Sample records for growth results largely

  1. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is an object of the present invention to provide a procedure for desensitizing zirconium-based alloys to large grain growth (LGG) during thermal treatment above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for treating zirconium-based alloys which have been cold-worked in the range of 2 to 8% strain to reduce large grain growth. It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for fabricating a zirconium alloy clad nuclear fuel element wherein the zirconium clad is resistant to large grain growth.

  2. Non-traditional growth in large, established firms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunderrajan, Suresh, 1970-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Firms must continuously strive to grow through the creation of new sources of competitive advantage. The challenges to growth are more severe for large, established firms that derive a predominant amount of their present ...

  3. A Minimal Model for Large-scale Epitaxial Growth Kinetics of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huijun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition is considered to be the most promising way towards synthesizing large area graphene with high quality. However, it remains a big theoretical challenge to reveal growth kinetics with atomically energetic and large-scale spatial information included. Here, we propose a minimal kinetic Monte Carlo model to address such an issue on an active catalyst surface with graphene/substrate lattice mismatch, which facilitates us to perform large scale simulations of the growth kinetics over two dimensional surface with growth fronts of complex shapes. A geometry-determined large-scale growth mechanism is revealed, where the rate-dominating event is found to be $C_{1}$-attachment for concave growth front segments and $C_{5}$-attachment for others. This growth mechanism leads to an interesting time-resolved growth behavior which is well consistent with that observed in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  4. Cooperative Island Growth of Large Area Single-Crystal Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regmi, Murari [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rouleau, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Eastman, Jeffrey [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Eres, Gyula [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a two-step approach for suppressing nucleation of graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition. In the first step, as received Cu foils are oxidized in air at temperatures up to 500 C to remove surface impurities and to induce the regrowth of Cu grains during subsequent annealing in H2 flow at 1040 C prior to graphene growth. In the second step, transient reactant cooling is performed by using a brief Ar pulse at the onset of growth to induce collisional deactivation of the carbon growth species. The combination of these two steps results in a three orders of magnitude reduction in the graphene nucleation density, enabling the growth of millimeter-size single crystal graphene grains. A kinetic model shows that suppressing nucleation promotes a cooperative island growth mode that favors the formation of large area single crystal graphene, and it is accompanied by a roughly 3 orders of magnitude increase in the reactive sticking probability of methane compared to that in random nucleation growth.

  5. On the dangers of using the growth equation on large scales in the Newtonian gauge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James B. Dent; Sourish Dutta

    2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the accuracy of the growth equation $\\ddot{\\delta} + 2H\\dot{\\delta} - 4\\pi G\\rho\\delta = 0$, which is ubiquitous in the cosmological literature, in the context of the Newtonian gauge. By comparing the growth predicted by this equation to a numerical solution of the linearized Einstein equations in the $\\Lambda$CDM scenario, we show that while this equation is a reliable approximation on small scales ($k\\gtrsim $h Mpc$^{-1}$), it can be disastrously inaccurate ($\\sim 10^4% $) on larger scales in this gauge. We propose a modified version of the growth equation for the Newtonian gauge, which while preserving the simplicity of the original equation, provides considerably more accurate results. We examine the implications of the failure of the growth equation on a few recent studies, aimed at discriminating general relativity from modified gravity, which use this equation as a starting point. We show that while the results of these studies are valid on small scales, they are not reliable on large scales or high redshifts, if one works in the Newtonian gauge. Finally, we discuss the growth equation in the synchronous gauge and show that the corrections to the Poisson equation are exactly equivalent to the difference between the overdensities in the synchronous and Newtonian gauges.

  6. Probabilistic growth of large entangled states with low error accumulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuichiro Matsuzaki; Simon C Benjamin; Joseph Fitzsimons

    2009-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The creation of complex entangled states, resources that enable quantum computation, can be achieved via simple 'probabilistic' operations which are individually likely to fail. However, typical proposals exploiting this idea carry a severe overhead in terms of the accumulation of errors. Here we describe an method that can rapidly generate large entangled states with an error accumulation that depends only logarithmically on the failure probability. We find that the approach may be practical for success rates in the sub-10% range, while ultimately becoming unfeasible at lower rates. The assumptions that we make, including parallelism and high connectivity, are appropriate for real systems including measurement-induced entanglement. This result therefore shows the feasibility for real devices based on such an approach.

  7. Faster growth in warmer winters for large trees in a Mediterranean-climate ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Malcolm

    Faster growth in warmer winters for large trees in a Mediterranean-climate ecosystem Seth W of large trees in a rapidly changing climate, we analyzed growth rings of five conifer species against 20th. Climatic Change DOI 10.1007/s10584-014-1060-0 Electronic supplementary material The online version

  8. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of this report is to present the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the large-scale test stand. The report includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodology, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging of small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. 2012a. The results of the aerosol measurements in the small-scale test stand are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012b).

  9. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

  10. Economic and Performance Benefits Resulting From the Use of Large...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    were implemented to offset theseadditional capital costs. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)was used to show that the large fan design virtually eliminateshot air...

  11. Variable amplitude fatigue crack growth, experimental results and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a,*, F. Bumbieler b a Laboratory of Mechanics and Technology Cachan, 61, Avenue du Pre´s. Wilson method. This identification was performed for a 0.48%C carbon steel. Then various fatigue crack growth) is required so as to capture the very details of the elastic­plastic cyclic deformation of the mate- rial

  12. levels, the large change in the carrier density results in both large linear as well as large nonlinear chirp. If an appropriate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, R. Jacob

    below its threshold whereas for achieving nearly transform-limited pulses with high peak power, biaslevels, the large change in the carrier density results in both large linear as well as large compensate for this large linear chirp, a relatively shorter compressed pulse will be realised (at 1·5 m

  13. New results from the LASS (Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; D'Amore, J.; Dunwoodie, W.; Endorf, R.; Fujii, K.; Hayashii, H.; Iwata, S.

    1987-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    New results are presented from analyses of several mesonic and baryonic states containing one or more strange quarks. The data are taken from a high statistics (4 events/nb) study of K p interactions at 11 GeV/c carried out in the LASS Spectrometer at SLAC. New information is reported on the underlying K* states and also evidence for selective coupling of K eta to the K*'s; on the strangeonium members of the axial vector nonets in the K anti K channel; and on evidence for an * state.

  14. Large coil task and results of testing US coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubenreich, P.N.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States, EURATOM, Japan, and Switzerland have collaborated since 1978 in development of superconducting toroidal field coils for fusion reactor applications. The United States provided a test facility nd three coils; the other participants, one coil each. All coils have the same interface dimensions and performance requirements (stable at 8 T), but internal design was decided by each team. Two US coil teams chose bath-cooled NbTi, 10-kA conductors. One developed a Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor, cooled by internal flow, rated at 18 kA. All US coils have diagnostic instrumentation and imbedded heaters that enable stability tests and simulated nuclear heating experiments. In single-coil tests, each coil operated at full current in self-field (6.4 T). In six-coil tests that began in July 1986, one US coil and the Japanese coil hve been successfully operated at full current at 8 T. The other coils have operated as background coils while awaiting their turn as test coil. Coil tests have been informative and results gratifying. The facility has capably supported coil testing and its operation has provided information that will be useful in designing future fusion systems. Coil capabilities beyond nominal design points will be determined.

  15. A parametric study of condensation growth and nucleation scavenging over large fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, L.L.; Penner, J.E.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we are concerned with nucleation scavenging of smoke particles over large fires, those of magnitudes associated with ignition due to nuclear blast. The amount of smoke injected into the atmospehre and the characterization of the smoke particle is uncertain. Some carbonaceous smoke particles act as efficient CCN although smoke from some kinds of petroleum fuels is not hygroscopic. The amount and nature of surface-active contaminants is unknown. To delineate the effects of the condensation and thermal accomodation coefficients, all processes of agglomeration, entrainment, and fallout are suppressed. Only early time nucleation and drop growth are considered in this study. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - annual growth rings Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Search Sample search results for: annual growth rings Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 D Smith and D b d s , Univemily of Victorfa, V'ictoriq I@ XKn Ekevier B.V. All rightsr w w d ....

  17. Growth and stability of stress corrosion cracks in large-diameter BWR piping. Volume 2: appendixes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, D A; Heald, J D; Horn, R M; Jewett, C W; Kass, J N; Mehta, H S; Ranganath, S; Sharma, S R

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a research program conducted to evaluate the behavior of hypothetical stress corrosion cracks in large diameter austenitic piping. The program included major tasks, a design margin assessment, an evaluation of crack growth and crack arrest, and development of a predictive model. As part of the margin assessment, the program developed diagrams which predicted net section collapse as a function of crack size. In addition, plasticity and dynamic load effects were also considered in evaluating collapse. Analytical methods for evaluating these effects were developed and were benchmarked by dynamic tests of 4-in.-diameter piping. The task of evaluating the growth behavior of stress corrosion cracks focused on developing constant load and cyclic growth rate data that could be used with the predictive model. Secondly, laboratory tests were performed to evaluate the conditions under which growing stress corrosion cracks would arrest when they intersected stress corrosion resistant weld metal. The third task successfully developed a model to predict the behavior of cracks in austenitic piping.

  18. Testing theoretical game theory results on a large scale : prisoner's dilemma on Facebook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Sunny (Sunny X.)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In my research, I designed and implemented an online game accessable to a large diverse audience via the Facebook social network to test out game theoretic results and study social interactions. In this game, we designed ...

  19. Large-Scale Analysis of Individual and Task Differences in Search Result Page Examination Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumais, Susan

    Large-Scale Analysis of Individual and Task Differences in Search Result Page Examination users examine results which are similar to those observed in small-scale studies. Our findings have differences on search result page examination strategies is important in develop- ing improved search engines

  20. Optimization and control of large power engineering systems (principal investigation results)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belyaev, L.S.; Gorskii, Yu.M.; Krumm, L.A.; Makarov, A.A.; Merenkov, A.P.; Popyrin, L.S.; Rudenko, Yu.N.; Sher, I.A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Principal scientific and practical results of investigations in the development of theory and methods of optimization and control of large power engineering systems, conducted under the scientific and methodological management of the USSR Academy of Sciences Scientific Council on complex problems of power engineering are characterized and the investigation development tasks are formulated. 52 refs.

  1. Results from large scale ultimate strength tests of K-braced jacket frame structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolt, H.M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase 2 of the JIP Frames Project included four large scale collapse tests of K-braced frames in which both gap and overlap K joints were the critical components. The results are presented in this paper. The local failure modes differed from typical isolated component tests, yet were representative of structural damage observed following Hurricane Andrew. The frame test results therefore provide important insight to the ultimate response of offshore jacket structures.

  2. Experimental results of a load management system for large commercial customers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, W.A.; Devaney, T.M.; Maher, A.M.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Encouraging experimental results have been obtained from a two-way load management system for large commercial as well as governmental customers on the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCo) system. This paper presents these results and describes the inovative twoway load management system that was developed and installed to achieve them. The Robinton Products, Inc. system operates from a central processor located in PEPCO's control center and it communicates with the customer locations through a telephone system called ''Select-A-Station''. Future plans for the expansion of the system are presented along with experimental results.

  3. Lessons from a Large-Scale Assessment: Results from Conceptual Inventories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thacker, Beth; Pattillo, Dave; West, Keith

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the conceptual inventory results of a large-scale assessment project at a large university. We studied an attempt at introducing materials and instructional methods informed by physics education research (PER-informed materials) into a department where most instruction has been traditional and a significant number of faculty are hesitant, ambivalent or even resistant about the introduction of such reforms. The changes were made in the laboratories and recitation sections of the introductory classes, both calculus-based and algebra-based, introducing PER-informed materials and training the teaching assistants in student-centered instructional methods. In addition to the results found in the large lecture classes, we present the results of a small PER-informed, inquiry-based, laboratory-based class that has been taught as a special section of the algebra-based course for about 10 years. The assessment reported in this paper was done using available PER-developed assessment instruments. The results of ...

  4. The European Large Area ISO Survey - ISOPHOT results using the MPIA-pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Surace; P. Heraudeau; D. Lemke; S. Oliver; M. Rowan-Robinson; the ELAIS consortium

    1998-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) will provide Infrared observations of 4 regions in the sky with ISO. Around 2000 Infrared sources have been detected at 7 and 15 microns (with ISOCAM), 90 and 175 microns (with ISOPHOT)) over 13 square degrees of the sky. We present the source extraction pipeline of the 90 microns ISOPHOT observations, describe and discuss the results obtained and derive the limits of the ELAIS observational strategy.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by NASA at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development of SiC large tapered crystal...

  6. Large

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sand CERNLand and AssetLandscapingLarge

  7. Resultant magnetic fields due to both windings and heavy current leads in large power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang Renyuan; Li Yan; Lin Feng; Tian Lijian [Shenyang Polytechnic Univ. (China)] [Shenyang Polytechnic Univ. (China)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eddy current field due to both windings and heavy current leads (HCL) in large power transformers is analyzed by using the improved T-{Omega} method, in which the T and {Omega} can be solved separately in different subregions. Thus, the storage capacity and CPU time can be saved to a great extent. In addition, the local overheating on the tank wall near the magnetic shield gap is calculated and analyzed, and the improving measures are proposed. On the basis of these work, a composite shield is analyzed and optimized. The numerical results show that the eddy current losses have been reduced and the local overheating has been removed by using this composite shield.

  8. Bone Growth, Maintenance and Loss in the Neolithic Community of Çatalhöyük, Turkey: Preliminary Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Sabrina; Glencross, Bonnie; Beauchesne, Patrick

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bone Growth, Maintenance and Loss in the Neolithic CommunityThe examination of bone maintenance and loss is another wellchanging patterns of bone maintenance typically observed in

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient ozone growth Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate and Environment (Climate) Impacts of ozone on trees and crops Summary: and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and...

  10. Large-Scale Wind Integration Studies in the United States: Preliminary Results; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Lew, D.; Corbus, D.; Piwko, R.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Jordan, G.; Freeman, L.; Zavadil, B.; Schuerger, M.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is managing two large regional wind integration studies on behalf of the United States Department of Energy. These two studies are believed to be the largest ever undertaken in the United States.

  11. Field Test Results of Automated Demand Response in a Large Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response,Automated Demand Response in a Large Office Building JunqiaoDemand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non-Residential Building

  12. Domain partitioning as a result of deformation in the framework of large-strain Cosserat plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Blesgen

    2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the rate-independent large-strain Cosserat theory of plasticity we calculate analytically explicit solutions of a two-dimensional shear problem. We discuss two cases where the micro-rotations are stationary solutions of an Allen-Cahn equation. Thus, for a certain parameter range, patterning arises and the domain is partitioned into subsets with approximate constant rotations. This describes a possible mechanism for the formation of grains and subgrains in deformed solids.

  13. Infrared Gluon and Ghost Propagators from Lattice QCD. Results from large asymmetric lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Oliveira; P. J. Silva

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the infrared limit of the quenched lattice Landau gauge gluon and ghost propagators as well as the strong coupling constant computed from large asymmetric lattices. The infrared lattice propagators are compared with the pure power law solutions from Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE). For the gluon propagator, the lattice data is compatible with the DSE solution. The preferred measured gluon exponent being $\\sim 0.52$, favouring a null zero momentum propagator. The lattice ghost propagator shows finite volume effects and, for the volumes considered, the propagator does not follow a pure power law. Furthermore, the strong coupling constant is computed and its infrared behaviour investigated.

  14. Field Test Results of Automated Demand Response in a Large Office Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR) is an emerging research field and an effective tool that improves grid reliability and prevents the price of electricity from rising, especially in deregulated markets. This paper introduces the definition of DR and Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). It describes the Auto-DR technology utilized at a commercial building in the summer of 2006 and the methodologies to evaluate associated demand savings. On the basis of field tests in a large office building, Auto-DR is proven to be a reliable and credible resource that ensures a stable and economical operation of the power grid.

  15. AEROSOL SELF-ASSEMBLY OF NANOPARTICLE FILMS: GROWTH DYNAMICS AND RESULTING 3D STRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Qinghua

    produced by a flame reactor can deposit thermophoretically on a cooled substrate resulting in the rapid

  16. A Detailed Look at the First Results from the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Dark Matter Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Szydagis; D. S. Akerib; H. M. Araujo; X. Bai; A. J. Bailey; J. Balajthy; E. Bernard; A. Bernstein; A. Bradley; D. Byram; S. B. Cahn; M. C. Carmona-Benitez; C. Chan; J. J. Chapman; A. A. Chiller; C. Chiller; T. Coffey; A. Currie; L. de Viveiros; A. Dobi; J. Dobson; E. Druszkiewicz; B. Edwards; C. H. Faham; S. Fiorucci; C. Flores; R. J. Gaitskell; V. M. Gehman; C. Ghag; K. R. Gibson; M. G. D. Gilchriese; C. Hall; S. A. Hertel; M. Horn; D. Q. Huang; M. Ihm; R. G. Jacobsen; K. Kazkaz; R. Knoche; N. A. Larsen; C. Lee; A. Lindote; M. I. Lopes; D. C. Malling; R. Mannino; D. N. McKinsey; D. -M. Mei; J. Mock; M. Moongweluwan; J. Morad; A. St. J. Murphy; C. Nehrkorn; H. Nelson; F. Neves; R. A. Ott; M. Pangilinan; P. D. Parker; E. K. Pease; K. Pech; P. Phelps; L. Reichhart; T. Shutt; C. Silva; V. N. Solovov; P. Sorensen; K. O'Sullivan; T. Sumner; D. Taylor; B. Tennyson; D. R. Tiedt; M. Tripathi; S. Uvarov; J. R. Verbus; N. Walsh; R. Webb; J. T. White; M. S. Witherell; F. L. H. Wolfs; M. Woods; C. Zhang

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    LUX, the world's largest dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber, with a fiducial target mass of 118 kg and 10,091 kg-days of exposure thus far, is currently the most sensitive direct dark matter search experiment. The initial null-result limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross-section was released in October 2013, with a primary scintillation threshold of 2 phe, roughly 3 keVnr for LUX. The detector has been deployed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, and is the first experiment to achieve a limit on the WIMP cross-section lower than $10^{-45}$ cm$^{2}$. Here we present a more in-depth discussion of the novel energy scale employed to better understand the nuclear recoil light and charge yields, and of the calibration sources, including the new internal tritium source. We found the LUX data to be in conflict with low-mass WIMP signal interpretations of other results.

  17. A Detailed Look at the First Results from the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Dark Matter Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szydagis, M; Araujo, H M; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Coffey, T; Currie, A; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Flores, C; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C; Hertel, S A; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D -M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Ott, R A; Pangilinan, M; Parker, P D; Pease, E K; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; O'Sullivan, K; Taylor, D; Tennyson, B; Tiedt, D R; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J T; Witherell, M S; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LUX, the world's largest dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber, with a fiducial target mass of 118 kg and 10,091 kg-days of exposure thus far, is currently the most sensitive direct dark matter search experiment. The initial null-result limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross-section was released in October 2013, with a primary scintillation threshold of 2 phe, roughly 3 keVnr for LUX. The detector has been deployed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, and is the first experiment to achieve a limit on the WIMP cross-section lower than $10^{-45}$ cm$^{2}$. Here we present a more in-depth discussion of the novel energy scale employed to better understand the nuclear recoil light and charge yields, and of the calibration sources, including the new internal tritium source. We found the LUX data to be in conflict with low-mass WIMP signal interpretations of other results.

  18. Developing Optimal Growth Parameters for the Green Microalgae Nannochloris oculata and the Diatom Nitzschia sp. for Large scale Raceway Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luedecke, Phillip Ryan

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Microalgae produce large quantities of lipids that can be used for biofuel feedstock. The goal of this project was to determine the effect of several engineering and management parameters on the productivity of microalgae cultivated in large...

  19. Summary of the Symposium on Ingot Nb and New Results on Fundamental Studies of Large Grain Nb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Ciovati, P. Dhakal, R. Myneni

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The First International Symposium on the Superconducting Science and Technology of Ingot Niobium was held at Jefferson Lab in September 2010. Significant activities are taking place at laboratories and universities throughout the world to address several aspects related to the science and technology of Ingot Nb: from ingot production to mechanical, thermal and superconducting properties. A summary of the results presented at the Symposium is given in this contribution. New results on the superconducting properties and interstitial impurities content measured in large-grain Nb samples and cavities are briefly highlighted.

  20. Large grain growth of Ge-rich Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} (x???0.02) on insulating surfaces using pulsed laser annealing in flowing water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurosawa, Masashi, E-mail: kurosawa@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); JSPS, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Taoka, Noriyuki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ikenoue, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate Sn incorporation effects on the growth characteristics of Ge-rich Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} (x?large-grain (?800?nm?) growth of Ge{sub 0.98}Sn{sub 0.02} polycrystals by using PLA in water. These polycrystals also show a tensile-strain of ?0.68%. This result opens up the possibility for developing GeSn-based devices fabricated on flexible substrates as well as Si platforms.

  1. Buffer Pellets for High-Yield, Top-Seeded Melt Growth of Large Grain Y?Ba?Cu?O Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Namburi Devendra; Shi, Yunhua; Zhai, Wei; Dennis, Anthony R.; Durrell, John H.; Cardwell, David A.

    2015-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    , which was determined by optimizing targeted critical parameters of the buffer pellet, including the choice of the buffer pellet composition and its aspect ratio, for the reliable fabrication of large, single grains of (RE)BCO. Potential candidates...

  2. The \\^G Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. II. Framework, Strategy, and First Result

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, J T; Sigurðsson, S; Povich, M S; Mullan, B

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the framework and strategy of the \\^G infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although Gaia will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a "zeroth order" null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can...

  3. Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) Project: Tractive Energy Analysis Methodology and Results from Long-Haul Truck Drive Cycle Evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaClair, Tim J [ORNL

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the approach that will be used in the Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) project to evaluate the fuel savings potential of various truck efficiency technologies. The methods and equations used for performing the tractive energy evaluations are presented and the calculation approach is described. Several representative results for individual duty cycle segments are presented to demonstrate the approach and the significance of this analysis for the project. The report is divided into four sections, including an initial brief overview of the LSDC project and its current status. In the second section of the report, the concepts that form the basis of the analysis are presented through a discussion of basic principles pertaining to tractive energy and the role of tractive energy in relation to other losses on the vehicle. In the third section, the approach used for the analysis is formalized and the equations used in the analysis are presented. In the fourth section, results from the analysis for a set of individual duty cycle measurements are presented and different types of drive cycles are discussed relative to the fuel savings potential that specific technologies could bring if these drive cycles were representative of the use of a given vehicle or trucking application. Additionally, the calculation of vehicle mass from measured torque and speed data is presented and the accuracy of the approach is demonstrated.

  4. Nonlinear effects resulting from the interaction of a large-scale Alfven wave with a density filament

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angles, University of

    through the plasma-sheet boundary layer in the earth's magnetosphere at altitudes of 4­6 Earth radii-scale wave are large enough to produce oscillatory velocities comparable to the electron thermal velocity

  5. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 498 (2003) 101111 First results of the large COMPASS 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutz, Hartmut

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; DNP; Lithium deuteride 1. Introduction The EMC result that the quarks carry unexpect- edly a small

  6. Physical control oriented model of large scale refrigerators to synthesize advanced control schemes. Design, validation, and first control results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonne, François; Bonnay, Patrick [INAC, SBT, UMR-E 9004 CEA/UJF-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Alamir, Mazen [Gipsa-Lab, Control Systems Department, CNRS-University of Grenoble, 11, rue des Mathématiques, BP 46, 38402 Saint Martin d'Hères (France)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a physical method to obtain control-oriented dynamical models of large scale cryogenic refrigerators is proposed, in order to synthesize model-based advanced control schemes. These schemes aim to replace classical user experience designed approaches usually based on many independent PI controllers. This is particularly useful in the case where cryoplants are submitted to large pulsed thermal loads, expected to take place in the cryogenic cooling systems of future fusion reactors such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced Fusion Experiment (JT-60SA). Advanced control schemes lead to a better perturbation immunity and rejection, to offer a safer utilization of cryoplants. The paper gives details on how basic components used in the field of large scale helium refrigeration (especially those present on the 400W @1.8K helium test facility at CEA-Grenoble) are modeled and assembled to obtain the complete dynamic description of controllable subsystems of the refrigerator (controllable subsystems are namely the Joule-Thompson Cycle, the Brayton Cycle, the Liquid Nitrogen Precooling Unit and the Warm Compression Station). The complete 400W @1.8K (in the 400W @4.4K configuration) helium test facility model is then validated against experimental data and the optimal control of both the Joule-Thompson valve and the turbine valve is proposed, to stabilize the plant under highly variable thermals loads. This work is partially supported through the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) Goal Oriented Training Program, task agreement WP10-GOT-GIRO.

  7. Impacts of Large Amounts of Wind Power on Design and Operation of Power Systems; Results of IEA Collaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Parsons, B.; Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.; Orths, A.; O'Malley, M.; Ummels, B. C.; Tande, J. O.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez, E.; Smith, J. C.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the results from 18 case studies, with discussion on differences in methodology as well as issues that have been identified to impact the cost of wind integration.

  8. What is the effect of LiDAR-derived DEM resolution on large-scale watershed model results?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping Yang; Daniel B. Ames; Andre Fonseca; Danny Anderson; Rupesh Shrestha; Nancy F. Glenn; Yang Cao

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the effect of raster cell size on hydrographic feature extraction and hydrological modeling using LiDAR derived DEMs. LiDAR datasets for three experimental watersheds were converted to DEMs at various cell sizes. Watershed boundaries and stream networks were delineated from each DEM and were compared to reference data. Hydrological simulations were conducted and the outputs were compared. Smaller cell size DEMs consistently resulted in less difference between DEM-delineated features and reference data. However, minor differences been found between streamflow simulations resulted for a lumped watershed model run at daily simulations aggregated at an annual average. These findings indicate that while higher resolution DEM grids may result in more accurate representation of terrain characteristics, such variations do not necessarily improve watershed scale simulation modeling. Hence the additional expense of generating high resolution DEM's for the purpose of watershed modeling at daily or longer time steps may not be warranted.

  9. Effects of interactive transport and scavenging of smoke on the calculated temperature change resulting from large amounts of smoke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacCracken, M.C.; Walton, J.J.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several theoretical studies with numerical models have shown that substantial land-surface cooling can occur if very large amounts (approx. 100 x 10/sup 12/ = 100 Tg) of highly absorbing sooty-particles are injected high into the troposphere and spread instantaneously around the hemisphere (Turco et al., 1983; Covey et al. 1984; MacCracken, 1983). A preliminary step beyond these initial calculations has been made by interactively coupling the two-layer, three-dimensional Oregon State University general circulation model (GCM) to the three-dimensional GRANTOUR trace species model developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GCM simulation includes treatment of tropospheric dynamics and thermodynamics and the effect of soot on solar radiation. The GRANTOUR simulation includes treatment of particle transport and scavenging by precipitation, although no satisfactory verification of the scavenging algorithm has yet been possible. We have considered the climatic effects of 150 Tg (i.e., the 100 Mt urban war scenario from Turco et al., 1983) and of 15 Tg of smoke from urban fires over North America and Eurasia. Starting with a perpetual July atmospheric situation, calculation of the climatic effects as 150 Tg of smoke are spread slowly by the winds, rather than instantaneously dispersed as in previous calculations, leads to some regions of greater cooling under the denser parts of the smoke plumes and some regions of less severe cooling where smoke arrival is delayed. As for the previous calculations, mid-latitude decreases of land surface air temperature for the 150 Tg injection are greater than 15/sup 0/C after a few weeks. For a 15 Tg injection, however, cooling of more than several degrees centigrade only occurs in limited regions under the dense smoke plumes present in the first few weeks after the injection. 10 references, 9 figures.

  10. Results of Large-Scale Testing on Effects of Anti-Foam Agent on Gas Retention and Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Charles W.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Arm, Stuart T.; Butcher, Mark G.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Park, Walter R.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Su, Yin-Fong; Wend, Christopher F.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Cooley, Scott K.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Christian D.; Reid, Larry D.; Smith, Harry D.; Wells, Beric E.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2008-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection’s Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will process and treat radioactive waste that is stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste treatment process in the pretreatment facility will mix both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries in large process tanks. Process vessels mixing non-Newtonian slurries will use pulse jet mixers (PJMs), air sparging, and recirculation pumps. An anti-foam agent (AFA) will be added to the process streams to prevent surface foaming, but may also increase gas holdup and retention within the slurry. The work described in this report addresses gas retention and release in simulants with AFA through testing and analytical studies. Gas holdup and release tests were conducted in a 1/4-scale replica of the lag storage vessel operated in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Applied Process Engineering Laboratory using a kaolin/bentonite clay and AZ-101 HLW chemical simulant with non-Newtonian rheological properties representative of actual waste slurries. Additional tests were performed in a small-scale mixing vessel in the PNNL Physical Sciences Building using liquids and slurries representing major components of typical WTP waste streams. Analytical studies were directed at discovering how the effect of AFA might depend on gas composition and predicting the effect of AFA on gas retention and release in the full-scale plant, including the effects of mass transfer to the sparge air. The work at PNNL was part of a larger program that included tests conducted at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is being reported separately. SRNL conducted gas holdup tests in a small-scale mixing vessel using the AZ-101 high-level waste (HLW) chemical simulant to investigate the effects of different AFAs, their components, and of adding noble metals. Full-scale, single-sparger mass transfer tests were also conducted at SRNL in water and AZ-101 HLW simulant to provide data for PNNL’s WTP gas retention and release modeling.

  11. Bridgman Growth of Large SrI2:Eu2+ Single Crystals: A High-performance Scintillator for Radiation Detection Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Hawrami, Rastgo [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Higgins, William [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Van Loef, Edgar [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Glodo, J. [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Shah, Kanai [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Bhattacharya, P. [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Tupitsyn, E [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Groza, Michael [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Burger, Arnold [Fisk University, Nashville, TN

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-crystal strontium iodide (SrI2) doped with relatively high levels (e.g., 3 - 6 %) of Eu2+ exhibits characteristics that make this material superior, in a number of respects, to other scintillators that are currently used for radiation detection. Specifically, SrI2:Eu2+ has a light yield that is significantly higher than LaBr3:Ce3+ -a currently employed commercial high-performance scintillator. Additionally, SrI2:Eu2+ is characterized by an energy resolution as high as 2.6% at the 137Cs gamma-ray energy of 662 keV, and there is no radioactive component in SrI2:Eu2+ - unlike LaBr3:Ce3+ that contains 138La. The Ce3+-doped LaBr3 decay time is, however, faster (30 nsec) than the 1.2 sec decay time of SrI2:Eu2+. Due to the relatively low melting point of strontium iodide (~515 oC), crystal growth can be carried out in quartz crucibles by the vertical Bridgman technique. Materials-processing and crystal-growth techniques that are specific to the Bridgman growth of europium-doped strontium iodide scintillators are described here. These techniques include the use of a porous quartz frit to physically filter the molten salt from a quartz antechamber into the Bridgman growth crucible and the use of a bent or bulb grain selector design to suppress multiple grain growth. Single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+ scintillators with good optical quality and scintillation characteristics have been grown in sizes up to 5.0 cm in diameter by applying these techniques. Other aspects of the SrI2:Eu2+ crystal-growth methods and of the still unresolved crystal-growth issues are described here.

  12. Cardiac Mortality in Patients With Stage I and II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With and Without Radiation: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, Thomas J., E-mail: thomas.pugh@ucdenver.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Ballonoff, Ari; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; McCammon, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Standard therapy for stage I and II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma consists of combined modality therapy with anthracycline-based chemotherapy, anti-CD20 antibody, and radiation therapy (RT). Curative approaches without RT typically utilize more intensive and/or protracted chemotherapy schedules. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens are associated with a dose-dependent risk of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. We hypothesize that patients treated without RT, i.e., those who are treated with greater total chemotherapy cycles and hence cumulative anthracycline exposure, are at increased risk of cardiac mortality. Methods and Materials: The rate of cardiac-specific mortality (CSM) was analyzed in patients with stage I and II diffuse large B-cell lymphoma diagnosed between 1988 and 2004 by querying the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results database. Analyzable data included gender, age, race, stage, presence of extranodal disease, and RT administration. Results: A total of 15,454 patients met selection criteria; 6,021 (39%) patients received RT. The median follow-up was 36 months (range, 6-180 months). The median age was 64 years. The actuarial incidence rates of CSM at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.3%, 9.0%, and 13.8%, respectively, in patients treated with RT vs. 5.9%, 10.8% and 16.1%, respectively, in patients treated without RT (p < 0.0001; hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.56). The increase in cardiac deaths for patients treated without RT persisted throughout the follow-up period. On multivariate analysis, treatment without RT remained independently associated with an increased risk of CSM (Cox hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI: 1.13-1.54; p = 0.0005). Conclusions: Increased anthracycline exposure in patients treated only with chemotherapy regimens may result in an increase in cardiac deaths, detectable only through analysis of large sample sizes. Confirmatory evaluation through meta-analysis of randomized data and design of large prospective trials is warranted.

  13. Outcomes and Effect of Radiotherapy in Patients With Stage I or II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballonoff, Ari [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)], E-mail: ari.ballonoff@uchsc.edu; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; Schwer, Amanda; McCammon, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Bassetti, Michael; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and the effect of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with localized diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for all patients diagnosed with Stage I, IE, II, or IIE DLBCL between 1988 and 2004. The analyzable data included gender, age, race, stage, presence of extranodal disease, and RT administration. Patients who had died or were lost to follow-up within 6 months of diagnosis were excluded. Results: A total of 13,420 patients met the search criteria. Of these, 5,547 (41%) had received RT and 7,873 (59%) had not. RT was associated with a significant DSS (hazard ratio, 0.82, p <0.0001) and OS benefit that persisted during the 15 years of follow-up. Elderly patients, defined either as those >60 or >70 years old, had significantly improved DSS and OS associated with RT. On multivariate analysis, RT was significantly associated with increased DSS and OS. The 5-year DSS outcomes were highly variable among patient subsets, defined by age, stage, and extranodal disease (range for RT-treated patients, 70% for Stage II, age >60 years to 87% for Stage I, age {<=}60 years). Conclusion: This analysis presents the largest detailed data set of Stage I-II DLBCL patients. The results of our study have demonstrated that RT is associated with a survival advantage in patients with localized DLBCL, a benefit that extends to elderly patients. Outcomes for discrete patient subsets varied greatly. The development of tailored therapy according to the relapse risk is warranted, rather than uniform treatment of all early-stage DLBCL.

  14. Growth strategies of ectothermic animals in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gotthard, Karl

    analysis is also a tool for inves- tigating hypotheses of evolutionary causes and of adaptations in general such as growth, sexual maturation and reproduction as the result of strategic decisions over an organism's life it reduces the risk of being killed before reproduction and entails a short generation time, while a large

  15. Overexpression of the human BCL-2 gene product results in growth enhancement of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, Yoshihide (Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The biological activity of the human BCL-2 gene product was analyzed in an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected human lymphoblastoid B-cell line transfected with BCL-2 sequences driven by the simian virus 40 promoter and enhancer. Overproduction of the BCL-2 protein conferred a selective growth advantage to the EBV-infected B cells as compared with control transfectants in low-serum medium and also after seeding at limiting dilution but did not render the cells tumorigenic in athymic nude mice. This growth enhancement was also seen in cells transfected with the BCL-2 gene with its own promoter juxtaposed to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer, which represents the translocated form of the BCL-2 gene observed in follicular lymphomas with the t(14;18) translocation. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B cells overproducing the BCL-2 protein is neither due to the enhanced growth factor production nor due to an enhanced sensitivity of the BCL-2 transfectants to interleukins 1 or 6, although both lymphokines are known to stimulate proliferation of EBV-infected B-cell lines. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B-cell lines. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B cells by overproduction of the BCL-2 protein suggests the direct involvement of the BCL-2 gene product in the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma.

  16. Anisotropic strain relaxation and the resulting degree of polarization by one- and two-step growth in nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-sapphire substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Shih-Wei, E-mail: swfeng@nuk.edu.tw; Chen, Yu-Yu [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung No.700, Kaohsiung University Road, Nan-Tzu Dist., 811. Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chih-Ming [Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Chuan University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tu, Li-Wei [Department of Physics and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Han, Jung [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven 06520, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Anisotropic strain relaxation and the resulting degree of polarization of the electronic transition in nonpolar a-plane GaN using one- and two-step growth are studied. By using two-step growth, a slower coalescence and a longer roughening-recovery process lead to larger anisotropic strain relaxation, a less striated surface, and lower densities of basal stacking fault (BSF) and prismatic stacking fault (PSF). It is suggested that anisotropic in-plane strains, surface striation, and BSF and PSF densities in nonpolar a-GaN are consequences of the rate of coalescence, the period of roughening-recovery process, and the degree of anisotropic strain relaxation. In addition, the two-step growth mode can enhance the degree of polarization of the electronic transition. The simulation results of the k?p perturbation approach show that the oscillator strength and degree of polarization of the electronic transition strongly depend on the in-plane strains upon anisotropic in-plane strain relaxation. The research results provide important information for optimized growth of nonpolar III-nitrides. By using two-step growth and by fabricating the devices on the high-quality nonpolar free-standing GaN substrates, high-efficiency nonpolar a-plane InGaN LEDs can be realized. Nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN LEDs can exhibit a strongly polarized light to improve the contrast, glare, eye discomfort and eye strain, and efficiency in display application.

  17. LAMBOT et al. (1979) found comparable results : the optimum crude protein concentration for growth and nitrogen utilisation is about 13.3 -12.2 and 11.4 per cent at body weights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LAMBOT et al. (1979) found comparable results : the optimum crude protein concentration for growth for protein are expressed as digestible crude protein (DCP). #12;Energy value of feeds The content of SFU per= digestible crude protein, per cent of dry matter X! = digestible crude fat, per cent of dry matter X3

  18. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS, VOL. 13, NO. 6, JUNE 2005 765 VARIABILITY RESULTS FOR DUAL-THRESHOLD VOLTAGE ALLOCATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dueck, Gerhard W.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS, VOL. 13, NO. 6, JUNE 2005 765, and M. I. Elmasry, "Dynamic and leakage power reduction in MTCMOS circuits using an automated effi. 1997. [6] Q. Wang and S. B. K. Vrudhula, "Static power optimization of deep submicron CMOS circuits

  19. Mechanism of grain growth during severe plastic deformation of a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hongqi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Y B [NON LANL; Ho, J C [NON LANL; Liao, X Z [NON LANL; Zhu, Y T [NON LANL; Ringer, S P [NON LANL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deformation induced grain growth has been widely reported in nanocrystalline materials. However, the grain growth mechanism remains an open question. This study applies high-pressure torsion to severely deform bulk nanocrystalline Ni-20 wt % Fe disks and uses transmission electron microscopy to characterize the grain growth process. Our results provide solid evidence suggesting that high pressure torsion induced grain growth is achieved primarily via grain rotation for grains much smaller than 100 nm. Dislocations are mainly seen at small-angle subgrain boundaries during the grain growth process but are seen everywhere in grains after the grains have grown large.

  20. A diversity of dusty AGN tori: Data release for the VLTI/MIDI AGN Large Program and first results for 23 galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burtscher, Leonard; Tristram, Konrad R W; Jaffe, Walter; Hönig, Sebastian F; Davies, Richard I; Kishimoto, Makoto; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Röttgering, Huub; Schartmann, Marc; Weigelt, Gerd; Wolf, Sebastian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The AGN-heated dust distribution (the "torus") is increasingly recognized not only as the absorber required in unifying models, but as a tracer for the reservoir that feeds the nuclear Super-Massive Black Hole. Yet, even its most basic structural properties (such as its extent, geometry and elongation) are unknown for all but a few archetypal objects. Since most AGNs are unresolved in the mid-infrared, we utilize the MID-infrared interferometric Instrument (MIDI) at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) that is sensitive to structures as small as a few milli-arcseconds (mas). We present here an extensive amount of new interferometric observations from the MIDI AGN Large Program (2009 - 2011) and add data from the archive to give a complete view of the existing MIDI observations of AGNs. Additionally, we have obtained high-quality mid-infrared spectra from VLT/VISIR. We present correlated and total flux spectra for 23 AGNs and derive flux and size estimates at 12 micron using simple axisymmetric geome...

  1. aqueous chemical growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technische Universiteit Delft 36 Growth of Large-Area Aligned Molybdenum Nanowires by High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Device...

  2. DROP TESTS RESULTS OF REVISED CLOSURE BOLT CONFIGURATION OF THE STANDARD WASTE BOX, STANDARD LARGE BOX 2, AND TEN DRUM OVERPACK PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, C.; Opperman, E.; Mckeel, C.

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Transuranic (TRU) Disposition Project at Savannah River Site will require numerous transfers of radioactive materials within the site boundaries for sorting and repackaging. The three DOT Type A shipping packagings planned for this work have numerous bolts for securing the lids to the body of the packagings. In an effort to reduce operator time to open and close the packages during onsite transfers, thus reducing personnel exposure and costs, an evaluation was performed to analyze the effects of reducing the number of bolts required to secure the lid to the packaging body. The evaluation showed the reduction to one-third of the original number of bolts had no effect on the packagings capability to sustain vibratory loads, shipping loads, internal pressure loads, and the loads resulting from a 4-ft drop. However, the loads caused by the 4-ft drop are difficult to estimate and the study recommended each of the packages be dropped to show the actual effects on the package closure. Even with reduced bolting, the packagings were still required to meet the 49 CFR 178.350 performance criteria for Type A packaging. This paper discusses the effects and results of the drop testing of the three packagings.

  3. A single amino acid change resulting in loss of fluorescence of eGFP in a viral fusion protein confers fitness and growth advantage to the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, Phat X.; Panda, Debasis; Das, Phani B.; Das, Subash C.; Das, Anshuman [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0900 (United States) [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0900 (United States); The Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0900 (United States); Pattnaik, Asit K., E-mail: apattnaik2@unl.edu [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0900 (United States); The Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0900 (United States)

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus encoding eGFP fused in-frame with an essential viral replication protein, the phosphoprotein P, we show that during passage in culture, the virus mutates the nucleotide C289 within eGFP of the fusion protein PeGFP to A or T, resulting in R97S/C amino acid substitution and loss of fluorescence. The resultant non-fluorescent virus exhibits increased fitness and growth advantage over its fluorescent counterpart. The growth advantage of the non-fluorescent virus appears to be due to increased transcription and replication activities of the PeGFP protein carrying the R97S/C substitution. Further, our results show that the R97S/C mutation occurs prior to accumulation of mutations that can result in loss of expression of the gene inserted at the G-L gene junction. These results suggest that fitness gain is more important for the recombinant virus than elimination of expression of the heterologous gene.

  4. Growth machine theory: a qualitative analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Gavin Paul

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of land inherent in growth machine theory, does not necessarily result in a dialectic, win-lose situation. Furthermore, it is argued that the growth coalition may not always ado t a unidimensional roach to development where further growth...

  5. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 11 - 20 of 12 results. Download Photosynthesis and Biomass Growth (7 Activities) Introduce your students to the power of plants...

  6. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 11 - 20 of 13 results. Download Photosynthesis and Biomass Growth (7 Activities) Introduce your students to the power of plants...

  7. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  8. Lemniscate growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    May 8, 2012 ... [8], (mem)Brane theory [3], elliptic growth [11], and non-Newtonian Hele-Shaw flows [5]. ...... a loose connection to non-Newtonian fluids.

  9. The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nation’s CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

  10. Mechanochemical modeling of dynamic microtubule growth involving sheet-to-tube transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Ying Ji; Xi-Qiao Feng

    2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Microtubule dynamics is largely influenced by nucleotide hydrolysis and the resultant tubulin configuration changes. The GTP cap model has been proposed to interpret the stabilizing mechanism of microtubule growth from the view of hydrolysis effects. Besides, the microtubule growth involves the closure of a curved sheet at its growing end. The curvature conversion also helps to stabilize the successive growth, and the curved sheet is referred to as the conformational cap. However, there still lacks theoretical investigation on the mechanical-chemical coupling growth process of microtubules. In this paper, we study the growth mechanisms of microtubules by using a coarse-grained molecular method. Firstly, the closure process involving a sheet-to-tube transition is simulated. The results verify the stabilizing effect of the sheet structure, and the minimum conformational cap length that can stabilize the growth is demonstrated to be two dimers. Then, we show that the conformational cap can function independently of the GTP cap, signifying the pivotal role of mechanical factors. Furthermore, based on our theoretical results, we describe a Tetris-like growth style of microtubules: the stochastic tubulin assembly is regulated by energy and harmonized with the seam zipping such that the sheet keeps a practically constant length during growth.

  11. Bertrand's postulate and subgroup growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Rabee, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we investigate the L^1-norm of certain functions on groups called divisibility functions. Using these functions, their connection to residual finiteness, and integration theory on profinite groups, we define the residual average of a finitely generated group. One of the main results in this article is the finiteness of residual averages on finitely generated linear groups. Whether or not the residual average is finite depends on growth rates of indices of finite index subgroups. Our results on index growth rates are analogous to results on gaps between primes, and provide a variant of the subgroup growth function, which may be of independent interest.

  12. Transforming Growth Factor ?-1 (TGF-?1) Is a Serum Biomarker of Radiation Induced Fibrosis in Patients Treated With Intracavitary Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boothe, Dustin L. [Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Coplowitz, Shana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Greenwood, Eleni [Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Barney, Christian L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Christos, Paul J. [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K. S. Clifford [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Wernicke, A. Gabriella, E-mail: gaw9008@med.cornell.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stich Radiation Center, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To examine a relationship between serum transforming growth factor ? -1 (TGF-?1) values and radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective analysis of the development of RIF in 39 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0-I breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and accelerated partial breast irradiation via intracavitary brachytherapy (IBAPBI). An enzyme-linked immunoassay (Quantikine, R and D, Minneapolis, MN) was used to measure serum TGF-?1 before surgery, before IBAPBI, and during IBAPBI. Blood samples for TGF-?1 were also collected from 15 healthy, nontreated women (controls). The previously validated tissue compliance meter (TCM) was used to objectively assess RIF. Results: The median time to follow-up for 39 patients was 44 months (range, 5-59 months). RIF was graded by the TCM scale as 0, 1, 2, and 3 in 5 of 20 patients (25%), 6 of 20 patients (30%), 5 of 20 patients (25%), and 4 of 20 patients (20%), respectively. The mean serum TGF-?1 values were significantly higher in patients before surgery than in disease-free controls, as follows: all cancer patients (30,201 ± 5889 pg/mL, P=.02); patients with any type of RIF (32,273 ± 5016 pg/mL, P<.0001); and women with moderate to severe RIF (34,462 ± 4713 pg/mL, P<0.0001). Patients with moderate to severe RIF had significantly elevated TGF-?1 levels when compared with those with none to mild RIF before surgery (P=.0014) during IBAPBI (P?0001), and the elevation persisted at 6 months (P?.001), 12 months (P?.001), 18 months (P?.001), and 24 months (P=.12). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of TGF-?1 values predicting moderate to severe RIF was generated with an area under the curve (AUC){sub ROC} of 0.867 (95% confidence interval 0.700-1.000). The TGF-?1 threshold cutoff was determined to be 31,000 pg/mL, with associated sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusions: TGF-?1 levels correlate with the development of moderate to severe RIF. The pre-IBAPBI mean TGF-?1 levels can serve as an early biomarker for the development of moderate to severe RIF after IBAPBI.

  13. Mesoscale flows in large aspect ratio simulations of turbulent compressible convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Rincon; F. Lignieres; M. Rieutord

    2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a very large aspect ratio (42.6) numerical simulation of fully compressible turbulent convection in a polytropic atmosphere, and focus on the properties of large-scale flows. Mesoscale patterns dominate the turbulent energy spectrum. We show that these structures, which had already been observed in Boussinesq simulations by Cattaneo et al. (2001), have a genuine convective origin and do not result directly from collective interactions of the smaller scales of the flow, even though their growth is strongly affected by nonlinear transfers. If this result is relevant to the solar photosphere, it suggests that the dominant convective mode below the Sun's surface may be at mesoscales.

  14. Geometry of Valley Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  15. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubic, Jr., William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  16. Florida Growth Fund (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Florida Growth Fund can provide investments in technology and growth-related companies through co-investments with other institutional investors. The Fund awards preference to companies...

  17. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Chen, Jin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Energy Plant Research Lab., Dept. of Computer Science; Anozie, Fransisca C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Morales, Alejandro [Wageningen Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Center for Crop Systems Analysis; Weise, Sean E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Sharkey, Thomas D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.

  18. Functional diversity of soil microbial community, rock phosphate dissolution and growth of Acacia seyal as influenced by grass-,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thioulouse, Jean

    soil amended or not with rock phosphate. Results indicated a stimulation of plant growth with rock phosphate alone. Leaf content in N was also increased in the termite treatments (except was hypothesized to be related to the production of large quantities of oxalic acid by fungal populations

  19. Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Growth mechanism of graphene on platinum: Surface catalysis and carbon segregation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jie, E-mail: jie.sun@chalmers.se; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Nam, Youngwoo [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cole, Matthew T. [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, CB3 0FA Cambridge (United Kingdom); Teo, Kenneth B. K. [AIXTRON Nanoinstruments Ltd., Swavesey, CB24 4FQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of the graphene growth mechanism of chemical vapor deposition on platinum is proposed and verified by experiments. Surface catalysis and carbon segregation occur, respectively, at high and low temperatures in the process, representing the so-called balance and segregation regimes. Catalysis leads to self-limiting formation of large area monolayer graphene, whereas segregation results in multilayers, which evidently “grow from below.” By controlling kinetic factors, dominantly monolayer graphene whose high quality has been confirmed by quantum Hall measurement can be deposited on platinum with hydrogen-rich environment, quench cooling, tiny but continuous methane flow and about 1000?°C growth temperature.

  1. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growthmore »analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.« less

  2. Long-term Survival Outcomes Following Internal Mammary Node Irradiation in Stage II-III Breast Cancer: Results of a Large Retrospective Study With 12-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Jee Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Bae; Lee, Ik Jae; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok, E-mail: cosuh317@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae, E-mail: sjhuh@smc.samsung.co.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To examine the effect of internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI) on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients treated with modified radical mastectomy and postoperative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2002, 396 patients with stage II-III breast cancer were treated with postmastectomy radiation therapy with (n=197) or without (n=199) IMNI. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. IMNI was administered at the clinical discretion of the treating physician. Median RT dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45.0-59.4 Gy) in 28 fractions, with inclusion of the supraclavicular fossa in 96% of patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 99.7% of the patients and endocrine therapy to 53%. Results: The median follow-up was 149 months (range, 124-202). IMNI patients had more advanced nodal stage and non-high grade tumors than those without IMNI (P<.001). Otherwise, disease and treatment characteristics were well balanced. The 10-year DFS with and without IMNI was 65% and 57%, respectively (P=.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IMNI was an independent, positive predictor of DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; P=.02). Benefits of IMNI in DFS were seen most apparently in N2 patients (HR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.74) and inner/central tumors (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.90). The 10-year OS with and without IMNI was 72% and 66%, respectively (P=.62). The 10-year DFS and OS were 61%, and 69%, respectively. Conclusions: Internal mammary node irradiation significantly improved DFS in postmastectomy breast cancer patients. Pending long-term results from randomized trials, treatment of internal mammary nodes should be considered in postmastectomy radiation therapy.

  3. Export Growth and Credit Constraints Tibor Besedes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Export Growth and Credit Constraints Tibor Besedes Byung-Cheol Kim Volodymyr Lugovskyy§ May 14, 2014 Abstract We investigate the effect of credit constraints on the growth of exports at the micro of exporting, but not in later stages. Our empirical results using product level data on exports to twelve

  4. Coordination of cell growth with cell division: G1 cyclin regulation of nitrogen metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan, Brad Allen

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How cell growth and metabolism are coupled with cell division is largely unknown. We examined budding yeast cells growing under continuous culture conditions, and found that cell growth requirements were not limited to the G1 phase of the cell...

  5. Oil Prices, External Income, and Growth: Lessons from Jordan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper extends the long-run growth model of Esfahani et al. (2009) to a labour exporting country that receives large inflows of external income - the sum of remittances, FDI and general government transfers - from major oil exporting economies...

  6. Automatic Model Complexity Control Using Marginalized Discriminative Growth Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hain, Thomas

    Automatic model complexity control . Most LVCSR systems are trained on large amounts of data. . ManyAutomatic Model Complexity Control Using Marginalized Discriminative Growth Functions X. Liu & M. J. J. F. Gales: Automatic Model Complexity Control Using Marginalized Discriminative Growth Functions

  7. The Rise of Europe: Atlantic Trade, Institutioanl Change and Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2003-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents that the Rise of (Western) Europe between 1500 and 1850 is largely accounted for by the growth of European nations with access to the Atlantic, ...

  8. Mixed Mode Static and Fatigue Crack Growth in Wind Blade Paste Adhesives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , static GIc and mixed mode fracture, and fatigue crack growth resistance. I. Introduction Wind turbine blades are large composite structures which are typically resin infusion molded in sections

  9. Sorghum Growth and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerik, Tom; Bean, Brent W.; Vanderlip, Richard

    2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorghum is well adapted to Texas, and its ability to yield consistently makes it popular with growers. This publication discusses sorghum plant biology and growth....

  10. Strategic Growth Initiative (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A joint venture between Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the Strategic Growth Initiative Grant Program was...

  11. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  12. Shallow melt apparatus for semicontinuous czochralski crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  13. Approach and Preliminary Results for Early Growth Technology Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziegler, Blaine

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Even experts cannot be fully aware of all the promising developments in broad and complex fields of technology, such as renewable energy. Fortunately, there exist many diverse sources of information that report new ...

  14. Results an data on the growth of the microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinavichius, K.S.

    1995-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of biocorrosion of aluminum and its alloy was performed under conditions of continuous fermentation of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms of different groups. This allowed us to examine the effect of various types of metabolic reactions of reduction-oxidation proceeding at different pH and temperatures under highly reduced conditions on aluminum corrosion. Besides, the experiments were performed where the part of the standard sample was exposed under strictly anaerobic conditions with an active microbiological process, and the second half was exposed under aerobic conditions. Thus the sample was exposed in gradient of oxidized-reduced conditions.

  15. Physics of Substorm Growth Phase, Onset, and Dipolarization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.Z. Cheng

    2003-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A new scenario of substorm growth phase, onset, and depolarization during expansion phase and the corresponding physical processes are presented. During the growth phase, as a result of enhanced plasma convection, the plasma pressure and its gradient are continued to be enhanced over the quiet-time values in the plasma sheet. Toward the late growth phase, a strong cross-tail current sheet is formed in the near-Earth plasma sheet region, where a local magnetic well is formed, the plasma beta can reach a local maximum with value larger than 50 and the cross-tail current density can be enhanced to over 10nA/m{sup 2} as obtained from 3D quasi-static magnetospheric equilibrium solutions for the growth phase. The most unstable kinetic ballooning instabilities (KBI) are expected to be located in the tailward side of the strong cross-tail current sheet region. The field lines in the most unstable KBI region map to the transition region between the region-1 and region-2 currents in the ionosphere, which is consistent with the observed initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the intense proton precipitation region. The KBI explains the AMPTE/CCE observations that a low-frequency instability with a wave period of 50-75 seconds is excited about 2-3 minutes prior to substorm onset and grows exponentially to a large amplitude at the onset of current disruption (or current reduction). At the current disruption onset higher frequency instabilities are excited so that the plasma and electromagnetic field fluctuations form a strong turbulent state. Plasma transport takes place due to the strong turbulence to relax the ambient plasma pressure profile so that the plasma pressure and current density are reduced and the ambient magnetic field intensity increases by more than a factor of 2 in the high-beta(sub)eq region and the field line geometry recovers from tail-like to dipole-like dipolarization.

  16. Growth and properties of Lithium Salicylate single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hull, G; Saw, C; Carman, L; Cherepy, N; Payne, S

    2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An attractive feature of {sup 6}Li containing fluorescence materials that determines their potential application in radiation detection is the capture reaction with slow ({approx}< 100 keV) neutrons: {sup 6}Li + n = {sup 4}He + {sup 3}H + 4.8MeV. The use of {sup 6}Li-salicylate (LiSal, LiC{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}) for thermal neutron detection was previously studied in liquid and polycrystalline scintillators. The studies showed that both liquid and polycrystalline LiSal scintillators could be utilized in pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques that enable separation of neutrons from the background gamma radiation. However, it was found that the efficiency of neutron detection using LiSal in liquid solutions was severely limited by its low solubility in commonly used organic solvents like, for example, toluene or xylene. Better results were obtained with neutron detectors containing the compound in its crystalline form, such as pressed pellets, or microscopic-scale (7-14 micron) crystals dispersed in various media. The expectation drown from these studies was that further improvement of pulse height, PSD, and efficiency characteristics could be reached with larger and more transparent LiSal crystals, growth of which has not been reported so far. In this paper, we present the first results on growth and characterization of relatively large, a cm-scale size, single crystals of LiSal with good optical quality. The crystals were grown both from aqueous and anhydrous (methanol) media, mainly for neutron detection studies. However, the results on growth and structural characterization may be interesting for other fields where LiSal, together with other alkali metal salicylates, is used for biological, medical, and chemical (as catalyst) applications.

  17. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  18. Planar elliptic growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  19. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  20. Robust Growth Determinants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsimonious...

  1. Evolution of Graphene Growth on Ni and Cu by Carbon Isotope Labeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evolution of Graphene Growth on Ni and Cu by Carbon Isotope Labeling Xuesong Li, Weiwei Cai, Luigi Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, Texas 75243 Received August 3, 2009 ABSTRACT Large-area graphene growth) of hydrocarbons has shown some promise in growing large-area graphene or few-layer graphene films on metal

  2. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  3. The energetics of growth, respiration, and egestion of juvenile striped mullet, Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muska, Carl Frank

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    not have yielded useful results due to the effect of ration size on the water, protein, and caloric content of the fish. This study demonstrates the desirability of measuring growth in terms of changes in total protein and calories. Partial energy.... . . . . . . RESULTS. Experiment 1 Growth Caloric Analyses. Respiration. Unmeasured Energy Loss. Experiment 2. Growth. Caloric and Protein Analyses. Respiration. Egestion. DISCUSSION. Experiment l. Growth. Respiration Energy Budgets and Growth...

  4. Large scale disease prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Patrick R. (Patrick Raphael)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis is to present the foundation of an automated large-scale disease prediction system. Unlike previous work that has typically focused on a small self-contained dataset, we explore the possibility ...

  5. Methodology Principal results Conclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neha T. Patel; Ajit Gupta; Amar Nath P

    Strong positive growth responses to salinity by Ceriops tagal, a commonly occurring mangrove of the Gujarat coast of India

  6. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E. (South Setauket, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  7. Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  8. Large power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsai, K.; Kerenyi, D.; Kiss, L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The book deals with the following aspects of transformer engineering: general principles governing the function of transformers, iron cores, windings, stray losses caused by stray flux, the insulation of transformers, and the structural parts and accessories. This edition includes the developments in theory and practice on the basis of the authors' experience in design, manufacturing and testing of large transformers. New developments have been particularly extensive in the fields of new magnetic materials, cooling methods, dielectric strength for overvoltages of different types, and stray-load loss problems, which are presented in the book in detail. The many diagrams in the book can be used directly in the design, manufacture and testing of large transformers. In preparing their text, the authors have aimed to satisfy the demand for a work that summarizes the latest experience in development and design of large power transformers.

  9. A Geometric Theory of Growth Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arash Yavari

    2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we formulate a geometric theory of the mechanics of growing solids. Bulk growth is modeled by a material manifold with an evolving metric. Time dependence of metric represents the evolution of the stress-free (natural) configuration of the body in response to changes in mass density and "shape". We show that time dependency of material metric will affect the energy balance and the entropy production inequality; both the energy balance and the entropy production inequality have to be modified. We then obtain the governing equations covariantly by postulating invariance of energy balance under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms. We use the principle of maximum entropy production in deriving an evolution equation for the material metric. In the case of isotropic growth, we find those growth distributions that do not result in residual stresses. We then look at Lagrangian field theory of growing elastic solids. We will use the Lagrange-d'Alembert's principle with Rayleigh's dissipation functions to derive all the governing equations. We make an explicit connection between our geometric theory and the conventional multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient $\\mathbf{F}=\\mathbf{F}_e\\mathbf{F}_g$ into growth and elastic parts. We linearize the nonlinear theory and derive a linearized theory of growth mechanics. Finally, we obtain the stress-free growth distributions in the linearized theory.

  10. Analysis of crack initiation and growth in the high level vibration test at Tadotsu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassir, M.K.; Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Shteyngart, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Level Vibration Test data are used to assess the accuracy and usefulness of current engineering methodologies for predicting crack initiation and growth in a cast stainless steel pipe elbow under complex, large amplitude loading. The data were obtained by testing at room temperature a large scale modified model of one loop of a PWR primary coolant system at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory in Japan. Fatigue crack initiation time is reasonably predicted by applying a modified local strain approach (Coffin-Mason-Goodman equation) in conjunction with Miner`s rule of cumulative damage. Three fracture mechanics methodologies are applied to investigate the crack growth behavior observed in the hot leg of the model. These are: the {Delta}K methodology (Paris law), {Delta}J concepts and a recently developed limit load stress-range criterion. The report includes a discussion on the pros and cons of the analysis involved in each of the methods, the role played by the key parameters influencing the formulation and a comparison of the results with the actual crack growth behavior observed in the vibration test program. Some conclusions and recommendations for improvement of the methodologies are also provided.

  11. Composting Large Animal Carcasses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auvermann, Brent W.; Mukhtar, Saqib; Heflin, Kevin

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposing of large animal carcasses can be a problem for agricultural producers. Composting is a simple, low-cost method that yields a useful product that can be used as fertilizer. In this publication you'll learn the basics of composting, how...

  12. Composting Large Animal Carcasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auvermann, Brent W.; Mukhtar, Saqib; Heflin, Kevin

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposing of large animal carcasses can be a problem for agricultural producers. Composting is a simple, low-cost method that yields a useful product that can be used as fertilizer. In this publication you'll learn the basics of composting, how...

  13. Giant planet formation: episodic impacts vs. gradual core growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broeg, Christopher

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the growth of gas giant planets in the core accretion scenario. The core growth is not modeled as a gradual accretion of planetesimals but as episodic impacts of large mass ratios, i.e. we study impacts of 0.02 - 1 Earth masses onto cores of 1-15 Earth masses. Such impacts could deliver the majority of solid matter in the giant impact regime. We focus on the thermal response of the envelope to the energy delivery. Previous studies have shown that sudden shut off of core accretion can dramatically speed up gas accretion. We therefore expect that giant impacts followed by periods of very low core accretion will result in a net increase in gas accretion rate. This study aims at modelling such a sequence of events and to understand the reaction of the envelope to giant impacts in more detail. To model this scenario, we spread the impact energy deposition over a time that is long compared to the sound crossing time, but very short compared to the Kelvin-Helmholtz time. The simulations are done in spher...

  14. Domain growth in cholesteric blue phases: hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Henrich; D. Marenduzzo; K. Stratford; M. E. Cates

    2009-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we review a hybrid lattice Boltzmann algorithm to solve the equations of motion of cholesteric liquid crystals. The method consists in coupling a lattice Boltzmann solver for the Navier-Stokes equation to a finite difference method to solve the dynamical equations governing the evolution of the liquid crystalline order parameter. We apply this method to study the growth of cholesteric blue phase domains, within a cholesteric phase. We focus on the growth of blue phase II and on a thin slab geometry in which the domain wall is flat. Our results show that, depending on the chirality, the growing blue phase is either BPII with no or few defects, or another structure with hexagonal ordering. We hope that our simulations will spur further experimental investigations on quenches in micron-size blue phase samples. The computational size that our hybrid lattice Boltzmann scheme can handle suggest that large scale simulations of new generation of blue phase liquid crystal device are within reach.

  15. Journal of Crystal Growth ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 ¼ 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used and the dissolved quantity of CO2 have a significant effect on the average particle size, specific surface areaJournal of Crystal Growth ] (

  16. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mok, H. S.; Murata, Y.; Kodambaka, S., E-mail: kodambaka@ucla.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebnonnasir, A.; Ciobanu, C. V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Nie, S.; McCarty, K. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we follow the growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate temperature, nucleation of graphene begins on graphene-free Pd surface and continues to occur during graphene growth. Measurements of graphene growth rates and Pd surface work functions establish that this continued nucleation is due to increasing C adatom concentration on the Pd surface with time. We attribute this anomalous phenomenon to a large barrier for attachment of C adatoms to graphene coupled with a strong binding of the non-graphitic C to the Pd surface.

  17. Laboratory Evidence for Stochastic Plasma-Wave Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, D. R. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales, 2006 (Australia); Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Hole, M. J. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales, 2006 (Australia); Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Australian Capital Territory, 0200 (Australia); Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales, 2006 (Australia); Dallaqua, R. [Laboratorio Associado de Plasma-LAP, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE/MCT, CP 515, 12201-970, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The first laboratory confirmation of stochastic growth theory is reported. Floating potential fluctuations are measured in a vacuum arc centrifuge using a Langmuir probe. Statistical analysis of the energy density reveals a lognormal distribution over roughly 2 orders of magnitude, with a high-field nonlinear cutoff whose spatial dependence is consistent with the predicted eigenmode profile. These results are consistent with stochastic growth and nonlinear saturation of a spatially extended eigenmode, the first evidence for stochastic growth of an extended structure.

  18. Eco-Growth: A Framework for Sustainable Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanco, Edgar E.

    Growth is imperative for corporate success and yet the environmental impact of this growth is not sustainable. In this paper we offer a framework for thinking about the stages of tackling the environmental sustainability ...

  19. Thermomechanical cavity-growth modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, R.E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of recent field tests, laboratory studies, and modeling efforts in UCG have indicated that the thermal and mechanical properties of coal may be the controlling parameters in determining initial cavity shape. In examining this possibility, laboratory efforts have been directed at determining temperature and bedding plane dependent properties of coal. A thermomechanical model which uses these properties has indicated that the cavity shapes seen at both the Hanna and Hoe Creek test sites result from the temperature dependent properties of the coal such as the coefficients of thermal expansion and the elastic moduli. The model determines stress levels and uses a simple bedding plane dependent stress failure mechanism to determine cavity growth.

  20. Process for fabrication of large titanium diboride ceramic bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN); Bomar, E. S. (Knoxville, TN); Becher, Paul F. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for manufacturing large, fully dense, high purity TiB.sub.2 articles by pressing powders with a sintering aid at relatively low temperatures to reduce grain growth. The process requires stringent temperature and pressure applications in the hot-pressing step to ensure maximum removal of sintering aid and to avoid damage to the fabricated article or the die.

  1. Heteroepitaxial Nucleation and Oriented Growth of Manganese

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heteroepitaxial Nucleation and Oriented Growth of Manganese Oxide Islands on Carbonate Minerals-limit. Our results provide an improved basis both for the development of predictive models of contaminant Manganese oxide minerals in surface and groundwaters dissolve as Mn2+ (aq) and precipitate as manganese

  2. Short Communication Growth of charged micelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nonlinearities suggests that Coulomb interactions result in an additional contribution to the free energy of an end-cap that modifies the growth law for the average micelle size. In some cases, the micelle size varies approximately as 03A6(1/2)(1+039B),where 039B > 0 depends on the renormalized coulomb charge

  3. Emittance growth from electron beam modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In linac ring colliders like MeRHIC and eRHIC a modulation of the electron bunch can lead to a modulation of the beam beam tune shift and steering errors. These modulations can lead to emittance growth. This note presents simple formulas to estimate these effects which generalize some previous results.

  4. Economic Growth, Physical Limits and Liveability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on criteria air contaminants, water use, land use, greenhouse gas emissions and solid waste disposal and population growth, impose the physical limits and then simulate household and firm responses to policy and assess the resulting implications for liveability in the region. I measure liveability using 24

  5. Small Enterprise Growth Fund (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Enterprise Growth Fund is a professionally-managed venture capital fund that invests in Maine companies which demonstrate high potential for growth and public benefit. The fund has...

  6. Fatigue-crack growth correlations for design and analysis of stainless steel components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, L.A.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A relatively large collection of fatigue-crack growth results for annealed Types 304 and 316 stainless steels over a wide range of temperature was processed and analyzed in a consistent way. Only data that satisfied the criteria of ASTM E647-82 was retained and used in the statistical treatments that followed. Linear least-squares regression equations and 95% confidence intervals were fitted through the results for each material/temperature set. The regression results (and their associated limits of validity) provide useful equations for the analysis of structural components. Overlap (or the lack of overlap) of the confidence intervals was employed as a criterion as to whether the results for Types 304 and 316 should be separated into discrete sets, and on this basis it was concluded that the two alloys should be treated separately. 38 references, 16 figures, 1 table.

  7. Why electric-power growth will not resume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1983-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic structural changes now occurring in the US economy have irrevocably broken previously existing links between gross national product and the growth of sales of electricity. The author contends that the extent of the macroeconomic changes presently taking place are underestimated by many electric-utility planners and, as a result, forecasts projecting electricity growth rates about even with gross national product growth levels when the economy recovers are too high. The article states that electric-utility companies are entering an indefinite period of stagnant sales growth. But it closes on the positive note that electric-utility managements can take certain steps to make their businesses grow again. 8 figures.

  8. Cavity growth patterns on the partial seam crip test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hommert, P.J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Partial Seam CRIP (PSC) test conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories was characterized by two distinctly different types of cavity growth. Portions of the thermal data from the test have been analyzed using conduction models to infer the dynamics of the cavity growth. Growth during the first phase of the test was characterized by rapid movement of the process to the top of the seam. The growth patterns during this time were remarkably similar to those observed on the Hoe Creek III test. Cavity growth observed later in the test, after the CRIP maneuver and when the horizontal production was in use, showed more lateral extent within the seam similar to patterns that were observed on the Hanna UCG tests. This type of growth resulted in improved process efficiency, at least for the early post-CRIP period. Calculations using a thermal-mechanical growth model are consistent with both types of growth observed. In particular, when stringers that were present in the seam are included in the model calculations, the more favorable growth patterns observed in the test are predicted. It is concluded that non-coal layers within the seam have the potential to significantly affect cavity growth and thus their presence should be accounted for when designing a process. 11 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  9. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

  10. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, Timothy J. (Tijeras, NM); Ginley, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  11. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  12. Direct growth of graphene on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanh Trung, Pham, E-mail: phamtha@fundp.ac.be; Joucken, Frédéric; Colomer, Jean-François; Robert, Sporken [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Raskin, Jean-Pierre [Electrical Engineering (ELEN), Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Université catholique de Louvain UCL, 3 place du Levant, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hackens, Benoît; Santos, Cristiane N. [Nanoscopic physics (NAPS), Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Université catholique de Louvain UCL, 2 chemin du Cyclotron, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the need of integrated circuit in the current silicon technology, the formation of graphene on Si wafer is highly desirable, but is still a challenge for the scientific community. In this context, we report the direct growth of graphene on Si(111) wafer under appropriate conditions using an electron beam evaporator. The structural quality of the material is investigated in detail by reflection high energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experimental results confirm that the quality of graphene is strongly dependent on the growth time during carbon atoms deposition.

  13. ORIGINAL PAPER Growth and frost hardening of European aspen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Growth and frost hardening of European aspen and backcross hybrid aspen) supply influence the growth, bud phenology and frost hardening of seven young European aspen (Populus tremula) and backcross hybrid aspen ([P. tremula × Populus tremuloides] × P. tremula) families. & Results

  14. ccsd00004619, BSDE with quadratic growth and unbounded terminal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ccsd­00004619, version 1 ­ 1 Apr 2005 BSDE with quadratic growth and unbounded terminal value with quadratic growth and unbounded terminal value. We apply a localization procedure together with a priori bounds. As a byproduct, we apply the same method to extend a result on BSDEs with integrable terminal

  15. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  16. Effect of doping on growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip placed over cylindrical surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santolia, Isha; Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.; Sharma, Rinku [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Bawana Road, Delhi 110 042 (India)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical investigations to study the effect of doping of hetero-atoms on the growth and field emission properties of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) tip placed over a cylindrical surface in complex plasma have been carried out. A theoretical model incorporating kinetics of plasma species such as electron, ions, and neutral atoms including doping elements like nitrogen (N) and boron (B) and energy balance of CNTs in a complex plasma has been developed. The effect of doping elements of N and B on the growth of CNTs, namely, the tip radius has been carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that N and B as doping elements affect the radius of CNTs extensively. We obtain small radii of CNT doped with N and large radius of CNT doped with B. The field emission characteristics from CNTs have therefore been suggested on the basis of results obtained. Some of theoretical results are in compliance with the existing experimental observations.

  17. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size...

  18. Neutron irradiation of beryllium: Recent Russian results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, VA (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Results on postirradiation tensile and compression testing, swelling and bubble growth during annealing for various grades of beryllium are presented. It is shown that swelling at temperatures above 550{degrees}C is sensitive to material condition and response is correlated with oxygen content. Swelling on the order of 15% can be expected at 700{degrees}C for doses on the order of 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}. Bubble growth response depends on irradiation fluence.

  19. A Geometric Theory of Growth Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yavari, Arash

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we formulate a geometric theory of the mechanics of growing solids. Bulk growth is modeled by a material manifold with an evolving metric. Time dependence of metric represents the evolution of the stress-free (natural) configuration of the body in response to changes in mass density and "shape". We show that time dependency of material metric will affect the energy balance and the entropy production inequality; both the energy balance and the entropy production inequality have to be modified. We then obtain the governing equations covariantly by postulating invariance of energy balance under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms. We use the principle of maximum entropy production in deriving an evolution equation for the material metric. In the case of isotropic growth, we find those growth distributions that do not result in residual stresses. We then look at Lagrangian field theory of growing elastic solids. We will use the Lagrange-d'Alembert's principle with Rayleigh's dissipation functions...

  20. Large Spectral Library Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2008-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the ¯eld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identi¯cation is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identi¯cation is possible. We show that unique identi¯cation becomes less likely as p increases.

  1. Void Nucleation, Growth and Coalescence in Irradiated Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surh, M P; Sturgeon, J B; Wolfer, W G

    2008-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel computational treatment of dense, stiff, coupled reaction rate equations is introduced to study the nucleation, growth, and possible coalescence of cavities during neutron irradiation of metals. Radiation damage is modeled by the creation of Frenkel pair defects and helium impurity atoms. A multi-dimensional cluster size distribution function allows independent evolution of the vacancy and helium content of cavities, distinguishing voids and bubbles. A model with sessile cavities and no cluster-cluster coalescence can result in a bimodal final cavity size distribution with coexistence of small, high-pressure bubbles and large, low-pressure voids. A model that includes unhindered cavity diffusion and coalescence ultimately removes the small helium bubbles from the system, leaving only large voids. The terminal void density is also reduced and the incubation period and terminal swelling rate can be greatly altered by cavity coalescence. Temperature-dependent trapping of voids/bubbles by precipitates and alterations in void surface diffusion from adsorbed impurities and internal gas pressure may give rise to intermediate swelling behavior through their effects on cavity mobility and coalescence.

  2. Projection-free approximate balanced truncation of large unstable systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flinois, Thibault L B; Schmid, Peter J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we show that the projection-free, snapshot-based, balanced truncation method can be applied directly to unstable systems. We prove that even for unstable systems, the unmodified balanced proper orthogonal decomposition algorithm theoretically yields a converged transformation that balances the Gramians (including the unstable subspace). We then apply the method to a spatially developing unstable system and show that it results in reduced-order models of similar quality to the ones obtained with existing methods. Due to the unbounded growth of unstable modes, a practical restriction on the final impulse response simulation time appears, which can be adjusted depending on the desired order of the reduced-order model. Recommendations are given to further reduce the cost of the method if the system is large and to improve the performance of the method if it does not yield acceptable results in its unmodified form. Finally, the method is applied to the linearized flow around a cylinder at Re = 100...

  3. Growth, microstructure, and luminescent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heaton Armed- Deep Vadose ZonescheduleGrowth,

  4. Growth of Germanium Nanowires on a Flexible Organic Substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    2000; Wu and Yang 2000; Hanrath and Korgel 2002; Hanrath and Korgel 2004) (Greytak 2004) The small size-efficient substrate for potential applications such as those of photovoltaics or display technologies, due in large be manufactured to enable the extension of our methods to other nanowire/nanotube growth systems such as silicon

  5. Largely defocused probe scanning transmission electron microscopy for imaging local modulation of strain field in a hetero interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Suhyun, E-mail: u98kim@surface.phys.titech.ac.jp; Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum [Memory Analysis Science and Engineering Group, Samsung Electronics, San #16 Hwasung-City, Gyeonggi-Do 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oshima, Yoshifumi [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an innovative method for characterizing the strain field in three dimensions in a hetero interface. Largely defocused probe scanning transmission electron microscopy (LDP-STEM) was employed for imaging the inhomogeneous strain field in a germanium (Ge) layer deposited on a silicon (Si) substrate. In the LDP-STEM image, Ge-atomic columns that are relaxed or strained to the Si substrate in the Si/Ge hetero interface were observed to be distinguishable, allowing for the qualitative characterization of the coherency of the crystal growth. Our results revealed that the strain field is locally modulated along the in-plane direction in the Si/Ge hetero interface.

  6. Growth of a single freestanding multiwall carbon nanotube on each nanonickel dot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark

    that the structures are indeed hollow nanotubes. The diameter and height depend on the nickel dot size and growth time displays FEDs . Attempts to manipulate nano- tubes for these applications have been made by postgrowth deposition CVD on mesopo- rous silica with imbedded iron particles.9 The growth of large arrays of well

  7. MOCVD growth mechanisms of ZnO nanorods G Perillat-Merceroz1, 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    cells, gas sensors or LEDs. Their high crystalline quality and purity, due to growth without a catalyst, are adequate for optoelectronic applications. MOCVD growth [2] enables fast, large area deposition details ZnO nanorods were grown using catalyst-free MOCVD in a horizontal hot-wall Epigress reactor. The c

  8. Analysis of large urban fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fires in urban areas caused by a nuclear burst are analyzed as a first step towards determining their smoke-generation chacteristics, which may have grave implications for global-scale climatic consequences. A chain of events and their component processes which would follow a nuclear attack are described. A numerical code is currently being developed to calculate ultimately the smoke production rate for a given attack scenario. Available models for most of the processes are incorporated into the code. Sample calculations of urban fire-development history performed in the code for an idealized uniform city are presented. Preliminary results indicate the importance of the wind, thermal radiation transmission, fuel distributions, and ignition thresholds on the urban fire spread characteristics. Future plans are to improve the existing models and develop new ones to characterize smoke production from large urban fires. 21 references, 18 figures.

  9. Asymptotic growth and least common multiples in groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Rabee, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this article is to study the interplay between word and subgroup growth for finitely generated groups. We relate word and subgroup growth with norms of certain functions that arise in the quantification of residual finiteness. Our main result are lower bounds for these norms on free groups; this disproves a pair of folklore conjectures. In addition, we prove a pair of results that determine finitely generated, virtually nilpotent groups by the asymptotic behavior of these norms and related functions.

  10. Thermodynamics of QCD at large quark chemical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Gerhold; Andreas Ipp; Anton Rebhan

    2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the existing weak-coupling results on the thermodynamic potential of deconfined QCD at small and large quark chemical potential and compare with results from lattice gauge theory as well as the exactly solvable case of large-N_f QCD. We also discuss the new analytical results on non-Fermi-liquid effects in entropy and specific heat as well as in dispersion laws of quark quasiparticles at large quark chemical potential.

  11. Cavitation in a metallic liquid: Homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Y. [Department of Modern Mechanics, CAS Key Laboratory of Materials Behavior and Design, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Wu, H. A., E-mail: wuha@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Mechanics, CAS Key Laboratory of Materials Behavior and Design, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Luo, S. N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate homogeneous nucleation and growth of nanovoids during cavitation in liquid Cu. We characterize in detail the atomistic cavitation processes by following the temporal evolution of cavities or voids, analyze the nucleation behavior with the mean first-passage time (MFPT) and survival probability (SP) methods, and discuss the results against classical nucleation theory (CNT), the Tolman equation for surface energy, independent calculation of surface tension via integrating the stress profiles, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) growth law, and the power law for nucleus size distributions. Cavitation in this representative metallic liquid is a high energy barrier Poisson processes, and the steady-state nucleation rates obtained from statistical runs with the MFPT and SP methods are in agreement. The MFPT method also yields the critical nucleus size and the Zeldovich factor. Fitting with the Tolman's equation to the MD simulations yields the surface energy of a planar interface (?0.9 J m{sup ?2}) and the Tolman length (0.4–0.5 Å), and those values are in accord with those from integrating the stress profiles of a planar interface. Independent CNT predictions of the nucleation rate (10{sup 33?34} s{sup ?1} m{sup ?3}) and critical size (3–4 Å in radius) are in agreement with the MFPT and SP results. The JMA law can reasonably describe the nucleation and growth process. The size distribution of subcritical nuclei appears to follow a power law with an exponent decreasing with increasing tension owing to coupled nucleation and growth, and that of the supercritical nuclei becomes flattened during further stress relaxation due to void coalescence.

  12. Self-Limiting Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer Graphene from Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Self-Limiting Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer Graphene from Ethanol Pei Zhao, and systematically investigate the growth of graphene from ethanol and compare its self-limiting behavior over copper facets with different identities. Results show that the growth of graphene from ethanol in the LPCVD

  13. A device for microwave sintering large ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1987-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave sintering system is provided for uniform sintering of large and/or irregular shapes ceramic articles at microwave frequencies of at least 28 GHz in the hundreds of kilowatts power range in an untuned cavity. A 28 GHz, 200 kw gyrotron with variable power output is used as the microwave source connected to an untuned microwave cavity formed of an electrically conductive housing. The part to be sintered is placed in the cavity and supported on a removable high temperature table in a central location within the cavity. The part is surrounded by a microwave transparent bulk insulating material to reduce thermal heat loss at the part surfaces and maintain more uniform temperature. The cavity may be operated at a high vacuum to aid in preventing arcing. The system allows controlled increased heating rates of greater than 200/degree/C/min to provide rapid heating of a ceramic part to a selected sintering temperature where it is maintained by regulating the microwave power applied to the part. As a result of rapid heating, the extent on non-isothermal processes such as segregation of impurities to the grain boundaries are minimized and exaggerated grain growth is reduced, thereby strengthening the mechanical properties of the ceramic part being sintered. 1 fig.

  14. First electron-cloud studies at the Large Hadron Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, O; Arduini, G; Metral, E; Rumolo, G; Zimmermann, F; Maury Cuna, H

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the beam commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with 150, 75, 50, and 25-ns bunch spacing, important electron-cloud effects, like pressure rise, cryogenic heat load, beam instabilities, or emittance growth, were observed. Methods have been developed to infer different key beam-pipe surface parameters by benchmarking simulations and pressure rise as well as heat-load observations. These methods allow us to monitor the scrubbing process, i.e., the reduction of the secondary emission yield as a function of time, in order to decide on the most appropriate strategies for machine operation. To better understand the influence of electron clouds on the beam dynamics, simulations have been carried out to examine both the coherent and the incoherent effects on the beam. In this paper we present the methodology and first results for the scrubbing monitoring process at the LHC. We also review simulated instability thresholds and tune footprints for beams of different emittance, interacting with an electr...

  15. Ris-R-Report Improved design for large wind turbine blades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for large wind turbine blades of fibre composites (Phase 4) - Summary report Division: 1 Materials Research of wind turbine blade involving geometric and material instabilities 30 5.2 Simulation of crack growthRisø-R-Report Improved design for large wind turbine blades of fibre composites (Phase 4) - Summary

  16. Potential growth of nuclear and coal electricity generation in the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Merrill, E.T.

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity demand should continue to grow at about the same rate as GNP, creating a need for large amounts of new generating capacity over the next fifty years. Only coal and nuclear at this time have the abundant domestic resources and assured technology to meet this need. However, large increase in both coal and nuclear usage will require solutions to many of the problems that now deter their increased usage. For coal, the problems center around the safety and environmental impacts of increased coal mining and coal combustion. For nuclear, the problems center around reactor safety, radioactive waste disposal, financial risk, and nuclear materials safeguards. This report assesses the impacts associated with a range of projected growth rates in electricity demand over the next 50 years. The resource requirements and waste generation resulting from pursuing the coal and nuclear fuel options to meet the projected growth rates are estimated. The fuel requirements and waste generation for coal plants are orders of magnitude greater than for nuclear. Improvements in technology and waste management practices must be pursued to mitigate environmental and safety concerns about electricity generation from both options. 34 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Growth of Large-Area Aligned Molybdenum Nanowires by High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Device Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    , thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, as well as structure analysis by electron on the decomposition of MoO2 vapors through condensation of its vapor at high substrate temperatures. The aligned nanowires with H2 gas.6d-f However, the reduction process degrades the crystal- linity of the nanowires

  18. Large power grid analysis using domain decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanram, Kartik

    -scale linear circuits such as power distribution networks. Simulation results show that by inte- grating the proposed DD framework, existing linear circuit simulators can be extended to handle otherwise intractableLarge power grid analysis using domain decomposition Quming Zhou, Kai Sun, Kartik Mohanram, Danny C

  19. Silicon ingot casting - heat exchanger method (HEM); multi-wire slicing - fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST). Phase IV. Silicon sheet growth development for the Large Area Sheet Task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Quarterly progress report No. 4, October 1-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C.P.; Basaran, M.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The crystallinity of large-size ingots has been studied as a function of the heat flow conditions at the bottom of the ingot. The size of the ingot has an important effect on crystallinity. The breakdown in crystallinity across the bottom has been resolved to an area in the vicinity of the melted-back seed. Generally, homogeneous resistivity distribution has been achieved all over the ingot. Electroplating of diamonds on one side of the wirepack has an important effect on slicing performance. However, diamond electroplating must be carefully controlled to have a good seat in the grooved rollers. An in-house electroplating facility is now operational. Good performance was achieved with the initial in-house electroplated wirepacks. Projected add-on cost of HEM ingot casting process has been carried out using IPEG analysis. The value that was obtained is $8.65/m/sup 2/, well below the allocation of $18.15/m/sup 2/ to meet the 1986 goal.

  20. Near-earth Thin Current Sheets and Birkeland Currents during Substorm Growth Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Two important phenomena observed during the magnetospheric substorm growth phase are modeled: the formation of a near-Earth (|X| {approx} 9 R{sub E}) thin cross-tail current sheet, as well as the equatorward shift of the ionospheric Birkeland currents. Our study is performed by solving the 3-D force-balance equation with realistic boundary conditions and pressure distributions. The results show a cross-tail current sheet with large current (J{sub {phi}} {approx} 10 nA/m{sup 2}) and very high plasma {beta} ({beta} {approx} 40) between 7 and 10 R{sub E}. The obtained region-1 and region-2 Birkeland currents, formed on closed field lines due to pressure gradients, move equatorward and become more intense (J{sub {parallel}max} {approx} 3 {micro}A/m{sup 2}) compared to quiet times. Both results are in agreement with substorm growth phase observations. Our results also predict that the cross-tail current sheet maps into the ionosphere in the transition region between the region-1 and region-2 currents.

  1. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic...

  2. Advances in the growth of alkaline-earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Neal, John S [ORNL; Cherepy, Nerine [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Payne, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Beck, P [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Burger, Arnold [Fisk University, Nashville; Rowe, E [Fisk University, Nashville; Bhattacharya, P. [Fisk University, Nashville

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystal-growth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

  3. Large Scale Energy Storage: From Nanomaterials to Large Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    Large Scale Energy Storage: From Nanomaterials to Large Systems Wednesday October 26, 2011, Babbio energy storage devices. Specifically, this talk discusses 1) the challenges for grid scale of emergent technologies with ultralow costs on new energy storage materials and mechanisms. Dr. Jun Liu

  4. QUENCHES IN LARGE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberhard, P.H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    QUENCHES IN LARGE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS. P. H. Eberhard,Study of an Unprotected Superconducting Coil Going Normal,"Method for Testing Superconducting Magnets," LBL Physics

  5. Normal Growth of Range Cattle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence)

    1930-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of surplus stock unless home-grown supplemental feed is cheap and abundant or the price to be obtained for the cattle the following spring is much higher per pound than can be had in the fall. Fall sale also lessens the danger of over-grazing in the late... of growth. Naturally the feed supply is the first thing considered as a cause of growth and it is the cause which is usually most nearly under control. Diseases or minor differences in health are just as obvious in controlling growth as are changes...

  6. ZnO nanorod growth by plasma-enhanced vapor phase transport with different growth durations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Oh, Hee-bong [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyukhyun, E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jondo [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Kyungnam University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Department of Materials and Components Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the structural properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by plasma-enhanced vapor phase transport (PEVPT) were investigated. Plasma-treated oxygen gas was used as the oxygen source for the ZnO growth. The structural properties of ZnO nanostructures grown for different durations were measured by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The authors comprehensively analyzed the growth of the ZnO nanostructures with different growth durations both with and without the use of plasma-treated oxygen gas. It was found that PEVPT has a significant influence on the growth of the ZnO nanorods. PEVPT with plasma-treated oxygen gas facilitated the generation of nucleation sites, and the resulting ZnO nanorod structures were more vertical than those prepared by conventional VPT without plasma-treated oxygen gas. As a result, the ZnO nanostructures grown using PEVPT showed improved structural properties compared to those prepared by the conventional VPT method.

  7. Mathematical modeling of cavity growth during underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, K.S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four two-dimensional cavity growth models are developed based on the permeation process concept in order to understand what has happened in previous field tests, and to learn better methods for future field tests and commercial scale operations. The first model considers only a wet coal region beyond the cavity. In the second model, dried coal is added to the first model, so that there are two different coal regions: the wet coal and dried coal regions. The third model includes the effect of links formed by reverse combustion, but the dried coal region is not included. Also in this model, plugging phenomenon, due to particulates carried by the injectant to the cavity wall, is introduced. The final model incorporates nonisotropic permeability, a dried coal region, links and plugging phenomenon. Considerations of a wet coal region only or of wet coal and coal drying do not explain the high recovery of coal observed in field tests. However, plugging phenomenon prevents channeling of gases down high-permeability links, and thereby the recovery of coal is increased. Also link configurations have a marked effect on the coal source recovery. Computation results from the fourth model show that coal recovery is improved greatly if a large dried coal zone exists around the cavity.

  8. Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hal

    Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith 1 Simple Models Bacteria are the dominant form of life on the planet the concentration of the nutrient in the media (grams/liter) and N(t) de

  9. Vermont Employment Growth Incentive (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Employment Growth Incentive (VEGI) is to encourage job creation in Vermont by a Vermont company, a Vermont division of a company that plans to grow and expand in Vermont, a...

  10. Inequality and Growth: Why Differential Fertility Matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Croix, David; Doepke, Matthias

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Barro, Robert J. 2000. “Inequality and Growth in a Panel of1–25. Benabou, Roland. 1996. “Inequality and Growth. ” NBER1996. “Measuring Income Inequality: A New Database. ”

  11. Control Mechanisms for the Growth of Isolated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkulov, Vladimir I [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Guillorn, M. A. [Cornell University; Lowndes, Douglas H [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolated vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have been grown using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and the effects of the growth conditions on VACNF morphology and composition have been determined in substantial detail. The dependence of the growth rate, tip and base diameters, and chemical composition of isolated VACNFs on the growth parameters is described, including the effects of plasma power and gas mixture. Phenomenological models explaining the observed growth behavior are presented. The results indicate the importance of plasma control for the deterministic growth of isolated VACNFs, which are promising elements for the fabrication of practical nanoscale devices.

  12. ATLAS results on top properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Derue

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent measurements of top quark properties using $t{\\bar t}$ events produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider with centre of mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV and detected by the ATLAS experiment are presented. These results include top quark mass, the top and anti-top mass difference, the electric charge, the top quark polarization and spin correlation, the $t{\\bar t}$ charge asymmetry and the search for flavour changing neutral currents.

  13. Silicon ingot casting: heat exchanger method (HEM). Multi-wire slicing: fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST). Phase IV. Silicon sheet growth development for the large area sheet task of the low-cost solar array project. Quarterly progress report No. 3, July 1, 1980-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmid, F; Khattak, C P; Basaran, M

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The size of ingots cast by HEM has been increased to 45 kg with 34 cm x 34 cm and 32 cm x 32 cm cross-sections. A new crucible has been developed which has a better shape factor. It has shown considerable improvement in yields of square ingots. A 45 kg ingot was solidified in this crucible. Optimization of the solidification cycle has shown that as the height of the ingot is increased, the gradients at the bottom, as well as instrumentation control, have to be very precise for efficient solidification. A new cutting head has been fabricated and assembled with the present drive unit of the FAST slicer. In addition to the salient features of rigidity and accurate alignment, the bladehead is lighter and larger to accommodate a 30 cm wide wirepack. Surface speeds of 500 ft/min were achieved with minimum vibration. Encouraging results have been achieved with the new cutting heat cutting head. High cutting rates and yields, 5.1 mils/min and 96%, respectively, have been seen from electroplated bladepacks. Electroplated wires with diamonds in cutting edge only have been used during the present reporting period with good slicing performance. The impregnated wirepacks have also demonstrated cutting effectiveness with the new bladehead.

  14. Large Area Vacuum Deposited Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It's easy to make the myriad of types of large area and decorative coatings for granted. We probably don't even think about most of them; the low-e and heat mirror coatings on our windows and car windows, the mirrors in displays, antireflection coatings on windows and displays, protective coatings on aircraft windows, heater coatings on windshields and aircraft windows, solar reflectors, thin film solar cells, telescope mirrors, Hubble mirrors, transparent conductive coatings, and the list goes on. All these products require large deposition systems and chambers. Also, don't forget that large batches of small substrates or parts are coated in large chambers. In order to be cost effective hundreds of ophthalmic lenses, automobile reflectors, display screens, lamp reflectors, cell phone windows, laser reflectors, DWDM filters, are coated in batches.

  15. The Description of Large Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitman, Kent

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss the problems associated with the description and manipulation of large systems when their sources are not maintained as single fields. We show why and how tools that address these issues, such ...

  16. Analytic bootstrap at large spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apratim Kaviraj; Kallol Sen; Aninda Sinha

    2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We use analytic conformal bootstrap methods to determine the anomalous dimensions and OPE coefficients for large spin operators in general conformal field theories in four dimensions containing a scalar operator of conformal dimension $\\Delta_\\phi$. It is known that such theories will contain an infinite sequence of large spin operators with twists approaching $2\\Delta_\\phi+2n$ for each integer $n$. By considering the case where such operators are separated by a twist gap from other operators at large spin, we analytically determine the $n$, $\\Delta_\\phi$ dependence of the anomalous dimensions. We find that for all $n$, the anomalous dimensions are negative for $\\Delta_\\phi$ satisfying the unitarity bound, thus extending the Nachtmann theorem to non-zero $n$. In the limit when $n$ is large, we find agreement with the AdS/CFT prediction corresponding to the Eikonal limit of a 2-2 scattering with dominant graviton exchange.

  17. Analytic bootstrap at large spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaviraj, Apratim; Sinha, Aninda

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use analytic conformal bootstrap methods to determine the anomalous dimensions and OPE coefficients for large spin operators in general conformal field theories in four dimensions containing a scalar operator of conformal dimension $\\Delta_\\phi$. It is known that such theories will contain an infinite sequence of large spin operators with twists approaching $2\\Delta_\\phi+2n$ for each integer $n$. By considering the case where such operators are separated by a twist gap from other operators at large spin, we analytically determine the $n$, $\\Delta_\\phi$ dependence of the anomalous dimensions. We find that for all $n$, the anomalous dimensions are negative for $\\Delta_\\phi$ satisfying the unitarity bound, thus extending the Nachtmann theorem to non-zero $n$. In the limit when $n$ is large, we find agreement with the AdS/CFT prediction corresponding to the Eikonal limit of a 2-2 scattering with dominant graviton exchange.

  18. Large-scale pool fires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhaus, Thomas; Welch, Stephen; Carvel, Ricky O; Torero, Jose L

    2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of research into the burning behaviour of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low ...

  19. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  20. Escaping the poverty trap: modeling the interplay between economic growth and the ecology of infectious disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goerg, Georg M; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Althouse, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of economies and infectious disease are inexorably linked: economic well-being influences health (sanitation, nutrition, treatment capacity, etc.) and health influences economic well-being (labor productivity lost to sickness and disease). Often societies are locked into ``poverty traps'' of poor health and poor economy. Here, using a simplified coupled disease-economic model with endogenous capital growth we demonstrate the formation of poverty traps, as well as ways to escape them. We suggest two possible mechanisms of escape both motivated by empirical data: one, through an influx of capital (development aid), and another through changing the percentage of GDP spent on healthcare. We find that a large influx of capital is successful in escaping the poverty trap, but increasing health spending alone is not. Our results demonstrate that escape from a poverty trap may be possible, and carry important policy implications in the world-wide distribution of aid and within-country healthcare spending.

  1. Stochastic Boundary, Diffusion, Emittance Growth and Lifetime calculation for the RHIC e-lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu,N.P.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Robert-Demolaize, G.

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    To compensate the large tune shift and tune spread generated by the head-on beam-beam interactions in polarized proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a low energy electron beam with proper Gaussian transverse profiles was proposed to collide head-on with the proton beam. In this article, using a modified version of SixTrack [1], we investigate stability of the single particle in the presence of head-on beam-beam compensation. The Lyapunov exponent and action diffusion are calculated and compared between the cases without and with beam-beam compensation for two different working points and various bunch intensities. Using the action diffusion results the emittance growth rate and lifetime of the proton beam is also estimated for the different scenarios.

  2. Simulation of faceted film growth in three dimensions: microstructure, morphology and texture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smereka, Peter

    2004 Abstract We present the results of a series of simulations of the growth of polycrystalline} facets, such as diamond. Results are presented for the temporal evolution of the surface morphology-set method; Microstructure; Morphology 1. Introduction The growth of polycrystalline films is central

  3. Economic Growth and Development Economics 777

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Economic Growth and Development Economics 777 July 18, 2008 Fall Semester 2008 Professor J. H. Mc of economic growth and development. We will analyze several different growth models and look at some recent empirical research. Text The text for this course is: Economic Growth (2nd Edition) by Robert J. Barro

  4. Growth curve analysis of Rambouillet ewes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathenge, James Mwai

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for this study. However, most of the results were reported for 152 observations; a subset of the 283 records that contained the smst complete set of weighted' Type of birth and rearing was the single most significant source of variation for preweaning body... weights and growth rates. Estimation of mature weight obtained for 184 records was 59. 6 + . 77 kilograms. Based upon analysis of yearly weights, ewes had reached maturity by 42 months of age. Birth and 120-day weight were lower than those reported...

  5. A Statistical Model of Magnetic Islands in a Large Current Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fermo, R L; Swisdak, M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a statistical model describing the dynamics of magnetic islands in very large current layers that develop in space plasma. Two parameters characterize the island distribution: the flux contained in the island and the area it encloses. We derive an integro-differential evolution equation for this distribution function, based on rules that govern the small-scale generation of secondary islands, the rates of island growth, and island merging. Our numerical solutions of this equation produce island distributions relevant to the magnetosphere and corona. We also derive and analytically solve a differential equation for large islands that explicitly shows the role merging plays in island growth.

  6. Large-scale magnetic fields in the inflationary universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazuharu Bamba; Misao Sasaki

    2006-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The generation of large-scale magnetic fields is studied in inflationary cosmology. We consider the violation of the conformal invariance of the Maxwell field by dilatonic as well as non-minimal gravitational couplings. We derive a general formula for the spectrum of large-scale magnetic fields for a general form of the coupling term and the formula for the spectral index. The result tells us clearly the (necessary) condition for the generation of magnetic fields with sufficiently large amplitude.

  7. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  8. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  9. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  10. Latest Jet Results from Tevatron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Messina

    2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution reports preliminary jet results in ppbar collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV from the CDF and D0 experiments. The jet inclusive cross section, measured using both the Midpoint and the K_T jet clustering algorithm, is compared to next-to-leading order QCD prediction in different rapidity regions. The b-jet inclusive cross section measured exploiting the long lifetime and large mass of B hadrons is presented and compared to QCD prediction. A complementary measurement, using the large branching fraction of B hadrons into muons, is also described. The measurement of two-particle momentum correlation in jets is presented and compared to predictions.

  11. Large scale physiological readjustment during growth enables rapid, comprehensive and inexpensive systems analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phenylalanine, riboflavin and 5'-deoxyadenosine). 5'-phenylala- nine, riboflavin and 5-deoxyadenosine. Pairedcitrulline, phenylalanine, riboflavin and 5-deoxyadenosine.

  12. Ethogram of Immature Green Turtles: Behavioral Strategies for Somatic Growth in Large Marine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Western Australia, Australia Received January 29, 2013; Accepted April 28, 2013; Published June 19, 2013, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan Abstract Animals are assumed to obtain/conserve energy effectively energy to reproduction but are at risk of shark predation, although it is a rare occurrence

  13. Modeling growth of larval cod (Gadus morhua) in large-scale seasonal and latitudinal environmental gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heino, Mikko

    February to early May over 1500 km along the Norwegian coast. Hatching occurs from late March to late May and the peak in copepod nauplii availability along the Norwegian coast varies substantially between years concentration. Along the coast of Norway it is important for larval cod to hatch during peak abundance

  14. Supporting Information for: Surfactant-Free, Large-Scale, Solution-Liquid-Solid (SLS) Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    . ........................ S6 #12; S2- Experimental details: Chemicals. Triethylgallium (TEG, min. 97%, Strem), tris chromatography. Preparation of a stock 0.15 mmol/g TEG-TMSP solution. Squalane was degassed and dried at ~140 C under vacuum for ~ 2 h and stored in a glove box filled with dry N2. The precursor TEG-TMSP solution

  15. Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S HBatteries with WideNOxSi-based High Capacity2

  16. Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S HBatteries with WideNOxSi-based High Capacity21

  17. Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S HBatteries with WideNOxSi-based High

  18. Application of cyclic J-integral to low cycle fatigue crack growth of Japanese carbon steel pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miura, N.; Fujioka, T.; Kashima, K. [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Piping for LWR power plants is required to satisfy the LBB concept for postulated (not actual) defects. With this in mind, research has so far been conducted on the fatigue crack growth under cyclic loading, and on the ductile crack growth under excessive loading. It is important, however, for the evaluation of the piping structural integrity under seismic loading condition, to understand the fracture behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading conditions, that accompanies large-scale yielding. CRIEPI together with Hitachi have started a collaborative research program on dynamic and/or cyclic fracture of Japanese carbon steel (STS410) pipes in 1991. Fundamental tensile property tests were conducted to examine the effect of strain rate on tensile properties. Cracked pipe fracture tests under some loading conditions were also performed to investigate the effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on fracture behavior. Based on the analytical considerations for the above tests, the method to evaluate the failure life for a cracked pipe under cyclic loading was developed and verified. Cyclic J-integral was introduced to predict cyclic crack growth up to failure. This report presents the results of tensile property tests, cracked pipe fracture tests, and failure life analysis. The proposed method was applied to the cracked pipe fracture tests. The effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on pipe fracture was also investigated.

  19. Ris-R-1518(EN) The necessary distance between large

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1518(EN) The necessary distance between large wind farms offshore - study Sten Frandsen. As it is often the need for offshore wind farms, the model handles a regular array-geometry with straight rows distance between large wind farms in the offshore environment. The main results are given in Section 1

  20. Updatable Process Views for Adapting Large Process Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    Updatable Process Views for Adapting Large Process Models: The proView Demonstrator Jens Kolb. The increasing adoption of process-aware information sys- tems (PAISs) has resulted in large process model collections. To support users having different perspectives on these processes and related data, a PAIS should

  1. Large aperture optical switching devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1983-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs.

  2. Dark Radiation in Anisotropic LARGE Volume Compactifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen Angus

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Dark radiation is a compelling extension to $\\Lambda$CDM: current experimental results hint at $\\Delta N_{\\rm eff} \\gtrsim 0.5$, which is increased to $\\Delta N_{\\rm eff} \\simeq 1$ if the recent BICEP2 results are included. In recent years dark radiation has been considered in the context of string theory models such as the LARGE Volume Scenario of type IIB string theory, forging a link between present-day cosmological observations and models of physics at the Planck scale. In this paper I consider an extension of the LARGE Volume Scenario in which the bulk volume is stabilised by two moduli instead of one. Consequently, the lightest modulus no longer corresponds to the compactification volume but instead to a transverse direction in the bulk geometry. I focus on scenarios in which sequestering of soft masses is achieved by localising the Standard Model on D3 branes at a singularity. The fraction of dark radiation produced in such models vastly exceeds experimental bounds, ruling out the sequestered LARGE Volume Scenario with two bulk moduli as a model of the early Universe.

  3. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sand CERNLand andComputingLargeLarge

  4. Strain-Based Design Methodology of Large Diameter Grade X80 Linepipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lower, Mark D. [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous growth in energy demand is driving oil and natural gas production to areas that are often located far from major markets where the terrain is prone to earthquakes, landslides, and other types of ground motion. Transmission pipelines that cross this type of terrain can experience large longitudinal strains and plastic circumferential elongation as the pipeline experiences alignment changes resulting from differential ground movement. Such displacements can potentially impact pipeline safety by adversely affecting structural capacity and leak tight integrity of the linepipe steel. Planning for new long-distance transmission pipelines usually involves consideration of higher strength linepipe steels because their use allows pipeline operators to reduce the overall cost of pipeline construction and increase pipeline throughput by increasing the operating pressure. The design trend for new pipelines in areas prone to ground movement has evolved over the last 10 years from a stress-based design approach to a strain-based design (SBD) approach to further realize the cost benefits from using higher strength linepipe steels. This report presents an overview of SBD for pipelines subjected to large longitudinal strain and high internal pressure with emphasis on the tensile strain capacity of high-strength microalloyed linepipe steel. The technical basis for this report involved engineering analysis and examination of the mechanical behavior of Grade X80 linepipe steel in both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. Testing was conducted to assess effects on material processing including as-rolled, expanded, and heat treatment processing intended to simulate coating application. Elastic-plastic and low-cycle fatigue analyses were also performed with varying internal pressures. Proposed SBD models discussed in this report are based on classical plasticity theory and account for material anisotropy, triaxial strain, and microstructural damage effects developed from test data. The results are intended to enhance SBD and analysis methods for producing safe and cost effective pipelines capable of accommodating large plastic strains in seismically active arctic areas.

  5. Surveillance of Craniopharyngioma Cyst Growth in Children Treated With Proton Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkfield, Karen M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: kwinkfield@partners.org; Linsenmeier, Claudia; Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Grant, P. Ellen [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Yeap, Beow Y. Sc.D. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Butler, William E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Craniopharyngiomas are benign, slow-growing tumors that frequently contain a cystic component. Even with gross total resection, the cyst can reform and cause symptoms. Fluctuations in cyst volume during radiotherapy (RT) can affect treatment planning and delivery. The aim of this study was to report our experience with cyst enlargement during conformal proton RT for children with craniopharyngioma and to make recommendations regarding mid-treatment surveillance. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and August 2007, 24 children (aged {<=}18 years) underwent proton RT at the Massachusetts General Hospital for craniopharyngioma. For all 24 patients, tumor size on magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography was measured before and after RT. Surveillance imaging was available for review on 17 patients. During RT, cyst growth was assessed to determine whether the treatment fields needed to be altered. Results: Of the 17 children who underwent repeat imaging during RT, 6 required intervention because of changes in cyst dimensions. Four patients (24%) had cyst growth beyond the original treatment fields, requiring enlargement of the treatment plan. One patient's treatment field was reduced after a decreased in cyst size. Cyst drainage was performed in another patient to avoid enlargement of the treatment fields. Conclusion: In patients undergoing highly conformal RT for craniopharyngiomas with cysts, routine imaging during treatment is recommended. Surveillance imaging should be performed at least every 2 weeks during proton RT in an attempt to avoid marginal failure. Craniopharyngiomas with large cystic components or enlargement during treatment might require weekly imaging.

  6. SBA Growth Accelerator Fund Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is accepting applications for the Growth Accelerator Fund Competition to identify the nation's innovative accelerators and similar organizations and award them cash prizes they may use to fund their operations costs and allow them to bring startup competitions to scale and new ideas to life.

  7. The Cutaneous Epidermal Growth Factor Network: Can it be Translated Clinically to Stimulate Hair Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrescu, Doru T; Kauffman, C Lisa; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of epidermal growth factor on hair growth in the mouse. Jstem cell character in hair follicles. Science. 2006;312:Notch signalling pathway in hair growth. Mech Dev. 1998;78:

  8. Entanglement Entropy at Large Central Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Hartman

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional conformal field theories with a large central charge and a small number of low-dimension operators are studied using the conformal block expansion. A universal formula is derived for the Renyi entropies of N disjoint intervals in the ground state, valid to all orders in a series expansion. This is possible because the full perturbative answer in this regime comes from the exchange of the stress tensor and other descendants of the vacuum state. Therefore, the Renyi entropy is related to the Virasoro vacuum block at large central charge. The entanglement entropy, computed from the Renyi entropy by an analytic continuation, decouples into a sum of single-interval entanglements. This field theory result agrees with the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for the holographic entanglement entropy of a 2d CFT, applied to any number of intervals, and thus can be interpreted as a microscopic calculation of the area of minimal surfaces in 3d gravity.

  9. Large-Scale Algal Cultivation, Harvesting and Downstream Processing Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ATP3 (Algae Testbed Public-Private Partnership) is hosting the Large-Scale Algal Cultivation, Harvesting and Downstream Processing Workshop on November 2–6, 2015, at the Arizona Center for Algae Technology and Innovation in Mesa, Arizona. Topics will include practical applications of growing and managing microalgal cultures at production scale (such as methods for handling cultures, screening strains for desirable characteristics, identifying and mitigating contaminants, scaling up cultures for outdoor growth, harvesting and processing technologies, and the analysis of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates). Related training will include hands-on laboratory and field opportunities.

  10. Large amplitude driving of a persistent current qubit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, David Marc

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, the persistent current qubit in the presence of large amplitude microwave radiation is studied. Three main results are presented in this work. A new coherent quasi classical regime has been observed, where ...

  11. CALIFORNIA ENERGY Large HVAC Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Large HVAC Building Survey Information Database of Buildings over 100 Energy Systems: Productivity and Building Science Program. This program was funded by the California of Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. Project Management: Cathy Higgins, Program Director for New Buildings

  12. New Results From H1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, Olaf [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A summary is given of some of the recent measurements made by the H1 Collaboration in ep collisions at HERA. These include studies of electroweak parameters, of proton charm and beauty structure functions, of {alpha}s from the ratio of tri- to dijet cross sections, of diffractive scattering with dijets in the final state and of searches for strange pentaquarks. Also the first results from the analysis of HERA II e+p and e-p data are shown, including studies of events with isolated leptons and large missing transverse momentum and the first measurement of charged current cross sections with left handed polarised e- beams.

  13. MIX and Instability Growth from Oblique Shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molitoris, J D; Batteux, J D; Garza, R G; Tringe, J W; Souers, P C; Forbes, J W

    2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the formation and evolution of shock-induced mix resulting from interface features in a divergent cylindrical geometry. In this research a cylindrical core of high-explosive was detonated to create an oblique shock wave and accelerate the interface. The interfaces studied were between the high-explosive/aluminum, aluminum/plastic, and finally plastic/air. Pre-emplaced surface features added to the aluminum were used to modify this interface. Time sequence radiographic imaging quantified the resulting instability formation from the growth phase to over 60 {micro}s post-detonation. Thus allowing the study of the onset of mix and evolution to turbulence. The plastic used here was porous polyethylene. Radiographic image data are compared with numerical simulations of the experiments.

  14. Search results | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eereeducationdownloadsphotosynthesis-and-biomass-growth-7-activities Download The Biofuel Project: Creating Bio-diesel This activity introduces students to alternative fuels...

  15. Visualization and simulation of bubble growth in pore networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xuehai; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bubble nucleation and bubble growth in porous media is an important problem encountered in processes, such as pressure depletion and boiling. To understand its basic aspects, experiments and numerical simulations in micromodel geometries were undertaken. Experiments of bubble growth by pressure depletion were carried out in 2-D etched-glass micromodels and in Hele-Shaw cells. Nucleation of bubbles and the subsequent growth of gas clusters were visualized. Contrary to the bulk or to Hele-Shaw cells, gas clusters in the micromodel have irregular and ramified shapes and share many of the features of an external invasion process (e.g. of percolation during drainage). A pore network numerical model was developed to simulate the growth of multiple gas clusters under various conditions. The model is based on the solution of the convection-diffusions equation and also accounts for capillary and viscous forces, which play an important role in determining the growth patterns. Numerical simulation resulted in good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Structure Growth and the CMB in Modified Gravity (MOG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Moffat

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An important piece of evidence for dark matter is the need to explain the growth of structure from the time of horizon entry and radiation-matter equality to the formation of stars and galaxies. This cannot be explained by using general relativity without dark matter. So far, dark matter particles have not been detected in laboratory measurements or at the LHC. We demonstrate that enhanced structure growth can happen in a modified gravity theory (MOG). The vector field and particle introduced in the theory to explain galaxy and cluster dynamics plays an important role in generating the required structure growth. The particle called the phion (a light hidden photon) is neutral and is a dominant, pressureless component in the MOG Friedmann equations, before the time of decoupling. The dominant energy density of the phion particle in the early universe, generates an explanation for the growth of density perturbations. The angular acoustical power spectrum due to baryon-photon pressure waves is in agreement with the Planck 2013 data. As the universe expands and large scale structures are formed, the density of baryons dominates and the rotation curves of galaxies and the dynamics of clusters are explained in MOG, when the phion particle in the present universe is ultra-light. The matter power spectrum determined by the theory is in agreement with current galaxy redshift surveys.

  17. Dynamic Modeling of Aerobic Growth of Shewanella oneidensis. Predicting Triauxic Growth, Flux Distributions and Energy Requirement for Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model-based analysis is conducted to investigate metabolism of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 strain in aerobic batch culture, which exhibits an intriguing growth pattern by sequentially consuming substrate (i.e., lactate) and by-products (i.e., pyruvate and acetate). A general protocol is presented for developing a detailed network-based dynamic model for S. oneidensis based on the Lumped Hybrid Cybernetic Model (LHCM) framework. The L-HCM, although developed from only limited data, is shown to accurately reproduce exacting dynamic metabolic shifts, and provide reasonable estimates of energy requirement for growth. Flux distributions in S. oneidensis predicted by the L-HCM compare very favorably with 13C-metabolic flux analysis results reported in the literature. Predictive accuracy is enhanced by incorporating measurements of only a few intracellular fluxes, in addition to extracellular metabolites. The L-HCM developed here for S. oneidensis is consequently a promising tool for the analysis of intracellular flux distribution and metabolic engineering.

  18. A quantitative perspective on ethics in large team science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petersen, Alexander M; Semendeferi, Ioanna

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gradual crowding out of singleton and small team science by large team endeavors is challenging key features of research culture. It is therefore important for the future of scientific practice to reflect upon the scientists' ethical responsibilities within teams. To facilitate this reflection we show labor force trends in the US revealing a skewed growth in academic ranks and increased levels of competition for promotion within the system; we analyze teaming trends across disciplines and national borders demonstrating why it is becoming difficult to distribute credit and to avoid conflicts of interest; and we use more than a century of Nobel prize data to show how science is outgrowing its old institutions of singleton awards. Of particular concern within the large team environment is the weakening of the mentor-mentee relation, which undermines the cultivation of virtue ethics across scientific generations. These trends and emerging organizational complexities call for a universal set of behavioral norm...

  19. INFLUENCE OF SOUND WAVE STIMULATION ON THE GROWTH OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    INFLUENCE OF SOUND WAVE STIMULATION ON THE GROWTH OF STRAWBERRY IN SUNLIGHT GREENHOUSE Lirong Qi differences between the circumstances of the two sunlight greenhouses, the strawberry after the sound wave disease and insect pest were enhanced. The experiment results show that sound wave stimulation can

  20. Selecting and Using Plant Growth Regulators on Floricultural Crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    . Customer demand for specific color or growth-form characteristics may limit your choices. However, response/or development (figure 1). They are applied for specific purposes to elicit specific plant responses. Although the best results with PGRs is a combination of art and science -- science tempered with a lot of trial

  1. Plans, Implementation, and Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    About the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office (WIPO) including information on plans, implementations, and results.

  2. New Partners for Smart Growth Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Partners for Smart Growth Conference is the nation's largest smart growth and sustainability conference. The three-day conference is themed, "Practical Tools and Innovative Strategies for Creating Great Communities."

  3. Stress corrosion crack growth in porous sandstones. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojala, Ira O

    Stress corrosion crack growth occurs when the chemical weakening of strained crack tip bonds facilitates crack propagation. I have examined the effect of chemical processes on the growth of a creack population by carrying out triaxial compression...

  4. Large-Scale PV Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Diao, Ruisheng; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin; Hafen, Ryan P.; Jin, Chunlian; Kirkham, Harold; Shlatz, Eugene; Frantzis, Lisa; McClive, Timothy; Karlson, Gregory; Acharya, Dhruv; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford; Chadliev, Vladimir; Smart, Michael; Salgo, Richard; Sorensen, Rahn; Allen, Barbara; Idelchik, Boris

    2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This research effort evaluates the impact of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) and distributed generation (DG) output on NV Energy’s electric grid system in southern Nevada. It analyzes the ability of NV Energy’s generation to accommodate increasing amounts of utility-scale PV and DG, and the resulting cost of integrating variable renewable resources. The study was jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy and NV Energy, and conducted by a project team comprised of industry experts and research scientists from Navigant Consulting Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and NV Energy.

  5. DSM Load Growth Through Electrotechnology Application Assistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merchant, D. G.

    replacing outmoded energy intensive end uses in the marketplace. "In nearly every case, the electrotechnology applications save energy, largely eliminate point-of-use pollution, reduce overall carbon dioxide emissions, and--in many cases 73 ESL-IE-94... to its roots," electrotechnology applications assistance programs are beginning to provide measured results that are a key part of utility efforts to manage demand. Several innovative electrotechnology application programs exist but most share a...

  6. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  7. TILT STABILITY, UNIFORM QUADRATIC GROWTH, AND STRONG ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Tilt stability, variational analysis, subdifferentials, quadratic growth, strong metric .... Some convex analysis. ..... Example 3.5 (Failure of subdifferential continuity).

  8. A Statistical Physics Perspective on Web Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. L. Krapivsky; S. Redner

    2002-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches from statistical physics are applied to investigate the structure of network models whose growth rules mimic aspects of the evolution of the world-wide web. We first determine the degree distribution of a growing network in which nodes are introduced one at a time and attach to an earlier node of degree k with rate A_ksim k^gamma. Very different behaviors arise for gamma1. We also analyze the degree distribution of a heterogeneous network, the joint age-degree distribution, the correlation between degrees of neighboring nodes, as well as global network properties. An extension to directed networks is then presented. By tuning model parameters to reasonable values, we obtain distinct power-law forms for the in-degree and out-degree distributions with exponents that are in good agreement with current data for the web. Finally, a general growth process with independent introduction of nodes and links is investigated. This leads to independently growing sub-networks that may coalesce with other sub-networks. General results for both the size distribution of sub-networks and the degree distribution are obtained.

  9. Method for crystal growth control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Douglas A. (Burlington, MA); Hatch, Arthur E. (Waltham, MA); Goldsmith, Jeff M. (Medford, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

  10. How to Obtain Reproducible Results for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Lu, Dongping; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic requirements for getting reliable Li-S battery data have been discussed in this work. Unlike Li-ion batteries, electrolyte-rich environment significantly affects the cycling stability of Li-S batteries prepared and tested under the same conditions. The reason has been assigned to the different concentrations of polysulfide-containing electrolytes in the cells, which have profound influences on both sulfur cathode and lithium anode. At optimized S/E ratio of 50 g L-1, a good balance among electrolyte viscosity, wetting ability, diffusion rate dissolved polysulfide and nucleation/growth of short-chain Li2S/Li2S2 has been built along with largely reduced contamination on the lithium anode side. Accordingly, good cyclability, high reversible capacity and Coulombic efficiency are achieved in Li-S cell with controlled S/E ratio without any additive. Other factors such as sulfur content in the composite and sulfur loading on the electrode also need careful concern in Li-S system in order to generate reproducible results and gauge the various methods used to improve Li-S battery technology.

  11. A mechanical model of early salt dome growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Frank Albert

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Department) December 1988 A Mechanical Analysis of Early Salt Dome Growth. (December 1988) Frank Albert Irwin, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Raymond C. Fletcher A two-layer superposition model, the lower layer representing... of the sediments results in growth rates much higher than those observed. Analysis of the case with a diffusivity of 104m2/Ka agrees with all observa- tions. A range of diffusivities which will produce a realistic salt dome model is then determined. The lower...

  12. Electron-beam-induced growth of silicon multibranched nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonseca, Luis F.; Resto, Oscar; Sola, Francisco [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, P. O. Box 23343, San Juan, 00931-3343 (Puerto Rico)

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Although successful nanobranching has been demonstrated for some materials using a variety of methods, the controlled fabrication of multibranched nanostructures of silicon is an important challenge faced by nanotechnologist; because it is crucial for the assembly of electronic interconnects at the atomic scale. Here, we report an electron-beam-induced approach that enables to grow silicon nanobranched structures at specific locations and to control the growth process at the nanoscale level. We further present a detailed in situ imaging of the growth dynamics and explain the results by a qualitative model based on local heating and charge concentration processes.

  13. Large Herbivore Impacts on Demographic Characteristics and Population Dynamics of an Endangered Orchid (Spiranthes parksii Correll) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wonkka, Carissa Lyn

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Spiranthes Parksii Correll is an endangered orchid of Texas. Populations of S. parksii are threatened by habitat loss and degradation resulting from human population growth and attendant development and resource extraction. ...

  14. Stimulation of Alexandrium fundyense growth by bacterial assemblages from the Bay of Fundy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rooney-Varga, Juliette N.

    on Alexandrium fundyense str. CB301 growth. Methods and Results: Bacterial assemblages were collected from into axenic CB301 cultures. Bacterial assemblages dramatically enhanced CB301 growth. Retrieval and analysis factors that control Alexandrium distributions (e.g. Anderson et al. 1983, 1990a; Rasmussen and Richardson

  15. 3. Growth and equity: Dismantling the KaldorKuznetsSolow consensus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    3. Growth and equity: Dismantling the Kaldor­Kuznets­Solow consensus Brendan P. Fisher and Jon D and Kuznets in particular helped establish the assumption that there is a trade off between reducing inequal policy around international income distribu- tion and growth. The net result of the Kaldor­Kuznets

  16. Radial-growth forecasts for five high-elevation conifer species on Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Dan

    of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada V8W 3P5 Received 22 November 2002; received to predict radial growth. Results indicate that each species will react individually to predicted changes in climate, with no one dominant radial-growth trend established. The most radical changes in the radial

  17. ccsd-00004619,version1-1Apr2005 BSDE with quadratic growth and unbounded terminal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ccsd-00004619,version1-1Apr2005 BSDE with quadratic growth and unbounded terminal value Philippe with quadratic growth and unbounded terminal value. We apply a localization procedure together with a priori bounds. As a byproduct, we apply the same method to extend a result on BSDEs with integrable terminal

  18. Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardsley, John

    Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario, Leonid Kalachev Marko Laine, Lappeenranta University of the phenomena studied. Here, in the case of algae growth modelling, we show how a systematic model reduction may: Algae growth modelling, asymptotic methods, model reduction, MCMC, Adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo. 1

  19. Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and Developing New Growth Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change...

  20. From "Stages" of Business Growth to a Dynamic States Model of Entrepreneurial Growth and Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    From "Stages" of Business Growth to a Dynamic States Model of Entrepreneurial Growth and Change and Gumpert, 1985), and virtually all economic models of business creation follow firm birth with firm growth models of new business growth assume a limited number of distinct stages through #12;3 which businesses

  1. Growth strategies to control tapering in Ge nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Periwal, P.; Baron, T., E-mail: thierry.baron@cea.fr; Salem, B.; Bassani, F. [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microelectronique (LTM), UMR 5129 CNRS-UJF, CEA Grenoble, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Gentile, P. [SiNaPs Laboratory SP2M, UMR-E, CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the effect of PH{sub 3} on the morphology of Au catalyzed Ge nanowires (NWs). Ge NWs were grown on Si (111) substrate at 400?°C in the presence of PH{sub 3}, using vapor-liquid-solid method by chemical vapor deposition. We show that high PH{sub 3}/GeH{sub 4} ratio causes passivation at NW surface. At high PH{sub 3} concentration phosphorous atoms attach itself on NW surface and form a self-protection coating that prevents conformal growth and leads to taper free nanostructures. However, in case of low PH{sub 3} flux the combination of axial and radial growth mechanism occurs resulting in conical structure. We have also investigated axial PH{sub 3}-intrinsic junctions in Ge NWs. The unusual NW shape is attributed to a combination of catalyzed, uncatalyzed and diffusion induced growth.

  2. Hazard analysis results report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemi, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes and defines the Hazard Analysis Results for the Tank Waste Remediation System Final Safety Analysis Report.

  3. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers3.pdf0-45.pdf0 BudgetGoals andSenate | DepartmentGroundwaterGrowingGrowth in

  4. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  5. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; González, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; López, J A; Martínez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Núñez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Pérez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseñor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) is aiming at the detection of the high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts, using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) in high mountain sites (Chacaltaya, Bolivia, 5300 m a.s.l., Pico Espejo, Venezuela, 4750 m a.s.l., Sierra Negra, Mexico, 4650 m a.s.l). WCD at high altitude offer a unique possibility of detecting low gamma fluxes in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV range. The status of the Observatory and data collected from 2007 to date will be presented.

  6. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home asLCLSLaboratoryRowland toShade Landscaping forandLarge

  7. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sand CERNLand andComputingLarge

  8. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sand CERNLandLarge Magnetization at

  9. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sand CERNLandLarge Magnetization

  10. Extra-Large Memory Nodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA) /EmailMolecularGE, Ford, University ofExtra-Large

  11. Head erosion with emittance growth in PWFA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S. Z.; Adli, E.; England, R. J.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S. J.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M. D.; Walz, D. R.; Muggli, P.; An, W.; Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W.; Vafaei, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States) and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States) and University of Oslo, Oslo, N-0316 (Norway) and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Head erosion is one of the limiting factors in plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA). We present a study of head erosion with emittance growth in field-ionized plasma from the PWFA experiments performed at the FACET user facility at SLAC. At FACET, a 20.3 GeV bunch with 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} electrons is optimized in beam transverse size and combined with a high density lithium plasma for beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. A target foil is inserted upstream of the plasma source to increase the bunch emittance through multiple scattering. Its effect on beamplasma interaction is observed with an energy spectrometer after a vertical bend magnet. Results from the first experiments show that increasing the emittance has suppressed vapor field-ionization and plasma wakefields excitation. Plans for the future are presented.

  12. Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1992-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

  13. Variable growth modes of CaF[sub 2] on Si(111) determined by x-ray photoelectron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denlinger, J.D.; Rotenberg, E. (Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); Hessinger, U.; Leskovar, M. (Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)); Olmstead, M.A. (Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States) Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1993-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical discrimination of bulk and interface Ca 2[ital p] x-ray photoelectron diffraction modulations is used to identify three growth regimes during the initial stages of CaF[sub 2] epitaxy on Si(111). Low flux, high temperature conditions produce island growth atop a nonwetting, chemically reacted Ca-F interface layer. Changing the growth kinetics by increasing the flux produces more laminar growth. Lowering the substrate temperature produces a more stoichiometric CaF[sub 2] interface layer that results in immediate wetting and laminar growth.

  14. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, Roderick A. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  15. The Expanded Very Large Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perley, R; Jackson, J; Butler, B; Carlson, B; Fort, D; Dewdney, P; Clark, B; Hayward, R; Durand, S; Revnell, M; McKinnon, M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In almost 30 years of operation, the Very Large Array (VLA) has proved to be a remarkably flexible and productive radio telescope. However, the basic capabilities of the VLA have changed little since it was designed. A major expansion utilizing modern technology is currently underway to improve the capabilities of the VLA by at least an order of magnitude in both sensitivity and in frequency coverage. The primary elements of the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) project include new or upgraded receivers for continuous frequency coverage from 1 to 50 GHz, new local oscillator, intermediate frequency, and wide bandwidth data transmission systems to carry signals with 16 GHz total bandwidth from each antenna, and a new digital correlator with the capability to process this bandwidth with an unprecedented number of frequency channels for an imaging array. Also included are a new monitor and control system and new software that will provide telescope ease of use. Scheduled for completion in 2012, the EVLA will prov...

  16. Highly c-axis oriented growth of GaN film on sapphire (0001) by laser molecular beam epitaxy using HVPE grown GaN bulk target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushvaha, S. S.; Kumar, M. Senthil; Maurya, K. K.; Dalai, M. K.; Sharma, Nita D. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, India 110012 (India)] [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, India 110012 (India)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth temperature dependant surface morphology and crystalline properties of the epitaxial GaN layers grown on pre-nitridated sapphire (0001) substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) were investigated in the range of 500–750 °C. The grown GaN films were characterized using high resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The x-ray rocking curve full width at a half maximum (FWHM) value for (0002) reflection dramatically decreased from 1582 arc sec to 153 arc sec when the growth temperature was increased from 500 °C to 600 °C and the value further decreased with increase of growth temperature up to 720 °C. A highly c-axis oriented GaN epitaxial film was obtained at 720 °C with a (0002) plane rocking curve FWHM value as low as 102 arc sec. From AFM studies, it is observed that the GaN grain size also increased with increasing growth temperature and flat, large lateral grains of size 200-300 nm was obtained for the film grown at 720 °C. The micro-Raman spectroscopy studies also exhibited the high-quality wurtzite nature of GaN film grown on sapphire at 720 °C. The SIMS measurements revealed a non-traceable amount of background oxygen impurity in the grown GaN films. The results show that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and crystalline quality of the epitaxial GaN films on sapphire grown by LMBE.

  17. Spallation in ductile void growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.N.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model of ductile void growth under the application of a mean tensile stress is applied to the problem of spallation in solids. Calculation of plate-impact spallation in copper (peak compressive stress approx. 29 kbar) shows good agreement with the dynamically measured spall signal. A second calculation, using identical material parameters, of explosively produced spallation in copper (peak compressive stress approx. 250 kbar) does very well in reproducing experimentally observed multiple spall thicknesses as observed by dynamic x-radiographic techniques. This theoretical model thus appears applicable to a wide range of dynamic uniaxial-strain loading conditions, bridging a gap that has been thought to exist for some time.

  18. Fostering Growth | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers3.pdf0-45.pdf0 Budget Fossil Energy FY 2010 Budget FossilThirdFostering Growth

  19. Geothermal: Search Results

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search Results Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News Related Links The...

  20. User Survey Results | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have accessed computing resources during the prior year. The results of the most recent survey are posted here with management responses to concerns or issues identified by our...

  1. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  2. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay (Brentwood, CA); Ayers, Shannon Lee (Brentwood, CA)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  3. Visualization of Large-Scale Distributed Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Andrew

    that are now considered the "lenses" for examining large-scale data. THE LARGE-SCALE DATA VISUALIZATIONVisualization of Large-Scale Distributed Data Jason Leigh1 , Andrew Johnson1 , Luc Renambot1 representation of data and the interactive manipulation and querying of the visualization. Large-scale data

  4. Growth and metal uptake of microalgae produced using salt groundwaters from the Bay of Bourgneuf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Growth and metal uptake of microalgae produced using salt groundwaters from the Bay of Bourgneuf production of microalgae. Salt groundwaters, available in this region, support a large part of four microalgae grown in two salt groundwaters or in enriched coastal seawater. Cultures of microalgae

  5. NANO EXPRESS Epitaxial Catalyst-Free Growth of InN Nanorods on c-Plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shalish, Ilan

    -009-9276-z #12;75 mm quartz tube, placed in a three-zone Mellen horizontal furnace. Quartz insert catalyst has been reported [3], but due to its relatively low efficiency, it typically requires large flow with a rectangular cross-section is employed to produce laminar flow in the growth zone and to suppress turbulence

  6. Mechanisms of classical crystal growth theory explain quartz and silicate dissolution behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dove, Patricia M.

    Mechanisms of classical crystal growth theory explain quartz and silicate dissolution behavior processes was previously unknown for oxides or silicates, our mechanism-based findings are consistent, the geochemistry of earth systems is, in large part, controlled by the kinetics of silicate mineral dissolution

  7. Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 have increased growth in natural stands of quaking aspen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waller, Donald M.

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 have increased growth in natural stands of quaking aspen of climate change. Recent large-scale experiments with quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), a dominant production. Field studies also reveal that droughts contribute to extensive aspen mortality. To complement

  8. Growth of GaN on porous SiC by molecular beam epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    growth of high quality GaN thin films is the unavailability suitable substrates. The lack of suitable matched between the GaN and the substrate are the lattice parameter and the coefficient of thermal to the absence of high quality, large area GaN substrates. Therefore one has to resort to the heteroepitaxial

  9. Tropical tree a-diversity: Results from a worldwide network of large plots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    , SOMBOON KIRATIPRAYOON, PAMELA, TERESE HART, AKIRA ITOH, JAMES V. LAFRANKIE, INNOCENT LIENGOLA, DANIEL Tropical Research Institute, Unit 0948, APO AA 34002-0948 USA. E-mail: condit@ctfs.si.edu (Corresponding

  10. Field Test Results of Automated Demand Response in a Large Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Techniques for Demand Response, LBNL-59975, May 2007 [Protocol Development for Demand Response Calculation – Findsand S. Kiliccote, Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts:

  11. Air quality and thermal comfort in office buildings: Results of a large indoor environmental quality survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizenga, C; Abbaszadeh, S.; Zagreus, Leah; Arens, Edward A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based Indoor Environmental Quality Survey. Indoor Air 2004;L. Zagreus. 2005. Acoustic Quality in Office Workstations asare you with the air quality in your workspace? very

  12. Data-Mining a Large Digital Sky Survey: From the Challenges to the Scientific Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. G. Djorgovski; R. R. de Carvalho; S. C. Odewahn; R. R. Gal; J. Roden; P. Stolorz; A. Gray

    1997-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis and an efficient scientific exploration of the Digital Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (DPOSS) represents a major technical challenge. The input data set consists of 3 Terabytes of pixel information, and contains a few billion sources. We describe some of the specific scientific problems posed by the data, including searches for distant quasars and clusters of galaxies, and the data-mining techniques we are exploring in addressing them. Machine-assisted discovery methods may become essential for the analysis of such multi-Terabyte data sets. New and future approaches involve unsupervised classification and clustering analysis in the Giga-object data space, including various Bayesian techniques. In addition to the searches for known types of objects in this data base, these techniques may also offer the possibility of discovering previously unknown, rare types of astronomical objects.

  13. Economic and Performance Benefits Resulting From the Use of Large Diameter

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open JumpEcology & Environment, Inc.Fans on Air

  14. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  15. Effect of Electronic Excitation on Thin Film Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elsayed-Ali, Hani E. [Old Dominion University

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of nanosecond pulsed laser excitation on surface diffusion during growth of Ge on Si(100) at 250 degrees C was studied. In Situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) was used to measure the surface diffusion coefficient while ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to probe the structure and morphology of the grown quantum dots. The results show that laser excitation of the substrate increases the surface diffusion during growth of Ge on Si(100), changes the growth morphology, improves crystalline structure of the grown quantum dots, and decreases their size distribution. A purely electronic mechanism of enhanced surface diffusion of the deposited Ge is proposed. Ge quantum dots were grown on Si(100)-(2x1) by pulsed laser deposition at various substrate temperatures using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex-situ atomic force microscopy were used to analyze the fim structure and morphology. The morphology of germanium islands on silicon was studied at differect coverages. The results show that femtosecond pulsed laser depositon reduces the minimum temperature for epitaxial growth of Ge quantum dots to ~280 degrees C, which is 120 degrees C lower then previously observed in nanosecond pulsed laser deposition and more than 200 degrees C lower than that reported for molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition.

  16. Overview of ALICE results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kryshen, E L

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected ALICE results on the global event properties, particle spectra, azimuthal anisotropy, heavy flavour and quarkonium production in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV are presented. First results on p-Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 5.02 TeV are briefly reviewed.

  17. Diffraction Results from CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulianos, Konstantin

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present final results by the CDF II collaboration on diffractive W and Z production, report on the status of ongoing analyses on diffractive dijet production and on rapidity gaps between jets, and briefly summarize results obtained on exclusive production pointing to their relevance to calibrating theoretical models used to predict exclusive Higgs-boson production at the LHC.

  18. Recent results from TRISTAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enomoto, Ryoji [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRISTAN results on {gamma}{gamma} physics from 1994 to 1995 are reviewed in this report. We have systematically investigated jet production, the {gamma}-structure function, and charm pair production in {gamma}{gamma} processes. The results are discussed, and future prospects are presented.

  19. Initial Blackbeard power survey results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, T.; Devenport, J.; Holden, D.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Blackbeard broadband VHF radio receiver is in low-earth orbit aboard the ALEXIS satellite. The receiver has been used to measure the transmitted power in four VHF bands (55.2-75.8, 28.0-94.8, 132.3-152.2, and 107.7-166.0 MHz) over quiet and noisy parts of the earth. The authors present the results of the survey and discuss their implications. They find that there are remote ocean areas over which the observed spectrum is largely free of man-made interference, but that the spectrum over most of the earth is dominated by broadcast VHF signals. The signal characteristics observed over a given area are quite constant when observed at different times of day and at intervals of several weeks to months. It appears that in many cases the bulk of the signal power is coming from a small number of sources.

  20. Temperature Shocks and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Half Century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dell, Melissa Lynne

    This paper uses historical fluctuations in temperature within countries to identify its effects on aggregate economic outcomes. We find three primary results. First, higher temperatures substantially reduce economic growth ...

  1. Investigation of growth, coverage and effectiveness of plasma assisted nano-films of fluorocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M.

    Investigation of growth, coverage and effectiveness of plasma assisted nano-films of fluorocarbon and uneven shaped nano-materials. In this paper, results on plasma-assisted nano-scale fluorocarbon films

  2. Elucidating Nucleation and Growth Behavior of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes obtained via Catalyzed Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgos Beltran, Juan Carlos

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    use of SWCNTs in electronic devices. RMD simulations demonstrate that small catalyst particles favor the growth of lengthy nanotubes over catalyst encapsulation as a result of an increase of the curvature energies of the carbon capsule. Furthermore...

  3. Numerical methods for the solution of large and very large, sparse Lyapunov equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodel, A.S.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation the author considers the numerical solution of large (100 {le} n {le} 1000) and very large (n {ge} 1000), sparse Lyapunov equations AX-+ XA' + Q = 0. The author first presents a parallel version of the Hammarling algorithm for the solution of Lyapunov equations where the coefficient matrix A is large and dense. The author then presents a novel parallel algorithm for the solution of Lyapunov equations where A is large and banded. A detailed analysis of the computational requirements in tandem with the results of numerical experiments with these algorithms on an Alliant FX-8 multiprocessor is provided. In the second half of this dissertation, the author considers the numerical solution of Lyapunov equations where the coefficient matrix A is very large and sparse. Under these conditions, the solution X of the Lyapunov equation is typically full rank and dense. The associated excessive storage requirements compel us to compute low rank approximations of the solution X of the Lyapunov equation. The author presents in detail two methods for the low rank approximate solution of the Lyapunov equation. The first method, Trace Maximization, computes an orthogonal matrix V {element of}{Re}{sup n{times}k} that maximizes the trace of the solution {Sigma}{sub V} of the associated reduced order Lyapunov equation (V'AV){Sigma}{sub V} + {Sigma}{sub V}(V'A'V) + V'QV = 0. While Trace Maximization is an effective method for low rank approximation of explicitly specified Hermitian matrices, the author shows that Trace Maximization is not an effective strategy for low rank approximation of positive semidefinite Hermitian matrices X that are implicitly specified as the solution of a Lyapunov equation. Our second algorithm for low rank approximate solution of Lyapunov equations, Approximate Power Iteration, attempts to directly compute an orthogonal basis of the dominant eigenspace of the solution X.

  4. Phenomenological approach for describing environment dependent growths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibyendu Biswas; Swarup Poria

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Different classes of phenomenological universalities of environment dependent growths have been proposed. The logistic as well as environment dependent West-type allometry based biological growth can be explained in this proposed framework of phenomenological description. It is shown that logistic and environment dependent West-type growths are phenomenologically identical in nature. However there is a difference between them in terms of coefficients involved in the phenomenological descriptions. It is also established that environment independent and enviornment dependent biological growth processes lead to the same West-type biological growth equation. Involuted Gompertz function, used to describe biological growth processes undergoing atrophy or a demographic and economic system undergoing involution or regression, can be addressed in this proposed environment dependent description. In addition, some other phenomenological descriptions have been examined in this proposed framework and graphical representations of variation of different parameters involved in the description are executed.

  5. Sensitivity and Scenario Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Winston

    Presents the results of various scenarios using models used to study water, climate, agriculture and the economy in Pakistan's Indus Basin, and discusses the policy and investment implications. The water allocations per ...

  6. Electroweak results from CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. S. Waters

    2004-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Inclusive W and Z production cross-sections have been measured by CDF and certain electroweak parameters extracted with high precision from these measurements. New results on diboson production at the Tevatron are also presented.

  7. Recent MEG results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Cavoto

    2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    New results of a search for the ultra-rare decay $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ by the MEG collaboration are reported in this contribution. The data were taken during 2009 and correspond to approximately 6.5 10$^{13}$ muon stopped on target. A maximum likelihood analysis sets an upper limit at 90\\% C.L. on the branching ratio, BF($\\mu \\to e \\gamma$) $< $1.5 10$^{-11}$. The results presented here are preliminary.

  8. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    can use the oceans to produce energy. We are familiar with the large hydroelectric dams that dot our nation, creating large reservoirs and flooding millions of acres of land....

  9. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  10. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State of the Economy Presentation: Presentation Abstract: Abstract Conflict Between Economic Growth and...

  11. Interface control and snow crystal growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jessica Li; Laura P. Schaposnik

    2015-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of snow crystals is dependent on the temperature and saturation of the environment. In the case of dendrites, Reiter's local two-dimensional model provides a realistic approach to the study of dendrite growth. In this paper we obtain a new geometric rule that incorporates interface control, a basic mechanism of crystallization that is not taken into account in the original Reiter's model. By defining two new variables, growth latency and growth direction, our improved model gives a realistic model not only for dendrite but also for plate forms.

  12. Slow crack growth in polycarbonate films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loic; Ciliberto, Sergio

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study experimentally the slow growth of a single crack in polycarbonate films submitted to uniaxial and constant imposed stress. The specificity of fracture in polycarbonate films is the appearance of flame shaped macroscopic process zones at the tips of the crack. Supported by an experimental study of the mechanical properties of polycarbonate films, an analysis of the stress dependence of the mean ratio between the process zone and crack lengths, during the crack growth, show a quantitative agreement with the Dugdale-Barenblatt model of the plastic process zone. We find that the fracture growth curves obey strong scaling properties that lead to a well defined growth master curve.

  13. Theoretical Ecology: Continued growth and success

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, Alan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EDITORIAL Theoretical Ecology: Continued growth and successof areas in theoretical ecology. Among the highlights areyear represent theoretical ecology from around the world: 20

  14. Unlocking Growth Opportunities for Minority Businesses Through...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    economic growth. At the Energy Innovation Portal, the Department's hub for technology transfer resources, minority owned firms and other businesses can browse through the patents...

  15. Well having inhibited microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Brady D.; Dooley, Kirk J.

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes methods of inhibiting microbial growth in a well. A packing material containing a mixture of a first material and an antimicrobial agent is provided to at least partially fill a well bore. One or more access tubes are provided in an annular space around a casing within the well bore. The access tubes have a first terminal opening located at or above a ground surface and have a length that extends from the first terminal opening at least part of the depth of the well bore. The access tubes have a second terminal opening located within the well bore. An antimicrobial material is supplied into the well bore through the first terminal opening of the access tubes. The invention also includes well constructs.

  16. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  17. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  18. PROJECT DESCRIPTION In recent years there has been a rapid proliferation of large interconnected and spatially dis-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    , communication and computation capabilities are added to these networks, resulting in smart-grids with a large

  19. Growth and structure of sputtered gallium nitride films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Brajesh S.; Major, S. S.; Srinivasa, R. S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GaN films have been deposited by radio frequency sputtering of a GaAs target with pure nitrogen. The growth, composition, and structure of the films deposited on quartz substrates have been studied by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Films deposited below 300 deg. C are amorphous and As rich. Above 300 deg. C, polycrystalline, hexagonal GaN is formed, along with As rich amorphous phase, which reduces with increasing substrate temperature. At a substrate temperature of 700 deg. C, GaN films, practically free of amorphous phase, and As (<0.5 at. %) are formed. The preferred orientation depends strongly on the substrate temperature and is controlled by surface diffusion of adatoms during growth stage. Below 500 deg. C, the surface diffusion between planes dominates and results in the (1011) preferred orientation. Above 500 deg. C, the surface diffusion between grains takes over and results in (0002) preferred orientation.

  20. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.

  1. Time resolved measurement of film growth during reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of titanium nitride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitschker, Felix; Benedikt, Jan; Maszl, Christian; von Keudell, Achim

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth rate during reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of titanium nitride is measured with a temporal resolution of up to 25 us using a rotating shutter concept. According to that concept a 200 um slit is rotated in front of the substrate synchronous with the HIPIMS pulses. Thereby, the growth flux is laterally distributed over the substrate. By measuring the resulting deposition profile with profilometry and with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the temporal variation of the titanium and nitrogen growth flux per pulse is deduced. The analysis reveals that film growth occurs mainly during a HIPIMS pulse, with the growth rate following the HIPIMS phases ignition, current rise, gas rarefaction, plateau and afterglow. The growth fluxes of titanium and nitrogen follow slightly different behaviors with titanium dominating at the beginning of the HIPIMS pulse and nitrogen at the end of the pulse. This is explained by the gas rarefaction effect resulting in a dense initial metal plasma and...

  2. Plans, Implementation, and Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office carries out technology research, development, and deployment through an ongoing process of planning and analysis, implementation, and review. This Web page includes links to documents that support and document the program management process, and the results and public benefits that derive from it.

  3. Recent results from MAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some preliminary results from the MAC detector at PEP are presented. These include measurements of the angular distribution of ..gamma gamma.., ..mu mu.. and tau tau final states, a determination of the tau lifetime, a measurement of R, and a presentation of the inclusive muon p/sub perpendicular/ distribution for hadronic events.

  4. Choices for Growth: Quality of Life and the Natural Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, John

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    of interac- 6 Choices for Growth Smart growth A way to restore community and economic vitality while preserving natural areas In recent years there has been a renaissance in urban design that focuses on the human scale. Several names are used, including smart... growth, sensible growth, livable communities, and new urbanism. We use smart growth because it has the broadest base of practice in the US. Smart growth means development that ac- commodates growth in economically viable, environmentally responsible...

  5. Large mode-volume, large beta, photonic crystal laser resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dezfouli, Mohsen Kamandar; Dignam, Marc M. [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an optical resonator formed from the coupling of 13, L2 defects in a triangular-lattice photonic crystal slab. Using a tight-binding formalism, we optimized the coupled-defect cavity design to obtain a resonator with predicted single-mode operation, a mode volume five times that of an L2-cavity mode and a beta factor of 0.39. The results are confirmed using finite-difference time domain simulations. This resonator is very promising for use as a single mode photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with high saturation output power compared to a laser consisting of one of the single-defect cavities.

  6. Development of large-capacity gas-insulated transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, E.; Tanaka, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd. (Japan)] [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd. (Japan); Toda, K.; Ikeda, M.; Teranishi, T.; Inaba, M.; Yanari, T. [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)] [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrations of population and business activities result in high electricity demand in urban areas. This requires the construction of large-capacity underground substations. Oilless, non-flammable and non-explosive equipment is recommended for underground substations. Therefore, several types of large-capacity gas-insulated transformer have been developed. Because the gas forced cooling type was considered to be available up to approximately 60 MVA, all of these gas-insulated transformers are liquid cooled. But the liquid cooling type has the disadvantage of a complex structure for liquid cooling. For this reason, the authors have been studying the development of a simple design for a gas forced cooling, large-capacity gas-insulated transformer. This paper discusses research and development of cooling and insulation technology for a large-capacity gas-insulated transformer and the development of a 275 kV, 300 MVA gas-insulated transformer.

  7. Toward Improved Support for Loosely Coupled Large Scale Simulation Workflows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Swen [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL] [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-performance computing (HPC) workloads are increasingly leveraging loosely coupled large scale simula- tions. Unfortunately, most large-scale HPC platforms, including Cray/ALPS environments, are designed for the execution of long-running jobs based on coarse-grained launch capabilities (e.g., one MPI rank per core on all allocated compute nodes). This assumption limits capability-class workload campaigns that require large numbers of discrete or loosely coupled simulations, and where time-to-solution is an untenable pacing issue. This paper describes the challenges related to the support of fine-grained launch capabilities that are necessary for the execution of loosely coupled large scale simulations on Cray/ALPS platforms. More precisely, we present the details of an enhanced runtime system to support this use case, and report on initial results from early testing on systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  8. Size-dependent standard deviation for growth rates: Empirical results and theoretical modeling Boris Podobnik*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podobnik, Boris

    , Croatia; Zagreb School of Economics and Management, Zagreb, Croatia; and Center for Polymer Studies of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Fabio Pammolli Faculty of Economics

  9. Bone Growth, Maintenance and Loss in the Neolithic Community of Çatalhöyük, Turkey: Preliminary Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Sabrina; Glencross, Bonnie; Beauchesne, Patrick

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an example from Çatalhöyük, Turkey. International Journal ofNeolithic community of Çatalhöyük, Turkey using metacarpalcommunity at Çatalhöyük, Turkey. American Journal of

  10. Bone Growth, Maintenance and Loss in the Neolithic Community of Çatalhöyük, Turkey: Preliminary Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Sabrina; Glencross, Bonnie; Beauchesne, Patrick

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interpreting Bone Loss and Osteoporosis in Past Populations.2005. How many women have osteoporosis? Journal of Bone and1987. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: single screening method

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - autocrine growth factor Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The ... Source: Shvartsman, Stanislav "Stas" - Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics & Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University Collection: Engineering ;...

  12. Understanding Regional Economic Growth in IndiaUnderstanding Regional Economic Growth in India Understanding Regional Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Regional Economic Growth in IndiaUnderstanding Regional Economic Growth in India Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India* Jeffrey D. Sachs Director The Earth Institute at Columbia_ramiah@yahoo.co.uk Asian Economic Papers 1:3 © 2002 The Earth Institute at Columbia University and the Massachusetts

  13. Large margin classification in infinite neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saul, Lawrence K.

    Large margin classification in infinite neural networks Youngmin Cho and Lawrence K. Saul, CA 92093-0404 Abstract We introduce a new family of positive-definite kernels for large margin classi- fication in support vector machines (SVMs). These kernels mimic the computation in large neural networks

  14. Large-Scale Manifold Learning Ameet Talwalkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Large-Scale Manifold Learning Ameet Talwalkar Courant Institute New York, NY ameet on spectral decom- position, we first analyze two approximate spectral decom- position techniques for large-dimensional embeddings for two large face datasets: CMU-PIE (35 thousand faces) and a web dataset (18 million faces). Our

  15. Large-Scale Renewable Energy Guide Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar introduces the “Large Scale Renewable Energy Guide." The webinar will provide an overview of this important FEMP guide, which describes FEMP's approach to large-scale renewable energy projects and provides guidance to Federal agencies and the private sector on how to develop a common process for large-scale renewable projects.

  16. Conundrum of the Large Scale Streaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. M. Malm

    1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The etiology of the large scale peculiar velocity (large scale streaming motion) of clusters would increasingly seem more tenuous, within the context of the gravitational instability hypothesis. Are there any alternative testable models possibly accounting for such large scale streaming of clusters?

  17. LARGE-SCALE DEMONSTRATION AND DEPLOYMENT PROJECT-TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION SYSTEM (LSDDP-TIS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, an increasing demand for remediation technologies has fueled rapid growth in the D&D technologies. The D&D project managers are now faced with the task of selecting from among the many commercially available and innovative technologies, the most appropriate technology, or combination of technologies, that will address their specific D&D needs. The DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsored the Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDP) to demonstrate improved and innovative technologies that are potentially beneficial to DOE's environmental project. To date, three LSDDPS have been conducted at DOE's nuclear production and research facilities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project--Plant-1 (FEMP), Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5), and Hanford Production Reactor 105-C, Now four new LSDDPS have been launched at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), and Mound Environmental Management Project (MEMP). In the LSDDPS, an extensive search is first conducted to identify candidate technologies that can potentially address the identified problems The candidate technologies then go through a screening process to select those technologies with the best potential for addressing remediation problems at the LSDDP site as well as project sites across the DOE complex. This selection process can be overwhelming and time-consuming. The result is that D&D project managers for the new LSDDPS are challenged to avoid duplication of demonstrated technologies.

  18. Growth and migration of solids in evolving protostellar disks I: Methods and Analytical tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Garaud

    2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This series of papers investigates the early stages of planet formation by modeling the evolution of the gas and solid content of protostellar disks from the early T Tauri phase until complete dispersal of the gas. In this first paper, I present a new set of simplified equations modeling the growth and migration of various species of grains in a gaseous protostellar disk evolving as a result of the combined effects of viscous accretion and photo-evaporation from the central star. Using the assumption that the grain size distribution function always maintains a power-law structure approximating the average outcome of the exact coagulation/shattering equation, the model focuses on the calculation of the growth rate of the largest grains only. The coupled evolution equations for the maximum grain size, the surface density of the gas and the surface density of solids are then presented and solved self-consistently using a standard 1+1 dimensional formalism. I show that the global evolution of solids is controlled by a leaky reservoir of small grains at large radii, and propose an empirically derived evolution equation for the total mass of solids, which can be used to estimate the total heavy element retention efficiency in the planet formation paradigm. Consistency with observation of the total mass of solids in the Minimum Solar Nebula augmented with the mass of the Oort cloud sets strong upper limit on the initial grain size distribution, as well as on the turbulent parameter $\\alphat$. Detailed comparisons with SED observations are presented in a following paper.

  19. Grain growth behavior of Pb-Cu-Te cable sheathing alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahay, S.S.; Guruswamy, S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Goodwin, F. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead alloys are extensively used as sheathing material for power and telecommunication cables. Excellent extrusion properties, high ductility, extremely low recrystallization temperature, good fatigue and creep resistance, make these alloys ideal for cable sheathing application. Though the thickness of the lead sheath is only a few hundred {mu}m, it is a critical component of the cable. The lead layer in the cable is often the limiting factor both during the cable production and during its service phase. Up to several hundred miles of long single piece cables may be required for underground and underwater cables. Cracking in the lead sheath during the cable sheathing extrusion limits the production of such long cables while cracking of the lead sheath due to repeated vibration, creep and recrystallization limits the service life of these cables. The purpose of the present research is to increase the duration of cable extrusion time without compromising sheath integrity by minimizing deleterious precipitate formation and growth. Concentrations of Cu and Te in the commercial alloy are too small to contribute to precipitation strengthening. Therefore their positive influence on mechanical strength should mainly result from the influence of Cu and Te in solution on interdiffusivity and grain boundary mobility. The formation of large precipitates observed in Pb-Cu-Te alloys can be minimized and extrusion times increased without negatively affecting mechanical properties if the solute content is reduced to near solid solubility levels. In order to examine the effect of lowering solute content on microstructural stability and mechanical properties, compressive stress-strain behavior of a Pb-50 wt ppm Cu-100 wt ppm Te alloy with solute contents close to the solubility limits and a Pb-400 wt ppm Cu-400 wt ppm Te alloy was examined at room temperature. The grain growth kinetics in these alloys were studied in a temperature range of 100 to 225 C.

  20. LiveBench-2: Large-Scale Automated Evaluation of Protein Structure Prediction Servers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Daniel

    LiveBench-2: Large-Scale Automated Evaluation of Protein Structure Prediction Servers Janusz M from other evaluation experiments because it is a large-scale and a fully automated procedure. Since, to keep in pace with the development, we present the results of the second large-scale evaluation of pro

  1. Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India Jeffrey D. Sachs, Nirupam Bajpai and Ananthi Ramiah Papers #12;Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India Jeffrey D. Sachs Center for International Development (CID) Harvard University Ananthi_Ramiah@harvard.edu This paper was prepared for the Asian Economic

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri). They exhibit low growth rates, specific obligate nutrient requirements (hydrogen as electron donor, acetate

  3. Graphene Growth on Low Carbon Solubility Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wofford, Joseph Monroe

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    preparation of Cu substrates will lead to larger grapheneGraphene Growth on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Au(111) Substrate selection and preparationGraphene Growth on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Au(111) 3.1 Substrate selection and preparation

  4. Fish production: integrating growth, mortality, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limburg, Karin E.

    1 Fish production: integrating growth, mortality, and population density K. Limburg lecture notes, Fisheries Science Outline: 1. Biological production ­ a critical ecological parameter 2. How to compute production from a simple biomass model 3. Production:biomass ratios 4. Growth: mortality ratios Reading

  5. Beer and Economic Growth Dr. Martin Shields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beer and Economic Growth Dr. Martin Shields Regional Economics Institute Colorado State University to the rest of the world #12;Industry Trends · Over the past 10 years, the growth in craft beer has significantly altered the industry · While overall beer sales are relatively flat, market share of craft brewers

  6. RESULTS OF SLICE MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudolph, J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear accelerator ELBE delivers high-brightness electron bunches to multiple user stations, including two IR-FEL oscillators [1], [2]. In the framework of an upgrade program the current thermionic injector is being replaced by a SRF-photoinjector [3], [4]. The SRF injector promises higher beam quality, especially required for future experiments with high power laser radiation. During the commissioning phase, the SRF-injector was running in parallel to the thermionic gun. After installation of a injection beamline (dogleg), beam from the SRF-injector can now be injected into the ELBE linac. Detailed characterization of the electron beam quality delivered by the new electron injector includes vertical slice emittance measurements in addition to measurements of projected emittance values. This report gives an overview of the status of the project and summarizes first measurement results as well as results of simulations performed with measurement settings.

  7. Tevatron Top Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christophe Clement

    2006-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    I present the latest results from the CDF and D0 collaborations on top quark production (single top and top quark pair production) at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at sqrt(s) =1.96 TeV, measurements of the top quark decay properties such as the branching ratio B(t -> Wb), the W helicity in t -> Wb decays, and measurements of fundamental parameters such as the top quark charge and mass.

  8. Double Chooz: Latest results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. I. Crespo-Anadón; for the Double Chooz collaboration

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The latest results from the Double Chooz experiment on the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ are presented. A detector located at an average distance of 1050 m from the two reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power plant has accumulated a live time of 467.90 days, corresponding to an exposure of 66.5 GW-ton-year (reactor power $\\times$ detector mass $\\times$ live time). A revised analysis has boosted the signal efficiency and reduced the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties compared to previous publications, paving the way for the two detector phase. The measured $\\sin^2 2\\theta_{13} = 0.090^{+0.032}_{-0.029}$ is extracted from a fit to the energy spectrum. A deviation from the prediction above a visible energy of 4 MeV is found, being consistent with an unaccounted reactor flux effect, which does not affect the $\\theta_{13}$ result. A consistent value of $\\theta_{13}$ is measured in a rate-only fit to the number of observed candidates as a function of the reactor power, confirming the robustness of the result.

  9. Advanced Manufacturing Use Cases and Early Results in GENI Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calyam, Prasad

    for controlling remote processes in manufacturing facilities. In addition, there is a need to suitably configureAdvanced Manufacturing Use Cases and Early Results in GENI Infrastructure Alex Berryman, Prasad to advanced manufacturing communities are exciting prospects due to the growth of the global marketplace

  10. Large-scale simulations of complex physical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belic, A. [Scientific Computing Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientific computing has become a tool as vital as experimentation and theory for dealing with scientific challenges of the twenty-first century. Large scale simulations and modelling serve as heuristic tools in a broad problem-solving process. High-performance computing facilities make possible the first step in this process - a view of new and previously inaccessible domains in science and the building up of intuition regarding the new phenomenology. The final goal of this process is to translate this newly found intuition into better algorithms and new analytical results.In this presentation we give an outline of the research themes pursued at the Scientific Computing Laboratory of the Institute of Physics in Belgrade regarding large-scale simulations of complex classical and quantum physical systems, and present recent results obtained in the large-scale simulations of granular materials and path integrals.

  11. Ordered Nucleation Sites for the Growth of Zinc Oxide Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; Ginley, D.S.; Shaheen, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) offer a promising route to low cost photovoltaic (PV) technology that can be inexpensively manufactured on a large scale for use in power generation and commercial products. Solar power conversion efficiencies of laboratory scale OPV devices have recently reached ~5%; however, projected efficiencies of at least 10% will be required for commercialization. An analogous approach that has arisen recently that can potentially increase efficiencies employs metal oxide semiconductors as the electron acceptor, creating a hybrid organic-inorganic device. This approach offers the advantage that the conduction band of the oxide can be tuned in a systematic way through doping, thus potentially achieving higher photovoltages in the device. Additionally, nanostructures of these materials can be easily grown from precursor solutions, providing a technique to precisely control the nanoscale geometry. This work focuses on using ZnO, which is known to have high electron mobility (>100 cm2/Vs), as the electron acceptor. Nanofibers of ZnO can be grown from precursors such as zinc acetate or zinc nitrate to form arrays of nanofibers into which a conjugated polymer can be intercalated to form a composite PV device. The morphology of the nanofiber array is critical to the performance of the device, but current methods of nanofiber growth from a flat, polycrystalline nucleation layer allow for little morphological control. To overcome this limitation, we have created ordered arrays of ZnO nucleation sites with controllable size and spacing. Toluene solutions of diblock copolymer micelles with ZnCl2 incorporated into the micellar cores were spin-coated onto glass substrates and etched with an O2 plasma to yield hexagonally ordered arrays of ZnO nanoparticles that functioned as nucleation sites. Changing the concentration of ZnCl2 and the molecular weight and ratio of the diblock copolymer resulted in systematic variation in the size and spacing of the nucleation sites. Thermal anneal treatment provided further modification of the nucleation layer, from which ZnO nanofibers were successfully grown from solution, although at present it is not known if the geometry of the as-grown ZnO nanofibers precisely reflects that of the underlying nucleation layer. This work provides a simple and useful method for potentially controlling the nucleation of ZnO nanofibers to be used in hybrid ZnO/organic nanocomposite PV devices.

  12. Storage and retrieval of large digital images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, J.N.

    1998-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Image compression and viewing are implemented with (1) a method for performing DWT-based compression on a large digital image with a computer system possessing a two-level system of memory and (2) a method for selectively viewing areas of the image from its compressed representation at multiple resolutions and, if desired, in a client-server environment. The compression of a large digital image I(x,y) is accomplished by first defining a plurality of discrete tile image data subsets T{sub ij}(x,y) that, upon superposition, form the complete set of image data I(x,y). A seamless wavelet-based compression process is effected on I(x,y) that is comprised of successively inputting the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) in a selected sequence to a DWT routine, and storing the resulting DWT coefficients in a first primary memory. These coefficients are periodically compressed and transferred to a secondary memory to maintain sufficient memory in the primary memory for data processing. The sequence of DWT operations on the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) effectively calculates a seamless DWT of I(x,y). Data retrieval consists of specifying a resolution and a region of I(x,y) for display. The subset of stored DWT coefficients corresponding to each requested scene is determined and then decompressed for input to an inverse DWT, the output of which forms the image display. The repeated process whereby image views are specified may take the form an interaction with a computer pointing device on an image display from a previous retrieval. 6 figs.

  13. Storage and retrieval of large digital images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, Jonathan N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Image compression and viewing are implemented with (1) a method for performing DWT-based compression on a large digital image with a computer system possessing a two-level system of memory and (2) a method for selectively viewing areas of the image from its compressed representation at multiple resolutions and, if desired, in a client-server environment. The compression of a large digital image I(x,y) is accomplished by first defining a plurality of discrete tile image data subsets T.sub.ij (x,y) that, upon superposition, form the complete set of image data I(x,y). A seamless wavelet-based compression process is effected on I(x,y) that is comprised of successively inputting the tiles T.sub.ij (x,y) in a selected sequence to a DWT routine, and storing the resulting DWT coefficients in a first primary memory. These coefficients are periodically compressed and transferred to a secondary memory to maintain sufficient memory in the primary memory for data processing. The sequence of DWT operations on the tiles T.sub.ij (x,y) effectively calculates a seamless DWT of I(x,y). Data retrieval consists of specifying a resolution and a region of I(x,y) for display. The subset of stored DWT coefficients corresponding to each requested scene is determined and then decompressed for input to an inverse DWT, the output of which forms the image display. The repeated process whereby image views are specified may take the form an interaction with a computer pointing device on an image display from a previous retrieval.

  14. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We adopt a new chemical evolution model for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and thereby investigate its past star formation and chemical enrichment histories. The delay time distribution of Type Ia supernovae recently revealed by Type Ia supernova surveys is incorporated self-consistently into the new model. The principle results are summarized as follows. The present gas mass fraction and stellar metallicity as well as the higher [Ba/Fe] in metal-poor stars at [Fe/H] < -1.5 can be more self-consistently explained by models with steeper initial mass functions. The observed higher [Mg/Fe] ({>=}0.3) at [Fe/H] {approx} -0.6 and higher [Ba/Fe] (>0.5) at [Fe/H] {approx} -0.3 could be due to significantly enhanced star formation about 2 Gyr ago. The observed overall [Ca/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation and remarkably low [Ca/Fe] (< - 0.2) at [Fe/H] > -0.6 are consistent with models with short-delay supernova Ia and with the more efficient loss of Ca possibly caused by an explosion mechanism of Type II supernovae. Although the metallicity distribution functions do not show double peaks in the models with a starburst about 2 Gyr ago, they show characteristic double peaks in the models with double starbursts {approx}200 Myr and {approx}2 Gyr ago. The observed apparent dip of [Fe/H] around {approx}1.5 Gyr ago in the age-metallicity relation can be reproduced by models in which a large amount ({approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }) of metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) gas can be accreted onto the LMC.

  15. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  16. Recent Results from HAPPEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Michaels

    2006-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    New measurements of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic scattering of 3GeV electrons off hydrogen and helium-4 targets at theta{sub lab} = 6 degrees are reported. The helium-4 result is A = (+6.40 {+-} 0.23 (stat) {+-} 0.12 (syst)) * 10{sup -6}. The hydrogen result is A = (-1.58 {+-} 0.12 (stat) {+-} 0.04 (syst)) * 10{sup -6}. The asymmetry for hydrogen is a function of a linear combination of G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s}, the strange quark contributions to the electric and magnetic form factors of the nucleon respectively, and that for helium-4 is a function solely of G{sub E}{sup s}. The combination of the two measurements separates G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s} and provide new limits on the role of strange quarks in the nucleon charge and magnetization distributions. We extract G{sub E}{sup s} = 0.002 {+-} 0.014 {+-} 0.007 at Q{sup 2} = 0.077 GeV{sup 2} and G{sub E}{sup s} + 0.09 G{sub M}{sup s} = 0.007 {+-} 0.011 {+-} 0.006 at Q{sup 2} = 0.109 GeV{sup 2}.

  17. Organic Separation Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  18. A note on large gauge transformations in double field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usman Naseer

    2015-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a detailed proof of the conjecture by Hohm and Zwiebach in double field theory. This result implies that their proposal for large gauge transformations in terms of the Jacobian matrix for coordinate transformations is, as required, equivalent to the standard exponential map associated with the generalized Lie derivative along a suitable parameter.

  19. Large-Scale Linear Programming Techniques for the Design of ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 5, 2002 ... Page 1 ... We present large-scale optimization techniques to model the energy function that underlies the folding process of ..... which we will refer to from now on, we get a system. AT y ? b, ... Although we don't want to rule out that a so- ..... What we believe is interesting in this context is that the results from.

  20. Generating Large Instances of the Gong-Harn Cryptosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Guang

    Generating Large Instances of the Gong-Harn Cryptosystem Kenneth J. Giuliani and Guang Gong Centre@cacr.math.uwaterloo.ca Abstract. In 1999, Gong and Harn proposed a new cryptosystem based on third-order characteristic sequences++ using NTL [7] and so a timing results are presented. 1 Introduction In 1998 and 1999, Gong and Harn

  1. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a large wind farm. Worksheets are included. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsscale-models-and-wind-turbines Download Survival Still Students design and build a solar...

  2. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    models and the issues surrounding models and their accuracy when developing a large wind farm. Worksheets are included. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloads...

  3. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  4. High energy physics - The large and the small

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santoro, Alberto [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Sixth International School on Field Theory and Gravitation, I was invited to give this talk to the students and researchers of Field Theory mainly about LHC - The Large Hadron Collider and results. I will try to summarize the main daily life of the high energy physics and give an idea about the experiments and the expectations for the near future. I will comment the present results and the prospects to LHC/CMS.

  5. Results from NEMO 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. L. Flack; for the NEMO 3 collaboration

    2008-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The NEMO 3 experiment is located in the Modane Underground Laboratory and has been taking data since 2003 with seven isotopes. It is searching for the double beta decay process with two or zero neutrinos emitted in the final state. Precision measurements of the half-life of the isotopes due to two neutrino double beta decay have been performed and new results for 96Zr, 48Ca and 150Nd are presented here. Measurements of this process are important for reducing the uncertainties on the nuclear matrix elements. No evidence for zero neutrino double beta decay has been found and a 90% Confidence Level lower limit on the half-life of this process is derived. From this an upper limit can be set on the effective Majorana neutrino mass using the most recent nuclear matrix elements calculations.

  6. MELCOR validation results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, C.D.; Byers, R.K.; Shaffer, C.J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent comparisons of MELCOR predictions to three sets of experiments, the ABCOVE Aerosol Experiments, the HDR-V44 Steam Blowdown Experiments, and the Battelle-Frankfurt Gas Mixing Experiments are presentd. All three comparisons involve conditions that are of concern in an LWR containment during a severe accident. MELCOR results are compared to the experimental data and the predictions of at least one other state-of-the-art code for each test. In the ABCOVE comparisons, the MELCOR aerosol modeling is demonstrated. In comparisons to the HDR-V44 Steam Blowdown Experiments, MELCOR predictions of the response of the containment to the release of steam from the primary system are shown, and in the Battelle-Frankfurt comparisons, MELCOR predictions of the diffusion in a containment of an injected hydrogen-nitrogen gas are studied. These comparisons provide critical testing of the MELCOR control volume hydrodynamics package, the radionuclide package, and the flow path package.

  7. Results from NA49

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Hoehne

    2005-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of results from the CERN experiment NA49 is presented with emphasis on most recent measurements. NA49 has systematically studied the dependence of hadron production on energy and system size or centrality. At top-SPS energy the detailed investigation of hadron production, now also extending to elliptic flow of Lambda-baryons and to identified particle yields at high p_t, shows that the created matter behaves in a similar manner as at RHIC energies. In the lower SPS energy range a distinct structure is observed in the energy dependence of the rate of strangeness production and in the slopes of p_t-spectra suggesting the onset of the creation of a deconfined phase of matter.

  8. Patterning of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon growth by magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fejfar, A.; Stuchlik, J.; Mates, T.; Ledinsky, M.; Honda, S.; Kocka, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A way of influencing growth of silicon films by magnetic field is demonstrated. Permanent magnet(s) placed under the substrate influenced the discharge in a mixture of silane and hydrogen and led to formation of microcrystalline regions in otherwise amorphous film. The pattern of microcrystalline regions varied with the orientation of the magnetic field. Microscopic study by atomic force microscopy and by micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed that the microcrystalline regions resulted from a higher density of crystalline grain nuclei, increased at the locations where the magnetron effect could be expected. This phenomenon could be used to study the transition between amorphous and microcrystalline growth. Moreover, we suggest it as a kind of 'magnetic lithography' for the preparation of predefined microcrystalline patterns in otherwise amorphous silicon films.

  9. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Bhardwaj, Sunil [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Sincrotone Trieste S.C.p.A., s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  10. Nonlinear fast growth of water waves under wind forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunetti, Maura; Berti, Nicolas; Kasparian, Jérôme

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wind-driven wave regime, the Miles mechanism gives an estimate of the growth rate of the waves under the effect of wind. We consider the case where this growth rate, normalised with respect to the frequency of the carrier wave, is of the order of the wave steepness. Using the method of multiple scales, we calculate the terms which appear in the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) equation in this regime of fast-growing waves. We define a coordinate transformation which maps the forced NLS equation into the standard NLS with constant coefficients, that has a number of known analytical soliton solutions. Among these solutions, the Peregrine and the Akhmediev solitons show an enhancement of both their lifetime and maximum amplitude which is in qualitative agreement with the results of tank experiments and numerical simulations of dispersive focusing under the action of wind.

  11. Dissolution and growth of spinel crystals in a borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Jesse (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY) [ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY; Plaisted, Trevor J.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY) [ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY; Hrma, Pavel R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of dissolution and growth of settling crystals of spinel was measured optically in a borosilicate melt that was pre-heated at a temperature above liquidus to erase the effects of previous history. The Hixson-Crowell equation, which is based on Fick's first law, was used to determine mass-transfer coefficients (kH) for dissolution and growth; both were found to fit the same Arrhenius function of temperature (T). An attempt was made to estimate the diffusion coefficient (D) and the concentration-boundary-layer thickness (d). The calculated values of d compared well with experimental results and observations. The D vs. T function was similar to a literature function obtained for the dissolution of magnetite in sodium disilicate glass.

  12. Effect of methanotrophic biofilm growth on the hydraulic conductivity of porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haby, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the physical properties of porous media. The key element influencing flow is the growth of a biofilm which coats the particles and clogs the pores. This thesis presents results of an investigation of the effect of microbial growth on the hydraulic... Afass in u Column Section (mg cells) = TOC?+ 2. 125 (7) Mathematical Model A mathematical model was used to describe biofilm induced changes in the flow parameters of porous media under biostimulated conditions. Because of the fragile nature...

  13. Location Efficiency as the Missing Piece of The Energy Puzzle: How Smart Growth Can Unlock Trillion Dollar Consumer Cost Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Location Efficiency as the Missing Piece of The Energy Puzzle: How Smart Growth Can Unlock Trillion. In the analysis the energy efficiency potential of smart growth developments (the type that are occurring in the US) are estimated using location efficiency research findings. The results show energy savings

  14. Micromechanisms of short fatigue crack growth in an Al-Si piston alloy. T.O. Mbuya1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    behaviour of a model cast aluminium piston alloy has been investigated. This has been achieved using1 Micromechanisms of short fatigue crack growth in an Al-Si piston alloy. T.O. Mbuya1 , and P frequently observed. These results have been compared with the long crack growth behaviour of the alloy

  15. Gauging Employment Growth in Wisconsin: State-By-State Comparisons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Gauging Employment Growth in Wisconsin: State; 2 Employment growth in Wisconsin continues to lag both the national rate of job growth as well as the rates of employment increase in most other states

  16. adrenomedullin affects growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on the growth index analysis we find that the growth data favor the clustered dark energy scenario. Basilakos, Spyros 2014-01-01 96 THE GROWTH OF EUPHRASIA IN CULTIVATION...

  17. Recent Higgs results from the ATLAS experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brendlinger, Kurt [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents recent results on the Higgs boson from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The Collaboration reports on measurements of the signal strength, couplings, and spin of the Higgs in several decay channels. We find all measurements to be consistent with Standard Model predictions. The Higgs branching fraction to invisible particles is constrained and no evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model is found.

  18. LSND neutrino oscillation results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, W.C.; LSND Collaboration

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LSND (Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector) experiment at Los Alamos has conducted a search for muon antineutrino {r_arrow} electron antineutrino oscillations using muon neutrinos from antimuon decay at rest. The electron antineutrinos are detected via the reaction electron antineutrino + proton {r_arrow} positron + neutron, correlated with the 2.2-MeV gamma from neutron + proton {r_arrow} deuteron + gamma. The use of tight cuts to identify positron events with correlated gamma rays yields 22 events with positron energy between 36 and 60 MeV and only 4.6 {+-} 0.6 background events. The probability that this excess is due entirely to a statistical fluctuation is 4.1 {times} 10{sup -8}. A chi-squared fit to the entire positron sample results in a total excess of 51.8 {sup +18.7}{sub -16.9} {+-} 8.0 events with positron energy between 20 and 60 MeV. If attributed to muon antineutrino {r_arrow} electron antineutrino oscillations, this corresponds to an oscillation probability (averaged over the experimental energy and spatial acceptance) of (0.31 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05){percent}. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. LSND neutrino oscillation results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D.H.; LSND Collaboration

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LSND experiment at Los Alamos has conducted a search for {anti v}{sub {mu}} {yields} {anti v}{sub e} oscillations using {anti v}{sub {mu}} from {mu}{sup +} decay at rest. The {anti v}{sub e} are detected via the reaction {anti v}{sub e} p {yields} e{sup +}n, correlated with the 2.2 MeV {gamma} from n p {yields} d {gamma}. The use of tight cuts to identify e{sup +} events with correlated {gamma} rays yielded 22 events with e{sup +} energy between 36 and 60 MeV and only 4.6 {+-} 0.6 background events. The probability that this excess is due entirely to a statistical fluctuation is 4.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}. A {chi}{sup 2} fit to the entire e{sup +} sample results in a total excess of 51.8{sub {minus}16.9}{sup +18.7} {+-} 8.0 events with e{sup +} energy between 20 and 60 MeV. If attributed to {anti v}{sub {mu}} {yields} {anti v}{sub e} oscillations, this corresponds to an oscillation probability (averaged over the experimental energy and spatial acceptance) of 0.31 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05%.

  20. Large $N$ Phases of Chiral QCD_2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Crescimanno; W. Taylor

    1994-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A matrix model is constructed which describes a chiral version of the large $N$ $U(N)$ gauge theory on a two-dimensional sphere of area $A$. This theory has three separate phases. The large area phase describes the associated chiral string theory. An exact expression for the free energy in the large area phase is used to derive a remarkably simple formula for the number of topologically inequivalent covering maps of a sphere with fixed branch points and degree $n$.

  1. A Database Index to Large Biological Sequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, E.

    Hunt,E. Atkinson,M.P. Irving,R.W. Proceedings of the 27th Conference on Very Large Databases pp 139-148 Morgan Kaufmann

  2. Exploiting Universality in Atoms with Large Scattering Lengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braaten, Eric

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this research project was atoms with scattering lengths that are large compared to the range of their interactions and which therefore exhibit universal behavior at sufficiently low energies. Recent dramatic advances in cooling atoms and in manipulating their scattering lengths have made this phenomenon of practical importance for controlling ultracold atoms and molecules. This research project was aimed at developing a systematically improvable method for calculating few-body observables for atoms with large scattering lengths starting from the universal results as a first approximation. Significant progress towards this goal was made during the five years of the project.

  3. Epitaxial electrodeposition of freestanding large area single crystal substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Jae Wook; Standley, Adam; Chason, Eric [Brown University, Box D, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on a method for producing freestanding single crystal metal films over large areas using electrodeposition and selective etching. The method can be turned into an inexpensive continuous process for making long ribbons or a large area of single crystal films. Results from a 5x5 mm{sup 2} Ni single crystal film using electron backscattering pattern pole figures and x-ray diffraction demonstrate that the quality of material produced is equivalent to the initial substrate without annealing or polishing.

  4. Nonequilibrium Markov processes conditioned on large deviations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael Chetrite; Hugo Touchette

    2014-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the problem of conditioning a Markov process on a rare event and of representing this conditioned process by a conditioning-free process, called the effective or driven process. The basic assumption is that the rare event used in the conditioning is a large deviation-type event, characterized by a convex rate function. Under this assumption, we construct the driven process via a generalization of Doob's $h$-transform, used in the context of bridge processes, and show that this process is equivalent to the conditioned process in the long-time limit. The notion of equivalence that we consider is based on the logarithmic equivalence of path measures and implies that the two processes have the same typical states. In constructing the driven process, we also prove equivalence with the so-called exponential tilting of the Markov process, which is used with importance sampling to simulate rare events, and which gives rise, from the point of view of statistical mechanics, to a nonequilibrium version of the canonical ensemble. Other links between our results and the topics of bridge processes, quasi-stationary distributions, stochastic control, and conditional limit theorems are mentioned.

  5. Geothermal Energy Growth Continues, Industry Survey Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey released by the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) shows continued growth in the number of new geothermal power projects under development in the United States, a 20% increase since January of this year.

  6. Economic Redevelopment and Growth Program (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Economic Redevelopment and Growth program (ERG) is an incentive for real estate development projects that have a financing gap, defined as having insufficient revenues to support the project debt...

  7. New Jersey Business Growth Fund (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Creditworthy small or mid-sized companies that are creating or retaining jobs in New Jersey can apply for financing through the New Jersey Business Growth Fund, a joint program of the EDA and PNC...

  8. Selective anisotropic growth of zeolite crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Tasha April

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise control over particle size and morphology is emerging as a critical issue in the design of nanostructured materials. The explosive growth of nanoparticle synthesis is a good example of this. As material chemists have developed the ability...

  9. Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Presented at...

  10. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Abstract: The...

  11. Epitaxial Growth and Properties of Doped Transition Metal and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of crystalline oxide film growth using vacuum methods is reviewed and discussed with an eye toward gaining fundamental insights into the relationships between growth process and...

  12. Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium...

  13. allometric appendage growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 PERSPECTIVES Allometric growth, life-history invariants and population energetics Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: IDEAS AND PERSPECTIVES Allometric growth,...

  14. Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies: Getting Started Experience...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies: Getting Started Experience from Six Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies:...

  15. Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of a CZT Growth Tip...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of a CZT Growth Tip from a Vertical Gradient Freeze Furnace. Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of a CZT Growth Tip from a Vertical Gradient Freeze Furnace....

  16. Large Scale Laser Two-Photon Polymerization Structuring for Fabrication of Artificial Polymeric Scaffolds for Regenerative Medicine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinauskas, M.; Purlys, V.; Zukauskas, A.; Rutkauskas, M.; Danilevicius, P.; Paipulas, D.; Bickauskaite, G.; Gadonas, R.; Piskarskas, A. [Vilnius University, Physics Faculty, Department of Quantum Electronics, Laser Research Center, Sauletekio ave. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania); Bukelskis, L.; Baltriukiene, D.; Bukelskiene, V. [Institute of Biochemistry, Vivarium, Mokslininkuo str. 12, LT-08662 Vilnius (Lithuania); Sirmenis, R. [Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiuo Klinikos, Santariskiuo g. 2, LT-08661 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gaidukeviciute, A. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Sirvydis, V. [Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Heart Surgery Center, Santariskiuo 2, LT-08661, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a femtosecond Laser Two-Photon Polymerization (LTPP) system of large scale three-dimensional structuring for applications in tissue engineering. The direct laser writing system enables fabrication of artificial polymeric scaffolds over a large area (up to cm in lateral size) with sub-micrometer resolution which could find practical applications in biomedicine and surgery. Yb:KGW femtosecond laser oscillator (Pharos, Light Conversion. Co. Ltd.) is used as an irradiation source (75 fs, 515 nm (frequency doubled), 80 MHz). The sample is mounted on wide range linear motor driven stages having 10 nm sample positioning resolution (XY--ALS130-100, Z--ALS130-50, Aerotech, Inc.). These stages guarantee an overall travelling range of 100 mm into X and Y directions and 50 mm in Z direction and support the linear scanning speed up to 300 mm/s. By moving the sample three-dimensionally the position of laser focus in the photopolymer is changed and one is able to write complex 3D (three-dimensional) structures. An illumination system and CMOS camera enables online process monitoring. Control of all equipment is automated via custom made computer software ''3D-Poli'' specially designed for LTPP applications. Structures can be imported from computer aided design STereoLihography (stl) files or programmed directly. It can be used for rapid LTPP structuring in various photopolymers (SZ2080, AKRE19, PEG-DA-258) which are known to be suitable for bio-applications. Microstructured scaffolds can be produced on different substrates like glass, plastic and metal. In this paper, we present microfabricated polymeric scaffolds over a large area and growing of adult rabbit myogenic stem cells on them. Obtained results show the polymeric scaffolds to be applicable for cell growth practice. It exhibit potential to use it for artificial pericardium in the experimental model in the future.

  17. Growth and propagation of Acer grandidentatum Nutt.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tankersley, Boyce Elbert

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into the graduate school process. Joseph Calabrese, Lisa Lipscomb, Loras Freiberger, Sylvia Meadows, and Austin Stockton often helped to put matters into their proper perspective. Special thanks to Carol Leach for her advice and help during my studies. The many... on subsequent growth . Once the first flush was completed (June), and a terminal bud was set, fertilization was started to determine if any of the treatments could encourage subsequent growth. The data were analyzed using a general linear model analysis...

  18. Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Kai

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Chemistry SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF METAL GROWTH ON OXIDES A Thesis by KAI LUO Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style a d content by: avid W. Goodman.... , Jilin University, P. R. China Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr, David W. Goodman Metal/oxide chemistry and metal cluster growth on oxides are fundamental to our understanding of the catalytic activity and selectivity of metal catalysts, thus...

  19. Argentina: export-biased growth versus import-biased growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradley, Michael Page

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    when oil was first discovered near Gomodoro Rivadavia, the Argentine government has been engaged in oil production by means of the state-owned company Yacimientos Petrolfferos Fiscales. However, in 1916, foreign firms began production... importer of oil until the Frondizi government. During the period 1958 to 1962, Frondizi made contracts with foreign oil companies giving them authority to act as agents for Yacimientos Patroliferos Fiscales in the production of oil. The result...

  20. Argentina: export-biased growth versus import-biased growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradley, Michael Page

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    when oil was first discovered near Gomodoro Rivadavia, the Argentine government has been engaged in oil production by means of the state-owned company Yacimientos Petrolfferos Fiscales. However, in 1916, foreign firms began production... importer of oil until the Frondizi government. During the period 1958 to 1962, Frondizi made contracts with foreign oil companies giving them authority to act as agents for Yacimientos Patroliferos Fiscales in the production of oil. The result...

  1. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  2. Palladium chloride to palladium metal two-dimensional nucleation and growth phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, H.C. de; Carlin, R.T. [Air Force Academy, CO (United States). Frank J. Seiler Research Lab.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reduction of a monolayer of surface-bound Pd(II) to Pd(0) on a palladium substrate reveals two-dimensional nucleation and growth phenomena. Using well-known 2D nucleation-growth theories, this reduction is shown to proceed by an instantaneous nucleation and growth mechanism. However, when a submonolayer of Pd(II) is present, this mechanism fails to account for the experimentally observed high cathodic currents seen at zero time. A model incorporating preexisting Pd(0) cylindrical sites on the partially oxidized Pd(0) surface has been successfully applied to account for the discrepancy between the experimental results and current 2D theories. Using this modified 2D model, values for the mathematical product of cylindrical growth rate and the square root of the nucleation site densities have been determined, and the overpotential dependence of the growth rate has been confirmed and quantified. These 2D nucleation-growth phenomena have practical consequences on the performance of the Pd(II)/Pd(0) system as a faradaic supercapacitor, and probably on the performance of other 2D faradaic supercapacitor systems. In addition, because many electrodes undergo monolayer surface oxidation-reduction reactions in other solvent systems, especially aqueous electrolytes, these 2D nucleation-growth phenomena may play a role in these important surface-modifying redox systems as well.

  3. Wall recession rates in cavity-growth modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grens, E.A. II; Thorsness, C.B.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The predictions of resource utilization obtained from cavity-growth models depend on the methods used to represent the recession rates of the walls of the cavity. Under many circumstances the cavity is largely filled with a bed char rubble. Examination of the mechanisms for recession at walls adjacent to these char beds indicates that the recession rates are controlled by convective heat transfer from the bed to the walls coupled with the thermomechanical breakdown of the walls. A recession-rate representation has been developed, based on this concept, for use in cavity-growth simulation programs. This representation characterizes wall breakdown by either a failure temperature or by a thickness of char layer at failure, and determines rates from a model of heat transfer under these conditions. It gives recession rates that are functions of gas temperature and mass flow rate in the cavity, and depend on effective particle size in the char bed. Wall recession rates calculated for WIDCO, Hoe Creek, and Hanna coals are in the range of 0.1 to 0.8 m/day at a 1300 K cavity temperature, and are consistent with the general rates observed for field tests. 27 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  4. Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind-Plant Aerodynamics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Moriarty, P. J.; Martinez, L. A.; Leonardi, S.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J. G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we present results of a large-eddy simulation of the 48 multi-megawatt turbines composing the Lillgrund wind plant. Turbulent inflow wind is created by performing an atmospheric boundary layer precursor simulation and turbines are modeled using a rotating, variable-speed actuator line representation. The motivation for this work is that few others have done wind plant large-eddy simulations with a substantial number of turbines, and the methods for carrying out the simulations are varied. We wish to draw upon the strengths of the existing simulations and our growing atmospheric large-eddy simulation capability to create a sound methodology for performing this type of simulation. We have used the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox to create our solver.

  5. Quantum noise in large-scale coherent nonlinear photonic circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles Santori; Jason S. Pelc; Raymond G. Beausoleil; Nikolas Tezak; Ryan Hamerly; Hideo Mabuchi

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiclassical simulation approach is presented for studying quantum noise in large-scale photonic circuits incorporating an ideal Kerr nonlinearity. A circuit solver is used to generate matrices defining a set of stochastic differential equations, in which the resonator field variables represent random samplings of the Wigner quasi-probability distributions. Although the semiclassical approach involves making a large-photon-number approximation, tests on one- and two-resonator circuits indicate satisfactory agreement between the semiclassical and full-quantum simulation results in the parameter regime of interest. The semiclassical model is used to simulate random errors in a large-scale circuit that contains 88 resonators and hundreds of components in total, and functions as a 4-bit ripple counter. The error rate as a function of on-state photon number is examined, and it is observed that the quantum fluctuation amplitudes do not increase as signals propagate through the circuit, an important property for scalability.

  6. Spectroscopic diagnostic for the mineralogy of large dust grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Min; C. Dominik; L. B. F. M. Waters

    2003-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the thermal infrared spectra of large dust grains of different chemical composition and mineralogy. Strong resonances in the optical properties result in detectable spectral structure even when the grain is much larger than the wavelength at which it radiates. We apply this to the thermal infrared spectra of compact amorphous and crystalline silicates. The weak resonances of amorphous silicates at 9.7 and 18 micron virtually disappear for grains larger than about 10 micron. In contrast, the strong resonances of crystalline silicates produce emission dips in the infrared spectra of large grains; these emission dips are shifted in wavelength compared to the emission peaks commonly seen in small crystalline silicate grains. We discuss the effect of a fluffy or compact grain structure on the infrared emission spectra of large grains, and apply our theory to the dust shell surrounding Vega.

  7. Network Coding for Large Scale Content Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    Network Coding for Large Scale Content Distribution IEEE Infocom 2005 Christos Gkantsidis College propose a new scheme for content distribution of large files that is based on network coding. With network coding, each node of the distribution network is able to generate and transmit encoded blocks

  8. Microfluidic Large-Scale Integration: The Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Microfluidic Large-Scale Integration: The Evolution of Design Rules for Biological Automation, polydimethylsiloxane Abstract Microfluidic large-scale integration (mLSI) refers to the develop- ment of microfluidic, are discussed. Several microfluidic components used as building blocks to create effective, complex, and highly

  9. Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    1 Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers in the US and South Korea Pierre Y. Julien Dept. of Civil and Environ. Eng. Colorado State University Seoul, South Korea August 11, 2009 Climate Change and Large Rivers 1. Climatic changes have been on-going for some time; 2. Climate changes usually predict

  10. Factors Influencing Succession: Lessons from Large, Infrequent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    intense disturbances of large and small extent. Key words: disturbance frequency; disturbance intensityFactors Influencing Succession: Lessons from Large, Infrequent Natural Disturbances Monica G ABSTRACT Disturbance events vary in intensity, size, and fre- quency, but few opportunities exist to study

  11. Growth of Early Supermassive Black Holes and the High-Redshift Eddington Ratio Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeGraf, Colin; Khandai, Nishikanta; Croft, Rupert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a new large-scale (~ 0.75 Gpc)^3 hydrodynamic cosmological simulation we investigate the growth rate of supermassive black holes in the early universe (z > 4.75). Remarkably, we find a clear peak in the typical Eddington ratio at black hole masses of 4-8 * 10^7 solar masses (typically found in halos of ~7 * 10^11 to 10^12 solar masses), independent of redshift and indicative that most of BH growth occurs in the cold-flow dominated regime. Black hole growth is by and large regulated by the evolution of gas density. The typical Eddington ratio at a given mass scales simply as cosmological density (1+z)^3 and the peak is caused by the competition between increased gas density available in more massive hosts, and a decrease due to strong AGN feedback that deprives the black hole of sufficient gas to fuel further rapid growth in the high mass end. In addition to evolution in the mean Eddington ratio, we show that the distribution of Eddington ratio among both mass-selected and luminosity-selected samples is ...

  12. Apparatus for silicon web growth of higher output and improved growth stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Charles S. (Penn Hills, PA); Piotrowski, Paul A. (Monroeville, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure describes an apparatus to improve the web growth attainable from prior web growth configurations. This apparatus modifies the heat loss at the growth interface in a manner that minimizes thickness variations across the web, especially regions of the web adjacent to the two bounding dendrites. In the unmodified configuration, thinned regions of web, adjacent to the dendrites, were found to be the origin of crystal degradation which ultimately led to termination of the web growth. According to the present invention, thinning adjacent to the dendrites is reduced and the incidence of crystal degradation is similarly reduced.

  13. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  14. Emission Line Properties of the Large Bright Quasar Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl Forster; Paul J. Green; Thomas L. Aldcroft; Marianne Vestergaard; Craig B. Foltz; Paul C. Hewett

    2000-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of the optical/UV emission lines for a large homogeneous sample of 993 quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey. Our largely automated technique accounts for continuum breaks and galactic reddening, and we perform multicomponent fits to emission line profiles, including the effects of blended iron emission, and of absorption lines both galactic and intrinsic. Here we describe the fitting algorithm and present the results of line fits to the LBQS sample, including upper limits to line equivalent widths when warranted. The distribution of measured line parameters, principally equivalent width and FWHM, are detailed for a variety of lines, including upper limits. We thus initiate a large-scale investigation of correlations between the high energy continuum and emission lines in quasars, to be extended to complementary samples using similar techniques. High quality, reproducible measurements of emission lines for uniformly selected samples will advance our understanding of active galaxies, especially in a new era of large surveys selected by a variety of complementary methods.

  15. Extreme argon purity in a large, non-evacuated cryostat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tope, Terry; Adamowski, Mark; Carls, B.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Skup, E.; Stancari, M.; Yang, T. [Particle Physics Division, Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) show promise as scalable devices for the large detectors needed for long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics. Over the last several years at Fermilab a staged approach to developing the technology for large detectors has been developed. The TPC detectors require ultra-pure liquid argon with respect to electronegative contaminants such as oxygen and water. The tolerable electronegative contamination level may be as pure as 60 parts per trillion of oxygen. Three liquid argon cryostats operated at Fermilab have achieved the extreme purity required by TPCs. These three cryostats used evacuation to remove atmospheric contaminants as the first purification step prior to filling with liquid argon. Future physics experiments may require very large detectors with tens of kilotonnes of liquid argon mass. The capability to evacuate such large cryostats adds significant cost to the cryostat itself in addition to the cost of a large scale vacuum pumping system. This paper describes a 30 ton liquid argon cryostat at Fermilab which uses purging to remove atmospheric contaminants instead of evacuation as the first purification step. This cryostat has achieved electronegative contamination levels better than 60 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent. The results of this liquid argon purity demonstration will strongly influence the design of future TPC cryostats.

  16. THE GROWTH OF A C0-SEMIGROUP CHARACTERISED BY ITS COGENERATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE GROWTH OF A C0-SEMIGROUP CHARACTERISED BY ITS COGENERATOR TANJA EISNER AND HANS ZWART Abstract cogenerator V (or the Cayley transform of the generator) or its resolvent. In particular, we extend results of its cogenerator. As is shown by an example, the result is optimal. For analytic semigroups we show

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