 280 ppm and 4,000 ppm were used during the test runs. CEMS for total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, as well as an ultrasonic gas flow monitor were used to measure the effect of hydrogen peroxide in reducing the emissions of these pollutants. Destruction removal efficiencies between 25% and 100% were observed for hydrocarbons, and concentrations of CO, as well as NO{sub x}. were reduced about 50%. The results indicate that this labscale proved technology yields similar results in reducing combustion emissions in pilot applications, and also a reliable injection system has been developed and tested successfully.

  12. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

  13. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Applied low temperature combustion to the Navistar 6.4L V8 engine with 0.2g NOx/bhp-hr operation attained at the rated 16.5 BMEP

  14. International combustion engines; Applied thermosciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing on thermodynamic analysis - from the requisite first law to more sophisticated applications - and engine design, this book is an introduction to internal combustion engines and their mechanics. It covers the many types of internal combustion engines, including spark ignition, compression ignition, and stratified charge engines, and examines processes, keeping equations of state simple by assuming constant specific heats. Equations are limited to heat engines and later applied to combustion engines. Topics include realistic equations of state, stroichiometry, predictions of chemical equilibrium, engine performance criteria, and friction, which is discussed in terms of the hydrodynamic theory of lubrication and experimental methods such as dimensional analysis.

  15. Combustion Analysis Software Package for Internal Combustion Engines -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Combustion Analysis Software Package for Internal Combustion Engines Colorado State University Contact CSU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Researchers at the Colorado State University Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory have developed a complete software package for use with National

  16. ULTRA LOW NOx CATALYTIC COMBUSTION FOR IGCC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance L. Smith

    2004-03-01

    Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using PCI's two-stage (catalytic / gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage is a Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{trademark}) catalytic reactor, wherein a fuel-rich mixture contacts the catalyst and reacts while final and excess combustion air cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, wherein the catalyst cooling air mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During the reporting period, PCI successfully achieved NOx = 0.011 lbs/MMBtu at 10 atm pressure (corresponding to 2.0 ppm NOx corrected to 15% O{sub 2} dry) with near-zero CO emissions, surpassing the project goal of < 0.03 lbs/MMBtu NOx. These emissions levels were achieved at scaled (10 atm, sub-scale) baseload conditions corresponding to Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station operation on 100% syngas (no co-firing of natural gas).

  17. APBF Effects on Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    APBF Effects on Combustion APBF Effects on Combustion 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ft001_bunting_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel and Lubricant Effects APBF Effects on Combustion Non-Petroleum Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion

  18. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

  19. Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

    1992-04-15

    A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

  20. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2014-10-17

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  1. Engine combustion and flow diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This informative publication discusses the application of diagnostic techniques to internal combustion engines. The papers included fall into three broad categories: flow diagnostics, combustion diagnostics, and fuel spray diagnostics. Contents include: controlling combustion in a spark ignition engine by quantitative fuel distribution; a model for converting SI engine flame arrival signals into flame contours; in-cylinder diesel flame imaging compared with numerical computations; ignition and early soot formation in a DI diesel engine using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics; investigation of diesel sprays using diffraction-based droplet sizing; fuel distribution effects on the combustion of a direct-injection stratified-charge engine; and 2-D measurements of the liquid phase temperature in fuel sprays.

  2. Rotary-reciprocal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, D.H.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine of the rotary-reciprocal type. It comprises a housing formed with a peripheral wall; a rotor; and a shaft for the rotor.

  3. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    during these next phases of combustion. Research conducted by: D.S.N. Parker and R.I. Kaiser (University of Hawaii at Manoa ), T.P. Troy and M. Ahmed (Lawrence Berkeley National...

  4. Combustion modeling in waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, C.; Unal, C.; Travis, J.R. |

    1997-08-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first one is to repeat previous simulations of release and combustion of flammable gases in tank SY-101 at the Hanford reservation with the recently developed code GASFLOW-II. The GASFLOW-II results are compared with the results obtained with the HMS/TRAC code and show good agreement, especially for non-combustion cases. For combustion GASFLOW-II predicts a steeper pressure rise than HMS/TRAC. The second objective is to describe a so-called induction parameter model which was developed and implemented into GASFLOW-II and reassess previous calculations of Bureau of Mines experiments for hydrogen-air combustion. The pressure time history improves compared with the one-step model, and the time rate of pressure change is much closer to the experimental data.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Combustion and Rotor-Stator Interaction in a Turbine Combustor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Isvoranu, Dragos D.; Cizmas, Paul G. A.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the development of a numerical algorithm for the computation of flow and combustion in a turbine combustor. The flow and combustion are modeled by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the species-conservation equations. The chemistry model used herein is a two-step, global, finite-rate combustion model for methane and combustion gases. The governing equations are written in the strong conservation form and solved using a fully implicit, finite-difference approximation. The gas dynamics and chemistry equations are fully decoupled. A correction technique has been developed to enforce the conservation of mass fractions. The numerical algorithm developed herein has beenmore » used to investigate the flow and combustion in a one-stage turbine combustor.« less

  6. Novel metal-organic frameworks for efficient stationary sources via oxyfuel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina; Parkes, Marie Vernell; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Paap, Scott M; Williams, Timothy; Shaddix, Christopher R.

    2015-09-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a well-known approach to improve the heat transfer associated with stationary energy processes. Its overall penetration into industrial and power markets is constrained by the high cost of existing air separation technologies for generating oxygen. Cryogenic air separation is the most widely used technology for generating oxygen but is complex and expensive. Pressure swing adsorption is a competing technology that uses activated carbon, zeolites and polymer membranes for gas separations. However, it is expensive and limited to moderate purity O? . MOFs are cutting edge materials for gas separations at ambient pressure and room temperature, potentially revolutionizing the PSA process and providing dramatic process efficiency improvements through oxy-fuel combustion. This LDRD combined (1) MOF synthesis, (2) gas sorption testing, (3) MD simulations and crystallography of gas siting in pores for structure-property relationship, (4) combustion testing and (5) technoeconomic analysis to aid in real-world implementation.

  7. Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Home The Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center (CEFRC) was established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 2009 as one of the 46 new centers around the country dedicated to addressing the pressing issues of energy sustainability, energy security, and climate change. The CEFRC, funded at $20 million over 5 years and directed by Professor Chung K. Law of Princeton University, focuses on the combustion of fossil and alternative fuels to produce heat and power. The research team

  8. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, J.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1997-06-10

    A combustor is described for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone. 14 figs.

  9. Partially Premixed Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partially Premixed Combustion Partially Premixed Combustion Published materials on partial premixed combustion (PPC) combined with Volvo's own combustion research provides understanding of how to proceed for future work that enables PPC to reach the market PDF icon deer11_andersson.pdf More Documents & Publications Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Effects of Biomass Fuels on Engine & System Out Emissions for Short Term Endurance

  10. Gas-Fired Reciprocating Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The reciprocating, or piston-driven, engine is a widespread and well-known technology. Also called internal combustion engines, reciprocating engines require fuel, air, compression, and a combustion source to function. Depending on the ignition source, they generally fall into two categories: (1) spark-ignited engines, typically fueled by gasoline or natural gas, and (2) compression-ignited engines, typically fueled by diesel oil fuel.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Fuel-Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Mode in a Multi-Cylinder, Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Kukwon; Curran, Scott; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Sluder, Scott; Parks, II, James E; Wagner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to provide the combustion and emission characteristics resulting from fuel-reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion mode utilizing dual-fuel approach in a light-duty, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline before intake valve opening (IVO) and early-cycle, direct injection of diesel fuel was used as the charge preparation and fuel blending strategy. In order to achieve the desired auto-ignition quality through the stratification of the fuel-air equivalence ratio ( ), blends of commercially available gasoline and diesel fuel were used. Engine experiments were performed at an engine speed of 2300rpm and an engine load of 4.3bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). It was found that significant reduction in both nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was realized successfully through the RCCI combustion mode even without applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, high carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were observed. The low combustion gas temperature during the expansion and exhaust processes seemed to be the dominant source of high CO emissions in the RCCI combustion mode. The high HC emissions during the RCCI combustion mode could be due to the increased combustion quenching layer thickness as well as the -stratification at the periphery of the combustion chamber. The slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the RCCI combustion mode was observed than the other combustion modes, such as the conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode, and single-fuel, premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. The parametric study of the RCCI combustion mode revealed that the combustion phasing and/or the peak cylinder pressure rise rate of the RCCI combustion mode could be controlled by several physical parameters premixed ratio (rp), intake swirl intensity, and start of injection (SOI) timing of directly injected fuel unlike other low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies.

  12. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  13. High-heat transfer low-NO.sub.x combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Hamid A.; Hobson, Jr., William J.; Rue, David M.; Smirnov, Valeriy

    2005-09-06

    A combustion apparatus comprising a pre-combustor stage and a primary combustion stage, the pre-combustor stage having two co-axial cylinders, one for oxidant and one for fuel gas, in which the fuel gas is preheated and the primary combustion stage having rectangular co-axial passages through which fuel and oxidant are admitted into a refractory burner block. Both passages converge in the vertical plane and diverge in the horizontal plane. The passage through the refractory burner block also has a rectangular profile and diverges in the horizontal plane. The outlets to the primary combustion stage are recessed in the refractory burner block at a distance which may be varied.

  14. Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zauderer, Bert (Merion Station, PA)

    2000-01-01

    Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

  15. Internal combustion engine with compound air compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine in combination with a compound air compression system. It comprises: a reciprocator with at least one cylinder, at least one piston reciprocal in the cylinder and a combustion chamber formed in substantial part by portions of the piston and cylinder, the reciprocator having a drive shaft; a rotary compressor having a drive shaft mechanically coupled to the drive shaft of the reciprocator, the rotary compressor having a Wankel-type, three-lobe, epitrochiodal configuration sides having a conduit conjected to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air to the reciprocator; a turbocharged with a gas turbine and a turbocompressor, the turbocompressor having an air conduit connected to the expander side of the rotary compressor; and a bypass conduit with a valve means connecting the turbocharger to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air directly to the reciprocator wherein the drive shaft of the reciprocator and the drive shaft of the compressor have connecting means for transmitting mechanical energy to the reciprocator at mid to high operating speeds of the engine when the turbocharge supplies compressed air to the rotary compressor and, at least in part, drives the rotary compressor.

  16. Coal combustion products: trash or treasure?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-07-15

    Coal combustion by-products can be a valuable resource to various industries. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) collects data on production and uses of coal combustion products (CCPs). 122.5 million tons of CCPs were produced in 2004. The article discusses the results of the ACCA's 2004 survey. Fly ash is predominantly used as a substitute for Portland cement; bottom ash for structural fill, embankments and paved road cases. Synthetic gypsum from the FGD process is commonly used in wallboard. Plant owners are only likely to have a buyer for a portion of their CCPs. Although sale of hot water (from Antelope Valley Station) from condensers for use in a fish farm to raise tilapia proved unviable, the Great Plains Synfuels Plant which manufactures natural gas from lignite produces a wide range of products including anhydrous ammonia, phenol, krypton, carbon dioxide (for enhanced oil recovery), tar oils and liquid nitrogen. ACCA's goal is to educate people about CCPs and how to make them into useful products, and market them, in order to reduce waste disposal and enhance revenue. The article lists members of the ACCA. 2 photos., 1 tab.

  17. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2011-07-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This work focused on two classes of oxygen carrier, one that merely undergoes a change in oxidation state, such as Fe3O4/Fe2O3 and one that is converted from its higher to its lower oxidation state by the release of oxygen on heating, i.e., CuO/Cu2O. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification (3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratory-scale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability (4) the identification of mechanisms and rates for the copper, cuprous oxide, and cupric oxide system using thermogravimetric analysis.

  18. Co-combustion feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handcock, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report investigates the technical and economic feasibility of co-combusting municipal sewage sludge produced by the Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1 with paper mill sludge produced by the Cottrell Paper Company, Encore Paper Company, International Paper Company, Mohawk Paper Mills, and TAGSONS Papers at the Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1`s secondary wastewater treatment plant and recovering any available energy products. The co-combustion facility would consist of sludge and wood chip storage and conveying systems, belt filter presses, screw presses, fluidized-bed incinerators, venturi scrubbers and tray cooling systems, ash dewatering facilities, heat recovery steam generators, gas-fired steam superheaters, and a back-pressure steam turbine system. Clean waste wood chips would be used as an auxiliary fuel in the fluidized-bed incinerators. It is recommended that the ash produced by the proposed facility be beneficially used, potentially as a raw material in the manufacture of cement and/or as an interim barrier layer in landfills.

  19. Department Treasury Dept. Cir. 1076 I ~&gt;:§;4*1:Jii SIGN-UP FORM

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Form 1199A (Rev. June 1987) Prescribed by Treasury OMB No. 1510-0007 Department Treasury Dept. Cir. 1076 I ~&gt;:§;4*1:Jii SIGN-UP FORM DIRECTIONS * To sign up for direct deposit, the payee is to read the back of this form and fill in the information requested in Sections 1 and 2. Then take or mail this form to the financial institution. The financial in- stitution will verify the information in Sections 1 and 2, and will com- plete Section 3. The completed form will be returned to the Govern-

  20. 2011 2nd Annual CEFRC Conference - Combustion Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center 2nd Annual CEFRC Conference Second Annual Conference, CEFRC August 17-19, 2011, Princeton, NJ Wednesday, August 17 Day 1: Program Review State of the CEFRC (Law) Review of Theory DWG (Klippenstein) Biodiesel thermochemistry and kinetics with the multireference singles and doubles configuration interaction method (Carter) Computation of accurate thermochemistry and rate parameters for complex combustion reactions (Truhlar) Theoretical gas phase chemical kinetics (Klippenstein) Detailed

  1. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.; Dunmead, S.D.; Halverson, D.C.; Landingham, R.L.

    1991-01-29

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced. 6 figures.

  2. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Halverson, Danny C. (Modesto, CA); Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  3. Direct Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Models Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion Models - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing

  4. Heavy Duty Low-Temperature & Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-Temperature & Diesel Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  5. Coal combustion products 2007 production and use report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-01

    The American Coal Ash Association's 2007 Annual Coal Combustion Products (CCP) are derived from data from more than 170 power plants. The amount of CCPs used was 40.55%, a decrease of 2.88% from 2006, attributed to reduced fuel burn and a decrease in demand in the building industry. Figures are given for the production of fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, bottom ash, FBC ash and boiler slag. The article summarises results of the survey. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  6. Hydrocarbon/Total Combustibles Sensor - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbon/Total Combustibles Sensor Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summarythe invention is an electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor that is more reliable and reproducible than any other hydrocarbon sensor on the market today. The patented method for producing the sensor ensures reproducibility and reduces the need for calibration of every sensor coming off the production line.DescriptionLiquefied petroleum gas (LPF) is transported around the

  7. Fuel injection for internal combustion engines. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of fuel injection systems applied to internal combustion engines and turbines. Gasoline, diesel, synthetic fuels, and liquid gas systems are discussed relative to systems` variations and performances. Fuel injection atomization and combustion are considered in theory, and fuel injection relative to emission control is included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Fuel injection for internal combustion engines. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of fuel injection systems applied to internal combustion engines and turbines. Gasoline, diesel, synthetic fuels, and liquid gas systems are discussed relative to systems' variations and performances. Fuel injection atomization and combustion are considered in theory, and fuel injection relative to emission control is included. (Contains a minimum of 223 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, Antoni K. (Kensington, CA); Maxson, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Hensinger, David M. (Albany, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  10. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  11. Combustion Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Facility - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  12. Compression ignition engine having fuel system for non-sooting combustion and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazyn, Timothy; Gehrke, Christopher

    2014-10-28

    A direct injection compression ignition internal combustion engine includes a fuel system having a nozzle extending into a cylinder of the engine and a plurality of spray orifices formed in the nozzle. Each of the spray orifices has an inner diameter dimension of about 0.09 mm or less, and define inter-orifice angles between adjacent spray orifice center axes of about 36.degree. or greater such that spray plumes of injected fuel from each of the spray orifices combust within the cylinder according to a non-sooting lifted flame and gas entrainment combustion pattern. Related methodology is also disclosed.

  13. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines | Department of Energy Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ft004_mueller_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Vehicle Technologies Office

  14. Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions By enabling process heaters to utilize opportunity gaseous fuels with a fuel-flexible combustion system, this technol- ogy lowers carbon and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emissions and reduces energy costs for industry. Introduction The refning and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion

  15. Electron Microscopy &gt; Analytical Resources &gt; Research &gt; The Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Center at Cornell Analytical Resources In This Section Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) Electron Microscopy X-Ray Diffraction Electron Microscopy Aberration-Corrected Electron Microscope Facility Electron microscopy provides atomic-resolution images of the structure, composition and bonding of our fuel cells and their components. Three-dimensional images of catalyst particles and their support materials are constructed using electron tomography - a similar

  16. Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

  17. Multicylinder Diesel Engine for Low Temperature Combustion Operation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Low Temperature Combustion Operation Multicylinder Diesel Engine for Low Temperature Combustion Operation Fuel injection strategies to extend low temperature combustion ...

  18. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Impact of Variable Valve Timing on Low Temperature Combustion ...

  19. A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    was used to study how selected oxygenated fuels affect combustion and emissions in a modern diesel engine during conventional combustion and low-temperature combustion (LTC). ...

  20. Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-combustion capture refers to removing CO2 from fossil fuels before combustion is completed. For example, in gasification...

  1. Table 4.3 Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves, 1949-2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves, 1949-2010 Year Crude Oil 1 Natural Gas (Dry) Natural Gas Liquids 1 Total Thousand Barrels Million Cubic Feet 2 Thousand Barrels COE 3 Thousand Barrels Thousand Barrels COE 3 Thousand Barrels COE 3 American Petroleum Institute and American Gas Association Data<//td&gt; 1949 24,649,489 179,401,693 32,013,150 3,729,012 3,069,146 59,731,785 1950 25,268,398 184,584,745 32,938,034 4,267,663 3,495,219 61,701,652 1951 27,468,031

  2. Combustion instabilities in sudden expansion oxy-fuel flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ditaranto, Mario; Hals, Joergen

    2006-08-15

    An experimental study on combustion instability is presented with focus on oxy-fuel type combustion. Oxidants composed of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and methane are the reactants flowing through a premixer-combustor system. The reaction starts downstream a symmetric sudden expansion and is at the origin of different instability patterns depending on oxygen concentration and Reynolds number. The analysis has been conducted through measurement of pressure, CH* chemiluminescence, and velocity. As far as stability is concerned, oxy-fuel combustion with oxygen concentration similar to that found in air combustion cannot be sustained, but requires at least 30% oxygen to perform in a comparable manner. Under these conditions and for the sudden expansion configuration used in this study, the instability is at low frequency and low amplitude, controlled by the flame length inside the combustion chamber. Above a threshold concentration in oxygen dependent on equivalence ratio, the flame becomes organized and concentrated in the near field. Strong thermoacoustic instability is then triggered at characteristic acoustic modes of the system. Different modes can be triggered depending on the ratio of flame speed to inlet velocity, but for all types of instability encountered, the heat release and pressure fluctuations are linked by a variation in mass-flow rate. An acoustic model of the system coupled with a time-lag-based flame model made it possible to elucidate the acoustic mode selection in the system as a function of laminar flame speed and Reynolds number. The overall work brings elements of reflection concerning the potential risk of strong pressure oscillations in future gas turbine combustors for oxy-fuel gas cycles. (author)

  3. Construction progresses at GE's Oil & Gas Technology Center | GE Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Home &gt; Impact &gt; Construction progressing at GE's newest research center, the Oil & Gas Technology Center in Oklahoma City Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Construction progressing at GE's newest research center, the Oil & Gas Technology Center in Oklahoma City Construction is

  4. EERE Energy Impacts: Self-Inflating Tires Could Save You Money on Gas,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Improve Driving Safety | Department of Energy Self-Inflating Tires Could Save You Money on Gas, Improve Driving Safety EERE Energy Impacts: Self-Inflating Tires Could Save You Money on Gas, Improve Driving Safety April 29, 2015 - 10:15am Addthis Goodyear's new Air Maintenance Technology—also called the self-regulating tire—automatically manages the air pressure in tires so you don’t have to. | <em&gt;Graphic courtesy of Goodyear</em&gt; Goodyear's new Air Maintenance

  5. Systems Study for Improving Gas Turbine Performance for Coal/IGCC Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashok K. Anand

    2005-12-16

    This study identifies vital gas turbine (GT) parameters and quantifies their influence in meeting the DOE Turbine Program overall Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant goals of 50% net HHV efficiency, $1000/kW capital cost, and low emissions. The project analytically evaluates GE advanced F class air cooled technology level gas turbine conceptual cycle designs and determines their influence on IGCC plant level performance including impact of Carbon capture. This report summarizes the work accomplished in each of the following six Tasks. Task 1.0--Overall IGCC Plant Level Requirements Identification: Plant level requirements were identified, and compared with DOE's IGCC Goal of achieving 50% Net HHV Efficiency and $1000/KW by the Year 2008, through use of a Six Sigma Quality Functional Deployment (QFD) Tool. This analysis resulted in 7 GT System Level Parameters as the most significant. Task 2.0--Requirements Prioritization/Flow-Down to GT Subsystem Level: GT requirements were identified, analyzed and prioritized relative to achieving plant level goals, and compared with the flow down of power island goals through use of a Six Sigma QFD Tool. This analysis resulted in 11 GT Cycle Design Parameters being selected as the most significant. Task 3.0--IGCC Conceptual System Analysis: A Baseline IGCC Plant configuration was chosen, and an IGCC simulation analysis model was constructed, validated against published performance data and then optimized by including air extraction heat recovery and GE steam turbine model. Baseline IGCC based on GE 207FA+e gas turbine combined cycle has net HHV efficiency of 40.5% and net output nominally of 526 Megawatts at NOx emission level of 15 ppmvd{at}15% corrected O2. 18 advanced F technology GT cycle design options were developed to provide performance targets with increased output and/or efficiency with low NOx emissions. Task 4.0--Gas Turbine Cycle Options vs. Requirements Evaluation: Influence coefficients on 4 key IGCC plant level parameters (IGCC Net Efficiency, IGCC Net Output, GT Output, NOx Emissions) of 11 GT identified cycle parameters were determined. Results indicate that IGCC net efficiency HHV gains up to 2.8 pts (40.5% to 43.3%) and IGCC net output gains up to 35% are possible due to improvements in GT technology alone with single digit NOx emission levels. Task 5.0--Recommendations for GT Technical Improvements: A trade off analysis was conducted utilizing the performance results of 18 gas turbine (GT) conceptual designs, and three most promising GT candidates are recommended. A roadmap for turbine technology development is proposed for future coal based IGCC power plants. Task 6.0--Determine Carbon Capture Impact on IGCC Plant Level Performance: A gas turbine performance model for high Hydrogen fuel gas turbine was created and integrated to an IGCC system performance model, which also included newly created models for moisturized syngas, gas shift and CO2 removal subsystems. This performance model was analyzed for two gas turbine technology based subsystems each with two Carbon removal design options of 85% and 88% respectively. The results show larger IGCC performance penalty for gas turbine designs with higher firing temperature and higher Carbon removal.

  6. Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connors, John J.; McConnell, John F.; Henry, Vincent I.; MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B.; Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C.; Adams, Michael E.; Leadbetter, James M.; Tomasewski, Jack W.; Operacz, Walter J.; Houf, William G.; Davis, James W.; Marvin, Bart G.; Gunner, Bruce E.; Farrell, Rick G.; Bivins, David P.; Curtis, Warren; Harris, James E.

    2004-08-01

    The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the solution of proprietary glass production problems. As a consequence of the substantial increase in scale and scope of the initial furnace concept in response to industry recommendations, constraints on funding of industrial programs by DOE, and reorientation of the Department's priorities, the OIT Glass Program is unable to provide the support for construction of such a facility. However, it is the present investigators' hope that a group of industry partners will emerge to carry the project forward, taking advantage of the detailed furnace design presented in this report. The engineering, including complete construction drawings, bill of materials, and equipment specifications, is complete. The project is ready to begin construction as soon as the quotations are updated. The design of the research melter closely follows the most advanced industrial practice, firing by natural gas with oxygen. The melting area is 13 ft x 6 ft, with a glass depth of 3 ft and an average height in the combustion space of 3 ft. The maximum pull rate is 25 tons/day, ranging from 100% batch to 100% cullet, continuously fed, with variable batch composition, particle size distribution, and raft configuration. The tank is equipped with bubblers to control glass circulation. The furnace can be fired in three modes: (1) using a single large burner mounted on the front wall, (2) by six burners in a staggered/opposed arrangement, three in each breast wall, and (3) by down-fired burners mounted in the crown in any combination with the front wall or breast-wall-mounted burners. Horizontal slots are provided between the tank blocks and tuck stones and between the breast wall and skewback blocks, running the entire length of the furnace on both sides, to permit access to the combustion space and the surface of the glass for optical measurements and sampling probes. Vertical slots in the breast walls provide additional access for measurements and sampling. The furnace and tank are to be fully instrumented with standard measuring equipment, such as flow meters, thermocouples, continuous gas composition

  7. Experimental investigation of wood combustion in a fixed bed with hot air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovic, Miladin Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: Upward combustion is a new combustion concept with ignition by hot primary air. Upward combustion has three stages: short drying, rapid devolatilization and char combustion. Variation of fuel moisture and inert content have little influence on the combustion. Experimental comparison between conventional and upward combustion is presented. - Abstract: Waste combustion on a grate with energy recovery is an important pillar of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the Netherlands. In MSW incinerators fresh waste stacked on a grate enters the combustion chamber, heats up by radiation from the flame above the layer and ignition occurs. Typically, the reaction zone starts at the top of the waste layer and propagates downwards, producing heat for drying and devolatilization of the fresh waste below it until the ignition front reaches the grate. The control of this process is mainly based on empiricism. MSW is a highly inhomogeneous fuel with continuous fluctuating moisture content, heating value and chemical composition. The resulting process fluctuations may cause process control difficulties, fouling and corrosion issues, extra maintenance, and unplanned stops. In the new concept the fuel layer is ignited by means of preheated air (T > 220 C) from below without any external ignition source. As a result a combustion front will be formed close to the grate and will propagate upwards. That is why this approach is denoted by upward combustion. Experimental research has been carried out in a batch reactor with height of 4.55 m, an inner diameter of 200 mm and a fuel layer height up to 1 m. Due to a high quality two-layer insulation adiabatic conditions can be assumed. The primary air can be preheated up to 350 C, and the secondary air is distributed via nozzles above the waste layer. During the experiments, temperatures along the height of the reactor, gas composition and total weight decrease are continuously monitored. The influence of the primary air speed, fuel moisture and inert content on the combustion characteristics (ignition rate, combustion rate, ignition front speed and temperature of the reaction zone) is evaluated. The upward combustion concept decouples the drying, devolatilization and burnout phase. In this way the moisture and inert content of the waste have almost no influence on the combustion process. In this paper an experimental comparison between conventional and reversed combustion is presented.

  8. Method and apparatus for detecting combustion instability in continuous combustion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, Kelly J.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Richards, George A.; Straub, Douglas L.

    2006-08-29

    An apparatus and method to sense the onset of combustion stability is presented. An electrode is positioned in a turbine combustion chamber such that the electrode is exposed to gases in the combustion chamber. A control module applies a voltage potential to the electrode and detects a combustion ionization signal and determines if there is an oscillation in the combustion ionization signal indicative of the occurrence of combustion stability or the onset of combustion instability. A second electrode held in a coplanar but spaced apart manner by an insulating member from the electrode provides a combustion ionization signal to the control module when the first electrode fails. The control module broadcasts a notice if the parameters indicate the combustion process is at the onset of combustion instability or broadcasts an alarm signal if the parameters indicate the combustion process is unstable.

  9. Stratified charge internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skopil, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a main cylinder, a main piston within the main cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the main cylinder; a smaller idle cylinder, and idle piston within the idle cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the idle cylinder; an ignition passageway leading from the idle cylinder to the main cylinder; and an ignition device within the ignition passageway operable to ignite a compressed charge discharged by the idle cylinder into the ignition passageway. The passageway being positioned to discharge the ignited compressed charge from the idle cylinder into the main cylinder to ignite the compressed charge within the main cylinder.

  10. Steam boosted internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.

    1987-01-20

    A device is described to supplement the power produced by burning fuel in an internal combustion engine with steam, the device comprising: a means for producing a constant flow of water past a boiler means; a means for allowing the water to flow in the direction of the boiler; a boiler means external to the internal combustion engine to convert the water into superheated steam; a means for controlling the pressure of the water such that the water pressure is greater than the pressure of the steam produced by the boiler; and a means for injection of the superheated steam directly into a cylinder of the internal combustion engine, a means for producing a constant flow of water at a pressure greater than the pressure of the superheated steam, wherein the constant flow means at greater pressure comprises a chamber with a gaseous component, with the gaseous component being of constant volume and exerting constant pressure upon water within the chamber.

  11. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  12. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Freeman, Mark C. (South Park Township, PA); Hargis, Richard A. (Canonsburg, PA); O'Dowd, William J. (Charleroi, PA)

    2003-02-18

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  13. Radial inflow gas turbine engine with advanced transition duct

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J

    2015-03-17

    A gas turbine engine (10), including: a turbine having radial inflow impellor blades (38); and an array of advanced transition combustor assemblies arranged circumferentially about the radial inflow impellor blades (38) and having inner surfaces (34) that are adjacent to combustion gases (40). The inner surfaces (34) of the array are configured to accelerate and orient, for delivery directly onto the radial inflow impellor blades (38), a plurality of discrete flows of the combustion gases (40). The array inner surfaces (34) define respective combustion gas flow axes (20). Each combustion gas flow axis (20) is straight from a point of ignition until no longer bound by the array inner surfaces (34), and each combustion gas flow axis (20) intersects a unique location on a circumference defined by a sweep of the radial inflow impellor blades (38).

  14. Engine Combustion Network Experimental Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maintained by the Engine Combustion Department of Sandia National Laboratories, data currently available on the website includes reacting and non-reacting sprays in a constant-volume chamber at conditions typical of diesel combustion. The data are useful for model development and validation because of the well-defined boundary conditions and the wide range of conditions employed. A search utility displays data based on experimental conditions such as ambient temperature, ambient density, injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel, etc. Experiment-related visualizations are also available. The search utility for experimental data is located at http://public.ca.sandia.gov/ecn/cvdata/frameset.html (Specialized Interface)

  15. Combustion pinhole camera system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Witte, Arvel B. (Rolling Hills, CA)

    1984-02-21

    A pinhole camera system utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor.

  16. Combustion pinhole camera system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Witte, A.B.

    1984-02-21

    A pinhole camera system is described utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor. 2 figs.

  17. Open cycle, internal combustion Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thring, R.H.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an internal- combustion fluid engine. It comprises means, including a hot piston, for defining a combustion chamber; means for causing combustion within the combustion chamber; means, including a cold piston, for defining a compression chamber for pressurizing a fluid; inlet control means for controlling flow of the fluid into the compression chamber; cooling means for maintaining lower temperature in the compression chamber than in the combustion chamber; means, comprising linkage between the hot piston and the cold piston, for varying the volume of the compression chamber in relation to the volume of the combustion chamber in a manner characteristic of a conventional Stirling engine; a manifold connected in fluid communication between the combustion chamber and the compression chamber for enabling flow of the fluid from the compression chamber to the compression chamber; transfer control means for controlling the flow of the fluid from the compression chamber to the combustion chamber.

  18. Reduced Energy Consumption through the Development of Fuel-Flexible Gas Turbines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Reduced Energy Consumption through the Development of Fuel-Flexible Gas Turbines Introduction Gas turbines-heat engines that use high-temperature and high-pressure gas as the combustible fuel-are used extensively throughout U.S. industry to power industrial processes. The majority of turbines are operated using natural gas because of its availability, low cost, and

  19. Preheated Combustion Air | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preheated Combustion Air Preheated Combustion Air This tip sheet describes how to improve process heating efficiency by preheating combustion air for burners. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #1 PDF icon Preheated Combustion Air (November 2007) More Documents & Publications Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces Load

  20. H2 ICE Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H2 ICE Combustion Share Description Hydrogen combustion inside a direct injection H2 engine Topic Energy Energy efficiency Vehicles Hydrogen & fuel cells Credit S. Ciatti This video captures the OH * radicals that are produced during the hydrogen combustion process inside a direct injection H2 engine. It provides a qualitative assessment of where (areas in white, red, and green) and how rapidly those combustion reactions occur. The video was recorded at 3,000 RPM and with 6 bar indicated

  1. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion Oxygen-Enriched Combustion This tip sheet discusses how an increase in oxygen in combustion air can reduce the energy loss in the exhaust gases and increase process heating system efficiency. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #3 PDF icon Oxygen-Enriched Combustion (September 2005) More Documents & Publications Save Energy Now in Your Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A

  2. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_gustafson.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Heavy-Duty HCCI Development

  3. Course Descriptions - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lecture Videos News, Events & Publications Contact CEFRC CEFRC In Pictures CEFRC Intranet (Members Only) Home » 2016 Combustion Summer School » Course Descriptions Course Descriptions Combustion Dynamics Lecturer: Prof. Sébastien M. Candel, École Centrale Paris Course Length: 15 hours (Mon - Fri) Session: Morning Session Objective: This course provides an introduction to the analysis of combustion dynamics problems. It includes a tutorial on acoustics and on early combustion instability

  4. Lecture Notes - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    point and Mach stem formation. Lecture XV: Cellular detonations Combustion Chemistry: Thermochemistry Chemical Physical and Thermochemical Properties of Hydrocarbons Basic...

  5. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  6. Method for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janikowski, Stuart K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A waste destruction method using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  7. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  8. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Joel Meier (Niskayuna, NY); Mosbacher, David Matthew (Cohoes, NY); Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian (Troy, NY); Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan (Mason, OH)

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  9. Repowering with pressurized fluidized-bed combustion units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goidich, S.J. ); Rubow, L.N. ); Kumar, S. . Environmental Services and Technologies Div.); Mukherjee, D. ); Childress, N.B. )

    1991-05-01

    Turbocharged pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plants operating with a gas turbine inlet temperature lower than 800{degrees}F can produce electricity more efficiently (34.2 vs. 33.5% net plant efficiency) and at a lower cost of electricity (87.8 vs. 96. 6 mill/kWh over 30 years) than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. Since the PFBC process produces lower NO{sub x} emissions than conventional pulverized-coal combustion systems and captures sulfur as part of the combustion process, and since major equipment components can be shop-assembled and shipped by barge, retrofit of an existing unit with a turbocharged PFBC boiler can be a cost-effective means for extending the life of the unit and meeting NSPS without retrofitting flue gas desulfurization systems. Using the Wisconsin Electric Power Company's Port Washington Unit 5 as an example, preliminary engineering and economic evaluations were made to investigate the merits of turbocharged PFBC retrofits. This report describes the conceptual designs of the new, major plant components; discusses how the new components are integrated with the existing balance-of-plant equipment; describes the proposed plant control system; and presents an overall economic evaluation. Because design and economic evaluations were prepared on the basis of a commercial design, first-of-a-kind costs and test programs are not included. 5 refs., 58 figs., 55 tabs.

  10. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas-to-solids heat transfer. A stress test rig was built and tested to provide validation data for a stress model needed to support high temperature finned surface design. Additional cold flow model tests and MTF tests were conducted to address mechanical and process design issues. This information was then used to design and cost a commercial CMB design concept. Finally, the MBHE was reconfigured into a slice arrangement and tested for an extended duration at a commercial CFB plant.

  11. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace001_musculus_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion &

  12. Combustion 2000: Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-11-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This Phase, Phase 2, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase 3. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase 3 program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase 2 Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4,and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; and Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  13. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Confer, Gregory L.; Shen, Zujing; Hapeman, Martin J.; Flynn, Paul L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  14. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  15. Operating characteristics of a hydrogen-argon plasma torch for supersonic combustion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbi, E.; Mahan, J.R.; O'brien, W.F.; Wagner, T.C.

    1989-04-01

    The residence time of the combustible mixture in the combustion chamber of a scramjet engine is much less than the time normally required for complete combustion. Hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels require an ignition source under conditions typically found in a scramjet combustor. Analytical studies indicate that the presence of hydrogen atoms should greatly reduce the ignition delay in this environment. Because hydrogen plasmas are prolific sources of hydrogen atoms, a low-power, uncooled hydrogen plasma torch has been built and tested to evaluate its potential as a possible flame holder for supersonic combustion. The torch was found to be unstable when operated on pure hydrogen; however, stable operation could be obtained by using argon as a body gas and mixing in the desired amount of hydrogen. The stability limits of the torch are delineated and its electrical and thermal behavior documented. An average torch thermal efficiency of around 88 percent is demonstrated. 10 references.

  16. Investigation of methyl decanoate combustion in an optical direct-injection diesel engine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, A. S.; Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of methyl decanoate (MD) on combustion and emissions. A specific goal of the study was to determine if MD could enable soot-free leaner-lifted flame combustion (LLFC) – a mode of mixing-controlled combustion associated with fuel-air equivalence ratios below approximately two. An ultra-low sulfur diesel certification fuel (CF) was used as the baseline fuel, and experiments were conducted at two fuel-injection pressures with three levels of charge-gas dilution. In addition to conventional pressure-based and engine-out emissions measurements, exhaust laser-induced incandescence, in-cylinder natural luminosity (NL), and in-cylindermore » chemiluminescence (CL) diagnostics were used to provide detailed insight into combustion processes.« less

  17. Investigation of methyl decanoate combustion in an optical direct-injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, A. S.; Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of methyl decanoate (MD) on combustion and emissions. A specific goal of the study was to determine if MD could enable soot-free leaner-lifted flame combustion (LLFC) a mode of mixing-controlled combustion associated with fuel-air equivalence ratios below approximately two. An ultra-low sulfur diesel certification fuel (CF) was used as the baseline fuel, and experiments were conducted at two fuel-injection pressures with three levels of charge-gas dilution. In addition to conventional pressure-based and engine-out emissions measurements, exhaust laser-induced incandescence, in-cylinder natural luminosity (NL), and in-cylinder chemiluminescence (CL) diagnostics were used to provide detailed insight into combustion processes.

  18. Apparatus and method for combusting low quality fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brushwood, John Samuel; Pillsbury, Paul; Foote, John; Heilos, Andreas

    2003-11-04

    A gas turbine (12) capable of combusting a low quality gaseous fuel having a ratio of flammability limits less than 2, or a heat value below 100 BTU/SCF. A high quality fuel is burned simultaneously with the low quality fuel to eliminate instability in the combustion flame. A sensor (46) is used to monitor at least one parameter of the flame indicative of instability. A controller (50) having the sensor signal (48) as input is programmed to control the relative flow rates of the low quality and high quality fuels. When instability is detected, the flow rate of high quality fuel is automatically increased in relation to the flow rate of low quality fuel to restore stability.

  19. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE EFFECTS OF CHANGING FUEL FOR TURBINES FIRED BY NATURAL GAS AND SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Wright, Ian G

    2007-01-01

    Gas turbines in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants burn a fuel gas (syngas) in which the proportions of hydrocarbons, H2, CO, water vapor, and minor impurity levels may vary significantly from those in natural gas, depending on the input feed to the gasifier and the gasification process. A data structure and computational methodology is presented for the numerical simulation of a turbine thermodynamic cycle for various fuel types, air/fuel ratios, and coolant flow rates. The approach used allowed efficient handling of turbine components and different variable constraints due to fuel changes. Examples are presented for a turbine with four stages and cooled blades. The blades were considered to be cooled in an open circuit, with air provided from appropriate compressor stages. Results are presented for the temperatures of the hot gas, alloy surface (coating-superalloy interface), and coolant, as well as for cooling flow rates. Based on the results of the numerical simulations, values were calculated for the fuel flow rates, airflow ratios, and coolant flow rates required to maintain the superalloy in the first stage blade at the desired temperature when the fuel was changed from natural gas (NG) to syngas (SG). One NG case was conducted to assess the effect of coolant pressure matching between the compressor extraction points and corresponding turbine injection points. It was found that pressure matching is a feature that must be considered for high combustion temperatures. The first series of SG simulations was conducted using the same inlet mass flow and pressure ratios as those for the NG case. The results showed that higher coolant flow rates and a larger number of cooled turbine rows were needed for the SG case. Thus, for this first case, the turbine size would be different for SG than for NG. In order to maintain the original turbine configuration (i.e., geometry, diameters, blade heights, angles, and cooling circuit characteristics) for the SG simulations, a second series of simulations was carried out by varying the inlet mass flow while keeping constant the pressure ratios and the amount of hot gas passing the first vane of the turbine. The effect of turbine matching between the NG and SG cases was approximately 10 C, and 8 to 14% for rotor inlet temperature and total cooling flows, respectively. These results indicate that turbine-compressor matching, before and after fuel change, must be included in turbine models. The last stage of the turbine, for the SG case, experienced higher inner wall temperatures than the corresponding case for NG, with the temperature of the vane approaching the maximum allowable limit. This paper was published by ASME as paper no. GT2007-27530.

  20. Kinetics of coal combustion: Part 2, Mechanisms and kinetics of coal volatiles combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Essenhigh, R.H.; Bailey, E.G.; Shaw, D.W. )

    1988-12-01

    Values of global kinetic constants for the combustion of coal volatiles have been determined for the first time for volatiles from three coals (two bituminous coals and a Texas lignite). Global kinetic constants for methane and propane were also measured in the same apparatus to allow comparison with reference gases. Comparisons have also been made with values of global kinetics for pure hydrocarbons from a range of experiments as found in the literature. The volatiles were pyrolyzed from crushed coal drawn on weighed trays through a gas-fired muffle furnace, and they were burned at the top of a tube in an intense back-mix volume treated theoretically as a stirred reactor. Two types of experiment were carried out: partial combustion measurements near the stoichiometric for all coals from which the global kinetics were determined; and extinction limits for the Pittsburgh {number sign}8 coal volatiles to determine the extinction loop. The near stoichiometric generated kinetic data were used to predict the extinction limits with substantial agreement. Extinction loops for methane, propane and carbon monoxide were also measured for comparison.