Sample records for growth remains high

  1. Crack closure effects on fatigue crack growth thresholds and remaining life in an HSLA steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, J.A.; Mostovoy, S. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering; Chen, L. [Texas Instruments, Attleboro, MA (United States); Yankov, E.Y. [A. Finkl and Sons, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of crack closure on the near-threshold corrosion fatigue crack growth behavior of Mil S-24645 HSLA steel and its weld metal have been investigated in air, ASTM seawater at the free corrosion potential, and ASTM seawater at {minus}0.8V and {minus}1.0V (SCE) using frequencies of 10, 2, and 0.2 Hz, and a stress ratio, R = 0.1. Remaining life, in the presence and absence of crack closure, has been estimated as a function of applied stress range for a structure containing a 3-mm-deep surface semi-elliptical flaw.

  2. A HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR THE REMAINING DONOR FOR TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerzendorf, Wolfgang E.; Yong, David; Schmidt, Brian P.; Murphy, Simon J.; Bessell, Michael S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Jeffery, C. Simon [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Anderson, Jay [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Podsiadlowski, Philipp [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gal-Yam, Avishay [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Nomoto, Ken'ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Venn, Kim A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Elliott Building, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Foley, Ryan J., E-mail: wkerzend@mso.anu.edu.au [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we report on our analysis using Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and Keck-I HIRES spectroscopy of the central six stars of Tycho's supernova remnant (SN 1572). With these data, we measured the proper motions, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and chemical abundances of these objects. Regarding the chemical abundances, we do not confirm the unusually high [Ni/Fe] ratio previously reported for Tycho-G. Rather, we find that for all metrics in all stars, none exhibit the characteristics expected from traditional Type Ia supernova single-degenerate-scenario calculations. The only possible exception is Tycho-B, a rare, metal-poor A-type star; however, we are unable to find a suitable scenario for it. Thus, we suggest that SN 1572 cannot be explained by the standard single-degenerate model.

  3. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam{trademark} (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam{trademark} system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas.

  4. High Density Single Crystalline GaN Nanodot Arrays Fabricated Using Template-Assisted Selective Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yadong

    High density, uniform GaN nanodot arrays with controllable size have been synthesized by using template-assisted selective growth. The GaN nanodots with average diameter 40nm, 80nm and 120nm were selectively grown by ...

  5. Lack of effect of a high polyunsaturated fat diet on the growth of transplantable colon tumors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lack of effect of a high polyunsaturated fat diet on the growth of transplantable colon tumors by weight. The normal fat diet contained 24.5, 48.5 and 5 % of protein, carbohydrate and fat, respectively of this work was to study the effect of diets containing a normal or a high level of polyunsaturated fat

  6. Improved Growth of High-Temperature Superconductors with HF Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |HotImpactControl - Energy Innovation

  7. Soil Aggregate Size Affects Phosphorus Desorption from Highly Weathered Soils and Plant Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    Soil Aggregate Size Affects Phosphorus Desorption from Highly Weathered Soils and Plant Growth X of P around soil aggregates (Gunary et al., 1964; Linquist etfrom soil, understanding P desorption from soils may improve the precision of P diagnosis and fertilization recommendations. Many al., 1997

  8. In situ growth regime characterization of cubic GaN using reflection high energy electron diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    As, Donat Josef

    from Knudsen cells. Cubic GaN layers were deposited at 720 °C directly on 3C-SiC substrates shutters the GaN surface was exposed to different Ga fluxes for a certain time. The substrate temperatureIn situ growth regime characterization of cubic GaN using reflection high energy electron

  9. New Crystal-Growth Methods for Producing Lattice-Matched Substrates for High-Temperature Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatner, L.A.

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This effort addressed the technical problem of identifying and growing, on a commercial scale, suitable single-crystal substrates for the subsequent deposition of epitaxial thin films of high temperature semiconductors such as GaN/AlN. The lack of suitable lattice-matched substrate materials was one of the major problem areas in the development of semiconducting devices for use at elevated temperatures as well as practical opto-electronic devices based on Al- and GaN technology. Such lattice-matched substrates are necessary in order to reduce or eliminate high concentrations of defects and dislocations in GaN/AlN and related epitaxial thin films. This effort concentrated, in particular, on the growth of single crystals of ZnO for substrate applications and it built on previous ORNL experience in the chemical vapor transport growth of large single crystals of zinc oxide. This combined expertise in the substrate growth area was further complemented by the ability of G. Eres and his collaborators to deposit thin films of GaN on the subject substrates and the overall ORNL capability for characterizing the quality of such films. The research effort consisted of research on the growth of two candidate substrate materials in conjunction with concurrent research on the growth and characterization of GaN films, i.e. the effort combined bulk crystal growth capabilities in the area of substrate production at both ORNL and the industrial partner, Commercial Crystal Growth Laboratories (CCL), Naples, Florida, with the novel thin-film deposition techniques previously developed in the ORNL SSD.

  10. Effects of High Nighttime Temperature and Role of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth, Development and Physiology of Rice Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammed, Abdul R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to HNT (32 degrees C) or ambient nighttime temperature (ANT) (27 degrees C) starting from 2000 h until 0600 h, and with or without plant growth regulator treatments. The plant growth regulator treatments included alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), glycine...

  11. Grain growth behavior and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of iridium alloy DOP-26

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKamey, C.G.; Gubbi, A.N.; Lin, Y.; Cohron, J.W.; Lee, E.H.; George, E.P.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results of studies conducted to date under the Iridium Alloy Characterization and Development subtask of the Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program to characterize the properties of the new-process iridium-based DOP-26 alloy used for the Cassini space mission. This alloy was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the early 1980`s and is currently used by NASA for cladding and post-impact containment of the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for interplanetary spacecraft. Included within this report are data generated on grain growth in vacuum or low-pressure oxygen environments; a comparison of grain growth in vacuum of the clad vent set cup material with sheet material; effect of grain size, test temperature, and oxygen exposure on high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility; and grain growth in vacuum and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of welded DOP-26. The data for the new-process material is compared to available old-process data.

  12. Subcritical Crack Growth in Ceramic Composites at High Temperature Measured Using Digital Image Correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumm, D.R.; Morris, W.L.; Dadkhah, M.S.; Cox, B.N.

    1996-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ experimental technique is described that allows high resolution, high sensitivity determination of displacements and full-field strains during high temperature mechanical testing. The technique is used to investigate elevated temperature crack growth in SiC/Nicalon sub f composites. At 1150 degrees C, the reinforcing fibers have a higher creep susceptibility than the matrix. Fiber creep leads to relaxation of crack bridging tractions, resulting in subcritical crack growth. Differential image analysis is used to measure the crack opening displacement profile u(x) of an advancing, bridged crack. With appropriate modeling, such data can be used to determine the traction law, from which the mechanics of cracking and failure may be determined.

  13. Antimony mediated growth of high-density InAs quantum dots for photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tutu, F. K.; Wu, J.; Lam, P.; Tang, M.; Liu, H. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)] [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Miyashita, N.; Okada, Y. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)] [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Wilson, J.; Allison, R. [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Portsdown West, Portsdown Hill Road, Fareham Hants PO17 6AD (United Kingdom)] [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Portsdown West, Portsdown Hill Road, Fareham Hants PO17 6AD (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We report enhanced solar cell performance using high-density InAs quantum dots. The high-density quantum dot was grown by antimony mediated molecular beam epitaxy. In-plane quantum dot density over 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?2} was achieved by applying a few monolayers of antimony on the GaAs surface prior to quantum dot growth. The formation of defective large clusters was reduced by optimization of the growth temperature and InAs coverage. Comparing with a standard quantum dot solar cell without the incorporation of antimony, the high-density quantum dot solar cell demonstrates a distinct improvement in short-circuit current from 7.4 mA/cm{sup 2} to 8.3 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  14. High quality molecular beam epitaxial growth on patterned GaAs substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.S.; Derry, P.L.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this letter we describe a procedure for high quality molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth over finely patterned GaAs substrates which is suitable for device fabrication requiring lateral definition of small (approx.1--2 ..mu..m) dimension. This method was used for the fabrication of index guided laser arrays. Yields of individual lasers exceeded 90%, and thresholds were uniform to 10%. Temperature and flux ratio dependence of faceting during MBE growth over patterned substrates is shown for temperatures ranging from 580 to 700 /sup 0/C and for As/Ga flux ratios from 1.4:1 to 4:1. The real index guided structure, which can be formed by a single MBE growth over a ridged substrate, is discussed. This technique should prove useful in the fabrication of devices which take advantage of unique features formed during regrowth by MBE.

  15. Armament remains from His Majesty's sloop Boscawen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Brinnen Stiles

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    His Majesty's Sloop Boscawen was built on Lake Champlain by British forces in 1759 as part of their successful campaign to drive the French Army from the Champlain Valley. This thesis describes and analyzes the armament remains found in and around...

  16. Coal remains a hot commodity for Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bram, L.

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based largely on analyses by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics in late 2005 and early 2006, the article looks at the recent and near future export market for Australian coal. Demand in Asia is growing; European demand remains steady. Developments existing and new mines in Queensland are summarised in the article. 3 tabs.

  17. Selective growth of high quality GaN on Si,,111... substrates M. Seon, T. Prokofyeva, and M. Holtza)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Mark

    Selective growth of high quality GaN on Si,,111... substrates M. Seon, T. Prokofyeva, and M. Holtza September 1999; accepted for publication 4 February 2000 We demonstrate selective growth of high-quality GaN by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on Si 111 wafers patterned with SiO2. GaN was grown on wafers having

  18. Tuning calcite morphology and growth acceleration by a rational design of highly stable protein-mimetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chunlong; Qi, Jiahui; Tao, Jinhui; Zuckermann, Ronald; De Yoreo, James J.

    2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In nature, proteins play a significant role in biomineral formation. One of the ultimate goals of bioinspired materials science is to develop highly stable synthetic molecules that mimic the function of these natural proteins by controlling crystal formation. Here, we demonstrate that both the morphology and the degree of acceleration or inhibition observed during growth of calcite in the presence of peptoids can be rationally tuned by balancing the electrostatic interactions (EI) and hydrophobic interactions (HI), with HI playing the dominant role. While either strong EI or HI inhibit growth and suppress (104) face expression, correlations between peptoid-crystal binding energies and observed changes in calcite growth indicate moderate EI allow peptoids to weakly adsorb while moderate HI cause disruption of surface-adsorbed water layers, leading to growth acceleration with retained expression of (104) faces. This study provides fundamental principles for designing peptoids as crystallization promoters, and offers a straightforward screening method based on macroscopic crystal morphology. Because peptoids are sequence-specific, highly stable, and easily synthesized, peptoid-enhanced crystallization offers a broad range of potential applications.

  19. Growth of Early Supermassive Black Holes and the High-Redshift Eddington Ratio Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeGraf, Colin; Khandai, Nishikanta; Croft, Rupert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a new large-scale (~ 0.75 Gpc)^3 hydrodynamic cosmological simulation we investigate the growth rate of supermassive black holes in the early universe (z > 4.75). Remarkably, we find a clear peak in the typical Eddington ratio at black hole masses of 4-8 * 10^7 solar masses (typically found in halos of ~7 * 10^11 to 10^12 solar masses), independent of redshift and indicative that most of BH growth occurs in the cold-flow dominated regime. Black hole growth is by and large regulated by the evolution of gas density. The typical Eddington ratio at a given mass scales simply as cosmological density (1+z)^3 and the peak is caused by the competition between increased gas density available in more massive hosts, and a decrease due to strong AGN feedback that deprives the black hole of sufficient gas to fuel further rapid growth in the high mass end. In addition to evolution in the mean Eddington ratio, we show that the distribution of Eddington ratio among both mass-selected and luminosity-selected samples is ...

  20. Low temperature growth of ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests on conductive supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugime, Hisashi; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Yang, Junwei; D'Arsié, Lorenzo; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)] [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Oliver, Rachel A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0FS (United Kingdom)] [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0FS (United Kingdom); Bhardwaj, Sunil [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy) [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, Km 163.5, Trieste I-34149 (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy)] [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy)

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We grow ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests at 450 °C on Ti-coated Cu supports using Co-Mo co-catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows Mo strongly interacts with Ti and Co, suppressing both aggregation and lifting off of Co particles and, thus, promoting the root growth mechanism. The forests average a height of 0.38 ?m and a mass density of 1.6 g cm{sup ?3}. This mass density is the highest reported so far, even at higher temperatures or on insulators. The forests and Cu supports show ohmic conductivity (lowest resistance ?22 k?), suggesting Co-Mo is useful for applications requiring forest growth on conductors.

  1. ORISE: Study finds foreign doctorate recipients' stay rates remain high

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire3627Homeland SecurityJonathan Mbah and Kiara MoorerStudy

  2. Analysis of crack initiation and growth in the high level vibration test at Tadotsu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassir, M.K.; Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Shteyngart, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Level Vibration Test data are used to assess the accuracy and usefulness of current engineering methodologies for predicting crack initiation and growth in a cast stainless steel pipe elbow under complex, large amplitude loading. The data were obtained by testing at room temperature a large scale modified model of one loop of a PWR primary coolant system at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory in Japan. Fatigue crack initiation time is reasonably predicted by applying a modified local strain approach (Coffin-Mason-Goodman equation) in conjunction with Miner`s rule of cumulative damage. Three fracture mechanics methodologies are applied to investigate the crack growth behavior observed in the hot leg of the model. These are: the {Delta}K methodology (Paris law), {Delta}J concepts and a recently developed limit load stress-range criterion. The report includes a discussion on the pros and cons of the analysis involved in each of the methods, the role played by the key parameters influencing the formulation and a comparison of the results with the actual crack growth behavior observed in the vibration test program. Some conclusions and recommendations for improvement of the methodologies are also provided.

  3. Time resolved measurement of film growth during reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of titanium nitride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitschker, Felix; Benedikt, Jan; Maszl, Christian; von Keudell, Achim

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth rate during reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of titanium nitride is measured with a temporal resolution of up to 25 us using a rotating shutter concept. According to that concept a 200 um slit is rotated in front of the substrate synchronous with the HIPIMS pulses. Thereby, the growth flux is laterally distributed over the substrate. By measuring the resulting deposition profile with profilometry and with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the temporal variation of the titanium and nitrogen growth flux per pulse is deduced. The analysis reveals that film growth occurs mainly during a HIPIMS pulse, with the growth rate following the HIPIMS phases ignition, current rise, gas rarefaction, plateau and afterglow. The growth fluxes of titanium and nitrogen follow slightly different behaviors with titanium dominating at the beginning of the HIPIMS pulse and nitrogen at the end of the pulse. This is explained by the gas rarefaction effect resulting in a dense initial metal plasma and...

  4. Study of bubble growth in water pool boiling through synchronized, infrared thermometry and high-speed video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerardi, Craig

    High-speed video and infrared thermometry were used to obtain time- and space-resolved information on bubble nucleation and heat transfer in pool boiling of water. The bubble departure diameter and frequency, growth and ...

  5. High Performance Bioanode Development for Fermentable Substrates via Controlled Electroactive Biofilm Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichihashi, Osamu [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bioanode was optimized to generate current densities reaching 38.4 4.9 A m-2, which brings bioelectrochemical systems closer to commercial consideration. Glucose and lactate were fed together in a continuous or fed-batch mode. The current density increased from 2.3 A m-2 to 38.4 A m-2 over a 33 day period and remained stable thereafter. The coulombic efficiency ranged from 50% to 80%. A change in substrate concentration from 200 mg L-1 to 5 mg L-1 decreased maximum current density from 38.4 A m-2 to 12.3 A m-2. The anode consortia included Firmicutes (55.0%), Proteobacteria (41.8%) and Bacteroidetes (2.1%) constituting two potential electrogenic genera: Geobacter (6.8%) and Aeromonas (31.9%). The current production was found to be limited by kinetics during the growth period (33 days), and mass transfer, thereafter. The results indicate the necessity of removing spent biomass for efficient long term operation and treatment of wastewater streams.

  6. In-growth of an electrically active defect in high-purity silicon after proton irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Juul Pedersen, H.; Christian Petersen, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Privitera, V. [CNR-IMM, Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems, Catania (Italy)] [CNR-IMM, Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems, Catania (Italy); Gurimskaya, Y.; Mesli, A. [IM2NP, CNRS (UMR 7334) and Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)] [IM2NP, CNRS (UMR 7334) and Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Defect-related energy levels in the lower half of the band gap of silicon have been studied with transient-capacitance techniques in high-purity, carbon and oxygen lean, plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition grown, n-and p-type silicon layers after 2-MeV proton irradiations at temperatures at or just below room temperature. The in-growth of a distinct line in deep-level transient spectroscopy spectra, corresponding to a level in the band gap at E{sub V} + 0.357 eV where E{sub V} is the energy of the valence band edge, takes place for anneal temperatures at around room temperature with an activation energy of 0.95 ± 0.08 eV. The line disappears at an anneal temperature of around 450 K. The corresponding defect is demonstrated not to contain boron, carbon, oxygen, or phosphorus. Possible defect candidates are discussed.

  7. Feedback Limits Rapid Growth of Seed Black Holes at High Redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. -M. Wang; Y. -M. Chen; C. Hu

    2005-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Seed black holes formed in the collapse of population III stars have been invoked to explain the presence of supermassive black holes at high redshift. It has been suggested that a seed black hole can grow up to $10^{5\\sim 6}\\sunm$ through highly super-Eddington accretion for a period of $\\sim 10^{6\\sim 7}$ yr between redshift $z=20\\sim 24$. We studied the feedback of radiation pressure, Compton heating and outflow during the seed black hole growth. It is found that its surrounding medium fueled to the seed hole is greatly heated by Compton heating. For a super-critical accretion onto a $10^3\\sunm$ seed hole, a Compton sphere (with a temperature $\\sim 10^6$K) forms in a timescale of $1.6\\times 10^3$yr so that the hole is only supplied by a rate of $10^{-3}$ Eddington limit from the Compton sphere. Beyond the Compton sphere, the kinetic feedback of the strong outflow heats the medium at large distance, this leads to a dramatical decrease of the outer Bondi accretion onto the black hole and avoid the accumulation of the matter. The highly super-critical accretion will be rapidly halted by the strong feedback. The seed black holes hardly grow up at the very early universe unless the strong feedback can be avoided.

  8. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling...

  9. Ammothermal Growth of Gan Substrates For Leds: High-Pressure Ammonothermal Process for Bulk Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth for Energy Efficient Commercially Competitive Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The new GaN crystal growth method is adapted from that used to grow quartz crystals, which are very inexpensive and represent the second-largest market for single crystals for electronic applications (after silicon). More extreme conditions are required to grow GaN crystals and therefore a new type of chemical growth chamber was invented that is suitable for large-scale manufacturing. A new process was developed that grows GaN crystals at a rate that is more than double that of current processes. The new technology will enable GaN substrates with best-in-world quality at lowest-in-world prices, which in turn will enable new generations of white LEDs, lasers for full-color displays, and high-performance power electronics.

  10. Crystal Growth And Characterization of the Model High-Temperature Superconductor HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xudong; Yu, Guichuan; Cho, Yong-Chan; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Barisic, Neven; Bourges, Philippe; Kaneko, Nobuhisa; Li, Yuan; Lu, Li; Motoyama, Eugene M.; Vajk,; Greven, Martin; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL /Jilin U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Saclay /NIST, Wash., D.C.

    2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the discovery of high-transition-temperature (T{sub c}) superconductivity in La{sub 2-x}Ba{sub x}CuO{sub 4} in 1986, the study of the lamellar copper oxides has remained at the forefront of condensed matter physics. Apart from their unusually high values of T{sub c}, these materials also exhibit a variety of complex phenomena and phases. This rich behavior is a consequence of the lamellar crystal structures, formed of copper-oxygen sheets separated by charge reservoir layers, and of the strong electron-electron correlations in the copper-oxygen sheets. After two decades of intensive research, which has stimulated many valuable new insights into correlated electron systems in general, there remains a lack of consensus regarding the correct theory for high-T{sub c} superconductivity. The ultimate technological goal of room-temperature superconductivity might only be attained after the development of a deeper understanding of the mercury-based compounds HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}OI{sub 2n+2+{delta}}, which currently exhibit the highest T{sub c}values. One very important issue in this regard is the role of electronic versus chemical and structural inhomogeneities in these materials, and the associated need to separate material-specific properties from those that are essential to superconductivity. Unfortunately, there has been remarkably little scientific work on the mercury-based compounds because sizable crystals have not been available; quantitative measurements of any kind would be invaluable benchmarks for testing the theories of high-T{sub c} superconductivity. The compounds HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}OI{sub 2n+2+{delta}} can be viewed as model systems not only because of their record high-T{sub c} values, but also because of their high-symmetry crystal structures. Of particular interest is the simplest member of this materials family, HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} (Hg1201), which possesses only one copper-oxygen sheet per unit cell (n = 1), as shown schematically in Figure 1a. The largest crystals obtained by previous growth methods do not exceed 1 mm{sup 3}, and hence are insufficient in size for detailed studies by many experimental techniques. Here we report a novel recipe for the growth of Hg1201 crystals as well as detailed sample characterization results, including initial inelastic magnetic neutron scattering data. We note that samples grown by the method described here have already enabled recent optical conductivity, inelastic X-ray scattering, and angle-resolved photoemission studies.

  11. Growth of Large-Area Aligned Molybdenum Nanowires by High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Device Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    , thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, as well as structure analysis by electron on the decomposition of MoO2 vapors through condensation of its vapor at high substrate temperatures. The aligned nanowires with H2 gas.6d-f However, the reduction process degrades the crystal- linity of the nanowires

  12. Radial-growth forecasts for five high-elevation conifer species on Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Dan

    of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada V8W 3P5 Received 22 November 2002; received to predict radial growth. Results indicate that each species will react individually to predicted changes in climate, with no one dominant radial-growth trend established. The most radical changes in the radial

  13. Effects of PMMA-transfer residues on the growth of organic semiconductor molecules on CVD graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kratzer, Markus; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Kidambi, Piran R.; Matkovi?, Aleksandar; Gaji?, Radoš; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Weatherup, Robert S.; Hofmann, Stephan; Teichert, Christian

    2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Scalably grown and transferred graphene is a highly promising material for organic electronic applications, but controlled interfacing of graphene thereby remains a key challenge. Here, we study the growth characteristics of the important organic...

  14. Effect of oxygen potential on high temperature crack growth in alloy 617

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, Julian K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of oxygen partial pressure on crack growth rates in Alloy 617 has been studied using both static and fatigue loading at 650°C. Tests were conducted at a constant stress intensity factor, K, for static loading ...

  15. Coal: Long-term prospects remain very good

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerell, P.E. [ed.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Worldwide, it is the most economic and widespread fossil fuel available. The importance of coal will continue to grow to generate enough electricity to meet a rapidly increasing demand for energy. The first sign of a rising standard of living is access to a reliable and plentiful supply of electricity-and that means power generation from coal. The World Energy Conference in Tokyo last October called upon governments to {open_quotes}recognize that fossil fuels are likely to remain cost-competitive against alternatives over the next few decades and are set to play a greater and longer role than is widely thought.{close_quotes} Since coal, of all fossil fuels, has by far the most abundant reserves, this applies especially to coal. The International Energy Agency in Paris predicts a constant increase in the international hard-coal trade. While in 1973 (at the beginning of the first oil price crisis) only 8% of world hard coal produced was traded worldwide, this contribution increased to 11% by 1992 and may even grow to 16% between 1992 and 2010. Regarding volume, this would mean that the international hard-coal trade would more than double in the 18 years to 2010, i.e., from 403M to 852 M mt/yr. The 1995 update of the {open_quotes}Review of World Coal Trade,{close_quotes} published by the U.N. Economic Commission for Europe in Geneva, Switzerland, gives lower but still very considerable growth rate estimates: requirements from 3.508B (1990) to 3.982B mt (2010), production from 3.549B to 3994B mt, imports from 396M to 566M mt, and exports from 395M to 578M mt.

  16. High density growth of T7 expression strains with auto-induction option

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A bacterial growth medium for promoting auto-induction of transcription of cloned DNA in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise is disclosed. The transcription is under the control of a lac repressor. Also disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for improving the production of a selenomethionine-containing protein or polypeptide in a bacterial cell, the protein or polypeptide being produced by recombinant DNA techniques from a lac or T7lac promoter, the bacterial cell encoding a vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine methylase. Finally, disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for suppressing auto-induction of expression in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise, said transcription being under the control of lac repressor.

  17. DESIGN, GROWTH, FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH-BAND GAP InGaN/GaN SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    DESIGN, GROWTH, FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH-BAND GAP InGaN/GaN SOLAR CELLS Omkar Jani1 with a band gap of 2.4 eV or greater. InxGa1-xN is one of a few alloys that can meet this key requirement. InGaN.4 eV. InGaN has the appropriate optical properties and has been well demonstrated for light

  18. PREDICTION OF REMAINING LIFE OF POWER TRANSFORMERS BASED ON LEFT TRUNCATED AND RIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PREDICTION OF REMAINING LIFE OF POWER TRANSFORMERS BASED ON LEFT TRUNCATED AND RIGHT CENSORED of the remaining life of high-voltage power transform- ers is an important issue for energy companies because of the need for planning maintenance and capital expenditures. Lifetime data for such transformers

  19. Growth diagram of N-face GaN (0001{sup ¯}) grown at high rate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okumura, Hironori, E-mail: okumura@engineering.ucsb.edu; McSkimming, Brian M.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Huault, Thomas; Chaix, Catherine [RIBER S.A., 3a Rue Casimir Perier, BP 70083, 95873 Bezons Cedex (France)] [RIBER S.A., 3a Rue Casimir Perier, BP 70083, 95873 Bezons Cedex (France)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    N-face GaN was grown on free-standing GaN (0001{sup ¯}) substrates at a growth rate of 1.5??m/h using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Difference in growth rate between (0001{sup ¯}) and (0001) oriented GaN depends on nitrogen plasma power, and the (0001{sup ¯}) oriented GaN had only 70% of the growth rate of the (0001) oriented GaN at 300?W. Unintentional impurity concentrations of silicon, carbon, and oxygen were 2?×?10{sup 15}, 2?×?10{sup 16}, and 7?×?10{sup 16}?cm{sup ?3}, respectively. A growth diagram was constructed that shows the dependence of the growth modes on the difference in the Ga and active nitrogen flux, ?{sub Ga}????{sub N*}, and the growth temperature. At high ?{sub Ga}????{sub N*} (?{sub Ga}????{sub N*}), two-dimensional (step-flow and layer-by-layer) growth modes were realized. High growth temperature (780?°C) expanded the growth window of the two-dimensional growth modes, achieving a surface with rms roughness of 0.48?nm without Ga droplets.

  20. High density growth of T7 expression strains with auto-induction option

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY)

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for promoting auto-induction of transcription of cloned DNA in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise, the transcription being under the control of a promoter whose activity can be induced by an exogenous inducer whose ability to induce said promoter is dependent on the metabolic state of said bacterial cells. Initially, a culture media is provided which includes: i) an inducer that causes induction of transcription from said promoter in said bacterial cells; and ii) a metabolite that prevents induction by said inducer, the concentration of said metabolite being adjusted so as to substantially preclude induction by said inducer in the early stages of growth of the bacterial culture, but such that said metabolite is depleted to a level that allows induction by said inducer at a later stage of growth. The culture medium is inoculated with a bacterial inoculum, the inoculum comprising bacterial cells containing cloned DNA, the transcription of which is induced by said inducer. The culture is then incubated under conditions appropriate for growth of the bacterial cells.

  1. Single-step CVD growth of high-density carbon nanotube forests on metallic Ti coatings through catalyst engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Guofang; Xie, Rongsi; Yang, Junwei; Robertson, John

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    was carried out by heating the substrates under 500 sccm pure H2, 15 mbar from room 8 temperature to 650?C in 3min, then switching off the heater power and letting the samples to cool down with the H2 flow on. As shown in Fig. 3a, for the conventional... , Futaba DN, Mizuno K, Namai T, Yumura M, Iijima S. Water-assisted highly efficient synthesis of impurity-free single-walled carbon nanotubes. Science. 2004;306:1362-4. [4] Hart AJ, Slocum AH. Rapid growth and flow-mediated nucleation of millimeter...

  2. Mechanism of grain growth during severe plastic deformation of a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hongqi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Y B [NON LANL; Ho, J C [NON LANL; Liao, X Z [NON LANL; Zhu, Y T [NON LANL; Ringer, S P [NON LANL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deformation induced grain growth has been widely reported in nanocrystalline materials. However, the grain growth mechanism remains an open question. This study applies high-pressure torsion to severely deform bulk nanocrystalline Ni-20 wt % Fe disks and uses transmission electron microscopy to characterize the grain growth process. Our results provide solid evidence suggesting that high pressure torsion induced grain growth is achieved primarily via grain rotation for grains much smaller than 100 nm. Dislocations are mainly seen at small-angle subgrain boundaries during the grain growth process but are seen everywhere in grains after the grains have grown large.

  3. A National Forum on Demand Response: Results on What Remains...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forum on Demand Response: Results on What Remains to Be Done to Achieve Its Potential - Cost-Effectiveness Working Group A National Forum on Demand Response: Results on What...

  4. Studies and calculations of transverse emittance growth in high-energy proton storage rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mane, S.R.; Jackson, G.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the operation of proton-antiproton colliders, an important goal is to maximize the integrated luminosity. During such operations in the Fermilab Tevatron, the transverse beam emittances were observed to grow unexpectedly quickly, thus causing a serious reduction of the luminosity. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. A formula for the emittance growth rate, due to random dipole kicks, is derived. In the experiment, RF phase noise of known amplitude was deliberately injected into the Tevatron to kick the beam randomly, via dispersion at the RF cavities. Theory and experiment are found to agree reasonably well. We also briefly discuss the problem of quadrupole kicks. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Accomplishments and Remaining Challenges: THREDDS Data Server and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accomplishments and Remaining Challenges: THREDDS Data Server and Common Data Model Ethan Davis Unidata Policy Committee Meeting 23-24 May 2011 #12;THREDDS Data Server (TDS) · Web server for scientific;THREDDS Data Server (TDS) · ... · Data access services: ­ OPeNDAP ­ OGC WMS and WCS ­ NCSS · Data

  6. Reply to Davies: Hydraulic fracturing remains a possible mechanism for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    LETTER Reply to Davies: Hydraulic fracturing remains a possible mechanism for observed methane in aquifers overlying the Marcellus formation but asserts that we prematurely ascribed its cause to hydraulic mechanisms were leaky gas well casings and the possibility that hydraulic fracturing might generate new

  7. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sustarsic, Elahu G. [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States) [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Junnila, Riia K. [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States)] [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Kopchick, John J., E-mail: kopchick@ohio.edu [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. •GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. •GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. •GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute’s NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on this data, GH could be a new therapeutic target in melanoma.

  8. Lyman- photometry: curve of growth determination, comparison to theoretical oscillator strength, and line absorption calculations at high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maki, R.G.; Michael, J.V.; Sutherland, J.W.

    1985-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Absolute concentrations of H atoms in the absorption region of an atomic resonance photometer have been accurately determined with a chemical kinetic technique that is based on the H + NO2 reaction. Subsequently, the curve of growth for the Lyman- transition (H(SP/sub 3/2,1/2/) reverse arrow H(SS/sub 1/2/)) has been determined with a resonance lamp that is essentially a microwave-driven electrodeless lamp plasma. Additional experiments have been performed in order to measure the temperature and (H) in the resonance lamp plasma. Thus, simplified theoretical calculations of the curve of growth could be made from first principles using no adjustable parameters. These calculations agreed with experiment within experimental error, and therefore, the theoretical oscillator strength, as calculated from the known wave functions for H, is experimentally confirmed for the H(SP/sub 3/2,1/2) reverse arrow H(SS/sub 1/2/) transition. Confidence can now be placed in line absorption calculations and, hence, in measurements of (H), at high absorber temperatures such as those encountered in flames, plasmas, and shock tubes where the atomic resonance absorption spectroscopic (aras) technique is commonly used. 25 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Environmental policy at all levels of government remains fragmented and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    shortages around the world are exacerbated in many places by biofuels production. 2010­2020: GREEN MARk this time frame. Rather, they are plausible combinations of real-world forces that allow us to evaluate major constant will be that water supply issues will worsen. Finally, national population growth rates

  10. Endocytic proteins drive vesicle growth via instability in high membrane tension environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikhil Walani; Jennifer Torres; Ashutosh Agrawal

    2015-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a key pathway for transporting cargo into cells via membrane vesicles. It plays an integral role in nutrient import, signal transduction, neurotransmission and cellular entry of pathogens and drug-carrying nanoparticles. As CME entails substantial local remodeling of the plasma membrane, the presence of membrane tension offers resistance to bending and hence, vesicle formation. Experiments show that in such high tension conditions, actin dynamics is required to carry out CME successfully. In this study, we build upon these pioneering experimental studies to provide fundamental mechanistic insights into the roles of two key endocytic proteins, namely, actin and BAR proteins in driving vesicle formation in high membrane tension environment. Our study reveals a new actin force induced `snap-through instability' that triggers a rapid shape transition from a shallow invagination to a highly invaginated tubular structure. We show that the association of BAR proteins stabilizes vesicles and induces a milder instability. In addition, we present a new counterintuitive role of BAR depolymerization in regulating the shape evolution of vesicles. We show that the dissociation of BAR proteins, supported by actin-BAR synergy, leads to considerable elongation and squeezing of vesicles. Going beyond the membrane geometry, we put forth a new stress-based perspective for the onset of vesicle scission and predict the shapes and composition of detached vesicles. We present the snap-through transition and the high in-plane stress as possible explanations for the intriguing direct transformation of broad and shallow invaginations into detached vesicles in BAR mutant yeast cells.

  11. In-Pile SCC Growth Behavior of Type 304 Stainless Steel in High Temperature Water at JMTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshiyuki Kaji; Hirokazu Ugachi; Takashi Tsukada; Yoshinori Matsui; Masao Ohmi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Nobuaki Nagata; Koji Dozaki; Hideki Takiguchi [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is one of the critical concerns when stainless steel components have been in service in light water reactors (LWRs) for a long period. In general, IASCC can be reproduced on the materials irradiated over a certain threshold fluence level of fast neutron by the post-irradiation examinations (PIEs). It is, however, considered that the reproduced IASCC by PIEs must be carefully compared with the actual IASCC in nuclear power plants, because the actual IASCC occurs in the core under simultaneous effects of radiation, stress and high temperature water environment. In the research field of IASCC, mainly PIEs for irradiated materials have been carried out, because there are many difficulties on SCC tests under neutron irradiation. Hence as a part of the key techniques for in-pile SCC tests, we have embarked on a development of the test technique to obtain information concerning effects of applied stress level, water chemistry, irradiation conditions, etc. A high temperature water loop facility was installed at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) to carry out the in-pile IASCC testing under a framework of cooperative research program between JAERI and the JAPC. In-pile IASCC growth tests have been successfully carried out using the compact tension (CT) type specimens of type 304 stainless steel that had been pre-irradiated up to a neutron fluence level around 1 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} before the in-pile testing since 2004. The tests were carried out in pure water simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant condition. In the paper, results of the in-pile SCC growth tests will be discussed comparing with the result obtained by PIEs from a viewpoint of the synergistic effects on IASCC. (authors)

  12. Silicate-free growth of high-quality ultrathin cerium oxide films on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flege, Jan Ingo; Kaemena, Bjoern; Wilkens, Torsten; Schmidt, Thomas; Falta, Jens [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Gevers, Sebastian; Bruns, Daniel; Wollschlaeger, Joachim [Department of Physics, University of Osnabrueck, Barbarastrasse 7, D-49069 Osnabrueck (Germany); Bertram, Florian; Baetjer, Jan [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor am Deutschen Elektronensynchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrathin Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers have been grown on Si(111) by reactive metal deposition in an oxygen background and characterized by x-ray standing waves, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction to elucidate and quantify both atomic structure and chemical composition. It is demonstrated that highly ordered, mostly B-oriented, epitaxial ceria films can be achieved by preadsorption of a monolayer of atomic chlorine, effectively passivating the substrate and thereby suppressing cerium silicate and silicon oxide formation at the interface.

  13. High temperature solution growth of pseudobrookite, Fe?TiO?, single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baird, Bobbie Ann

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    if one were to consider an induction furnace, a constraint is faced in crucible materials. Crucibles of very high melting temperature such as platinum or iridium are quite costly. In order to lower the temperature at which the material becomes liquid.... J. M. . Principles of Induction Melting . American Foundrymen's Society, Inc. . Des Plaines, Illinois, 1977. Taylor. R. W. , Liquidus temperatures in the system FeO-FesOs-TiOs. J. of Arn. Cer. Soc. , 46, 276-279, 1963. Wanklyn, B. M. , Two new...

  14. A Bayesian Prognostic Algorithm for Assessing Remaining Useful Life of Nuclear Power Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dixit, Mukul; Henager, Charles H.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A central issue in life extension for the current fleet of light water nuclear power reactors is the early detection and monitoring of significant materials degradation. To meet this need nondestructive measurement methods that are suitable for on-line, continuous, in-plant monitoring over extended time periods (months to years) are needed. A related issue is then, based on a condition assessment or degradation trend, to have the ability to estimate the remaining useful life based of components, structures and systems based on the available materials degradation information. Such measurement and modeling methods form the basis for a new range of advanced diagnostic and prognostic approaches. Prognostic methods that predict remaining life based on large crack growth, and phenomena that can be described by linear elastic fracture mechanics, have been reported by several researchers. The challenge of predicting remaining life for earlier phases of degradation is largely unsolved. Monitoring for early detection of materials degradation requires novel and enhanced sensors and data integration techniques. A recent review has considered the stages of degradation and sensing methods that can potentially be employed to detect and monitor early degradation for nuclear power plant applications. An experimental assessment of selected diagnostic techniques was also reported recently. However, the estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) determined from nondestructive diagnostic measurements for early degradation is still an unsolved problem. This present paper will discuss the application of Bayesian prognostic algorithms applied to the early degradation- life problem.

  15. Substrate Structures For Growth Of Highly Oriented And/Or Epitaxial Layers Thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Groves, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite substrate structure including a substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer is provided together with additional layers such as one or more layers of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer. Jc's of 2.3×106 A/cm2 have been demonstrated with projected Ic's of 320 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide for a superconducting article including a flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, an inert oxide material layer upon the surface of the flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the layer of the inert oxide material, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer, a layer of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer, and, a top-layer of a high temperature superconducting material upon the layer of a buffer material.

  16. Bridgman Growth of Large SrI2:Eu2+ Single Crystals: A High-performance Scintillator for Radiation Detection Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Hawrami, Rastgo [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Higgins, William [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Van Loef, Edgar [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Glodo, J. [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Shah, Kanai [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Bhattacharya, P. [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Tupitsyn, E [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Groza, Michael [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Burger, Arnold [Fisk University, Nashville, TN

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-crystal strontium iodide (SrI2) doped with relatively high levels (e.g., 3 - 6 %) of Eu2+ exhibits characteristics that make this material superior, in a number of respects, to other scintillators that are currently used for radiation detection. Specifically, SrI2:Eu2+ has a light yield that is significantly higher than LaBr3:Ce3+ -a currently employed commercial high-performance scintillator. Additionally, SrI2:Eu2+ is characterized by an energy resolution as high as 2.6% at the 137Cs gamma-ray energy of 662 keV, and there is no radioactive component in SrI2:Eu2+ - unlike LaBr3:Ce3+ that contains 138La. The Ce3+-doped LaBr3 decay time is, however, faster (30 nsec) than the 1.2 sec decay time of SrI2:Eu2+. Due to the relatively low melting point of strontium iodide (~515 oC), crystal growth can be carried out in quartz crucibles by the vertical Bridgman technique. Materials-processing and crystal-growth techniques that are specific to the Bridgman growth of europium-doped strontium iodide scintillators are described here. These techniques include the use of a porous quartz frit to physically filter the molten salt from a quartz antechamber into the Bridgman growth crucible and the use of a bent or bulb grain selector design to suppress multiple grain growth. Single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+ scintillators with good optical quality and scintillation characteristics have been grown in sizes up to 5.0 cm in diameter by applying these techniques. Other aspects of the SrI2:Eu2+ crystal-growth methods and of the still unresolved crystal-growth issues are described here.

  17. Driving Down HB-LED Costs: Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods of High Yield MOCVD Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Quinn

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this multi-faceted program is to develop epitaxial growth systems that meet a goal of 75% (4X) cost reduction in the epitaxy phase of HB-LED manufacture. A 75% reduction in yielded epitaxy cost is necessary in order to achieve the cost goals for widespread penetration of HB-LEDâ??s into back-lighting units (BLU) for LCD panels and ultimately for solid-state lighting (SSL). To do this, the program will address significant improvements in overall equipment Cost of Ownership, or CoO. CoO is a model that includes all costs associated with the epitaxy portion of production. These aspects include cost of yield, capital cost, operational costs, and maintenance costs. We divide the program into three phases where later phases will incorporate the gains of prior phases. Phase one activities are enabling technologies. In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories we develop a Fluent-compatible chemistry predictive model and a set of mid-infrared and near-ultraviolet pyrometer monitoring tools. Where previously the modeling of the reactor dynamics were studied within FLUENT alone, here, FLUENT and Chemkin are integrated into a comprehensive model of fluid dynamics and the most advanced transport equations developed for Chemkin. Specifically, the Chemkin model offered the key reaction terms for gas-phase nucleation, a key consideration in the optimization of the MOCVD process. This new predictive model is used to design new MOCVD reactors with optimized growth conditions and the newly developed pyrometers are used monitor and control the MOCVD process temperature to within 0.5°C run-to-run and within each wafer. This portion of the grant is in collaboration with partners at Sandia National Laboratories. Phase two activities are continuous improvement projects which extend the current reactor platform along the lines of improved operational efficiency, improved systems control for throughput, and carrier modifications for increased yield. Programmatically, improvements made in Phase I are applied to developments of Phase II when applicable. Phase three is the culmination of the individual tasks from both phases one and two applied to proposed production platforms. We selectively combine previously demonstrated tasks and other options to develop a high-volume production-worthy MOCVD system demonstrating >3x throughput, 1.3x capital efficiency, and 0.7x cost of ownership. In a parallel demonstration we validate the concept of an improved, larger deposition system which utilizes the predictive modeling of chemistry-based flow analysis and extensions of the improvements demonstrated on the current platforms. This validation includes the build and testing of a prototype version of the hardware and demonstration of 69% reduction in the cost of ownership. Also, in this phase we present a stand-alone project to develop a high-temperature system which improves source efficiency by 30% while concurrently increasing growth rate by 1.3x. The material quality is held to the same material quality specifications of our existing baseline processes. The merits of other line item tasks in phase three are discussed for inclusion on next-generation platforms.

  18. A Minimal Model for Large-scale Epitaxial Growth Kinetics of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huijun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition is considered to be the most promising way towards synthesizing large area graphene with high quality. However, it remains a big theoretical challenge to reveal growth kinetics with atomically energetic and large-scale spatial information included. Here, we propose a minimal kinetic Monte Carlo model to address such an issue on an active catalyst surface with graphene/substrate lattice mismatch, which facilitates us to perform large scale simulations of the growth kinetics over two dimensional surface with growth fronts of complex shapes. A geometry-determined large-scale growth mechanism is revealed, where the rate-dominating event is found to be $C_{1}$-attachment for concave growth front segments and $C_{5}$-attachment for others. This growth mechanism leads to an interesting time-resolved growth behavior which is well consistent with that observed in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  19. High quality Y-type hexaferrite thick films for microwave applications by an economical and environmentally benign crystal growth technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Bolin; Chen, Yajie, E-mail: y.chen@neu.edu; Gillette, Scott; Su, Zhijuan; Harris, Vincent G. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Wolf, Jason; McHenry, Michael E. [Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Thick barium hexaferrite Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (i.e., Zn{sub 2}Y) films having thicknesses of ?100??m were epitaxially grown on MgO (111) substrates using an environmentally benign ferrite-salt mixture by vaporizing the salt. X-ray diffraction pole figure analyses showed (00l) crystallographic alignment with little in plane dispersion confirming epitaxial growth. Saturation magnetization, 4?M{sub s}, was measured for as-grown films to be 2.51?±?0.1?kG with an out of plane magnetic anisotropy field H{sub A} of 8.9?±?0.1?kOe. Ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, as the peak-to-peak power absorption derivative at 9.6?GHz, was measured to be 62?Oe. These properties demonstrate a rapid, convenient, cost-effective, and nontoxic method of growing high quality thick crystalline ferrite films which could be used widely for microwave device applications.

  20. Growth of single crystalline GaN thin films on Si,,111... substrates by high vacuum metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using a single

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    Growth of single crystalline GaN thin films on Si,,111... substrates by high vacuum metalorganic; published 20 August 2004 Hexagonal GaN thin films were grown on Si 111 substrates using single molecular precursor of diethylazidogallium methylhydrazine adduct, (Et)2Ga N3)HzMe], with the objectives of reducing

  1. THE SUPPLY OF ENERGY TO fuel economic development remains a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    processes, the energy supply also has a high potential as a polluter of the environ- ment, with catastrophes consumption). Local air pollu- tion, discharges to the soil and water, acid rain, and the risk of climate

  2. Remaining-life estimation of boiler pressure parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borden, M.P.; Ellis, F.V. (ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, Chattanooga, TN (USA)); Miller, D.A.; Gladwin, D. (National Power, Leatherhead (UK))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the objectives of this project was to determine the effect of prior creep damage on the remaining life of base material and HAZ material subjected to pure fatigue and creep fatigue loading. Life assessment techniques for cyclic loading conditions are required due to the need to two shifts (two shifts on, one shift off) or load-follow for conventional fossil power plant as new nuclear units become available. Described herein are the results of work undertaken at ABB Combustion Engineering Systems in the US and South Western Regional Scientific Services Department and Central Electricity Research Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board in the UK. An interrupted creep testing program was conducted on a single heat of 1Cr--1/2Mo steel to produce creep damaged or pre-crept material for the pure fatigue and creep-fatigue test programs. Metallographic examination of the pre-crept material revealed the primary creep damage mechanism was thermal softening for the base material and creep cavitation for the HAZ material. Creep rupture properties were measured for the virgin, aged, and pre-crept materials at the creep-fatigue test temperature of 535{degree}C to aid in interpretation of the effect of prior creep on creep-fatigue life. Creep-fatigue life prediction was performed using the linear life fraction rule, stress based and strain-based life fraction approaches. The remanent creep-fatigue of the HAZ material can be predicted by conducting a linear summation of creep life fraction and creep-fatigue life fraction. This approach is not applicable for base material. The life fraction method of predicting the as-received creep-fatigue endurance data based on a ductility exhaustion approach gave better prediction than a stress based approach. The implications of the current project results are discussed in terms of developing an assessment procedure for determining the creep-fatigue life of elevated temperature components. 21 refs., 54 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Comparison of growth texture in round Bi2212 and flat Bi2223 wires and its relation to high critical current density development

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kametani, F.; Jiang, J.; Matras, M.; Abraimov, D.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Why Bi?Sr?CaCu?Ox (Bi2212) allows high critical current density Jc in round wires rather than only in the anisotropic tape form demanded by all other high temperature superconductors is important for future magnet applications. Here we compare the local texture of state-of-the-art Bi2212 and Bi2223 ((Bi,Pb)?Sr?Ca?Cu?O??), finding that round wire Bi2212 generates a dominant a-axis growth texture that also enforces a local biaxial texture (FWHM more »perpendicular to the tape plane without any in-plane texture. Consistent with these observations, a marked, field-increasing, field-decreasing Jc(H) hysteresis characteristic of weak-linked systems appears in Bi2223 but is absent in Bi2212 round wire. Growth-induced texture on cooling from the melt step of the Bi2212 Jc optimization process appears to be the key step in generating this highly desirable microstructure.« less

  4. Tuning of deep level emission in highly oriented electrodeposited ZnO nanorods by post growth annealing treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simimol, A. [Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Surface Engineering Division CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560017 (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut 673601 (India); Manikandanath, N. T.; Chowdhury, Prasanta; Barshilia, Harish C., E-mail: harish@nal.res.in [Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Surface Engineering Division CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560017 (India); Anappara, Aji A. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut 673601 (India)

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly dense and c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite facets were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by a simple and cost-effective electrodeposition method at low bath temperature (80?°C). The as-grown samples were then annealed at various temperatures (T{sub A}?=?100–500?°C) in different environments (e.g., zinc, oxygen, air, and vacuum) to understand their photoluminescence (PL) behavior in the ultra-violet (UV) and the visible regions. The PL results revealed that the as-deposited ZnO nanorods consisted of oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}), zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}), and oxygen interstitial (O{sub i}) defects and these can be reduced significantly by annealing in different environments at optimal annealing temperatures. However, the intensity of deep level emission increased for T{sub A} greater than the optimized values for the respective environments due to the introduction of various defect centers. For example, for T{sub A}???450?°C in the oxygen and air environments, the density of O{sub i} defects increased, whereas, the green emission associated with V{sub O} is dominant in the vacuum annealed (T{sub A}?=?500?°C) ZnO nanorods. The UV peak red shifted after the post-growth annealing treatments in all the environments and the vacuum annealed sample exhibited highest UV peak intensity. The observations from the PL data are supported by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present study gives new insight into the origin of different defects that exist in the electrodeposited ZnO nanorods and how these defects can be precisely controlled in order to get the desired emissions for the opto-electronic applications.

  5. United States, International Partners Remove Last Remaining Weapons-Usable

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3E AmbassadorsUS-EU-Japan-JapanHighly Enriched Uranium from

  6. Highly c-axis oriented growth of GaN film on sapphire (0001) by laser molecular beam epitaxy using HVPE grown GaN bulk target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushvaha, S. S.; Kumar, M. Senthil; Maurya, K. K.; Dalai, M. K.; Sharma, Nita D. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, India 110012 (India)] [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, India 110012 (India)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth temperature dependant surface morphology and crystalline properties of the epitaxial GaN layers grown on pre-nitridated sapphire (0001) substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) were investigated in the range of 500–750 °C. The grown GaN films were characterized using high resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The x-ray rocking curve full width at a half maximum (FWHM) value for (0002) reflection dramatically decreased from 1582 arc sec to 153 arc sec when the growth temperature was increased from 500 °C to 600 °C and the value further decreased with increase of growth temperature up to 720 °C. A highly c-axis oriented GaN epitaxial film was obtained at 720 °C with a (0002) plane rocking curve FWHM value as low as 102 arc sec. From AFM studies, it is observed that the GaN grain size also increased with increasing growth temperature and flat, large lateral grains of size 200-300 nm was obtained for the film grown at 720 °C. The micro-Raman spectroscopy studies also exhibited the high-quality wurtzite nature of GaN film grown on sapphire at 720 °C. The SIMS measurements revealed a non-traceable amount of background oxygen impurity in the grown GaN films. The results show that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and crystalline quality of the epitaxial GaN films on sapphire grown by LMBE.

  7. High-temperature molecular beam epitaxial growth of AlGaN/GaN on GaN templates with reduced interface impurity levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koblmueller, G. [Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Chu, R. M.; Raman, A.; Mishra, U. K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Speck, J. S. [Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present combined in situ thermal cleaning and intentional doping strategies near the substrate regrowth interface to produce high-quality AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on semi-insulating (0001) GaN templates with low interfacial impurity concentrations and low buffer leakage. By exposing the GaN templates to an optimized thermal dissociation step in the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy environment, oxygen, carbon, and, to lesser extent, Si impurities were effectively removed from the regrowth interface under preservation of good interface quality. Residual Si was further compensated by C-doped GaN via CBr{sub 4} to yield highly resistive GaN buffer layers. Improved N-rich growth conditions at high growth temperatures were then utilized for subsequent growth of the AlGaN/GaN device structure, yielding smooth surface morphologies and low residual oxygen concentration with large insensitivity to the (Al+Ga)N flux ratio. Room temperature electron mobilities of the two-dimensional electron gas at the AlGaN/GaN interface exceeded >1750 cm{sup 2}/V s and the dc drain current reached {approx}1.1 A/mm at a +1 V bias, demonstrating the effectiveness of the applied methods.

  8. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH AND GRAIN SIZE ON NEAR-THRESHOLD FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH IN ULTRA-HIGH STRENGTH STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert O.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical properties of 300-M steel. FI CUKE CAPT! ONS Fig.lIK) at R ~ (l.OS, for 300-M steel, qUC'IH:iwci and temperedcrack growth (lIKo) in 300-M steel, tesLed in air. Summary

  9. The critical role of growth temperature on the structural and electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor heterostructures grown on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, N. [CRHEA-CNRS, rue Bernard Gregory, Parc de Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne (France); PICOGIGA International, Place Marcel Rebuffat, Parc de Villejust, 91971 Courtaboeuf (France); Cordier, Y.; Chenot, S.; Vennegues, P.; Tottereau, O.; Leroux, M.; Semond, F.; Massies, J. [CRHEA-CNRS, rue Bernard Gregory, Parc de Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne (France)

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is dedicated to the study of the growth by ammonia source molecular beam epitaxy of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistors on (111) oriented silicon substrates. The effect of growth conditions on the structural and electrical properties of the heterostructures was investigated. It is shown that even a slight variation in the growth temperature of the thick GaN buffer on AlN/GaN stress mitigating layers has a drastic influence on these properties via a counterintuitive effect on the dislocation density. Both in situ curvature measurements and ex situ transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction experiments indicate that the relaxation rate of the lattice mismatch stress increases with the growth temperature but finally results in a higher dislocations density. Furthermore, a general trend appears between the final wafer curvature at room temperature and the threading dislocation density. Finally, the influence of the dislocation density on the GaN buffer insulating properties and the two-dimensional electron gas transport properties at the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN interface is discussed.

  10. Demand for Food for People in Need Remains High Throughout the Year |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197 This workDayton:|Electricity PolicyAct

  11. High density and taper-free boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} nanowire via two-step growth process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Periwal, Priyanka; Salem, Bassem; Bassani, Franck; Baron, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.baron@cea.fr [University of Grenoble Alpes LTM, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CNRS LTM, UMR-5129, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Barnes, Jean-Paul [CEA-Leti, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors study Au catalyzed chemical vapor growth of Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} alloyed nanowires in the presence of diborane, serving as a dopant precursor. Our experiments reveal that introduction of diborane has a significant effect on doping and morphology. Boron exposure poisons the Au catalyst surface, suppresses catalyst activity, and causes significantly tapered wires, as a result of conformal growth. The authors develop here a two-step method to obtain high density and taper-free boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires. The two-step process consists of: (1) growth of a small undoped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} section and (2) introduction of diborane to form a boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} section. The catalyst preparation step remarkably influences wire yield, quality and morphology. The authors show that dopant-ratio influences wire resistivity and morphology. Resistivity for high boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} nanowire is 6 m?-cm. Four probe measurements show that it is possible to dope Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires with diborane.

  12. The Growth of InGaAsN for High Efficiency Solar Cells by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; BANKS,JAMES C.; GEE,JAMES M.; JONES,ERIC D.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.

    1999-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    InGaAsN alloys are a promising material for increasing the efficiency of multi-junction solar cells now used for satellite power systems. However, the growth of these dilute N containing alloys has been challenging with further improvements in material quality needed before the solar cell higher efficiencies are realized. Nitrogen/V ratios exceeding 0.981 resulted in lower N incorporation and poor surface morphologies. The growth rate was found to depend on not only the total group III transport for a fixed N/V ratio but also on the N/V ratio. Carbon tetrachloride and dimethylzinc were effective for p-type doping. Disilane was not an effective n-type dopant while SiCl4 did result in n-type material but only a narrow range of electron concentrations (2-5e17cm{sup -3}) were achieved.

  13. Spatial application of a cotton growth model for analysis of site-specific irrigation in the Texas High Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clouse, Randy Wayne

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    &M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2006 Major Subject: Biological and Agricultural Engineering SPATIAL APPLICATION OF A COTTON GROWTH MODEL FOR ANALYSIS OF SITE...: Chair of Committee, Stephen W. Searcy Committee Members, J. Tom Cothren James R. Gilley Clyde R. Munster Head of Department, Gary L. Riskowski May 2006 Major Subject: Biological and Agricultural Engineering iii ABSTRACT...

  14. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kay, Steve A. [University of California San Diego

    2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  15. Growth regulator reversal of simulated high temperature shipping effects on flower senescence and leaf abscission in miniature potted rose plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Lisa Lisu

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sunblaze (OS) and Red Sunblaze (RS). Growth regulator experiments were conducted to study the effect of silver thiosulfate (STS) and benzyladenine (BA) on delayed flower senescence and leaf abscission of OS and RS. To evaluate temperature, 3 selected... flower stages were designated and plants were stored at 4, 16, or 28C for 2, 4, or 6 days. To evaluate STS and BA, the plants were sprayed with different concentrations of STS and BA in a factorial combination. For the winter experiment, the STS...

  16. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Li, Ning [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wu, Borong [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials (China); Xu, Hongliang [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wang, Lei [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Wu, Feng [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  17. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore »around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  18. An Assessment of Uncertainty in Remaining Life Estimation for Nuclear Structural Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Fricke, Jacob M.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, several operating US light-water nuclear power reactors (LWRs) have moved to extended-life operations (from 40 years to 60 years), and there is interest in the feasibility of extending plant life to 80 years. Operating experience suggests that material degradation of structural components in LWRs (such as the reactor pressure vessel) is expected to be the limiting factor for safe operation during extended life. Therefore, a need exists for assessing the condition of LWR structural components and determining its remaining useful life (RUL). The ability to estimate RUL of degraded structural components provides a basis for determining safety margins (i.e., whether safe operation over some pre-determined time horizon is possible), and scheduling degradation management activities (such as potentially modifying operating conditions to limit further degradation growth). A key issue in RUL estimation is calculation of uncertainty bounds, which are dependent on current material state, as well as past and future stressor levels (such as time-at-temperature, pressure, and irradiation). This paper presents a preliminary empirical investigation into the uncertainty of RUL estimates for nuclear structural materials.

  19. The Durability of Various Crucible Materials for Aluminum Nitride Crystal growth by Sublimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu,B.; Edgar, J.; Gu, Z.; Zhuang, D.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Sarua, A.; Kuball, M.; Meyer, H.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Producing high purity aluminum nitride crystals by the sublimation-recondensation technique is difficult due to the inherently reactive crystal growth environment, normally at temperature in excess of 2100 C. The durability of the furnace fixture materials (crucibles, retorts, etc.) at such a high temperature remains a critical problem. In the present study, the suitability of several refractory materials for AlN crystal growth is investigated, including tantalum carbide, niobium carbide, tungsten, graphite, and hot-pressed boron nitride. The thermal and chemical properties and performance of these materials in inert gas, as well as under AlN crystal growth conditions are discussed. TaC and NbC are the most stable crucible materials with very low elemental vapor pressures in the crystal growth system. Compared with refractory material coated graphite crucibles, HPBN crucible is better for AlN self-seeded growth, as crystals tend to nucleate in thin colorless platelets with low dislocation density.

  20. Spleen tyrosine kinase mediates high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 up-regulation in proximal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Won Seok; Chang, Jai Won [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Nam Jeong [Department of Cell Biology, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Cell Biology, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Koo [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su-Kil, E-mail: skpark@amc.seoul.kr [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in high glucose-induced intracellular signal transduction has yet to be elucidated. We investigated whether Syk is implicated in high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) up-regulation in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cell). High glucose increased TGF-{beta}1 gene expression through Syk, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B. High glucose-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity was decreased by Syk inhibitors and U0126 (an ERK inhibitor). Syk inhibitors suppressed high glucose-induced ERK activation, whereas U0126 had no effect on Syk activation. High glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity was also decreased by Syk inhibitors. High glucose increased nuclear translocation of p65 without serine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and without degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, but with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} that may account for the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Both Syk inhibitors and Syk-siRNA attenuated high glucose-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} tyrosine phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Depletion of p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) by transfection of Pak2-siRNA abolished high glucose-induced Syk activation. In summary, high glucose-induced TGF-{beta}1 gene transcription occurred through Pak2, Syk and subsequent ERK/AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B pathways. This suggests that Syk might be implicated in the diabetic kidney disease.

  1. Small Enterprise Growth Fund (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Enterprise Growth Fund is a professionally-managed venture capital fund that invests in Maine companies which demonstrate high potential for growth and public benefit. The fund has...

  2. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States: Struggling to Remain Competitive in the Face of Strong Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    timeframe. Projected Wind Generation as % of Electricityrepresent the cost of wind generation. Wind Power Price (time-variability of wind generation is often such that its

  3. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States: Struggling to Remain Competitive in the Face of Strong Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in terms of new installed capacity, followed by Europeanat their original installed capacity), and are therefore20 GW of new wind capacity installed in 2007. Although

  4. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States: Struggling to Remain Competitive in the Face of Strong Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Build a Durable Market for Wind Power in the United States”Consult. 2008. “International Wind Energy Development: WorldGlobal Experience Curves for Wind Farms. ” Energy Policy,

  5. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States: Struggling to Remain Competitive in the Face of Strong Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and forecast future wind cost and pricing trends (see,long-term forecast of future wind costs or competitiveness,To put the material on wind cost and pricing trends in

  6. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States: Struggling to Remain Competitive in the Face of Strong Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    installed cost of both natural gas and coal power plants incosts and liabilities of natural gas- and coal-fired power plants.costs of building coal, gas, wind, and nuclear power plants

  7. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States: Struggling to Remain Competitive in the Face of Strong Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Build a Durable Market for Wind Power in the United States”crisis on the U.S. wind power market. A sizable literaturethe recent run-up in wind power costs and pricing. Moreover,

  8. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States: Struggling to Remain Competitive in the Face of Strong Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    figures) have nominal power purchase agreement (PPA) pricesprices and/or negotiated power purchase agreements as much

  9. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States: Struggling to Remain Competitive in the Face of Strong Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost (and price) of energy delivered from a wind project.wind turbines has increased due to higher commodity (materials and energy) prices, andwind power, cost trends, price trends 1.0 Introduction Driven by concerns over climate and energy

  10. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States: Struggling to Remain Competitive in the Face of Strong Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Curves for Wind Farms. ” Energy Policy, 33: 133-150. Lusey,Wind Power Development in the United States” Energy Policy.Curves for Wind Power. ” Energy Policy, 30: 1181- IHS CERA.

  11. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gin, Stephane [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Dept. of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoda (Japan)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical durability is not a single material property that can be uniquely measured. Instead it is the response to a host of coupled material and environmental processes whose rates are estimated by a combination of theory, experiment, and modeling. High-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is perhaps the most studied of any material yet there remain significant technical gaps regarding their chemical durability. The phenomena affecting the long-term performance of HLW glasses in their disposal environment include surface reactions, transport properties to and from the reacting glass surface, and ion exchange between the solid glass and the surrounding solution and alteration products. The rates of these processes are strongly influenced and are coupled through the solution chemistry, which is in turn influenced by the reacting glass and also by reaction with the near-field materials and precipitation of alteration products. Therefore, those processes must be understood sufficiently well to estimate or bound the performance of HLW glass in its disposal environment over geologic time-scales. This article summarizes the current state of understanding of surface reactions, transport properties, and ion exchange along with the near-field materials and alteration products influences on solution chemistry and glass reaction rates. Also summarized are the remaining technical gaps along with recommended approaches to fill those technical gaps.

  12. The growth and optical properties of large, high-quality AlN single crystals Martin Strassburg,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    made GaN and AlN the most serious candidates for the high-power and high-frequency electronic and deep emission and absorption properties of the crystals revealed bands around 3.5 and 4.3 eV at room temperature. Absorption edges ranging between 4.1 and 5.95 eV were observed. Since no straight correlation of the oxygen

  13. Growth of high-quality GaAs on Ge/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} on nanostructured silicon substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanamu, G.; Datye, A.K.; Dawson, R.; Zaidi, Saleem H. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States) and Center for Micro-Engineered Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Center for High Technology Materials, 1313 Goddard SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Gratings, Inc., 2700 B Broadbent Parkway, NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87107 (United States)

    2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs/Ge/SiGe films on submicrostructured Si substrates is reported. One-dimensional, nanometer-linewidth, submicrometer period features were fabricated in Si substrates using interferometric lithography, reactive ion etching, and wet-chemical etching techniques. The quality of the GaAs layers grown on these structures was investigated using high-resolution x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and etch pit density measurements. The defect density of GaAs epilayers grown on submicrostructured Si at {approx}6x10{sup 5} cm{sup -2} was two orders of magnitude lower compared with that grown on planar silicon. The optical quality of the GaAs/Ge/SiGe on submicrostructured Si was comparable to that of single crystal GaAs.

  14. Ratchet growth in recycled PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Darla Graff [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Geoff W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mang, Joseph T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patterson, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Olinger, Bart [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Deluca, Racci [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagelberg, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PBX 9502 is a plastic-bonded high explosive (PBX) containing 95 weight% TATB (triaminotrinitrobenzene) crystals in a polymer binder. TATB crystals are graphitic in nature, with a sheet-like structure and anisotropic CTE. Although the mechanism is not understood, solid-pressed TATB composites have been observed to undergo irreversible volume change ('ratchet growth') upon thermal cycling . This phenomenon has been studied but many aspects remain elusive and uncharacterized. Engineering or performance changes associated with ratchet growth have often been attributed to changes in density alone. We propose that the density changes which accompany ratchet growth involve a unique form of micro-damage distinguishable from the pore structure associated with low-pressed density. We have performed ratchet growth studies on Recycled PBX 9502 between -54 to 80{sup o}C with density changes of about 1.5%. Specimens of the same density were obtained using a lower pressure in the manufacturing process. Comparative measurements were made using quasi-static uniaxial tension tests, as well as micro x-ray computed tomography and ultra-small angle neutron scattering experiments. Through these measurements we have shown that ratchet grown PBX 9502 has properties quite different from predictions based on density alone. The pore size distribution of ratchet grown specimens is unique and easily distinguished from parts pressed to an equivalent density.

  15. acromegaly remains under-recognized: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bees 144 Voices from the Small Cinemas: Beyond the Remaining Countries University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: This introduction to a special volume dedicated to...

  16. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Sedimentary pellets as an ice-cover proxy in a High Arctic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Sedimentary pellets as an ice-cover proxy in a High Arctic ice-covered lake Jessica-cover extent and dynamics on this perennially ice-covered, High Arctic lake. These pellets are interpreted growth. The pellets remain frozen in the ice until a summer or series of summers with reduced ice cover

  18. An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng cycle-life tends to shrink significantly. The capacities of commercial lithium-ion batteries fade by 10 prediction model to estimate the remaining capacity of a Lithium-Ion battery. The proposed analytical model

  19. Fish remains (Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) from the Late Cretaceous of1 the Benue Trough, Nigeria2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish remains (Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) from the Late Cretaceous of1 the Benue Trough address: romain.vullo@univ-rennes1.fr9 10 Abstract11 Selachian and ray-finned fish remains from various Cenomanian­early Turonian and25 Maastrichtian) created opportunities for the dispersal of many marine fish

  20. Journal of Crystal Growth ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 ¼ 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used and the dissolved quantity of CO2 have a significant effect on the average particle size, specific surface areaJournal of Crystal Growth ] (

  1. Current Size and Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This report contains information on Current Size and Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program."

  2. Comparative analysis of remaining oil saturation in waterflood patterns based on analytical modeling and simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azimov, Anar Etibar

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In assessing the economic viability of a waterflood project, a key parameter is the remaining oil saturation (ROS) within each pattern unit. This information helps in identifying the areas with the highest ROS and thus ...

  3. Taphonomy of the faunal remains of a rural roman farmsite, San Giovanni di Ruoti, Italy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, Cristi Assad

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hunter, B. A. , California State University at Sacramento Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. D. Gentry Steele The faunal remains from a rural Roman farmsite, San Giovanni di Ruoti, Italy, were used to perform a taphonomic analysis. The goal... remains. The taphonomic analysis included examination of the pig skeletal element representation, identification of the specific agents that modify bone, identification of the butchering techniques used at the site, and documentation of possible...

  4. Current Size and Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The study analyzes the size, growth and trends in the U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry, drawing on information provided by industry executives and experts in 2012. The...

  5. Numerical simulations of epitaxial growth process in MOVPE reactor as a tool for design of modern semiconductors for high power electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skibinski, Jakub; Wejrzanowski, Tomasz [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02507 Warsaw (Poland); Caban, Piotr [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01919 Warsaw (Poland); Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering Woloska, 141, 02507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study numerical simulations of epitaxial growth of gallium nitride in Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy reactor AIX-200/4RF-S is addressed. Epitaxial growth means crystal growth that progresses while inheriting the laminar structure and the orientation of substrate crystals. One of the technological problems is to obtain homogeneous growth rate over the main deposit area. Since there are many agents influencing reaction on crystal area such as temperature, pressure, gas flow or reactor geometry, it is difficult to design optimal process. According to the fact that it's impossible to determine experimentally the exact distribution of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor during crystal growth, modeling is the only solution to understand the process precisely. Numerical simulations allow to understand the epitaxial process by calculation of heat and mass transfer distribution during growth of gallium nitride. Including chemical reactions in numerical model allows to calculate the growth rate of the substrate and estimate the optimal process conditions for obtaining the most homogeneous product.

  6. Lemniscate growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    May 8, 2012 ... [8], (mem)Brane theory [3], elliptic growth [11], and non-Newtonian Hele-Shaw flows [5]. ...... a loose connection to non-Newtonian fluids.

  7. aqueous chemical growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technische Universiteit Delft 36 Growth of Large-Area Aligned Molybdenum Nanowires by High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Device...

  8. In situ characterization of GaN quantum dot growth with reflection high-energy electron diffraction and line-of-sight mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, J S; Koblmuller, G; Averbeck, R; Riechert, H; Speck, J S

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PA-MBE GaN growth conditions, with substrate temperatures ofthe GaN surface roughness evolution, substrate vicinality,vapor and substrate temperature could form the basis for GaN

  9. Material Aging and Degradation Detection and Remaining Life Assessment for Plant Life Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Henager, Charles H.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Pitman, Stan G.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the major factors that may impact long term operations is structural material degradation, Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined, and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided.

  10. Power Outage 1. Remain Calm; provide assistance to others if necessary.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Power Outage 1. Remain Calm; provide assistance to others if necessary. 2. Report the outage, call. Campus-wide telephone communications will continue to operate during a power outage on standard phones. If emergency assistance is required, call UC Security on Extn 6111 and state "POWEr OUTAgE" or mobile 0800 823

  11. Prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in men in the United States, with an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in men in the United States, with an estimated of death from cancer in men, with 33,720 estimated deaths (11% of all estimated deaths) in 2011 (REF. 1-year relative survival rate is essentially 100% based on 2001­2007 statistics2 . However, for patients

  12. `TVLSI-00029-2003.R1 An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    . Reference [7] studied the battery discharge efficiency under different loading conditions and approximated`TVLSI-00029-2003.R1 1 An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng Rong, Student Member, IEEE and Massoud Pedram, Fellow, IEEE Abstract -- Predicting

  13. Grantee Performance Required to Release the Hold on Remaining 50% of Obligated Recovery Act Funds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization Assistance Program Notice 10-05 deals with performance requirements for program grantees?states and U.S. territories?to receive the remaining 50% of obligated funds under the 2009 American Reinvestment and Recovery Act.

  14. Si (111) substrates as highly effective pseudomasks for selective growth of GaN material and devices by ammonia-molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, H.; Haffouz, S.; Bardwell, J.A. [Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique property of Si (111) as effective pseudomask substrate for selective growth of GaN by ammonia-molecular-beam epitaxy is reported. The critical nucleation temperature of GaN on Si (111) surface is found to be as low as 700 deg. C, much lower than that on sapphire or AlN surface. As a result, selective growth of GaN is possible by ammonia-molecular-beam epitaxy on Si (111) substrates using a patterned AlN buffer layer. The wide range of growth temperatures (700-900 deg. C) available for selective growth is a critical advantage for control and optimization of the facet characteristics of the selectively grown GaN patterns as required for potential fabrication of site-specific GaN or InGaN quantum dots. The demonstrated ease of selective growth of GaN on silicon has also implications in potential on-chip integration of GaN devices with silicon devices.

  15. In situ characterization of GaN quantum dot growth with reflection high-energy electron diffraction and line-of-sight mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, J S; Koblmuller, G; Averbeck, R; Riechert, H; Speck, J S

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mass spectrometry and re?ection high-energy electronmass spectrometry ?QMS? and re?ection high-energy electron

  16. High-Resolution Characterizations of Stress-Corrosion Cracks in Austenitic Stainless Steel from Crack Growth Tests in BWR-Simulated Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2005-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanisms controlling environmental degradation and cracking in light-water-reactor (LWR) systems have been investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) of cracks and crack tips. The current work focuses on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of 300-series, austenitic stainless steels in high-temperature LWR environments. Comparisons are made between cold-worked 304SS containing stress-corrosion cracks produced in a simulated boiling-water-reactor (BWR) environment during crack-growth tests, and a 304SS core component with cracks produced during 26-year BWR service. Similar corrosion products consisting of duplex-layered spinel oxides were found along the walls of open cracks in the service and laboratory test samples. These oxide films consisted of oriented Cr-rich spinel up to ~30 nm thick along the metal crack walls and large-grained Fe-rich spinel at the crack centers. Cracks in the service sample were generally more filled with oxide, perhaps reflecting the much longer times available for corrosion to occur after the crack passage. Crack tips in the BWR top-guide sample exhibited unique and unexpected structures with oxide-filled cracks <10 nm wide ending in finger-like attack and locally “dealloyed” zones of Fe/Cr-depleted, Ni-rich metal. Alloy compositions measured at numerous crack tips were 40 wt% Fe, 4 wt% Cr and 55 wt% Ni immediately ahead of the degradation front versus approximately 70 wt% Fe, 19 wt% Cr and 9 wt% Ni in the bulk 304SS. Laboratory samples with cracks grown over much shorted times (~1.5 months) did not show the distinctive crack tip structures or strong Ni enrichment in the metal ahead of the crack tips as for the service sample. This suggests that although selective oxidation processes occur during degradation, significant composition differences may only develop after crack propagation has slowed or stopped. Additional nanometer-scale measurements elucidating corrosion processes occurring during crack advance are presented to provide insights into mechanisms controlling IGSCC.

  17. Low-temperature growth of gallium nitride films by inductively coupled-plasma-enhanced reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ni, Chih-Jui; Chau-Nan Hong, Franklin, E-mail: hong@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gallium nitride (GaN) films were grown on sapphire substrate by reactive magnetron sputtering. Inductively coupled-plasma (ICP) source was installed between the substrate holder and the sputtering target to increase the plasma density and the degree of ionization of nitrogen gas. Liquid Ga and Ar/N{sub 2} were used as the sputtering target and sputtering gases, respectively. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that the authors could grow high quality GaN crystallites at 500?°C. However, the crystalline GaN (0002) peak remained even by lowering the growth temperature down to 300?°C. The N:Ga ratio of the film grown at 500?°C was almost 1:1, and the nitrogen composition became higher toward the 1:1 N:Ga ratio with increasing the growth temperature. The high degree of ionization induced by ICP source was essential to the growth of high crystalline quality GaN films.

  18. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greitzer, Frank L. (Richland, WA); Kangas, Lars J. (West Richland, WA); Terrones, Kristine M. (Los Alamos, NM); Maynard, Melody A. (Richland, WA); Pawlowski, Ronald A. (West Richland, WA), Ferryman; Thomas A. (Richland, WA); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA); Wilson, Bary W. (Coconut Creek, FL)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  19. Globular clusters with the extended horizontal-branch as remaining cores of galaxy building blocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young-Wook Lee; Hansung B. Gim; Chul Chung

    2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The relics of building blocks that made stellar halo and bulge are yet to be discovered unless they were completely disrupted throughout the history of the Galaxy. Here we suggest that about 25% of the Milky Way globular clusters have characteristics of the remaining cores of these early building blocks rather than genuine star clusters. They are clearly distinct from other normal globular clusters in the presence of extended horizontal-branch and multiple stellar populations, in mass (brightness), and most importantly in orbital kinematics. Based on this result, a three-stage formation picture of the Milky Way is suggested, which includes early mergers, collapse, and later accretion.

  20. A little rain doesn't fix it: Farmers and ranchers remain cautious as drought continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisek, Danielle

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A little rain doesn?t fix it Farmers and ranchers remain cautious as drought continues Summer 2012 tx H2O 11 ] Story by Danielle Kalisek Rains in the Brazos Valley early in 2012 helped this grass green up, but more rains are needed now... to help warm-season grasses. Photo by Danielle Kalisek. This might sound like a broken record, but it still rings true: Last year?s drought was historic the worst one-year drought in Texas? history. #31;ough recent rains in some parts of the state...

  1. MCA 22-3-801 - Human Skeletal Remains and Burial Site Protection Act | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma: EnergyMAREC Jump to: navigation,Remains |

  2. appearance of the remaining chapters. This Flash transmits the first installment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting Strong,Women @JoinEnergyappearance of the remaining

  3. Lubrication Oil Condition Monitoring and Remaining Useful Life Prediction with Particle Filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junda Zhu; Jae M. Yoon; David He; Yongzhi Qu; Eric Bechhoefer

    In order to reduce the costs of wind energy, it is necessary to improve the wind turbine availability and reduce the operational and maintenance costs. The reliability and availability of a functioning wind turbine depend largely on the protective properties of the lubrication oil for its drive train subassemblies such as the gearbox and means for lubrication oil condition monitoring and degradation detection. The wind industry currently uses lubrication oil analysis for detecting gearbox and bearing wear but cannot detect the functional failures of the lubrication oils. The main purpose of lubrication oil condition monitoring and degradation detection is to determine whether the oils have deteriorated to such a degree that they no longer fulfill their functions. This paper describes a research on developing online lubrication oil condition monitoring and remaining useful life prediction using particle filtering technique and commercially available online sensors. It first introduces the lubrication oil condition monitoring and degradation detection for wind turbines. Viscosity and dielectric constant are selected as the performance parameters to model the degradation of lubricants. In particular, the lubricant performance evaluation and remaining useful life prediction of degraded lubrication oil with viscosity and dielectric constant data using particle filtering are presented. A simulation study based on lab verified models is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed technique. 1.

  4. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  5. Why does Low-Luminosity AGN Fueling Remain an Unsolved Problem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Martini

    2004-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite many years of effort, observational studies have not found a strong correlation between the presence of any proposed fueling mechanism and low-luminosity AGN. After a discussion of the mass requirements for fueling, I summarize this observational work and provide a number of hypotheses for why the nature of AGN fueling has remained unresolved. In particular, I stress the potential importance of the increasing number of candidate fueling mechanisms with decreasing mass accretion rate, the relevant spatial scales for different fueling mechanisms, and the lifetime of an individual episode of nuclear accretion. The episodic AGN lifetime is a particularly relevant complication if it is comparable to or shorter than the time that the responsible fueling mechanisms are observationally detectable. I conclude with a number of relatively accessible areas for future investigation.

  6. Geometry of Valley Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  7. Neutron measurements of the fuel remaining in the TMI II once-through steam generators (OTSG'S)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geelhood, B.D.; Abel, K.H.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polypropylene tubes containing a string of 18 copper rods were inserted into the lower head region and each J-leg of the two once-through steam generators (OTSG) of the unit two reactor at Three Mile Island. The object was to measure the neutron flux present in those regions and estimate the amount of residual fuel remaining in each OTSG. The neutron flux from any residual fuel induces a radioisotope, /sup 64/Cu, in the copper coupons. The /sup 64/Cu activity is detected by coincidence counting the two 511-keV gamma rays produced by the annihilation of the positron emitted in the decay of /sup 64/Cu. The copper coupons were placed between two 6-inch diameter, 6-inch long NaI(Tl) crystals and the electronics produced a coincidence count whenever the two gamma rays were uniquely detected. The net coincidence count is proportional to the amount of /sup 64/Cu activity in the coupon. This document discusses calculation methods, statistical methods, and results of this research. 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN SOUTH ASIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN SOUTH ASIA Authors Amirul Islam Department;Abstract Understanding the role of regional integration in in productivity growth remains a key question effect of the free trade agreement on productivity. Most of the countries in South Asia have suffered

  9. Effect of buffer layer growth temperature on epitaxial GaN films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanta, P.; Singh, D.; Kumar, R.; Ganguli, T.; Srinivasa, R. S.; Major, S. S. [Center For Research in Nano-Technology and Science (India); Semiconductor Laser Section, RRCAT, Indore-452013 (India); Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai - 400076 (India)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial GaN films were deposited by reactive sputtering of a GaAs target in 100 % nitrogen at 700 deg. C on ZnO buffer layers grown at different substrate temperatures over sapphire substrates. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements and the corresponding analysis show that the growth temperature of buffer layers significantly affects the micro-structural parameters of GaN epilayer, such as lateral coherence length, tilt and twist, while the vertical coherence length remains unaffected. The optimum substrate temperature for buffer layer growth has been found to be 300 deg. C. High epitaxial quality GaN film grown on such a buffer layer exhibited micro strain of 1.8x10{sup -4} along with screw and edge type dislocation densities of 7.87x10{sup 9} and 1.16x10{sup 11}, respectively.

  10. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early warning of aging and degradation. Examples of such key indicators include changes in chemical structure, mechanical modulus, and dielectric permittivity. While some of these indicators are the basis of currently used technologies, there is a need to increase the volume of cable that may be inspected with a single measurement, and if possible, to develop techniques for in-situ inspection (i.e., while the cable is in operation). This is the focus of the present report.

  11. Persistent Eects of Short-term, High Exposure to Chlorine Gas on Physiology and Growth of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Carol

    of exposure to chlorine gas are similar to those of acid rain and acid mist because chlorine gas forms highly that acid rain and acid mist aect the composition and structure of plant cuticles and their production, foliar damage from acid mist and rain consists of chlorosis, necrotic mottling, and necrosis (e.g. Heck

  12. The effects of sulfate fertilization and high levels of sulfate and salt drinking water on the growth and mineral status of ruminants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Kehe

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the serum mineral concentrations of cows grazing oat pastures. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the effects of high levels of calcium sulfate (CaSO?²?) and sodium chloride (NaCl) in drinking water on the performance and mineral status of growing...

  13. Florida Growth Fund (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Florida Growth Fund can provide investments in technology and growth-related companies through co-investments with other institutional investors. The Fund awards preference to companies...

  14. Insulin growth factors regulate the mitotic cycle in cultured rat sympathetic neuroblasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiCicco-Bloom, E.; Black, I.B. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, New York, NY (USA))

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While neuronal mitosis is uniquely restricted to early development, the underlying regulation remains to be defined. The authors have now developed a dissociated, embryonic sympathetic neuron culture system that uses fully defined medium in which cells enter the mitotic cycle. The cultured cells expressed two neuronal traits, tyrosine hydroxylase and the neuron-specific 160-kDa neurofilament subunit protein, but were devoid of glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for non-myelin-forming Schwann cells in ganglia. Approximately one-third of the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells synthesized DNA in culture, specifically incorporating ({sup 3}H)thymidine into their nuclei. They used this system to define factors regulating the mitotic cycle in sympathetic neuroblasts. Members of the insulin family of growth factors, including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, regulated DNA synthesis in the presumptive neuroblasts. Insulin more than doubled the proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells entering the mitotic cycle, as indicated by autoradiography of ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation into nuclei. Scintillation spectrometry was an even more sensitive index of DNA synthesis. In contrast, the trophic protein nerve growth factor exhibited no mitogenic effect, suggesting that the mitogenic action of insulin growth factors is highly specific. The observations are discussed in the context of the detection of insulin growth factors and receptors in the developing brain.

  15. Assessing the Impacts of Residential Growth Caps-- The San Diego Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Cynthia A.; Landis, John D.; Griesenbeck, Bruce; Stroshane, Timothy; Belzer, Dena

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    officials as highly accomodating to growth, Southernof increase; or more growth accomodating measures to allow _neighboring cities are accomodating, much of the building

  16. Do bark beetle remains in lake sediments correspond to severe outbreaks? A review of published and ongoing research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, R. Scott

    Watt e , Kelly Derr a , Michael F.J. Pisaric f , R. Scott Anderson g , Andrea R. Brunelle d outbreak episodes. Our synthesis suggests that the remains of pri- mary attack beetles are rarely preserved

  17. An analysis of the lithic remains from several ring middens in Crockett County, Texas: A study in site function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Bill

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE LITHIC REMAINS FROM SEVERAL RING MIDDENS IN CROCKETT COUNTY, TEXAS: A STUDY IN SITE FUNCTION A Thesis by WILLIAM EDWARD MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AKIM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS May 1980 Major Subject: Anthropology AN ANALYSIS OF THE LITHIC REMAINS FROM SEVERAL RING MIDDENS IN CROCKETT COUNTY, TEXAS: A STUDY IN SITE FUNCTION A Thesis by WILLIAM EDWARD MOORE Approved as to style...

  18. Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Formations: What are the Major Remaining Scientific Issues?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toulhoat, Pierre [Institut des Sciences Analytiques, Universite de Lyon, 43 avenue du 11 novembre 1918, Villeurbanne, 69622 (France); Scientific Direction, INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP2, Verneuil-en-Halatte, 60550, (France)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For more than thirty years, considerable efforts have been carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of disposing of high level wastes in deep geological formations. Different rock types have been examined, such as water-under-saturated tuffs (USA), granites or crystalline rocks (Canada, Sweden, and Finland), clays (France, Belgium, and Switzerland), rock-salt (Germany). Deep clays and granites, (provided that the most fractured zones are avoided in the second case) are considered to fulfill most allocated functions, either on short term (reversibility) or long term. Chemically reducing conditions favor the immobilization of actinides and most fission products by precipitation, co-precipitation and sorption. If oxidizing conditions prevail, the safety demonstration will mostly rely on the performance of artificial confinement systems. Rock-salt offers limited performance considering the issue of reversibility, which is now perceived as essential, mostly for ethical and sociological reasons. However, several issues would deserve additional research programs, and as a first priority, a clear description of time/space succession of processes during the evolution of the repository. This will allow a better representation of coupled processes in performance assessment, such as the influence of gases (H{sub 2}) generated by corrosion, on the long term dynamics of the re-saturation. Geochemical interactions between the host formation and the engineered systems (packages + barriers) are still insufficiently described. Additional gains in performance could be obtained when taking into account processes such as isotopic exchange. Imaginative solutions, employing ceramic- carbon composite materials could be proposed to replace heavy and gas-generating overpacks, or to accommodate the small but probably significant amount of 'ultimate' wastes that will be inevitably produced by Generation IV reactor systems. (author)

  19. assimilation-coupled growth control: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    growth and the growth with varying noise. Fractal dimension is determined from cluster size scaling with its area. For isotropic growth we find d 1.7, both at high and low...

  20. Growth and development of GaInAsP for use in high-efficiency solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 July 1991--30 December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharps, P.R. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes accomplishments during Phase 3 of this subcontract. The overall goals of the subcontract were (1) to develop the necessary technology to grow high-efficiency GaInAsP layers that are lattice-matched to GaAs and Ge; (2) to demonstrate highefficiency GaInAsP single-junction solar cells; and (3) to demonstrate GaInAsP/Ge cascade solar cells suitable for operation under concentrated (500X) sunlight. The major accomplishments during Phase 3 include (1) demonstrating a GaInAsP tunnel diode for use as an interconnect in the GaInAsP/Ge cascade cell, and (2) demonstrating a GaInAsP/Ge cascade cell. The development of the GaInAsP tunnel diode is a major accomplishment because it allows for the GaInAsP and Ge cells to be connected without optical losses for the bottom Ge cell, such as a Ge tunnel diode would cause. The GaInAsP/Ge cascade cell development is significant because of the demonstration of a cascade cell with a new materials system.

  1. Apparatus for determining past-service conditions and remaining life of thermal barrier coatings and components having such coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Devitt, John William (Clifton Park, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Brewer, Luke Nathaniel (Rexford, NY)

    2004-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining past-service conditions and/or remaining useful life of a component of a combustion engine and/or a thermal barrier coating ("TBC") of the component comprises a radiation source that provides the exciting radiation to the TBC to excite a photoluminescent ("PL") material contained therein, a radiation detector for detecting radiation emitted by the PL material, and means for relating a characteristic of an emission spectrum of the PL material to the amount of a crystalline phase in the TBC, thereby inferring the past-service conditions or the remaining useful life of the component or the TBC.

  2. Proceedings: EPRI Workshop on Condition and Remaining Life Assessment of Hot Gas Path Components of Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The severity of modern combustion turbine operation is a reflection of industry competition to achieve higher thermal efficiency. This competitive stance has resulted in new turbine designs and material systems that have at times outpaced condition and remaining life assessment (CARLA) technology. These proceedings summarize a two-day workshop on CARLA technology for hot section components of large combustion turbines.

  3. Volume rendering at interactive frame rates remains a chal-lenge, especially with today's increasingly large datasets. We pro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawfis, Roger

    Abstract Volume rendering at interactive frame rates remains a chal- lenge, especially with today's increasingly large datasets. We pro- pose a framework, using concepts from Image-Based Rendering (IBR), that decreases the required framerate for the volume ren- derer significantly. All the volume renderer needs

  4. Volume rendering at interactive frame rates remains a chal-lenge, especially with today's increasingly large datasets. We pro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Klaus

    1 Abstract Volume rendering at interactive frame rates remains a chal- lenge, especially with today's increasingly large datasets. We pro- pose a framework, using concepts from Image-Based Rendering (IBR), that decreases the required framerate for the volume ren- derer significantly. All the volume renderer needs

  5. of hydrogen-powered cars," he says. But a major hurdle remains: the cost of platinum metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of hydrogen-powered cars," he says. But a major hurdle remains: the cost of platinum metal needed to make fuel cells efficient. Fuel cells work by combining hydrogen gas with oxygen from the air for hydrogen-powered cars in mass production facilities," says SFU chemistry professor Steve Holdcroft, who

  6. eleCTriCAl AnD CoMPUTer engineering 31 foundation needed to remain effective,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    eleCTriCAl AnD CoMPUTer engineering · 31 foundation needed to remain effective, take on new fundamental areas of mathematics, science, and electrical engineering that are required to support specialized-the-art specialty areas in electrical engineering. This is implemented through our senior electives. Students

  7. A Joint Programme of: "Water will remain a strategic resource for countries worldwide, and the quest for water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    the distinction between water as a resource and water as a service and thus lack the necessary institutionalA Joint Programme of: "Water will remain a strategic resource for countries worldwide, and the quest for water sustainability will become increasingly intricate and delicate. A keen understanding

  8. Job Postings The question was raised about the minimum time a position should remain posted before it

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Tony R.

    Job Postings 121610 The question was raised about the minimum time a position should remain: EXTERNAL JOB POSTINGS1, 2 · Staff ­ one week minimum · Administrative ­ two weeks minimum · Faculty ­ two weeks minimum 1 The recruitment process for EXTERNAL job postings may be opened to: all

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program BWR High-Fluence Material Project: Assessment of the Role of High-Fluence on the Efficiency of HWC Mitigation on SCC Crack Growth Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebastien Teysseyre

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As nuclear power plants age, the increasing neutron fluence experienced by stainless steels components affects the materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking and fracture toughness. The purpose of this report is to identify any new issues that are expected to rise as boiling water reactor power plants reach the end of their initial life and to propose a path forward to study such issues. It has been identified that the efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry mitigation technology may decrease as fluence increases for high-stress intensity factors. This report summarizes the data available to support this hypothesis and describes a program plan to determine the efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry as a function of the stress intensity factor applied and fluence. This program plan includes acquisition of irradiated materials, generation of material via irradiation in a test reactor, and description of the test plan. This plan offers three approaches, each with an estimated timetable and budget.

  10. PVMaT cost reductions in the EFG high volume PV manufacturing line: Annual report, 5 August 1998--4 August 1999[PhotoVoltaic Manufacturing Technology, Edge-defined Film-fed Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bathey, B.; Brown, B.; Cao, J.; Ebers, S.; Gonsiorawski, R.; Heath, B.; Kalejs, J.; Kardauskas, M.; Mackintosh, B.; Ouellette, M.; Piwczyk, B.; Rosenblum, M.; Southimath, B.

    1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed by ASE Americas researchers during the first year of this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology 5A2 program. Significant accomplishments in each of three task are as follows. Task 1--Manufacturing Systems: Researchers completed key node analysis, started statistical process control (SPC) charting, carried out design-of-experiment (DoE) matrices on the cell line to optimize efficiencies, performed a capacity and bottleneck study, prepared a baseline chemical waste analysis report, and completed writing of more than 50% of documentation and statistical sections of ISO 9000 procedures. A highlight of this task is that cell efficiencies in manufacturing were increased by 0.4%--0.5% absolute, to an average in excess of 14.2%, with the help of DoE and SPC methods. Task 2--Low-Cost Processes: Researchers designed, constructed, and tested a 50-cm-diameter, edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) cylinder crystal growth system to successfully produce thin cylinders up to 1.2 meters in length; completed a model for heat transfer; successfully deployed new nozzle designs and used them with a laser wafer-cutting system with the potential to decrease cutting labor costs by 75% and capital costs by 2X; achieved laser-cutting speeds of up to 8X and evaluation of this system is proceeding in production; identified laser-cutting conditions that reduce damage for both Q-switched Nd:YAG and copper-vapor lasers with the help of a breakthrough in fundamental understanding of cutting with these short-pulse-length lasers; and found that bulk EFG material lifetimes are optimized when co-firing of silicon nitride and aluminum is carried out with rapid thermal processing (RTP). Task 3--Flexible Manufacturing: Researchers improved large-volume manufacturing of 10-cm {times} 15-cm EFG wafers by developing laser-cutting fixtures, adapting carriers and fabricating adjustable racks for etching and rinsing facilities, and installing a high-speed data collection net work; initiated fracture studies to develop methods to reduce wafer breakage; and started a module field studies program to collect data on field failures to help identify potential manufacturing problems. New encapsulants, which cure at room temperature, are being tested to improve flexibility and provide higher yields for thin wafers in lamination.

  11. Investigations of late archaic coprolites: pollen and macrofossil remains from Hinds Cave (41VV456), Val Verde County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Sherrian Kay

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    KAY EDWARDS Approved as to style and content by: aughn M. Bryant, J (+air of Comm' te r &) Merrill H. Sweet (Member) p' Vaughn M. Br ant, J (Head of Department) May 1990 ABSTRACT Investigations of Late Archaic Coprolites: Pollen... and Macrofossil Remains from Hinds Cave (41VV456), Val Verde County, Texas. (May 1990) Sherrian Ray Edwards, B. A. , University of Texas Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Vaughn M. Bryant, Jr. The analysis of desiccated human fecal material (coprolites) left...

  12. Old Socorro Mission: an osteobiological analysis of the skeletal remains from the 1982-1985 field excavations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raisor, Michelle Jeanette

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 119 Skull 38 exhibiting "saddle nose". 122 FIGURE Page 19 20 Cranial deformation of Burial 18. Bifid sacral hiatus of Burial 36. 126 129 21 Asymmetry of mandibular condyles (Burial 20). 132 22 Congenital absence of the left transverse process... River, it remained in constant use until A. D. 1829 when the church was severely damaged by flood waters and abandoned (Figure 1). Originally the small mission was built to administer to the Spanish families and the Piro Indians that accompanied...

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-DR-1, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-035

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiological characterization, decommissioning and demolition of the 132-DR-1 site, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station was performed in 1987. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  14. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H. [Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  15. Direct growth of graphene on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanh Trung, Pham, E-mail: phamtha@fundp.ac.be; Joucken, Frédéric; Colomer, Jean-François; Robert, Sporken [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Raskin, Jean-Pierre [Electrical Engineering (ELEN), Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Université catholique de Louvain UCL, 3 place du Levant, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hackens, Benoît; Santos, Cristiane N. [Nanoscopic physics (NAPS), Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Université catholique de Louvain UCL, 2 chemin du Cyclotron, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the need of integrated circuit in the current silicon technology, the formation of graphene on Si wafer is highly desirable, but is still a challenge for the scientific community. In this context, we report the direct growth of graphene on Si(111) wafer under appropriate conditions using an electron beam evaporator. The structural quality of the material is investigated in detail by reflection high energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experimental results confirm that the quality of graphene is strongly dependent on the growth time during carbon atoms deposition.

  16. Sorghum Growth and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerik, Tom; Bean, Brent W.; Vanderlip, Richard

    2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorghum is well adapted to Texas, and its ability to yield consistently makes it popular with growers. This publication discusses sorghum plant biology and growth....

  17. Strategic Growth Initiative (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A joint venture between Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the Strategic Growth Initiative Grant Program was...

  18. Method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report a method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The method uses a single reflectivity spectrum measurement to determine the structure of the partially completed VCSEL at a critical point of growth. This information, along with the extracted growth rates, allows imprecisions in growth parameters to be compensated for during growth of the remaining structure, which can then be completed with very accurate critical dimensions. Using this method, they can now routinely grow lasing VCSELs with Fabry-Perot cavity resonance wavelengths controlled to within 0.5%. 4 figs.

  19. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Kansas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Kansas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the state of Kansas and the nation as a whole.

  20. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas` known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  1. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Oklahoma: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Oklahoma. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Oklahoma`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Oklahoma oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  2. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, domestic oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the nation as a whole.

  3. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  4. Planar elliptic growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  5. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  6. Robust Growth Determinants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsimonious...

  7. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  8. Laboratory Evidence for Stochastic Plasma-Wave Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, D. R. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales, 2006 (Australia); Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Hole, M. J. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales, 2006 (Australia); Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Australian Capital Territory, 0200 (Australia); Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales, 2006 (Australia); Dallaqua, R. [Laboratorio Associado de Plasma-LAP, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE/MCT, CP 515, 12201-970, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The first laboratory confirmation of stochastic growth theory is reported. Floating potential fluctuations are measured in a vacuum arc centrifuge using a Langmuir probe. Statistical analysis of the energy density reveals a lognormal distribution over roughly 2 orders of magnitude, with a high-field nonlinear cutoff whose spatial dependence is consistent with the predicted eigenmode profile. These results are consistent with stochastic growth and nonlinear saturation of a spatially extended eigenmode, the first evidence for stochastic growth of an extended structure.

  9. Growth of graphene on Ir(111) Johann Coraux1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Growth of graphene on Ir(111) Johann Coraux1 ,, Alpha T. N'Diaye1 §, Martin Engler1 , Carsten Busse a renewed interest as a route towards high quality graphene prepared in a reproducible manner. Here we employ two growth methods for graphene on Ir(111), namely room temperature adsorption and thermal

  10. Can we estimate bacterial growth rates from ribosomal RNA content?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, P.F.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between the quantity of RNA in bacterial cells and their growth rate under laboratory conditions. It may be possible to use this relationship to provide information on the activity of natural bacterial communities, and in particular on growth rate. However, if this approach is to provide reliably interpretable information, the relationship between RNA content and growth rate must be well-understood. In particular, a requisite of such applications is that the relationship must be universal among bacteria, or alternately that the relationship can be determined and measured for specific bacterial taxa. The RNA-growth rate relationship has not been used to evaluate bacterial growth in field studies, although RNA content has been measured in single cells and in bulk extracts of field samples taken from coastal environments. These measurements have been treated as probable indicators of bacterial activity, but have not yet been interpreted as estimators of growth rate. The primary obstacle to such interpretations is a lack of information on biological and environmental factors that affect the RNA-growth rate relationship. In this paper, the available data on the RNA-growth rate relationship in bacteria will be reviewed, including hypotheses regarding the regulation of RNA synthesis and degradation as a function of growth rate and environmental factors; i.e. the basic mechanisms for maintaining RNA content in proportion to growth rate. An assessment of the published laboratory and field data, the current status of this research area, and some of the remaining questions will be presented.

  11. Light and CO sub 2 effects on photosynthesis and growth in Kudzu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweder, M.; Bowes, G. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA)); Cure, J. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA))

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata Willd.) was grown for 28 days under four permutations of light (1,500 or 450 {mu}mol quanta m{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}) and CO{sub 2} (700 or 350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}). Total biomass and leaf area were up to 55% and 52% respectively greater in the high CO{sub 2} treatments. When measured at the growth CO{sub 2} concentration, photosynthetic rates showed little reduction over the 28 day period, and remained up to 29% higher in the high CO{sub 2} treatments. Under high light, soluble protein was 27% greater in the plants grown at high CO{sub 2}. Neither light nor CO{sub 2} had a significant effect on the initial or total rubisco activities. However, phosphoribulokinase activity was decreased under the high CO{sub 2} treatments. These data indicate that photosynthesis in kudzu shows little acclimation when grown at elevated CO{sub 2}.

  12. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

  13. Why electric-power growth will not resume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1983-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic structural changes now occurring in the US economy have irrevocably broken previously existing links between gross national product and the growth of sales of electricity. The author contends that the extent of the macroeconomic changes presently taking place are underestimated by many electric-utility planners and, as a result, forecasts projecting electricity growth rates about even with gross national product growth levels when the economy recovers are too high. The article states that electric-utility companies are entering an indefinite period of stagnant sales growth. But it closes on the positive note that electric-utility managements can take certain steps to make their businesses grow again. 8 figures.

  14. World economic growth pushing LNG use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.L. [Mobil Oil Corp., Fairfax, VA (United States); Clary, R. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas, especially liquefied (LNG), is in position to participate in the energy growth now being triggered by strong worldwide economic growth, increasingly open markets, and expanding international trade. Natural gas is abundant, burns cleanly, and is highly efficient in combined-cycle, gas-turbine power plants. Moreover, the comparative remoteness of much of the resource base to established and emerging markets can make LNG a compelling processing and transportation alternative. Discussed here are the resource distribution and emerging market opportunities that can make LNG attractive for monetizing natural-gas reserves.

  15. Session 35 - Panel: Remaining US Disposition Issues for Orphan or Small Volume Low Level and Low Level Mixed Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blauvelt, Richard [Navarro Engineering Research Inc. (United States); Small, Ken [Doe Nevada (United States); Gelles, Christine [DOE EM HQ (United States); McKenney, Dale [Fluor Hanford (United States); Franz, Bill [LATA Portsmouth (United States); Loveland, Kaylin [Energy Solutions Inc. (United States); Lauer, Mike [Waste Control Specialists (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Faced with closure schedules as a driving force, significant progress has been made during the last 2 years on the disposition of DOE mixed waste streams thought previously to be problematic. Generators, the Department of Energy and commercial vendors have combined to develop unique disposition paths for former orphan streams. Recent successes and remaining issues will be discussed. The session will also provide an opportunity for Federal agencies to share lessons learned on low- level and mixed low-level waste challenges and identify opportunities for future collaboration. This panel discussion was organized by PAC member Dick Blauvelt, Navarro Research and Engineering Inc who served as co-chair along with Dave Eaton from INL. In addition, George Antonucci, Duratek Barnwell and Rich Conley, AFSC were invited members of the audience, prepared to contribute the Barnwell and DOD perspective to the issues as needed. Mr. Small provide information regarding the five year 20K M3 window of opportunity at the Nevada Test Site for DOE contractors to dispose of mixed waste that cannot be received at the Energy Solutions (Envirocare) site in Utah because of activity levels. He provided a summary of the waste acceptance criteria and the process sites must follow to be certified to ship. When the volume limit or time limit is met, the site will undergo a RCRA closure. Ms. Gelles summarized the status of the orphan issues, commercial options and the impact of the EM reorganization on her program. She also announced that there would be a follow-on meeting in 2006 to the very successful St. Louis meeting of last year. It will probably take place in Chicago in July. Details to be announced. Mr. McKenney discussed progress made at the Hanford Reservation regarding disposal of their mixed waste inventory. The news is good for the Hanford site but not good for the rest of the DOE complex since shipment for out of state of both low level and low level mixed waste will continue to be prohibited until the completion of a new NEPA study. This is anticipated to take several years. Bill Franz from Portsmouth and Dave Eaton representing the INL provided the audience with information regarding some of the problematic mixed waste streams at their respective sites. Portsmouth has some unique radiological issues with isotopes such as Tc-99 while the INL is trying to deal with mixed waste in the 10-100 nCi/g range. Kaylin Loveland spoke of the new,Energy Solutions organization and provided information on mixed waste treatment capabilities at the Clive site. Mike Lauer described the licensing activities at the WCS site in Texas where they are trying to eventually have disposal capabilities for Class A, B and C mixed waste from both DOE and the commercial sector. The audience included about 75 WM'06 attendees who asked some excellent questions and provided an active and informative exchange of information on the topic. (authors)

  16. Two-Level Systems and Boson Peak Remain Stable in 110-Million-Year-Old Amber Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomás Pérez-Castañeda; Rafael J. Jiménez-Riobóo; Miguel A. Ramos

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The two most prominent and ubiquitous features of glasses at low temperatures, namely the presence of tunneling two-level systems and the so-called boson peak in the reduced vibrational density of states, are shown to persist essentially unchanged in highly stabilized glasses, contrary to what was usually envisaged. Specifically, we have measured the specific heat of 110 million-year-old amber samples from El Soplao (Spain), both at very low temperatures and around the glass transition Tg. In particular, the amount of two-level systems, assessed at the lowest temperatures, was surprisingly found to be exactly the same for the pristine hyperaged amber as for the, subsequently, partially and fully rejuvenated samples.

  17. Eco-Growth: A Framework for Sustainable Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanco, Edgar E.

    Growth is imperative for corporate success and yet the environmental impact of this growth is not sustainable. In this paper we offer a framework for thinking about the stages of tackling the environmental sustainability ...

  18. Greenwood, Foster, and Romani: Archaeological Study of CA-VEN-110, California; and Roeder: Archaeological Study of CA-VEN-110, Ventura, California: Fish Remains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, John R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    procedures had been followed by Ventura County, the Corps ofStudy of CA-VEN-110, Ventura, California: Fish Remains. MarkLemos, and Jamie Karl V, Ventura County, et al,. Central

  19. Vertebrate remains from the Wilson-Leonard site (41WM235), Williamson County, Texas: Holocene animal exploitation in central Texas prehistory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Barry Wayne

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VERTEBRATE REMAINS FROM THE WILSON-LEONARD SITE (41WM235L WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TEXAS: HOLOCENE ANIMAL EXPLOITATION IN CENTRAL TEXAS PREHISTORY A Thesis by BARRY WAYNE BAKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS May 1994 Major Subject: Anthropology VERTEBRATE REMAINS FROM THE WILSON-LEONARD SITE (41WM235), WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TEXAS: HOLOCENE ANIMAL EXPLOITATION IN CENTRAL TEXAS...

  20. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size...

  1. Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, John C. C. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Tsaur, Bor-Yeu (Arlington, MA); Gale, Ronald P. (Bedford, MA); Davis, Frances M. (Framingham, MA)

    1986-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

  2. Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, John C. C. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Tsaur, Bor-Yeu (Arlington, MA); Gale, Ronald P. (Bedford, MA); Davis, Frances M. (Framingham, MA)

    1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

  3. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E. (South Setauket, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  4. Method for solid state crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolas, George S.; Beekman, Matthew K.

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method for high quality crystal growth of intermetallic clathrates is presented. The synthesis of high quality pure phase crystals has been complicated by the simultaneous formation of both clathrate type-I and clathrate type-II structures. It was found that selective, phase pure, single-crystal growth of type-I and type-II clathrates can be achieved by maintaining sufficient partial pressure of a chemical constituent during slow, controlled deprivation of the chemical constituent from the primary reactant. The chemical constituent is slowly removed from the primary reactant by the reaction of the chemical constituent vapor with a secondary reactant, spatially separated from the primary reactant, in a closed volume under uniaxial pressure and heat to form the single phase pure crystals.

  5. Nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth of non-polar group III nitrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, George T. (Albuquerque, NM); Li, Qiming (Albuquerque, NM); Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for growing high quality, nonpolar Group III nitrides using lateral growth from Group III nitride nanowires. The method of nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth (NTLEG) employs crystallographically aligned, substantially vertical Group III nitride nanowire arrays grown by metal-catalyzed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) as templates for the lateral growth and coalescence of virtually crack-free Group III nitride films. This method requires no patterning or separate nitride growth step.

  6. Growth and characterization of liquid phase epitaxial GaP layers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kao, Yung-Chung

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inside a High-vacuum Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Cross Section of Multi-well Sliding Graphite Boat. Solubility Curve of P in Ga Melt 5. Apparatus of LPE Growth by Tipping Method. 10 Dipping System Schematic for LPE... Growth. 10 7. Sliding Boat System Block Diagram for LPE Growth 12 Temperature Profile Along the Graphite Boat. 13 9. Disassembled Graphite Boat for Multi-layer LPE Growth. . . 14 10. Ga-P Phase Diagram 17 Solution Cooling Procedure for Three...

  7. Growth, microstructure, and luminescent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heaton Armed- Deep Vadose ZonescheduleGrowth,

  8. The Lyons Creek boat remains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neyland, Robert Stephen

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transportation. Only a few other American colonial-era small craft have as yet been studied, some of which are the Brown's P*y 1 'S*thC1', thEm'Lk Champlain, the Hart's Cove wzeck in New Hampshire, the J R' b t 1 V' g' ', d tl* ~Sk Massachusetts (Albright..., beginning at its mouth, is 9ust over a mile, while the drainage system extends for several miles east of Maryland Route 4. Near the mouth of Lyons Creek, the northern shore is a wetland that is reduced to a grassy mudflat at ebb tide. Only a slender...

  9. Diesel prices remain fairly stable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management FermiDavidDiesel prices continueU.S.DieselDiesel

  10. Growth mechanisms, polytypism, and real structure of kaolinite microcrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samotoin, N. D., E-mail: samnik@igem.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms of growth of kaolinite microcrystals (0.1-5.0 {mu}m in size) at deposits related to the cluvial weathering crust, as well as to the low-temperature and medium-temperature hydrothermal processes of transformations of minerals in different rocks in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Czechia, Vietnam, India, Cuba, and Madagascar, are investigated using transmission electron microscopy and vacuum decoration with gold. It is established that kaolinite microcrystals grow according to two mechanisms: the mechanism of periodic formation of two-dimensional nuclei and the mechanism of spiral growth. The spiral growth of kaolinite microcrystals is dominant and occurs on steps of screw dislocations that differ in sign and magnitude of the Burgers vector along the c axis. The layered growth of kaolinite originates from a widespread source in the form of a step between polar (+ and -) dislocations, i.e., a growth analogue of the Frank-Read dislocation source. The density of growth screw dislocations varies over a wide range and can be as high as {approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. Layered stepped kaolinite growth pyramids for all mechanisms of growth on the (001) face of kaolinite exhibit the main features of the triclinic 1Tc and real structures of this mineral.

  11. DEWEK Wind Energy Conference 2012 Category: 4. Simulation models BACKWARD EXTRAPOLATION OF SHORT-TIME MEASUREMENT DATA FOR A REMAINING SERVICE LIFE ESTIMATION OF WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    DEWEK Wind Energy Conference 2012 Category: 4. Simulation models 1 BACKWARD EXTRAPOLATION OF SHORT-TIME MEASUREMENT DATA FOR A REMAINING SERVICE LIFE ESTIMATION OF WIND TURBINES Dipl.-Ing. René Kamieth, Prof. Dr, Germany, Tel.: +49-(0)30-314-23603, Fax: +49-(0)30-314-26131 Summary Wind turbines built in the last

  12. Remaining FY13 Compensatory (COMP) Bank Balances in ITAMS This is to remind you that compensatory (COMP) hours may not be carried over from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Remaining FY13 Compensatory (COMP) Bank Balances in ITAMS This is to remind you that compensatory week that Fiscal Year 2013 COMP hours can be used via ITAMS. Approved timesheets for the June 9-15th University policy, hours may not be recorded in units of less than one-quarter hour. ITAMS only allows work

  13. Remaining FY14 Compensatory (COMP) Bank Balances in ITAMS This is to remind you that compensatory (COMP) hours may not be carried over from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Remaining FY14 Compensatory (COMP) Bank Balances in ITAMS This is to remind you that compensatory week that Fiscal Year 2014 COMP hours can be used via ITAMS. Approved timesheets for the June 8-14th that per University policy, hours may not be recorded in units of less than one-quarter hour. ITAMS only

  14. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE | VOL 3 | FEBRUARY 2013 | www.nature.com/natureclimatechange 105 ossil fuels are expected to remain the dominant source of energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    fuels are expected to remain the dominant source of energy for decades to come1 (Fig. 1). Capturing, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Blue Map scenario2 envis- ages a 19% CO2 reductions contribution from CCS (ref. 4.) The IEA World Energy Outlook 20111 forecasts that existing energy facilities will account

  15. http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/search/detail/Bird_flu_ban_remains_despite_migration_shift.html?siteSect=881& sid=7420407&cKey=1168586962000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Nadir

    , warmer than average temperatures in the Atlantic and Mediterranean ­ all pumping heat into the atmosphere_flu_ban_remains_despite_migration_shift.html?siteSect=881& sid=7420407&cKey=1168586962000 Monday 05.03.2007 Climate warning resonates in Switzerland weather heralded a bumper year for bugs and ticks. He said a cold snap in February or March would still

  16. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

  17. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, Timothy J. (Tijeras, NM); Ginley, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  18. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  19. Agronomic differences in growth and yield between BT and conventional cotton treated with mepiquat chloride 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underbrink, Shelley Marie

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), an indeterminacy plant, may exhibit rank vegetative growth under conditions of high fertility and high moisture. Traditionally, mepiquat chloride (l,l-dimethylpiperidinium chloride) has been ...

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 118-C-3:3, 105-C French Drains, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The 118-C-3:3 french drains received condensate from the steam heating system in the 105-C Reactor Building. The 118-C-3:3 french drain meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  2. Phased Construction Completion Report for Bldg. K-1401 of the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Phased Construction Completion Report documents the demolition of Bldg. K-1401, Maintenance Building, addressed in the Action Memorandum for the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2003a) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 non-time-critical removal action. The objectives of the removal action (DOE 2003a) - to eliminate the source of potential contamination, to eliminate the threat of potential future releases, and/or to eliminate the threats to the general public and the environment - were met. The end state of this action is for the slab to remain with all penetrations sealed and grouted or backfilled. The basement and pits remain open. There is residual radiological and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination on the slab and basement. A fixative was applied to the area on the pad contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. Interim land-use controls will be maintained until final remediation decisions are made under the Zone 2 Record of Decision (DOE 2005a).

  3. Phased Construction Completion Report for Building K-1401 of the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at the East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garland S.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Phased Construction Completion Report documents the demolition of Bldg. K-1401, Maintenance Building, addressed in the Action Memorandum for the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2003a) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 non-time-critical removal action. The objectives of the removal action (DOE 2003a) - to eliminate the source of potential contamination, to eliminate the threat of potential future releases, and/or to eliminate the threats to the general public and the environment - were met. The end state of this action is for the slab to remain with all penetrations sealed and grouted or backfilled. The basement and pits remain open. There is residual radiological and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination on the slab and basement. A fixative was applied to the area on the pad contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. Interim land-use controls will be maintained until final remediation decisions are made under the Zone 2 Record of Decision (DOE 2005a).

  4. Developmental time windows for axon growth influence neuronal network topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sol

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Early brain connectivity development consists of multiple stages: birth of neurons, their migration and the subsequent growth of axons and dendrites. Each stage occurs within a certain period of time depending on types of neurons and cortical layers. Forming synapses between neurons either by growing axons starting at similar times for all neurons (much-overlapped time windows) or at different time points (less-overlapped) may affect the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks. Here, we explore the extreme cases of axon formation especially concerning short-distance connectivity during early development, either starting at the same time for all neurons (parallel, i.e. maximally-overlapped time windows) or occurring for each neuron separately one neuron after another (serial, i.e. no overlaps in time windows). For both cases, the number of potential and established synapses remained comparable. Topological and spatial properties, however, differed: neurons that started axon growth early on in s...

  5. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic...

  6. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children's of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children's of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 ?M) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ? Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ? Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ? Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ? Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  7. III-V Growth on Silicon Toward a Multijunction Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, J.; Olson, J.; McMahon, W.; Friedman, D.; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Young, M.; Duda, A.; Ward, S.; Ptak, A.; Kurtz, S.; Wanlass, M.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H.; Norman, A.; Jones, K.; Romero, M.; Reedy, B.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A III-V on Si multijunction solar cell promises high efficiency at relatively low cost. The challenges to epitaxial growth of high-quality III-Vs on Si, though, are extensive. Lattice-matched (LM) dilute-nitride GaNPAs solar cells have been grown on Si, but their performance is limited by defects related to the nitrogen. Advances in the growth of lattice-mismatched (LMM) materials make more traditional III-Vs, such as GaInP and GaAsP, very attractive for use in multijunction solar cells on silicon.

  8. Normal Growth of Range Cattle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence)

    1930-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of surplus stock unless home-grown supplemental feed is cheap and abundant or the price to be obtained for the cattle the following spring is much higher per pound than can be had in the fall. Fall sale also lessens the danger of over-grazing in the late... of growth. Naturally the feed supply is the first thing considered as a cause of growth and it is the cause which is usually most nearly under control. Diseases or minor differences in health are just as obvious in controlling growth as are changes...

  9. Bertrand's postulate and subgroup growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Rabee, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we investigate the L^1-norm of certain functions on groups called divisibility functions. Using these functions, their connection to residual finiteness, and integration theory on profinite groups, we define the residual average of a finitely generated group. One of the main results in this article is the finiteness of residual averages on finitely generated linear groups. Whether or not the residual average is finite depends on growth rates of indices of finite index subgroups. Our results on index growth rates are analogous to results on gaps between primes, and provide a variant of the subgroup growth function, which may be of independent interest.

  10. Liquid phase epitaxial growth and characterization of germanium far infrared blocked impurity band detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandaru, Jordana

    2001-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Germanium Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors require a high purity blocking layer (< 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}) approximately 1 mm thick grown on a heavily doped active layer ({approx} 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) approximately 20 mm thick. Epilayers were grown using liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of germanium out of lead solution. The effects of the crystallographic orientation of the germanium substrate on LPE growth modes were explored. Growth was studied on substrates oriented by Laue x-ray diffraction between 0.02{sup o} and 10{sup o} from the {l_brace}111{r_brace} toward the {l_brace}100{r_brace}. Terrace growth was observed, with increasing terrace height for larger misorientation angles. It was found that the purity of the blocking layer was limited by the presence of phosphorus in the lead solvent. Unintentionally doped Ge layers contained {approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} phosphorus as determined by Hall effect measurements and Photothermal Ionization Spectroscopy (PTIS). Lead purification by vacuum distillation and dilution reduced the phosphorus concentration in the layers to {approx} 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} but further reduction was not observed with successive distillation runs. The graphite distillation and growth components as an additional phosphorus source cannot be ruled out. Antimony ({approx}10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) was used as a dopant for the active BIB layer. A reduction in the donor binding energy due to impurity banding was observed by variable temperature Hall effect measurements. A BIB detector fabricated from an Sb-doped Ge layer grown on a pure substrate showed a low energy photoconductive onset ({approx}6 meV). Spreading resistance measurements on doped layers revealed a nonuniform dopant distribution with Sb pile-up at the layer surface, which must be removed by chemomechanical polishing. Sb diffusion into the pure substrate was observed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) for epilayers grown at 650 C. The Sb concentration at the interface dropped by an order of magnitude over {approx} 1.5 {micro}m. Layers grown at 550 C did not show significant Sb diffusion. Sn doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) was studied for use in far infrared transparent low temperature contacts for BIB arrays. It was found that {approx}100 nm of ITO deposited on Ge remains electrically conducting at 4 K and is {approx}90% transparent in the far infrared. ITO should be suitable for passivating contacts to Ge BIB arrays.

  11. Growth machine theory: a qualitative analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Gavin Paul

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of land inherent in growth machine theory, does not necessarily result in a dialectic, win-lose situation. Furthermore, it is argued that the growth coalition may not always ado t a unidimensional roach to development where further growth...

  12. The number e^{(1/2)} is the ratio between the time of maximum value and the time of maximum growth rate for restricted growth phenomena?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zi-Niu Wu

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    For many natural process of growth, with the growth rate independent of size due to Gibrat law and with the growth process following a log-normal distribution, the ratio between the time (D) for maximum value and the time (L) for maximum growth rate (inflexion point) is then equal to the square root of the base of the natural logarithm (e^{1/2}). On the logarithm scale this ratio becomes one half ((1/2)). It remains an open question, due to lack of complete data for various cases with restricted growth, whether this e^{1/2} ratio can be stated as e^{1/2}-Law. Two established examples already published, one for an epidemic spreading and one for droplet production, support however this ratio. Another example appears to be the height of humain body. For boys the maximum height occurs near 23 years old while the maximum growth rate is at the age near 14, and there ratio is close to e^{1/2}. The main theoretical base to obtain this conclusion is problem independent, provided the growth process is restricted, such as public intervention to control the spreading of communicable epidemics, so that an entropy is associated with the process and the role of dissipation, representing the mechanism of intervention, is maximized. Under this formulation the principle of maximum rate of entropy production is used to make the production process problem independent.

  13. Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hal

    Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith 1 Simple Models Bacteria are the dominant form of life on the planet the concentration of the nutrient in the media (grams/liter) and N(t) de

  14. Vermont Employment Growth Incentive (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Employment Growth Incentive (VEGI) is to encourage job creation in Vermont by a Vermont company, a Vermont division of a company that plans to grow and expand in Vermont, a...

  15. Inequality and Growth: Why Differential Fertility Matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Croix, David; Doepke, Matthias

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Barro, Robert J. 2000. “Inequality and Growth in a Panel of1–25. Benabou, Roland. 1996. “Inequality and Growth. ” NBER1996. “Measuring Income Inequality: A New Database. ”

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-233 Waste Site, Vertical Pipe Near 100-B Electrical Laydown Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-041

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The 600-233 waste site consisted of three small-diameter pipelines within the 600-232 waste site, including previously unknown diesel fuel supply lines discovered during site remediation. The 600-233 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F7, 141-M Building Septic Tank, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-040

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1607-F7, 141-M Building Septic Tank waste site was a septic tank and drain field that received sanitary sewage from the former 141-M Building. Remedial action was performed in August and November 2005. The results of verification sampling demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. These results also show that residual concentrations support unrestricted future use of shallow zone soil and that contaminant levels remaining in the soil are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  20. Nanoporous films for epitaxial growth of single crystal semiconductor materials : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowen, Adam M.; Koleske, Daniel David; Fan, Hongyou; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Burckel, David Bruce; Williams, John Dalton; Arrington, Christian L.; Steen, William Arthur

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This senior council Tier 1 LDRD was focused on exploring the use of porous growth masks as a method for defect reduction during heteroepitaxial crystal growth. Initially our goal was to investigate porous silica as a growth mask, however, we expanded the scope of the research to include several other porous growth masks on various size scales, including mesoporous carbon, photolithographically patterned SU-8 and carbonized SU-8 structures. Use of photolithographically defined growth templates represents a new direction, unique in the extensive literature of patterned epitaxial growth, and presents the possibility of providing a single step growth mask. Additional research included investigation of pore viability via electrochemical deposition into high aspect ratio photoresist. This project was a small footprint research effort which, nonetheless, produced significant progress towards both the stated goal as well as unanticipated research directions.

  1. Growth strategies to control tapering in Ge nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Periwal, P.; Baron, T., E-mail: thierry.baron@cea.fr; Salem, B.; Bassani, F. [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microelectronique (LTM), UMR 5129 CNRS-UJF, CEA Grenoble, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Gentile, P. [SiNaPs Laboratory SP2M, UMR-E, CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the effect of PH{sub 3} on the morphology of Au catalyzed Ge nanowires (NWs). Ge NWs were grown on Si (111) substrate at 400?°C in the presence of PH{sub 3}, using vapor-liquid-solid method by chemical vapor deposition. We show that high PH{sub 3}/GeH{sub 4} ratio causes passivation at NW surface. At high PH{sub 3} concentration phosphorous atoms attach itself on NW surface and form a self-protection coating that prevents conformal growth and leads to taper free nanostructures. However, in case of low PH{sub 3} flux the combination of axial and radial growth mechanism occurs resulting in conical structure. We have also investigated axial PH{sub 3}-intrinsic junctions in Ge NWs. The unusual NW shape is attributed to a combination of catalyzed, uncatalyzed and diffusion induced growth.

  2. Flexible shrink-induced high surface area electrodes for electrochemiluminescent sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pegan, Jonathan D; Ho, Adrienne Y; Bachman, Mark; Khine, Michelle

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. Patterned electrodes remain flexible after the shrinkingCalifornia, USA. Title: Flexible shrink-induced high surfaceJournal | View Issue Flexible shrink-induced high surface

  3. MIX and Instability Growth from Oblique Shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molitoris, J D; Batteux, J D; Garza, R G; Tringe, J W; Souers, P C; Forbes, J W

    2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the formation and evolution of shock-induced mix resulting from interface features in a divergent cylindrical geometry. In this research a cylindrical core of high-explosive was detonated to create an oblique shock wave and accelerate the interface. The interfaces studied were between the high-explosive/aluminum, aluminum/plastic, and finally plastic/air. Pre-emplaced surface features added to the aluminum were used to modify this interface. Time sequence radiographic imaging quantified the resulting instability formation from the growth phase to over 60 {micro}s post-detonation. Thus allowing the study of the onset of mix and evolution to turbulence. The plastic used here was porous polyethylene. Radiographic image data are compared with numerical simulations of the experiments.

  4. DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    a reality. Epi- taxial diamond has been grown on diamond and cubic-BN. Polycrystalline diamond films haveDIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages by Huimin Liu David S. Dandy of high-quality diamond coatings on preshaped parts and synthesis of free-standing shapes of diamond

  5. Effectiveness of Learning Transportation Network Growth through Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Effectiveness of Learning Transportation Network Growth through Simulation Wenling Chen1 and David a high return on learning efforts Billhardt 2004 . Despite its potential, simulations are used. Simulation Provides Learners with Experiences The importance of experience in human learning has long been

  6. Economic Growth and Development Economics 777

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Economic Growth and Development Economics 777 July 18, 2008 Fall Semester 2008 Professor J. H. Mc of economic growth and development. We will analyze several different growth models and look at some recent empirical research. Text The text for this course is: Economic Growth (2nd Edition) by Robert J. Barro

  7. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Brenchley, David L.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hashemian, Hash; Konnik, Robert; Ray, Sheila

    2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), NDE instrumentation development, universities, commercial NDE services and cable manufacturers, and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The motivation for the R&D roadmap comes from the need to address the aging management of in-containment cables at nuclear power plants (NPPs).

  8. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, K.L.; Ramuhali, P.; Brenchley, D.L.; Coble, J.B.; Hashemian, H.M.; Konnick, R.; Ray, S.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary [partial] The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. A workshop was held to gather subject matter experts to develop the NDE R&D Roadmap for Cables. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, and NDE instrumentation development from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), universities, commercial NDE service vendors and cable manufacturers, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:1 Main Process Sewer Collection Line, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-C-9:1 main process sewer pipeline, also known as the twin box culvert, was a dual reinforced process sewer that collected process effluent from the 183-C and 190-C water treatment facilities, discharging at the 132-C-2 Outfall. For remedial action purposes, the 100-C-9:1 waste site was subdivided into northern and southern sections. The 100-C-9:1 subsite has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-44:2, Discovery Pipeline Near 108-F Building, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-F-44:2 waste site is a steel pipeline that was discovered in a junction box during confirmatory sampling of the 100-F-26:4 pipeline from December 2004 through January 2005. The 100-F-44:2 pipeline feeds into the 100-F-26:4 subsite vitrified clay pipe (VCP) process sewer pipeline from the 108-F Biology Laboratory at the junction box. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-D-9 site is the former location of an underground storage tank used for holding fuel for the 184-DA Boiler House. Results of soil-gas samples taken from six soil-gas probes in a rectangle around the site the tank had been removed from concluded that there were no volatile organic compounds at detectable levels in the area. The 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Monitoring plant growth using high resolution micro-CT images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paquit, Vincent C [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multidisciplinary research conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory aims at understanding the molecular controls of partitioning, transport and fate of carbon xed by photosynthesis in plants and its correlation with other measured plant system properties. Ultimately, we intend to develop a modeling framework to assess, correlate and predict as to which spatiotemporal changes in system dynamics are key to predicting emergent properties of system. Within this research, this paper relates to the quantitative morphological imaging of the main structures forming a plant (stem, roots, and leaves), their internal sub-structures, and changes occurring overtime.

  14. MOCVD growth mechanisms of ZnO nanorods G Perillat-Merceroz1, 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    cells, gas sensors or LEDs. Their high crystalline quality and purity, due to growth without a catalyst, are adequate for optoelectronic applications. MOCVD growth [2] enables fast, large area deposition details ZnO nanorods were grown using catalyst-free MOCVD in a horizontal hot-wall Epigress reactor. The c

  15. Surface current effects on the fetch-limited growth of wave energy Brian K. Haus1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Surface current effects on the fetch-limited growth of wave energy Brian K. Haus1 Received 5 the fetch-limited growth of wind wave energy over a region with significant lateral shear of the current. Both the near-surface currents and wave energy and period were mapped over the highly sheared inshore

  16. Hexagonal Growth Spirals on GaN Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Kinetics vs Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Philip I.

    prepared, Ga-polar GaN(0001) templates. The surface morphology was studied using reflection high-energy-edge energy of 0.26 eV/Ã?. They suggest that local conditions at step edges dominate the growth. 1 conducted ex situ using AFM. Desorption mass spectrometry (DMS) was used to measure the GaN growth rate. Our

  17. ccsd-00001676,version1-16Jun2004 Epitaxy and growth of titanium buffer layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ccsd-00001676,version1-16Jun2004 Epitaxy and growth of titanium buffer layers on Al2O3(0001) E Paris, France Abstract The structure and growth of thin films of titanium on -Al2O3 at room temperature of the phase of titanium reported before for thick films prepared at high temperature. The other structure can

  18. On the growth mode of two-lobed curvilinear graphene domains at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    such as transparent electrodes1 , supercapacitors2 , high-speed electronics3 , plasmonics4,5 , photovoltaics6 such as system thermodynamics and growth kinetics including surface diffusion16 , active species adsorption in the typical polycrystalline Cu plays a greater role in domain growth kinetics and thus domain shape, size

  19. Advanced Photon Source Activity Report 2002 at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, December 2003 - contribution title:"Microdiffraction Study of Epitaxial Growth and Lattice Tilts in Oxide Films on Polycrystalline Metal Substrates"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budai, J.D.

    2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Texture, the preference for a particular crystallographic orientation in polycrystalline materials, plays an important role in controlling such diverse materials properties as corrosion resistance, recording density in magnetic media and electrical transport in superconductors [1]. Without texture, polycrystalline oxide superconductors contain many high-angle, weak-linked grain boundaries which reduce critical current densities by several orders of magnitude [2]. One approach for inducing texture in oxide superconductors has been the epitaxial growth of films on rolling-assisted biaxially-textured substrates (RABiTS) [3]. In this approach, rolled Ni foils are recrystallized under conditions that lead to a high degree of biaxial {l_brace}001{r_brace}<100> cube texture. Subsequent deposition of epitaxial oxide buffer layers (typically CeO{sub 2} and YSZ as chemical barriers) and superconducting YBCO preserves the lattice alignment, eliminating high-angle boundaries and enabling high critical current densities, J{sub c} > 10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2}. Conventional x-ray diffraction using {omega}- and {phi}-scans typically shows macroscopic biaxial texture to within {approx}5{sup o}-10{sup o} FWHM for all layers, but does not describe the local microstructural features that control the materials properties. Understanding and controlling the local texture and microstructural evolution of processes associated with heteroepitaxial growth, differential thermal contraction and cracking remain significant challenges in this complex system [4], as well as in many other technologically important thin-film applications.

  20. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  1. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  2. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  3. Growth and Characterization of Epitaxial Oxide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, Ashish

    out during past three years has been published as follows: 1. A. Garg, J. A. Leake, and Z. H. Barber, Epitaxial Growth of WO3 Films on SrTiO3 and R- Sapphire, J. Phys.: D, Appl. Phys., 33 (9), 1048 (2000) 2. A. Garg, S. Dunn, and Z. H. Barber, Growth... of these films by 3-D Stranski-Krastanov mode. However, these films did not exhibit any ferroelectric activity. Highly epitaxial (116)-oriented films were deposited on SrTiO3 (110) substrates. These films were also very smooth with root mean square (RMS...

  4. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 54 (2007) 6883 Steady-state growth in a Hotelling model of resource extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    remained zero over a long period of time. We use data on 14 minerals from 1970 to 2004 to estimate is a steady-state consistent with the empirical observation that the growth rates of market prices have prices 1. Introduction The basic Hotelling model of nonrenewable resource extraction predicts

  5. Wafer-scale selective area growth of GaN hexagonal prismatic nanostructures on c-sapphire substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ;2 ABSTRACT Selective area growth of GaN nanostructures has been performed on full 2" c-sapphire substrates on GaN layer template grown on c-sapphire substrate and usually result in pyramid-shaped nanostructures of homogeneity of the nucleation selectivity of SAG GaN nanostructures on c- sapphire substrate remains an issue

  6. SBA Growth Accelerator Fund Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is accepting applications for the Growth Accelerator Fund Competition to identify the nation's innovative accelerators and similar organizations and award them cash prizes they may use to fund their operations costs and allow them to bring startup competitions to scale and new ideas to life.

  7. Managing growth In The knowledge economy : lessons from the bust and boom of San Francisco's technology industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donaldson, Laurel G. (Laurel Gabrielle)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Municipal policy-makers have embraced the promise of the innovation-based "Next Economy" as the latest policy prescription for growth. However, recent evidence suggests that the agglomeration of high-skill, high-wage ...

  8. The US market for high-temperature superconducting wire in transmission cable applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forbes, D.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 utility engineers concerning the future prospects for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables. All have direct responsibility for transmission in their utility, most of them in a management capacity. The engineers represented their utilities as members of the Electric Power Research Institute`s Underground Transmission Task Force (which has since been disbanded). In that capacity, they followed the superconducting transmission cable program and are aware of the cryogenic implications. Nineteen of the 23 engineers stated the market for underground transmission would grow during the next decade. Twelve of those specified an annual growth rate; the average of these responses was 5.6%. Adjusting that figure downward to incorporate the remaining responses, this study assumes an average growth rate of 3.4%. Factors driving the growth rate include the difficulty in securing rights-of-way for overhead lines, new construction techniques that reduce the costs of underground transmission, deregulation, and the possibility that public utility commissions will allow utilities to include overhead costs in their rate base. Utilities have few plans to replace existing cable as preventive maintenance, even though much of the existing cable has exceeded its 40-year lifetime. Ten of the respondents said the availability of a superconducting cable with the same life-cycle costs as a conventional cable and twice the ampacity would induce them to consider retrofits. The respondents said a cable with those characteristics would capture 73% of their cable retrofits.

  9. The Cutaneous Epidermal Growth Factor Network: Can it be Translated Clinically to Stimulate Hair Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrescu, Doru T; Kauffman, C Lisa; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of epidermal growth factor on hair growth in the mouse. Jstem cell character in hair follicles. Science. 2006;312:Notch signalling pathway in hair growth. Mech Dev. 1998;78:

  10. Modelling of InGaP nanowires morphology and composition on molecular beam epitaxy growth conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fakhr, A., E-mail: fakhrad@mcmaster.ca; Haddara, Y. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical kinetic model has been developed within this framework to describe the growth of ternary III-V semiconductor nanowires. The key to apply the model is to divide the ternary system into two separate binary systems and model each binary system separately. The model is used to describe the growth of InGaP nanowires. The growth conditions were varied among several samples, and the model was able to predict the temperature and growth rate behaviors. The model predicts the axial and radial elemental distribution along the nanowires and the dependence of the elemental distribution on the nanowire's diameter size for all growth rates. The model reveals the limitations of In incorporation into the nanowires for high temperatures or low growth rates and the effects of the group-V elements on the In incorporation.

  11. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Bénédicte; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Alexander, Duncan T.; Jeangros, Quentin; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-temperature (?200?°C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems not only frommore »the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. Based on our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.« less

  12. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Bénédicte; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Alexander, Duncan T.; Jeangros, Quentin; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-temperature (?200?°C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems not only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. Based on our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.

  13. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). TORIS is a tested and verified system maintained and operated by the Department of Energy`s Bartlesville Project Office. The TORTS system was used to evaluate over 2,300 major reservoirs in a consistent manner and on an individual basis, the results of which have been aggregated to arrive at the national total.

  14. Experimental observations and nucleation and growth theory of polyhedral magnetic ferrite nanoparticles synthesized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael E.

    Experimental observations and nucleation and growth theory of polyhedral magnetic ferrite the morphologies of ferrite nanoparticles synthesized using a radio frequency plasma torch. These nanoparticles. Keywords: Ferrite nanoparticles; High-resolution TEM; Polyhedral morphologies; Faceting; Critical nucleus

  15. Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

  16. Chain-Growth Polymerization of 2-Chlorothiophenes Promoted by Lewis Acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonillo Fernandez, Baltasar

    Lewis acids promote the polymerization of several 2-chloroalkylenedioxythiophenes, providing high-molecular-weight conjugated polymers. The proposed mechanism is a cationic chain-growth polymerization, as confirmed by ...

  17. Variable growth modes of CaF[sub 2] on Si(111) determined by x-ray photoelectron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denlinger, J.D.; Rotenberg, E. (Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); Hessinger, U.; Leskovar, M. (Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)); Olmstead, M.A. (Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States) Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1993-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical discrimination of bulk and interface Ca 2[ital p] x-ray photoelectron diffraction modulations is used to identify three growth regimes during the initial stages of CaF[sub 2] epitaxy on Si(111). Low flux, high temperature conditions produce island growth atop a nonwetting, chemically reacted Ca-F interface layer. Changing the growth kinetics by increasing the flux produces more laminar growth. Lowering the substrate temperature produces a more stoichiometric CaF[sub 2] interface layer that results in immediate wetting and laminar growth.

  18. Head erosion with emittance growth in PWFA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S. Z.; Adli, E.; England, R. J.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S. J.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M. D.; Walz, D. R.; Muggli, P.; An, W.; Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W.; Vafaei, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States) and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States) and University of Oslo, Oslo, N-0316 (Norway) and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Head erosion is one of the limiting factors in plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA). We present a study of head erosion with emittance growth in field-ionized plasma from the PWFA experiments performed at the FACET user facility at SLAC. At FACET, a 20.3 GeV bunch with 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} electrons is optimized in beam transverse size and combined with a high density lithium plasma for beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. A target foil is inserted upstream of the plasma source to increase the bunch emittance through multiple scattering. Its effect on beamplasma interaction is observed with an energy spectrometer after a vertical bend magnet. Results from the first experiments show that increasing the emittance has suppressed vapor field-ionization and plasma wakefields excitation. Plans for the future are presented.

  19. Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1992-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

  20. Crystallization in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dane R Spearing, Gary L Smith, SK Sundaram

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review outlines important aspects of crystallization in HLW glasses, such as equilibrium, nucleation, growth, and dissolution. The impact of crystallization on continuous melters and the chemical durability of high-level waste glass are briefly discussed.

  1. New Partners for Smart Growth Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Partners for Smart Growth Conference is the nation's largest smart growth and sustainability conference. The three-day conference is themed, "Practical Tools and Innovative Strategies for Creating Great Communities."

  2. Stress corrosion crack growth in porous sandstones. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojala, Ira O

    Stress corrosion crack growth occurs when the chemical weakening of strained crack tip bonds facilitates crack propagation. I have examined the effect of chemical processes on the growth of a creack population by carrying out triaxial compression...

  3. TILT STABILITY, UNIFORM QUADRATIC GROWTH, AND STRONG ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Tilt stability, variational analysis, subdifferentials, quadratic growth, strong metric .... Some convex analysis. ..... Example 3.5 (Failure of subdifferential continuity).

  4. Effect of Electronic Excitation on Thin Film Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elsayed-Ali, Hani E. [Old Dominion University

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of nanosecond pulsed laser excitation on surface diffusion during growth of Ge on Si(100) at 250 degrees C was studied. In Situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) was used to measure the surface diffusion coefficient while ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to probe the structure and morphology of the grown quantum dots. The results show that laser excitation of the substrate increases the surface diffusion during growth of Ge on Si(100), changes the growth morphology, improves crystalline structure of the grown quantum dots, and decreases their size distribution. A purely electronic mechanism of enhanced surface diffusion of the deposited Ge is proposed. Ge quantum dots were grown on Si(100)-(2x1) by pulsed laser deposition at various substrate temperatures using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex-situ atomic force microscopy were used to analyze the fim structure and morphology. The morphology of germanium islands on silicon was studied at differect coverages. The results show that femtosecond pulsed laser depositon reduces the minimum temperature for epitaxial growth of Ge quantum dots to ~280 degrees C, which is 120 degrees C lower then previously observed in nanosecond pulsed laser deposition and more than 200 degrees C lower than that reported for molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition.

  5. Gas-bubble growth mechanisms in the analysis of metal fuel swelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During steady-state irradiation, swelling rates associated with growth of fission-gas bubbles in metallic fast reactor fuels may be expected to remain small. As a consequence, bubble-growth mechanisms are not a major consideration in modeling the steady-state fuel behavior, and it is usually adequate to consider the gas pressure to be in equilibrium with the external pressure and surface tension restraint. On transient time scales, however, various bubble-growth mechanisms become important components of the swelling rate. These mechanisms include growth by diffusion, for bubbles within grains and on grain boundaries; dislocation nucleation at the bubble surface, or ''punchout''; and bubble growth by creep. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and applied to provide information on the conditions and the relative time scales for which the various processes should dominate fuel swelling. The results are compared to a series of experiments in which the swelling of irradiated metal fuel was determined after annealing at various temperatures and pressures. The diffusive growth of bubbles on grain boundaries is concluded to be dominant in these experiments.

  6. Exploration of the multiparameter space of nanosecond-laser damage growth in fused silica optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negres, Raluca A.; Liao, Zhi M.; Abdulla, Ghaleb M.; Cross, David A.; Norton, Mary A.; Carr, Christopher W.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, the rate at which laser-induced damage sites grow on the exit surface of SiO{sub 2} optics under subsequent illumination with nanosecond-laser pulses of any wavelength was believed to depend solely on laser fluence. We demonstrate here that much of the scatter in previous growth observations was due to additional parameters that were not previously known to affect growth rate, namely the temporal pulse shape and the size of a site. Furthermore, the remaining variability observed in the rate at which sites grow is well described in terms of Weibull statistics. The effects of site size and laser fluence may both be expressed orthogonally in terms of Weibull coefficients. In addition, we employ a clustering algorithm to explore the multiparameter growth space and expose average growth trends. Conversely, this analysis approach also identifies sites likely to exhibit growth rates outside the norm. The ability to identify which sites are likely to grow abnormally fast in advance of the manifestation of such behavior will significantly enhance the accuracy of predictive models over those based on average growth behaviors.

  7. Method for crystal growth control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Douglas A. (Burlington, MA); Hatch, Arthur E. (Waltham, MA); Goldsmith, Jeff M. (Medford, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

  8. Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardsley, John

    Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario, Leonid Kalachev Marko Laine, Lappeenranta University of the phenomena studied. Here, in the case of algae growth modelling, we show how a systematic model reduction may: Algae growth modelling, asymptotic methods, model reduction, MCMC, Adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo. 1

  9. Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and Developing New Growth Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change...

  10. From "Stages" of Business Growth to a Dynamic States Model of Entrepreneurial Growth and Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    From "Stages" of Business Growth to a Dynamic States Model of Entrepreneurial Growth and Change and Gumpert, 1985), and virtually all economic models of business creation follow firm birth with firm growth models of new business growth assume a limited number of distinct stages through #12;3 which businesses

  11. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers3.pdf0-45.pdf0 BudgetGoals andSenate | DepartmentGroundwaterGrowingGrowth in

  12. Growth of M- and A-plane GaN on LiGaO{sub 2} by plasma-assisted MBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuber, R.; Schaadt, D. M. [Institute for Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Chou, M. M. C. [Department of Materials Science and Opto-electronic Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Vincze, P. [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Schimmel, Th. [Institute for Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed non-polar M- and A-plane GaN growth on LiGaO{sub 2}(LGO) by plasma-assisted molecular beam expitaxy (MBE). We demonstrate that non-polar GaN growth on LGO yields high phase purity and flat surfaces. We find that annealing of the substrates prior to growth is a suitable method for avoiding a peeling off of the film from the substrate after growth.

  13. Repulsive cues and signalling cascades of the axon growth cone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manns, Richard Peter Charles

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ) question their irreversibility, showing high levels of membrane dynamics and turn-over with 6 7 Introduction repeated episodes of endocytosis and attempts to form membrane veils (Tom et al., 2004), as in growth cones. ?e glial scar inhibits regeneration... of glial ?brillary acidic protein (GFAP), consist of several sub-types (Stephens et al., 1993; Imura et al., 2006; Yeh et al., 2009) and that in vitro at least, astrocytes generated by different differentiation pathways have different effects when injected...

  14. Spallation in ductile void growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.N.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model of ductile void growth under the application of a mean tensile stress is applied to the problem of spallation in solids. Calculation of plate-impact spallation in copper (peak compressive stress approx. 29 kbar) shows good agreement with the dynamically measured spall signal. A second calculation, using identical material parameters, of explosively produced spallation in copper (peak compressive stress approx. 250 kbar) does very well in reproducing experimentally observed multiple spall thicknesses as observed by dynamic x-radiographic techniques. This theoretical model thus appears applicable to a wide range of dynamic uniaxial-strain loading conditions, bridging a gap that has been thought to exist for some time.

  15. Fostering Growth | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers3.pdf0-45.pdf0 Budget Fossil Energy FY 2010 Budget FossilThirdFostering Growth

  16. Method and apparatus for aluminum nitride monocrystal boule growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Shaoping (Brookfield, CT)

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A crystal growth setup within a physical vapor transport growth furnace system for producing AlN monocrystal boules at high temperatures includes a crucible effective to contain an AlN source material and a growing AlN crystal boule. This crucible has a thin wall thickness in at least that portion housing the growing AlN crystal boule. Other components include a susceptor, in case of an inductive heating, or a heater, in case of a resistive heating, a thermal insulation enclosing the susceptor or heater effective to provide a thermal gradient inside the crucible in the range of 5-100.degree. C./cm and a furnace chamber capable of being operated from a vacuum (<0.1 torr) to a gas pressure of at least 4000 torr through filling or flowing a nitrogen gas or a mixture of nitrogen gas and argon gas. The high temperatures contribute to a high boule growth rate and the thin wall thickness contributes to reduced imparted stress during boule removal.

  17. Controlled epitaxial graphene growth within removable amorphous carbon corrals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, James; Hu, Yike; Hankinson, John; Guo, Zelei; Heer, Walt A. de [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State St. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Kunc, Jan [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State St. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Institute of Physics, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Berger, Claire [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State St. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Université Grenoble Alpes/CNRS—Institut Néel, BP166, Grenoble Cedex 9 38042 (France)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the question of control of the silicon carbide (SiC) steps and terraces under epitaxial graphene on SiC and demonstrate amorphous carbon (aC) corrals as an ideal method to pin SiC surface steps. aC is compatible with graphene growth, structurally stable at high temperatures, and can be removed after graphene growth. For this, aC is first evaporated and patterned on SiC, then annealed in the graphene growth furnace. There at temperatures above 1200?°C, mobile SiC steps accumulate at the aC corral that provide effective step flow barriers. Aligned step free regions are thereby formed for subsequent graphene growth at temperatures above 1330?°C. Atomic force microscopy imaging supports the formation of step-free terraces on SiC with the step morphology aligned to the aC corrals. Raman spectroscopy indicates the presence of good graphene sheets on the step-free terraces.

  18. Phenomenological approach for describing environment dependent growths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibyendu Biswas; Swarup Poria

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Different classes of phenomenological universalities of environment dependent growths have been proposed. The logistic as well as environment dependent West-type allometry based biological growth can be explained in this proposed framework of phenomenological description. It is shown that logistic and environment dependent West-type growths are phenomenologically identical in nature. However there is a difference between them in terms of coefficients involved in the phenomenological descriptions. It is also established that environment independent and enviornment dependent biological growth processes lead to the same West-type biological growth equation. Involuted Gompertz function, used to describe biological growth processes undergoing atrophy or a demographic and economic system undergoing involution or regression, can be addressed in this proposed environment dependent description. In addition, some other phenomenological descriptions have been examined in this proposed framework and graphical representations of variation of different parameters involved in the description are executed.

  19. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  20. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State of the Economy Presentation: Presentation Abstract: Abstract Conflict Between Economic Growth and...

  1. Interface control and snow crystal growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jessica Li; Laura P. Schaposnik

    2015-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of snow crystals is dependent on the temperature and saturation of the environment. In the case of dendrites, Reiter's local two-dimensional model provides a realistic approach to the study of dendrite growth. In this paper we obtain a new geometric rule that incorporates interface control, a basic mechanism of crystallization that is not taken into account in the original Reiter's model. By defining two new variables, growth latency and growth direction, our improved model gives a realistic model not only for dendrite but also for plate forms.

  2. Slow crack growth in polycarbonate films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loic; Ciliberto, Sergio

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study experimentally the slow growth of a single crack in polycarbonate films submitted to uniaxial and constant imposed stress. The specificity of fracture in polycarbonate films is the appearance of flame shaped macroscopic process zones at the tips of the crack. Supported by an experimental study of the mechanical properties of polycarbonate films, an analysis of the stress dependence of the mean ratio between the process zone and crack lengths, during the crack growth, show a quantitative agreement with the Dugdale-Barenblatt model of the plastic process zone. We find that the fracture growth curves obey strong scaling properties that lead to a well defined growth master curve.

  3. Theoretical Ecology: Continued growth and success

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, Alan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EDITORIAL Theoretical Ecology: Continued growth and successof areas in theoretical ecology. Among the highlights areyear represent theoretical ecology from around the world: 20

  4. Unlocking Growth Opportunities for Minority Businesses Through...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    economic growth. At the Energy Innovation Portal, the Department's hub for technology transfer resources, minority owned firms and other businesses can browse through the patents...

  5. Well having inhibited microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Brady D.; Dooley, Kirk J.

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes methods of inhibiting microbial growth in a well. A packing material containing a mixture of a first material and an antimicrobial agent is provided to at least partially fill a well bore. One or more access tubes are provided in an annular space around a casing within the well bore. The access tubes have a first terminal opening located at or above a ground surface and have a length that extends from the first terminal opening at least part of the depth of the well bore. The access tubes have a second terminal opening located within the well bore. An antimicrobial material is supplied into the well bore through the first terminal opening of the access tubes. The invention also includes well constructs.

  6. Thermomechanical cavity-growth modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, R.E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of recent field tests, laboratory studies, and modeling efforts in UCG have indicated that the thermal and mechanical properties of coal may be the controlling parameters in determining initial cavity shape. In examining this possibility, laboratory efforts have been directed at determining temperature and bedding plane dependent properties of coal. A thermomechanical model which uses these properties has indicated that the cavity shapes seen at both the Hanna and Hoe Creek test sites result from the temperature dependent properties of the coal such as the coefficients of thermal expansion and the elastic moduli. The model determines stress levels and uses a simple bedding plane dependent stress failure mechanism to determine cavity growth.

  7. Growth of GaN on porous SiC by molecular beam epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    growth of high quality GaN thin films is the unavailability suitable substrates. The lack of suitable matched between the GaN and the substrate are the lattice parameter and the coefficient of thermal to the absence of high quality, large area GaN substrates. Therefore one has to resort to the heteroepitaxial

  8. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  9. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  10. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)] [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 ? among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ? High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ? Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ? Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ? Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ? Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and oxidative stress of liver.

  11. High speed flywheel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrath, Stephen V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flywheel for operation at high speeds utilizes two or more ringlike coments arranged in a spaced concentric relationship for rotation about an axis and an expansion device interposed between the components for accommodating radial growth of the components resulting from flywheel operation. The expansion device engages both of the ringlike components, and the structure of the expansion device ensures that it maintains its engagement with the components. In addition to its expansion-accommodating capacity, the expansion device also maintains flywheel stiffness during flywheel operation.

  12. High Efficacy Green LEDs by Polarization Controlled MOVPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, Christian

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Amazing performance in GaInN/GaN based LEDs has become possible by advanced epitaxial growth on a wide variety of substrates over the last decade. An immediate push towards product development and worldwide competition for market share have effectively reduced production cost and generated substantial primary energy savings on a worldwide scale. At all times of the development, this economic pressure forced very fundamental decisions that would shape huge industrial investment. One of those major aspects is the choice of epitaxial growth substrate. The natural questions are to what extend a decision for a certain substrate will limit the ultimate performance and to what extent, the choice of a currently more expensive substrate such as native GaN could overcome any of the remaining performance limitations. Therefore, this project has set out to explore what performance characteristic could be achieved under the utilization of bulk GaN substrate. Our work was guided by the hypotheses that line defects such as threading dislocations in the active region should be avoided and the huge piezoelectric polarization needs to be attenuated – if not turned off – for higher performing LEDs, particularly in the longer wavelength green and deep green portions of the visible spectrum. At their relatively lower performance level, deep green LEDs are a stronger indicator of relative performance improvements and seem particular sensitive to the challenges at hand. The project therefore made use of recently developed non-polar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates that were made available at Kyma Technologies by crystallographic cuts from thick polar growth of GaN. This approach naturally leads to rather small pieces of substrates, cm along the long side while mm along the short one. Small size and limited volume of sample material therefore set the limits of the ensuing development work. During the course of the project we achieved green and deep green LEDs in all those crystal growth orientations: polar c-plane, non- polar a-plane, non-polar m-plane, and semipolar planes. The active region in those structures shows dramatically reduced densities of threading dislocations unless the wavelength was extended as far as 510 nm and beyond. With the appearance of such defects, the light output power dropped precipitously supporting the necessity to avoid any and all of such defects to reach the active region. Further aspects of the non-polar growth orientation proved extremely promising for the development of such structures. Chief among them is our success to achieve extremely uniform quantum wells in these various crystal orientations that prove devoid of any alloy fluctuation beyond the theoretical limit of a binominal distribution. This became very Rensselaer Wetzel DE?EE0000627 3 directly apparent in highly advanced atom probe tomography performed in collaboration at Northwestern University. Furthermore, under reduced or absence of piezoelectric polarization, green emitters in those growth geometries exhibit an unsurpassed wavelength stability over very wide excitation and drive current ranges. Such a performance had not been possible in any polar c-plane growth and now places green LEDs in terms of wavelength stability up par with typical 450 nm blue emitters. The project also incorporated enabling opportunities in the development of micro and nano- patterned substrate technologies. Originally developped as a means to enhance generated light extraction we have demonstrated that the method of nano-patterning, in contrast to micro- patterning also results in a substantial reduction of threading dislocation generation. In green LEDs, we thereby see equal contributions of enhanced light extraction and reduced defect generation to a threefold enhancement of the green light output power. These results have opened entirely new approaches for future rapid and low cost epitaxial material development by avoidance of thick defect accommodation layers. All methods developed within this project have meanwhile widely been publicized by the members o

  13. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Li-jun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rupich, Martin W. [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  14. Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, P.C.; DePoorter, G.L.; Munoz, D.R.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have initiated a three phase investigation of the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer usable lifetimes. This report presents the results of the first phase of the study, performed from Aug. 1989 through Feb. 1991, which shows that significant energy saving are possible through the use of high temperature insulating fibers that better retain their efficient insulating properties during the service lifetime of the fibers. The remaining phases of this program include the pilot scale development and then full scale production feasibility development and evaluation of enhanced high temperature refractory insulting fibers. This first proof of principle phase of the program presents a summary of the current use patterns of refractory fibers, a laboratory evaluation of the high temperature performance characteristics of selected typical refractory fibers and an analysis of the potential energy savings through the use of enhanced refractory fibers. The current use patterns of refractory fibers span a wide range of industries and high temperature furnaces within those industries. The majority of high temperature fiber applications are in furnaces operating between 2000 and 26000{degrees}F. The fibers used in furnaces operating within this range provide attractive thermal resistance and low thermal storage at reasonable cost. A series of heat treatment studies performed for this phase of the program has shown that the refractory fibers, as initially manufactured, have attractive thermal conductivities for high temperature applications but the fibers go through rapid devitrification and subsequent crystal growth upon high temperature exposure. Development of improved fibers, maintaining the favorable characteristics of the existing as-manufactured fibers, could save between 1 and 4% of the energy consumed in high temperature furnaces using refractory fibers.

  15. High-speed epitaxy using supersonic molecular jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eres, D.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the use of supersonic jets of gaseous source molecules in thin films growth. Molecular jets in free form with no skimmers or collimators in the nozzle-substrate path were used in the investigation of basic film growth processes and in practical film growth applications. The Ge growth rates were found to depend linearly on the digermane jet intensity. Furthermore, the film thickness distributions showed excellent agreement with the distribution of digermane molecules in the jet. High epitaxial Ge growth rates were achieved on GaAs (100) substrates by utilizing high-intensity pulsed jets. The practical advantages and limitations of this film growth technique are evaluated, based on the results of microstructural and electrical measurements of heteroepitaxial Ge films on GaAs (100) substrates. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Growth mode evolution of hafnium oxide by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, Xianglong; Ma, Fei; Ma, Dayan, E-mail: madayan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Xu, Kewei [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China and Department of Physics and Opt-electronic Engineering, Xi'an University of Arts and Science, Xi'an 710065, Shaanxi (China)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HfO{sub 2} thin films were deposited using tetrakis-ethylmethylamido hafnium and H{sub 2}O as precursors on silicon by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The morphology and microstructures at different ALD cycles were characterized by atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Based on the height–height correlation function and power spectral density function, quantitative analysis of surface morphologies was performed. Three characteristic dimensions (?{sub 1}, ?{sub 2}, and ?{sub 3}) corresponding to three surface structures, islands, local and global fluctuations, were identified. The evolution of ALD growth mode at range of the three critical scales was investigated, respectively. It suggests the transformation of growth mode from quasi two-dimensional layer-by-layer to three-dimensional island for global fluctuations.

  17. Choices for Growth: Quality of Life and the Natural Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, John

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    of interac- 6 Choices for Growth Smart growth A way to restore community and economic vitality while preserving natural areas In recent years there has been a renaissance in urban design that focuses on the human scale. Several names are used, including smart... growth, sensible growth, livable communities, and new urbanism. We use smart growth because it has the broadest base of practice in the US. Smart growth means development that ac- commodates growth in economically viable, environmentally responsible...

  18. Understanding Regional Economic Growth in IndiaUnderstanding Regional Economic Growth in India Understanding Regional Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Regional Economic Growth in IndiaUnderstanding Regional Economic Growth in India Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India* Jeffrey D. Sachs Director The Earth Institute at Columbia_ramiah@yahoo.co.uk Asian Economic Papers 1:3 © 2002 The Earth Institute at Columbia University and the Massachusetts

  19. Export Growth and Credit Constraints Tibor Besedes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Export Growth and Credit Constraints Tibor Besedes Byung-Cheol Kim Volodymyr Lugovskyy§ May 14, 2014 Abstract We investigate the effect of credit constraints on the growth of exports at the micro of exporting, but not in later stages. Our empirical results using product level data on exports to twelve

  20. Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India Jeffrey D. Sachs, Nirupam Bajpai and Ananthi Ramiah Papers #12;Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India Jeffrey D. Sachs Center for International Development (CID) Harvard University Ananthi_Ramiah@harvard.edu This paper was prepared for the Asian Economic

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri). They exhibit low growth rates, specific obligate nutrient requirements (hydrogen as electron donor, acetate

  2. Graphene Growth on Low Carbon Solubility Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wofford, Joseph Monroe

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    preparation of Cu substrates will lead to larger grapheneGraphene Growth on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Au(111) Substrate selection and preparationGraphene Growth on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Au(111) 3.1 Substrate selection and preparation

  3. Fish production: integrating growth, mortality, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limburg, Karin E.

    1 Fish production: integrating growth, mortality, and population density K. Limburg lecture notes, Fisheries Science Outline: 1. Biological production ­ a critical ecological parameter 2. How to compute production from a simple biomass model 3. Production:biomass ratios 4. Growth: mortality ratios Reading

  4. Beer and Economic Growth Dr. Martin Shields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beer and Economic Growth Dr. Martin Shields Regional Economics Institute Colorado State University to the rest of the world #12;Industry Trends · Over the past 10 years, the growth in craft beer has significantly altered the industry · While overall beer sales are relatively flat, market share of craft brewers

  5. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  6. The Growth of Thin Epitaxial Copper Films on Ruthenium (0001)and Oxygen-Precovered Ruthenium (0001) as studied by x-rayphotoelectron diffraction. University of California, Davis, Department of Physics, Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruebush, Scott Daniel

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the first part of this dissertation, the variation of mean emitter depths with direction for core photoelectron emission from single crystals, including the effects of both isotropic inelastic scattering and single and multiple elastic scattering was theoretically studied. The mean emitter depth was found to vary by as much as ±30% with direction. In the second part of this dissertation, x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) was used to study the structure and growth mechanisms of Cu films grown on a clean and an oxygen-precovered Ru(OOO1) surface. Experimental Cu 2p3/2 (Ekin = 556 eV) and Ru 3d (Ekin = 1205 eV) intensities were measured for Cu coverages from submonolayer up to several monolayer (ML) on the clean Ru(OOO1) surface. In addition, the O 1s (Ekin = 958 eV) intensity was measured for Cu grown on oxygen precovered Ru(OOO1). These XPD intensities have been analyzed using single scattering cluster (SSC) and multiple scattering cluster (MSC) models. The first Cu layer has been found to grow pseudomorphically on the Ru(OOO1) surface in agreement with prior studies of the Cu/Ru(OOO 1) system. Thus, the initial growth is layer-by-layer. For higher coverages, XPD shows that the short-range structure of the Cu films is fcc Cu(l 11), but with significant interlayer relaxation (compared to bulk Cu(l 11)) that persists up to {ge}8 ML. When oxygen is preadsorbed on the Ru(OOO1) surface before Cu film growth (possibly to act as a surfactant promoting smoother growth), XPD shows that the first ~3 ML of Cu grow as 3-D islands. In addition, XPD shows that, during Cu growth, all of the oxygen "floats" on the CU surface, in contrast to prior studies which found that 30% of the oxygen remains at the Cu/Ru intetiace. XPD also indicates that the oxygen is highly disordered on the Cu overlayer surface. In thicker layers with oxygen prsent, the Cu grows as Cu(l 11) with equal occupations of two possible domains rotated by 1800 from each other. In general, this work demonstrates the considerable usefulness of XPD in studying epitaxial overlayer growth with and without surfactants present.

  7. Phase Stability, Nitrogen Vacancies, Growth Mode, and Surface Structure of ScN(001) under Sc-rich Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    high energy electron diffraction and x-ray diffraction shows that these films have only a single in the nitrogen, not the scandium, content by secondary ion mass spectrometry. High-resolution x-ray diffraction) films with smooth surfaces. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) during growth showed

  8. Palladium chloride to palladium metal two-dimensional nucleation and growth phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, H.C. de; Carlin, R.T. [Air Force Academy, CO (United States). Frank J. Seiler Research Lab.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reduction of a monolayer of surface-bound Pd(II) to Pd(0) on a palladium substrate reveals two-dimensional nucleation and growth phenomena. Using well-known 2D nucleation-growth theories, this reduction is shown to proceed by an instantaneous nucleation and growth mechanism. However, when a submonolayer of Pd(II) is present, this mechanism fails to account for the experimentally observed high cathodic currents seen at zero time. A model incorporating preexisting Pd(0) cylindrical sites on the partially oxidized Pd(0) surface has been successfully applied to account for the discrepancy between the experimental results and current 2D theories. Using this modified 2D model, values for the mathematical product of cylindrical growth rate and the square root of the nucleation site densities have been determined, and the overpotential dependence of the growth rate has been confirmed and quantified. These 2D nucleation-growth phenomena have practical consequences on the performance of the Pd(II)/Pd(0) system as a faradaic supercapacitor, and probably on the performance of other 2D faradaic supercapacitor systems. In addition, because many electrodes undergo monolayer surface oxidation-reduction reactions in other solvent systems, especially aqueous electrolytes, these 2D nucleation-growth phenomena may play a role in these important surface-modifying redox systems as well.

  9. Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yannan

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

  10. Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yannan

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

  11. Animal representations and animal remains at Çatalhöyük

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Nerissa; Meece, Stephanie

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (Level VII). Volcano above town plan, leopard skin above geometric design, or other representations? Level VI paintings lack fully convinc­ ing animal depictions. A patch of painting on the east wall of building VIA.66 includes a number of geomet­ ric... the centrepieces of the north walls of two rather similar buildings. In a sense they parallel the situation in the faunal assemblage, where cattle are not terribly common, but figure prominently in cer­ emonial consumption (see Russell & Martin, Volume 4...

  12. TIPS TO REMAIN SLIM * Set realistic goals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    a week. * Aerobic exercise like jogging, swimming, cycling, running accelerates weight loss. Consult in the morning. * Go for skimmed milk. * As far as possible avoid weight loss supplements. * When you have a physician before starting any weight loss program. Aerobic exercise combined with healthy eating

  13. Geothermal developers remain optimistic | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To: CongestionDevelopment of a downhole wireline tool toEnergyWhile

  14. Los Alamos supercomputer remains fastest in world

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is YourAwardspublicexceedsScientists monitorNano 50

  15. Growth mechanism of graphene on platinum: Surface catalysis and carbon segregation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jie, E-mail: jie.sun@chalmers.se; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Nam, Youngwoo [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cole, Matthew T. [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, CB3 0FA Cambridge (United Kingdom); Teo, Kenneth B. K. [AIXTRON Nanoinstruments Ltd., Swavesey, CB24 4FQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of the graphene growth mechanism of chemical vapor deposition on platinum is proposed and verified by experiments. Surface catalysis and carbon segregation occur, respectively, at high and low temperatures in the process, representing the so-called balance and segregation regimes. Catalysis leads to self-limiting formation of large area monolayer graphene, whereas segregation results in multilayers, which evidently “grow from below.” By controlling kinetic factors, dominantly monolayer graphene whose high quality has been confirmed by quantum Hall measurement can be deposited on platinum with hydrogen-rich environment, quench cooling, tiny but continuous methane flow and about 1000?°C growth temperature.

  16. Grain growth in a conventional titanium alloy during rapid, continuous heat treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semiatin, S.L. (Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)); Soper, J.C. (Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States)); Sukonnik, I.M. (Texas Instruments, Inc., Attleboro, MA (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the present work was to analyze the kinetics of beta grain growth during rapid, continuous heating of a conventional alpha-beta titanium alloy. The analysis was based on approximate, closed-form theoretical expressions derived by Bourell and Kaysser and Soper and Semiatin as well as a fully numerical, computer-based approach. The problem and approach discussed here differs from previous investigations of grain growth during continuous heating and cooling, most of which have been for austenite grain growth in the heat-affected zone during welding of steels. In this regard, the main features of the present work are the very high heating rates involved, the avoidance of the application of complex numerical integration schemes, and the avoidance of using isothermal grain growth kinetic data to fit continuous heating results.

  17. Picropodophyllin inhibits tumor growth of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a mouse model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Shu-Cheng [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China) [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tao, Ze-Zhang, E-mail: zezhangtao@gmail.com [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China)

    2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •We identified that PPP inhibits IGF-1R/Akt pathway in NPC cells. •PPP dose-dependently inhibits NPC cell proliferation in vitro. •PPP suppresses tumor growth of NPC in nude mice. •PPP have little effect on microtubule assembly. -- Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a cell membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity and plays important roles in cell transformation, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a selective IGF-1R inhibitor and shows promising antitumor effects for several human cancers. However, its antitumor effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of PPP in NPC using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model. We found that PPP dose-dependently decreased the IGF-induced phosphorylation and activity of IGF-1R and consequently reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, one downstream target of IGF-1R. In addition, PPP inhibited NPC cell proliferation in vitro. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PPP for NPC cell line CNE-2 was ?1 ?M at 24 h after treatment and ?0.5 ?M at 48 h after treatment, respectively. Moreover, administration of PPP by intraperitoneal injection significantly suppressed the tumor growth of xenografted NPC in nude mice. Taken together, these results suggest targeting IGF-1R by PPP may represent a new strategy for treatment of NPCs with positive IGF-1R expression.

  18. Gauging Employment Growth in Wisconsin: State-By-State Comparisons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Gauging Employment Growth in Wisconsin: State; 2 Employment growth in Wisconsin continues to lag both the national rate of job growth as well as the rates of employment increase in most other states

  19. adrenomedullin affects growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on the growth index analysis we find that the growth data favor the clustered dark energy scenario. Basilakos, Spyros 2014-01-01 96 THE GROWTH OF EUPHRASIA IN CULTIVATION...

  20. MTBE growth limited despite lead phasedown in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storck, W.

    1985-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This month's legislated reduction of the allowable amount of lead additives in gasoline will increase demand strongly for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as an octane enhancer, but the economics of the refinery business and the likelihood of rapidly increasing high-octane gasoline imports probably will limit the size of the business in coming years. MTBE will be used to fill the octane gap now, but economics and imports of gasoline later on could hold down demand. The limited growth in sales of MTBE is discussed.

  1. [The Journal of Geology, 2004, volume 112, p. 91110] No copyright is claimed for this article. It remains in the public domain. Geochemical Discrimination of Five Pleistocene Lava-Dam Outburst-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poreda, Robert J.

    . It remains in the public domain. 91 Geochemical Discrimination of Five Pleistocene Lava-Dam Outburst- Flood@usgs.gov) A B S T R A C T Pleistocene basaltic lava dams and outburst-flood deposits in the western Grand Canyon outburst-flood deposit came from a common source, a lava dam. With these data, it is possible

  2. Physics of Substorm Growth Phase, Onset, and Dipolarization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.Z. Cheng

    2003-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A new scenario of substorm growth phase, onset, and depolarization during expansion phase and the corresponding physical processes are presented. During the growth phase, as a result of enhanced plasma convection, the plasma pressure and its gradient are continued to be enhanced over the quiet-time values in the plasma sheet. Toward the late growth phase, a strong cross-tail current sheet is formed in the near-Earth plasma sheet region, where a local magnetic well is formed, the plasma beta can reach a local maximum with value larger than 50 and the cross-tail current density can be enhanced to over 10nA/m{sup 2} as obtained from 3D quasi-static magnetospheric equilibrium solutions for the growth phase. The most unstable kinetic ballooning instabilities (KBI) are expected to be located in the tailward side of the strong cross-tail current sheet region. The field lines in the most unstable KBI region map to the transition region between the region-1 and region-2 currents in the ionosphere, which is consistent with the observed initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the intense proton precipitation region. The KBI explains the AMPTE/CCE observations that a low-frequency instability with a wave period of 50-75 seconds is excited about 2-3 minutes prior to substorm onset and grows exponentially to a large amplitude at the onset of current disruption (or current reduction). At the current disruption onset higher frequency instabilities are excited so that the plasma and electromagnetic field fluctuations form a strong turbulent state. Plasma transport takes place due to the strong turbulence to relax the ambient plasma pressure profile so that the plasma pressure and current density are reduced and the ambient magnetic field intensity increases by more than a factor of 2 in the high-beta(sub)eq region and the field line geometry recovers from tail-like to dipole-like dipolarization.

  3. High-Average Power Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, David H.; /SLAC; Power, John G.; /Argonne

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been significant progress in the development of high-power facilities in recent years yet major challenges remain. The task of WG4 was to identify which facilities were capable of addressing the outstanding R&D issues presently preventing high-power operation. To this end, information from each of the facilities represented at the workshop was tabulated and the results are presented herein. A brief description of the major challenges is given, but the detailed elaboration can be found in the other three working group summaries.

  4. High density matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Stone

    2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has lead to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. However, there remains great uncertainty in these models, which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this review the latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS) of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of the matter are surveyed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available observational data on neutron stars, including gravitational masses, radii and cooling patterns is presented. The effect of changing rotational frequency on the composition of neutron stars during their lifetime is demonstrated. Compatibility of EoS of high-density, low temperature compact objects and low density, high temperature matter created in heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  5. Geothermal Energy Growth Continues, Industry Survey Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey released by the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) shows continued growth in the number of new geothermal power projects under development in the United States, a 20% increase since January of this year.

  6. Economic Redevelopment and Growth Program (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Economic Redevelopment and Growth program (ERG) is an incentive for real estate development projects that have a financing gap, defined as having insufficient revenues to support the project debt...

  7. New Jersey Business Growth Fund (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Creditworthy small or mid-sized companies that are creating or retaining jobs in New Jersey can apply for financing through the New Jersey Business Growth Fund, a joint program of the EDA and PNC...

  8. Selective anisotropic growth of zeolite crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Tasha April

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise control over particle size and morphology is emerging as a critical issue in the design of nanostructured materials. The explosive growth of nanoparticle synthesis is a good example of this. As material chemists have developed the ability...

  9. Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Presented at...

  10. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Abstract: The...

  11. Epitaxial Growth and Properties of Doped Transition Metal and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of crystalline oxide film growth using vacuum methods is reviewed and discussed with an eye toward gaining fundamental insights into the relationships between growth process and...

  12. Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium...

  13. allometric appendage growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 PERSPECTIVES Allometric growth, life-history invariants and population energetics Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: IDEAS AND PERSPECTIVES Allometric growth,...

  14. Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies: Getting Started Experience...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies: Getting Started Experience from Six Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies:...

  15. Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of a CZT Growth Tip...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of a CZT Growth Tip from a Vertical Gradient Freeze Furnace. Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of a CZT Growth Tip from a Vertical Gradient Freeze Furnace....

  16. Growth and propagation of Acer grandidentatum Nutt.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tankersley, Boyce Elbert

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into the graduate school process. Joseph Calabrese, Lisa Lipscomb, Loras Freiberger, Sylvia Meadows, and Austin Stockton often helped to put matters into their proper perspective. Special thanks to Carol Leach for her advice and help during my studies. The many... on subsequent growth . Once the first flush was completed (June), and a terminal bud was set, fertilization was started to determine if any of the treatments could encourage subsequent growth. The data were analyzed using a general linear model analysis...

  17. Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Kai

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Chemistry SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF METAL GROWTH ON OXIDES A Thesis by KAI LUO Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style a d content by: avid W. Goodman.... , Jilin University, P. R. China Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr, David W. Goodman Metal/oxide chemistry and metal cluster growth on oxides are fundamental to our understanding of the catalytic activity and selectivity of metal catalysts, thus...

  18. A Geometric Theory of Growth Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arash Yavari

    2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we formulate a geometric theory of the mechanics of growing solids. Bulk growth is modeled by a material manifold with an evolving metric. Time dependence of metric represents the evolution of the stress-free (natural) configuration of the body in response to changes in mass density and "shape". We show that time dependency of material metric will affect the energy balance and the entropy production inequality; both the energy balance and the entropy production inequality have to be modified. We then obtain the governing equations covariantly by postulating invariance of energy balance under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms. We use the principle of maximum entropy production in deriving an evolution equation for the material metric. In the case of isotropic growth, we find those growth distributions that do not result in residual stresses. We then look at Lagrangian field theory of growing elastic solids. We will use the Lagrange-d'Alembert's principle with Rayleigh's dissipation functions to derive all the governing equations. We make an explicit connection between our geometric theory and the conventional multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient $\\mathbf{F}=\\mathbf{F}_e\\mathbf{F}_g$ into growth and elastic parts. We linearize the nonlinear theory and derive a linearized theory of growth mechanics. Finally, we obtain the stress-free growth distributions in the linearized theory.

  19. 2009 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Highly Distinguished Bowers Michelle Diane Highly Distinguished Bowling Joseph David Highly Distinguished Ashley Highly Distinguished Bryant Catherine Clancy Highly Distinguished Buckheister Elaine A Highly

  20. PROBABILISTIC PREDICTION USING EMBEDDED RANDOM PROJECTIONS OF HIGH DIMENSIONAL DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurwitz, Richard C.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The explosive growth of digital data collection and processing demands a new approach to the historical engineering methods of data correlation and model creation. A new prediction methodology based on high dimensional data has been developed. Since...

  1. Patent Litigation for High Technology and Life Sciences Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamos, Michael I.

    Patent Litigation for High Technology and Life Sciences Companies #12;© 2005 Fenwick & West LLP Corporate (emerging growth, financings, securities, mergers & acquisitions) n Intellectual Property (patent, copyright, licensing, trademark) n Litigation (patent and other IP, securities, antitrust, employment

  2. Hydrodynamic evaluation of high-speed semi-SWATH vessels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guttenplan, Adam (Adam David)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-speed semi-displacement vessels have enjoyed rapid development and widespread use over the past 25 years. Concurrent with their growth as viable commercial and naval platforms, has been the advancement of three-dimensional ...

  3. Addendum to ``Decoupling of pion coupling $f_?$ from quarks at high density in three models, and its possible observational consequences"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manjari Bagchi; Monika Sinha; Mira Dey; Jishnu Dey

    2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The pions decouple from quarks while their coupling to nucleons $g_{\\pi NN}$ remains unchanged at high density. This will have consequences for some recent papers.

  4. National Science Bowl Update: Teams from North Carolina and California to Compete for High School Championship

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The field of high school finalists in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Science Bowl has narrowed once more, and now only two high school teams remain in the competition.

  5. Apparatus for silicon web growth of higher output and improved growth stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Charles S. (Penn Hills, PA); Piotrowski, Paul A. (Monroeville, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure describes an apparatus to improve the web growth attainable from prior web growth configurations. This apparatus modifies the heat loss at the growth interface in a manner that minimizes thickness variations across the web, especially regions of the web adjacent to the two bounding dendrites. In the unmodified configuration, thinned regions of web, adjacent to the dendrites, were found to be the origin of crystal degradation which ultimately led to termination of the web growth. According to the present invention, thinning adjacent to the dendrites is reduced and the incidence of crystal degradation is similarly reduced.

  6. Rate-dependent morphology of Li2O2 growth in Li-O2 batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horstmann, B; Mitchell, R; Bessler, W G; Shao-Horn, Y; Bazant, M Z

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compact solid discharge products enable energy storage devices with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, but solid deposits on active surfaces can disturb charge transport and induce mechanical stress. In this Letter we develop a nanoscale continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes, based on a theory of electrochemical non-equilibrium thermodynamics originally applied to Li-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory predicts a transition from complex to uniform morphologies of Li2O2 with increasing current. Discrete particle growth at low discharge rates becomes suppressed at high rates, resulting in a film of electronically insulating Li2O2 that limits cell performance. We predict that the transition between these surface growth modes occurs at current densities close to the exchange current density of the cathode reaction, consistent with experimental observations.

  7. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

    1990-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  8. Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniappan, Kumaranand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan [National Science and Technology Center, Thailand; Smith, Nickolaus A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Casson, Joanna L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth rates as a function of catalyst size/SC-NW diameter and shown for the first time that SLS is governed by Gibbs-Thomson effects. Lastly, from an applications standpoint, we report growth of SC-NWs from a range of substrates, including ITO-coated glass for fabrication of hybrid photovoltaic devices, comparing these to their quasi zero-dimensional quantum-dot counterparts.

  9. Kinetics of growth of spinel crystals in a borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Jesse; Plaisted, Trevor J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three aspects of the kinetics of spinel crystallization in a high-level waste (HLW) glass were studied: (1) the effect of nucleation agents on the number density (ns) of spinel crystals, (2) crystallization kinetics in a crushed glass, and (3) crystallization kinetics in a glass preheated at T > TL (liquidus temperature). In glass lacking in nucleation agents, ns was a strong function of temperature. In glasses with noble metals (Rh, Ru, Pd, and Pt), ns increased by up to four orders of magnitude and was nearly independent of temperature. The kinetics of spinel crystallization in crushed glass lacking nucleation agents was dominated by surface crystallization and was described by the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) equation with the Avrami exponent n {at} 0.5. For application to HLW glass melter processing, it was necessary to preheat glass at T > TL to eliminate the impact of temperature history and surface crystallization on crystal nucleation and growth. In the temperature range of glass processing, crystals descend under gravity when they reach a critical size. Below this critical size, crystallization kinetics is described by the KJMA equation and above the critical size by the Hixson-Crowell equation. At low temperatures, at which glass viscosity is high and diffusion is slow, the KJMA equation represents crystal growth from nucleation to equilibrium. As ns increases, the temperature interval of the transition from the KJMA to Hixson-Crowell regime shifts to a higher temperature.

  10. Kinetics of growth of spinel crystals in a borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Jesse; Plaisted, Trevor J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2002-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Three aspects of the kinetics of spinel crystallization in a high-level waste (HLW) glass were studied: (1) the effect of nucleation agents on the number density (ns) of spinel crystals, (2) crystallization kinetics in a crushed glass, and (3) crystallization kinetics in a glass preheated at T>TL (liquidus temperature). In glass lacking in nucleation agens, ns was a strong function of temperature. In glasses with noble metals (Rh, Ru, Pd, and Pt), ns increased by up to four orders of magnitude and was nearly independent of temperature. The kinetics of spinel crystallization in crushed glass lacking nucleation agents was dominated by surface crystallization and was described by the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) equation with the Avrami exponent n~0.5. For application to HLW glass melter processing, it was necessary to preheat glass at T>TL to eliminate the impact of temperature history and surface crystallization on crystal nucleation and growth. In the temperature range of glass processing, crystals descend under gravity when they reach a critical size. Below this critical size, crystallization kinetics is described by the KJMA equation and above the critical size by the Hixson-Crowell equation. At low temperatures, at which glass viscosity is high and diffusion is slow, the KJMA equation represents crystal growth from nucleation to equilibrium. As ns increases, the temperature interval of the transition from the KJMA to Hisxon-Crowell regime shifts to a higher temperature.

  11. 2011 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Elizabeth Campbell Highly Distinguished Bowker Ripley Eden Highly Distinguished Brandfass Lara Rose Highly Distinguished Brotherton Cara Price Highly Distinguished Brown Anna Laughlin Highly Distinguished Brown Chloe Alix Highly Distinguished Brown Kelsey Michelle Highly Distinguished Brown Kyle Truman Highly

  12. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Chen, Jin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Energy Plant Research Lab., Dept. of Computer Science; Anozie, Fransisca C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Morales, Alejandro [Wageningen Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Center for Crop Systems Analysis; Weise, Sean E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Sharkey, Thomas D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.

  13. Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres. William J.

    Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery Hessam.1063/1.3643035] Lithium-ion batteries are of great interest due to their high energy density, however, various safety properties, many applications are pos- sible.10,11 One is the electrolyte of the lithium-ion batteries, where

  14. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600368 Growth of CdSe Quantum Rods and Multipods Seeded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swihart, Mark T.

    within the same NC. This occurs in an anisotropic crystal structure, such as the wurtzite structure of CdTe, NCs may nucleate with the zinc blende structure, followed by growth of the wurtzite structure[13-axis of the wurtzite structure. In this method, a high precursor con- centration is maintained, often via multiple

  15. Tungsten nano-tendril growth in the Alcator C-Mod divertor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, M.J.

    Growth of tungsten nano-tendrils ('fuzz') has been observed for the first time in the divertor region of a high-power density tokamak experiment. After 14 consecutive helium L-mode discharges in Alcator C-Mod, the tip of ...

  16. Growth of GaN Thin Films on Silicon Using Single Source Precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    Growth of GaN Thin Films on Silicon Using Single Source Precursors and Development of New We have grown the GaN thin films on silicon substrates using the newly developed single source precursors by thermal MOCVD method. Highly oriented GaN thin films in the [002] direction with hexagonal

  17. Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Secondary Organic Material Produced by Condensational Growth from Pinene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .9). The corresponding volume concentrations were as high as (3.0 ± 0.1) � 1014 nm3 cm-3 . The size distributions to (1.26 ± 0.02) � 107 cm-3 for the matrix of reaction conditions. The mode diameters of the aerosols indicated access to different particle growth stages, namely condensation, coagulation, or combination

  18. Transient growth of secondary instabilities in parallel wakes: Anti lift-up mechanism and hyperbolic instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and the transient growth of perturbations on a Von Ka´rma´n vortex street, issuing from the development (2006); 10.1063/1.2159031 Vortex shedding in high Reynolds number axisymmetric bluff-body wakes: Local, 295 (2007)] in the context of an axisymmetric vortex. Presently, the optimal initial condition (the

  19. Recrystallization of high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzoudis, D.

    1996-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently one of the most widely used high {Tc} superconductors is the Bi-based compounds Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub z} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub z} (known as BSCCO 2212 and 2223 compounds) with {Tc} values of about 85 K and 110 K respectively. Lengths of high performance conductors ranging from 100 to 1000 m long are routinely fabricated and some test magnets have been wound. An additional difficulty here is that although Bi-2212 and Bi-2223 phases exist over a wide range of stoichiometries, neither has been prepared in phase-pure form. So far the most successful method of constructing reliable and robust wires or tapes is the so called powder-in-tube (PIT) technique [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] in which oxide powder of the appropriate stoichiometry and phase content is placed inside a metal tube, deformed into the desired geometry (round wire or flat tape), and annealed to produce the desired superconducting properties. Intermediate anneals are often incorporated between successive deformation steps. Silver is the metal used in this process because it is the most compatible with the reacting phase. In all of the commercial processes for BSCCO, Ag seems to play a special catalytic role promoting the growth of high performance aligned grains that grow in the first few micrometers near the Ag/BSCCO interface. Adjacent to the Ag, the grain alignment is more perfect and the current density is higher than in the center of the tape. It is known that Ag lowers the melting point of several of the phases but the detailed mechanism for growth of these high performance grains is not clearly understood. The purpose of this work is to study the nucleation and growth of the high performance material at this interface.

  20. Epitaxial growth of AlN films via plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nepal, N.; Qadri, S. B.; Hite, J. K.; Mahadik, N. A.; Mastro, M. A.; Eddy, C. R. Jr. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin AlN layers were grown at 200–650 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) simultaneously on Si(111), sapphire (1120), and GaN/sapphire substrates. The AlN growth on Si(111) is self-limited for trimethyaluminum (TMA) pulse of length > 0.04 s, using a 10 s purge. However, the AlN nucleation on GaN/sapphire is non-uniform and has a bimodal island size distribution for TMA pulse of ?0.03 s. The growth rate (GR) remains almost constant for T{sub g} between 300 and 400 °C indicating ALE mode at those temperatures. The GR is increased by 20% at T{sub g} = 500 °C. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurement shows that the ALE AlN layers grown at T{sub g} ? 400 °C have no clear band edge related features, however, the theoretically estimated band gap of 6.2 eV was measured for AlN grown at T{sub g} ? 500 °C. X-ray diffraction measurements on 37 nm thick AlN films grown at optimized growth conditions (T{sub g} = 500 °C, 10 s purge, 0.06 s TMA pulse) reveal that the ALE AlN on GaN/sapphire is (0002) oriented with rocking curve full width at the half maximum (FWHM) of 670 arc sec. Epitaxial growth of crystalline AlN layers by PA-ALE at low temperatures broadens application of the material in the technologies that require large area conformal growth at low temperatures with thickness control at the atomic scale.

  1. Trade policy and its impact on economic growth: Can openness speed up output growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    Trade policy and its impact on economic growth: Can openness speed up output growth? Felicitas Nowak-Lehmann D. 1. Introduction ''Economic theory generally supports the conclusion that trade trade, while others have failed to demonstrate this linkage''. (U. S. International Trade Commission

  2. Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production@nmsu.edu #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth i Disclaimer This report States Government or any agency thereof. #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic

  3. Fractal-Mound Growth of Pentacene Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serkan Zorba; Yonathan Shapir; Yongli Gao

    2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth mechanism of pentacene film formation on SiO2 substrate was investigated with a combination of atomic force microscopy measurements and numerical modeling. In addition to the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) that has already been shown to govern the growth of the ordered pentacene thin films, it is shown here for the first time that the Schwoebel barrier effect steps in and disrupts the desired epitaxial growth for the subsequent layers, leading to mound growth. The terraces of the growing mounds have a fractal dimension of 1.6, indicating a lateral DLA shape. This novel growth morphology thus combines horizontal DLA-like growth with vertical mound growth.

  4. In situ growth rate measurements by normal-incidence reflectance during MOVPE growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, H.Q.; Breiland, W.G.; Hammons, B.E.; Chui, H.C.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an in situ technique for monitoring metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy growth by normal-incidence reflectance. This technique is used to calibrate the growth rate periodically and to monitor the growth process routinely. It is not only a precise tool to measure the growth rate, but also very useful in identifying unusal problems during a growth run, such as depletion of source material, deterioration of surface morphology, and problems associated with an improper growht procedure. We will also present an excellent reproducibility ({+-}0.3% over a course of more than 100 runs) of the cavity wavelength of vertical-cavity surface emitting laser structures with periodic calibration by this in situ technique.

  5. A Geometric Theory of Growth Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yavari, Arash

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we formulate a geometric theory of the mechanics of growing solids. Bulk growth is modeled by a material manifold with an evolving metric. Time dependence of metric represents the evolution of the stress-free (natural) configuration of the body in response to changes in mass density and "shape". We show that time dependency of material metric will affect the energy balance and the entropy production inequality; both the energy balance and the entropy production inequality have to be modified. We then obtain the governing equations covariantly by postulating invariance of energy balance under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms. We use the principle of maximum entropy production in deriving an evolution equation for the material metric. In the case of isotropic growth, we find those growth distributions that do not result in residual stresses. We then look at Lagrangian field theory of growing elastic solids. We will use the Lagrange-d'Alembert's principle with Rayleigh's dissipation functions...

  6. 2012 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Highly Distinguished Beck Misty Nicole Highly Distinguished Beckett Ethan Patrick Highly Distinguished Sara Nicole Highly Distinguished Borland Kelly Nicole Highly Distinguished Bosshardt Zachary Michael

  7. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Triplett, Eric W. (Middleton, WI); Kaeppler, Shawn M. (Oregon, WI); Chelius, Marisa K. (Greeley, CO)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  8. 2012 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Distinguished Andersen Meredith Esther Highly Distinguished Anderson Anna Kathleen Highly Distinguished Anderson Leah Ellen Highly Distinguished Anderson Lucy Paige Highly Distinguished Andrews James Matheson Highly Distinguished Aquino Jeri-Lynn Highly Distinguished Armistead Mary Chandler Highly Distinguished Armstrong Jessa

  9. Direct Visualization of Dendrite Nucleation and Growth Kinetics during Lithium Deposition with in situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Browning, Nigel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation of Li dendrites is a major safety concern existing in Li-ion secondary batteries. A quantitative electrochemistry method to investigate the dendrite nucleation and growth mechanisms at high spatial is presented. Cyclic voltammetry, in combination with in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy (in situ ec-TEM), was used to quantitatively characterize dendrite nucleation and growth mechanisms from a Au working electrode and within a 1.2M LiPF6 EC:DMC electrolyte.

  10. The Effect of Growth Volatility on Income Inequality Ho-Chuan (River) Huang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    positively affects growth. Barro (2000) uncovers a nonlinear inequality-growth nexus, with inequality growth in low-income ones. Rather than examining the volatility-growth or the inequality-growth linkages

  11. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGregor, Douglas S

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  12. Longitudinal pulse shaping for the suppression of coherent synchrotron radiation-induced emittance growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mitchell, Chad; Qiang, Ji; Emma, Paul

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The damaging effect of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the emittance and energy spread of high-energy beams in accelerator light sources can significantly constrain the machine design and performance. We propose a mitigation approach in which the dynamical effect of the longitudinal component of CSR is suppressed by appropriately preparing the initial longitudinal current profile of the beam. In a chicane, a linear theory for the mechanism of CSR-induced emittance growth is used to demonstrate how this procedure can produce a beam whose core experiences suppressed transverse emittance growth. The dynamics of such a beam is illustrated for the Berlin-Zeuthen CSR benchmark chicane.

  13. Epitaxial growth of aligned AlGalnN nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Jung (Woodbridge, CT); Su, Jie (New Haven, CT)

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly ordered and aligned epitaxy of III-Nitride nanowires is demonstrated in this work. <1010> M-axis is identified as a preferential nanowire growth direction through a detailed study of GaN/AlN trunk/branch nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic selectivity can be used to achieve spatial and orientational control of nanowire growth. Vertically aligned (Al)GaN nanowires are prepared on M-plane AlN substrates. Horizontally ordered nanowires, extending from the M-plane sidewalls of GaN hexagonal mesas or islands demonstrate new opportunities for self-aligned nanowire devices, interconnects, and networks.

  14. Mechanistic Selection and Growth of Twinned Bicrystalline Primary Si in Near Eutectic Al-Si Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choonho Jung

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Morphological evolution and selection of angular primary silicon is investigated in near-eutectic Al-Si alloys. Angular silicon arrays are grown directionally in a Bridgman furnace at velocities in the regime of 10{sup -3} m/sec and with a temperature gradient of 7.5 x 10{sup 3} K/m. Under these conditions, the primary Si phase grows as an array of twinned bicrystalline dendrites, where the twinning gives rise to a characteristic 8-pointed star-shaped primary morphology. While this primary Si remains largely faceted at the growth front, a complex structure of coherent symmetric twin boundaries enables various adjustment mechanisms which operate to optimize the characteristic spacings within the primary array. In the work presented here, this primary silicon growth morphology is examined in detail. In particular, this thesis describes the investigation of: (1) morphological selection of the twinned bicrystalline primary starshape morphology; (2) primary array behavior, including the lateral propagation of the starshape grains and the associated evolution of a strong <100> texture; (3) the detailed structure of the 8-pointed star-shaped primary morphology, including the twin boundary configuration within the central core; (4) the mechanisms of lateral propagation and spacing adjustment during array evolution; and (5) the thermosolutal conditions (i.e. operating state) at the primary growth front, including composition and phase fraction in the vicinity of the primary tip.

  15. Growth of tungsten nanoparticles in direct-current argon glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishor Kumar, K.; Coueedel, L.; Arnas, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moleculaires, CNRS-Aix-Marseille Universite, 13397 Marseille (France)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of nanoparticles from the sputtering of a tungsten cathode in DC argon glow discharges is reported. The study was performed at fixed argon pressure and constant discharge current. The growth by successive agglomerations is evidenced. First, tungsten nanocrystallites agglomerate into primary particles, the most probable size of which being {approx}30 nm. Primary particles of this size are observed for all plasma durations and always remain the most numerous in the discharge. Primary particles quickly agglomerate to form particles with size up to {approx}150 nm. For short plasma duration, log-normal functions describe accurately the dust particle size distributions. On the contrary, for long discharge durations, a second hump appears in the distributions toward large particle sizes. In the meantime, the discharge voltage, electron density, and emission line intensities strongly evolve. Their evolutions can be divided in four separate phases and exhibit unusual distinctive features compared to earlier observations in discharges in which particles were growing. The evolution of the different parameters is explained by a competition between the surface state of the tungsten cathode and the influence of the growing nanoparticles. The differences with sputtering glow discharges and chemically active plasmas suggest that the nanoparticle growth and its influence on discharge parameters is system and material dependent.

  16. Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiziana Di Matteo; Volker Springel; Lars Hernquist

    2005-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early Universe, while galaxies were still forming, black holes as massive as a billion solar masses powered quasars. Supermassive black holes are found at the centers of most galaxies today, where their masses are related to the velocity dispersions of stars in their host galaxies and hence to the mass of the central bulge of the galaxy. This suggests a link between the growth of the black holes and the host galaxies, which has indeed been assumed for a number of years. But the origin of the observed relation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion, and its connection with the evolution of galaxies have remained unclear. Here we report simulations that simultaneously follow star formation and the growth of black holes during galaxy-galaxy collisions. We find that in addition to generating a burst of star formation, a merger leads to strong inflows that feed gas to the supermassive black hole and thereby power the quasar. The energy released by the quasar expels enough gas to quench both star formation and further black hole growth. This determines the lifetime of the quasar phase (approaching 100 million years) and explains the relationship between the black hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion.

  17. Heteroepitaxial Nucleation and Oriented Growth of Manganese

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heteroepitaxial Nucleation and Oriented Growth of Manganese Oxide Islands on Carbonate Minerals-limit. Our results provide an improved basis both for the development of predictive models of contaminant Manganese oxide minerals in surface and groundwaters dissolve as Mn2+ (aq) and precipitate as manganese

  18. Growth strategies of ectothermic animals in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gotthard, Karl

    analysis is also a tool for inves- tigating hypotheses of evolutionary causes and of adaptations in general such as growth, sexual maturation and reproduction as the result of strategic decisions over an organism's life it reduces the risk of being killed before reproduction and entails a short generation time, while a large

  19. Nanoscale Surface Topography to Guide Bone Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanoscale Surface Topography to Guide Bone Growth P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Jirun Sun (American T S Designed and fabricated devices with nanoscale surface topography. Controlled cell alignment by varying the height and aspect ratio of the surface features. R E F E R E N C E Exploring cellular contact guidance

  20. Growth Of Oriented Crystals At Polymerized Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah H. (Albany, CA), Berman, Amir (Ben-Shiva, IL)

    2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the growth and alignment of crystals at biopolymeric films. The methods and compositions of the present invention provide means to generate a variety of dense crystalline ceramic films, with totally aligned crystals, at low temperatures and pressures, suitable for use with polymer and plastic substrates.

  1. Environmental Problems Facing Lake Tahoe Algal Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    fertilizers, which support the growth of free-floating and attached algae. Eutrophication Eutrophication refers to the effects of an overabundance of nutrients. Eutrophication occurs naturally as part. This process normally occurs over millions of years; however, we are seeing the effects of eutrophication

  2. Economic Growth and Inequality: Drawing the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    and policies in later sessions #12;Economic Growth and Inequality: The Famous Kuznets Curve #12;Income Inequality #12;The New Kuznets Curve #12;Income Inequality #12;From Income Inequality to Health #12;Percent the Channels) #12;Kuznets Curves for Socially Determined Health Outcomes David Bishai, MD,MPH, PhD Professor

  3. Bioclimatology Water deficits during reproductive growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) constantly maintained at > 50% of soil available water. The treatment drought periods were: 0I) from R1 to R4 greater dry matter production than 0I and 10, and these 2 treatments produced more dry matter than 00Bioclimatology Water deficits during reproductive growth of soybeans. l. Their effects on dry

  4. Short Communication Growth of charged micelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nonlinearities suggests that Coulomb interactions result in an additional contribution to the free energy of an end-cap that modifies the growth law for the average micelle size. In some cases, the micelle size varies approximately as 03A6(1/2)(1+039B),where 039B > 0 depends on the renormalized coulomb charge

  5. Foreign Fishery Developments Australia Reports Growth in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ." Later studies have also shown both per capita fish and seafood consump- tion and fish prices-76, the last year of the survey. Apparent consumption per person rose another 6 percent in 1976-77 and trendsForeign Fishery Developments Australia Reports Growth in Fish Consumption and Prices Australians

  6. Emittance growth from electron beam modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In linac ring colliders like MeRHIC and eRHIC a modulation of the electron bunch can lead to a modulation of the beam beam tune shift and steering errors. These modulations can lead to emittance growth. This note presents simple formulas to estimate these effects which generalize some previous results.

  7. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Martin

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  8. Economic Growth, Physical Limits and Liveability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on criteria air contaminants, water use, land use, greenhouse gas emissions and solid waste disposal and population growth, impose the physical limits and then simulate household and firm responses to policy and assess the resulting implications for liveability in the region. I measure liveability using 24

  9. Black hole evolution: I. Supernova-regulated black hole growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubois, Yohan; Silk, Joseph; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of a supermassive black hole (BH) is determined by how much gas the host galaxy is able to feed it, which in turn is controlled by the cosmic environment, through galaxy mergers and accretion of cosmic flows that time how galaxies obtain their gas, but also by internal processes in the galaxy, such as star formation and feedback from stars and the BH itself. In this paper, we study the growth of a 10^12 Msun halo at z=2, which is the progenitor of an archetypical group of galaxies at z=0, and of its central BH by means of a high-resolution zoomed cosmological simulation, the Seth simulation. We study the evolution of the BH driven by the accretion of cold gas in the galaxy, and explore the efficiency of the feedback from supernovae (SNe). For a relatively inefficient energy input from SNe, the BH grows at the Eddington rate from early times, and reaches self-regulation once it is massive enough. We find that at early cosmic times z>3.5, efficient feedback from SNe forbids the formation of a settled...

  10. The effects of orientation angle, subcooling, heat flux, mass flux, and pressure on bubble growth and detachment in subcooled flow boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugrue, Rosemary M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of orientation angle, subcooling, heat flux, mass flux, and pressure on bubble growth and detachment in subcooled flow boiling were studied using a high-speed video camera in conjunction with a two-phase flow ...

  11. Growth and nucleation regimes in boron doped silicon by dynamical x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Will, J., E-mail: johannes.will@fau.de; Gröschel, A.; Bergmann, C.; Weißer, M.; Magerl, A. [Crystallography and Structural Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Staudtstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxygen precipitation of highly (17.5 m? cm) and moderately (4.5 ? cm) boron (B) doped silicon (Si) crystals at 780?°C is investigated by following in-situ the evolution of diffraction Pendellösung oscillations. All samples show an initial diffusion-driven growth process which may change over into Ostwald ripening. For the highly doped sample and involving a nucleation step at 450?°C for 30?h, the precipitate density ? is enhanced by a factor of 8 as compared to the moderately doped sample. The influence of a high B concentration on ? is dramatically higher for the samples directly heated to 780?°C, where an enhancement factor of 80 is found. Considering Ostwald ripening as a second growth regime reveals consistent ripening rates and surface energies ? with those found at 900?°C in a previous publication.

  12. EVALUATION OF ACTIVATION PRODUCTS IN REMAINING IN REMAINING K-, L- AND C-REACTOR STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, D.; Webb, R.

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytic model and calculational methodology was previously developed for P-reactor and R-reactor to quantify the radioisotopes present in Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor tanks and the surrounding structural materials as a result of neutron activation of the materials during reactor operation. That methodology has been extended to K-reactor, L-reactor, and C-reactor. The analysis was performed to provide a best-estimate source term input to the Performance Assessment for an in-situ disposition strategy by Site Decommissioning and Demolition (SDD). The reactor structure model developed earlier for the P-reactor and R-reactor analyses was also used for the K-reactor and L-reactor. The model was suitably modified to handle the larger Creactor tank and associated structures. For all reactors, the structure model consisted of 3 annular zones, homogenized by the amount of structural materials in the zone, and 5 horizontal layers. The curie content on an individual radioisotope basis and total basis for each of the regions was determined. A summary of these results are provided herein. The efficacy of this methodology to accurately predict the radioisotopic content of the reactor systems in question has been demonstrated and is documented in Reference 1. As noted in that report, results for one reactor facility cannot be directly extrapolated to other SRS reactors.

  13. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

  14. achieving economic growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    remain simpleITERATIVE COMBINATORIAL AUCTIONS: ACHIEVING ECONOMIC AND COMPUTATIONAL EFFICIENCY David Christopher Chen, Yiling 6 ITERATIVE COMBINATORIAL AUCTIONS: ACHIEVING...

  15. 2013 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Anderson Chelsea Mariah Highly Distinguished Anderson Madison Olivia Highly Distinguished Andrews James Askew Mary Frances Highly Distinguished Augustine Andrew William Highly Distinguished Austin Adrian Bailes Mary Elizabeth Highly Distinguished Bailey Erika Leigh Highly Distinguished Bailey Margaret

  16. High Capacity Li Ion Battery Anodes Using Ge Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    High Capacity Li Ion Battery Anodes Using Ge Nanowires Candace K. Chan, Xiao Feng Zhang, and Yi Cui efficiency > 99%. Structural characterization revealed that the Ge nanowires remain intact and connected nanowire anodes are promising candidates for the development of high-energy-density lithium batteries

  17. High e

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football Fancy footworke ne rgy data s am

  18. On the dangers of using the growth equation on large scales in the Newtonian gauge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James B. Dent; Sourish Dutta

    2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the accuracy of the growth equation $\\ddot{\\delta} + 2H\\dot{\\delta} - 4\\pi G\\rho\\delta = 0$, which is ubiquitous in the cosmological literature, in the context of the Newtonian gauge. By comparing the growth predicted by this equation to a numerical solution of the linearized Einstein equations in the $\\Lambda$CDM scenario, we show that while this equation is a reliable approximation on small scales ($k\\gtrsim $h Mpc$^{-1}$), it can be disastrously inaccurate ($\\sim 10^4% $) on larger scales in this gauge. We propose a modified version of the growth equation for the Newtonian gauge, which while preserving the simplicity of the original equation, provides considerably more accurate results. We examine the implications of the failure of the growth equation on a few recent studies, aimed at discriminating general relativity from modified gravity, which use this equation as a starting point. We show that while the results of these studies are valid on small scales, they are not reliable on large scales or high redshifts, if one works in the Newtonian gauge. Finally, we discuss the growth equation in the synchronous gauge and show that the corrections to the Poisson equation are exactly equivalent to the difference between the overdensities in the synchronous and Newtonian gauges.

  19. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growthmore »analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.« less

  20. Abbreviated epitaxial growth mode (AGM) method for reducing cost and improving quality of LEDs and lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tansu, Nelson; Chan, Helen M; Vinci, Richard P; Ee, Yik-Khoon; Biser, Jeffrey

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of an abbreviated GaN growth mode on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrates, which utilizes a process of using 15 nm low temperature GaN buffer and bypassing etch-back and recovery processes during epitaxy, enables the growth of high-quality GaN template on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire. The GaN template grown on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire by employing abbreviated growth mode has two orders of magnitude lower threading dislocation density than that of conventional GaN template grown on planar sapphire. The use of abbreviated growth mode also leads to significant reduction in cost of the epitaxy. The growths and characteristics of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on both templates were compared. The InGaN QWs LEDs grown on the nano-patterned AGOG sapphire demonstrated at least a 24% enhancement of output power enhancement over that of LEDs grown on conventional GaN templates.

  1. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stablemore »growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.« less

  2. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sood, Shantanu [State Univ., of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kisslinger, Kim [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gouma, Perena [State Univ., of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stable growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.

  3. Graphene Layer Growth Chemistry: Five-Six-Ring Flip Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitesides, Russell; Domin, Dominik; Lester Jr., William A.; Frenklach, Michael

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    25-28, 2007. Topic: Soot GRAPHENE LAYER GROWTH CHEMISTRY:on the zigzag edge of a graphene layer isomerizes to reversea possibly important step in graphene layer growth, thus

  4. Growth of Ordered Ultrathin Tungsten Oxide Films on Pt(111)....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Growth of Ordered Ultrathin Tungsten Oxide Films on Pt(111). Growth of Ordered Ultrathin Tungsten Oxide Films on Pt(111). Abstract: Ordered tungsten oxide ultra-thin films were...

  5. Akamai technologies : an analysis of product and platform growth strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piper, Victor L. (Victor Lawrence)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Akamai Technologies has achieved market leadership in content delivery and application acceleration services and is pursuing aggressive growth. Akamai has advised the market that growth to $5B by 2020 is achievable by ...

  6. Effect of Gallium Nitride Template Layer Strain on the Growth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gallium Nitride Template Layer Strain on the Growth of InxGa1-xNGaN Multiple Quantum Well Light Emitting Diodes. Effect of Gallium Nitride Template Layer Strain on the Growth of...

  7. New Model Demonstrates Offshore Wind Industry's Job Growth Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model Demonstrates Offshore Wind Industry's Job Growth Potential New Model Demonstrates Offshore Wind Industry's Job Growth Potential May 18, 2015 - 3:11pm Addthis The U.S....

  8. Growth of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions by coagulation and fragmentation in a turbulent protoplanetary disk: observations and modelisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charnoz, S; Chaumard, N; Baillie, K; Tallifet, E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Whereas it is generally accepted that calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from chondritic meteorites formed in a hot environment in the solar protoplanetary disk, the conditions of their formation remain debated. Recent laboratory studies of CAIs have provided new kind of data: their size distributions. We show that size distributions of CAIs measured in laboratory from sections of carbonaceous chondrites have a power law size distribution with cumulative size exponent between -1.7 and -1.9, which translates into cumulative size exponent between -2.5 and -2.8 after correction for sectioning. To explain these observations, numerical simulations were run to explore the growth of CAIs from micrometer to centimeter sizes, in a hot and turbulent protoplanetary disk through the competition of coagulation and fragmentation. We show that the size distributions obtained in growth simulations are in agreement with CAIs size distributions in meteorites. We explain the CAI sharp cut-off of their size distribution at ...

  9. annual foliage growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effective use of social 187 A year of transformation, growth and success ANNUAL REPORT Fossil Fuels Websites Summary: ......

  10. Fast and slow crystal growth kinetics in glass-forming melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orava, J.; Greer, A. L., E-mail: alg13@cam.ac.uk [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan and Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Published values of crystal growth rates are compared for supercooled glass-forming liquids undergoing congruent freezing at a planar crystal-liquid interface. For the purposes of comparison pure metals are considered to be glass-forming systems, using data from molecular-dynamics simulations. For each system, the growth rate has a maximum value U{sub max} at a temperature T{sub max} that lies between the glass-transition temperature T{sub g} and the melting temperature T{sub m}. A classification is suggested, based on the lability (specifically, the propensity for fast crystallization), of the liquid. High-lability systems show “fast” growth characterized by a high U{sub max}, a low T{sub max}?/?T{sub m}, and a very broad peak in U vs. T?/?T{sub m}. In contrast, systems showing “slow” growth have a low U{sub max}, a high T{sub max}?/?T{sub m}, and a sharp peak in U vs. T?/?T{sub m}. Despite the difference of more than 11 orders of magnitude in U{sub max} seen in pure metals and in silica, the range of glass-forming systems surveyed fit into a common pattern in which the lability increases with lower reduced glass-transition temperature (T{sub g}?/?T{sub m}) and higher fragility of the liquid. A single parameter, a linear combination of T{sub g}?/?T{sub m} and fragility, can show a good correlation with U{sub max}. For all the systems, growth at U{sub max} is coupled to the atomic/molecular mobility in the liquid. It is found that, across the diversity of glass-forming systems, T{sub max}?/?T{sub g} = 1.48 ± 0.15.

  11. Six-year growth of Eucalyptus saligna plantings as affected by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitesell, C.D.; DeBell, D.S.; Schubert, T.H.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth responses of Eucalyptus saligna to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers were assessed in bioenergy plantations on abandoned sugarcane land in Hawaii. Fertilizers were applied three times (0.6, and 15 months after planting) in a factorial design with four dosages each of N(0, 25, 50, and 75 g urea per tree) and P(0, 30, 60, and 90 g triple superphosphate per tree). Phosphorus and the N x P interaction had little effect on tree growth. Effects of N, however, were dramatic during the first year, and benefits were sustained through 6 years. Effects of N on height growth and diameter growth dropped markedly during the third year and thereafter. Bioenergy plantations of E. saligna established on similar sites and soils will benefit from high dosages of N fertilizer and presumably from repeated applications.

  12. THE GROWTH OF LIMITS OF VERTEX REPLACEMENT RULES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Previte, Joseph P.

    THE GROWTH OF LIMITS OF VERTEX REPLACEMENT RULES JOSEPH PREVITE, MICHELLE PREVITE, AND MARY a vertex replacement rule given by exactly one replacement graph generates an infinite graph for the growth degree of infinite graphs with polynomial growth that are gener- ated by vertex replacement rules

  13. ORIGINAL PAPER Metabolic Alterations During the Growth of Tumour Spheroids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maini, Philip K.

    a ``programmed'' switch to a greater reliance on the less efficient glycolytic pathway for energy to generate suffi- cient energy and biomass for sustained growth and prolif- eration. During growth and anabolic capacity to maintain growth, repair and overall integrity. Typically, the production of energy con

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE Bubble growth in visco-elastic magma: implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Bubble growth in visco-elastic magma: implications to magma fragmentation modulus, bubble growth is slow and follows an exponential law in a viscous growth regime, while for low friction and the Mohr-Coulomb failure theory, and a strain related one based on fibre elongation

  15. Polarity driven simultaneous growth of free-standing and lateral GaAsP epitaxial nanowires on GaAs (001) substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Wen; Xu, Hongyi [Materials Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD 40732 (Australia)] [Materials Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD 40732 (Australia); Guo, Yanan [Materials Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD 40732 (Australia) [Materials Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD 40732 (Australia); Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Gao, Qiang; Hoe Tan, Hark; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Zou, Jin, E-mail: j.zou@uq.edu.au [Materials Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD 40732 (Australia) [Materials Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD 40732 (Australia); Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous growth of ?111?{sub B} free-standing and ±[110] lateral GaAsP epitaxial nanowires on GaAs (001) substrates were observed and investigated by electron microscopy and crystallographic analysis. It was found that the growth of both free-standing and lateral ternary nanowires via Au catalysts was driven by the fact that Au catalysts prefer to maintain low-energy (111){sub B} interfaces with surrounding GaAs(P) materials: in the case of free-standing nanowires, Au catalysts maintain (111){sub B} interfaces with their underlying GaAsP nanowires; while in the case of lateral nanowires, each Au catalyst remain their side (111){sub B} interfaces with the surrounding GaAs(P) material during the lateral nanowire growth.

  16. Pb nanowire formation on Al/lead zirconate titanate surfaces in high-pressure hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chong M.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2012-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of Al on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) annealed in high-pressure hydrogen at 100C exhibit surface Pb nanowire growth. Wire diameter is approximately 80 nm and length can exceed 100 microns. Based on microstructural analysis using electron microscopy and ion scattering, a vapor-solid scheme with hydrogen as a carrier gas was proposed as a growth mechanism. We expect that these observations may lead to controlled Pb nanowires growth through pattering of the Al film.

  17. GROWTH OF POSITIVE WORDS AND LOWER BOUNDS OF THE GROWTH RATE FOR THOMPSON'S GROUPS F(p)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burillo, José

    GROWTH OF POSITIVE WORDS AND LOWER BOUNDS OF THE GROWTH RATE FOR THOMPSON'S GROUPS F(p) JOS´E BURILLO AND VICTOR GUBA Abstract. Let F(p), p 2 be the family of generalized Thompson's groups. Here F(2) is the famous Richard Thompson's group usually denoted by F. We find the growth rate of the monoid of positive

  18. Nucleation and Growth of Crystalline Grains in RF-Sputtered TiO2Films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, J. C.; Ahrenkiel, S. P.; Dutta, P.; Bommisetty, V. R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AmorphousTiO2thin films were radio frequency sputtered onto siliconmonoxide and carbon support films on molybdenum transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids and observed during in situ annealing in a TEM heating stage at250?C. The evolution of crystallization is consistent with a classical model of homogeneous nucleation and isotropic grain growth. The two-dimensional grain morphology of the TEM foil allowed straightforward recognition of amorphous and crystallized regions of the films, for measurement of crystalline volume fraction and grain number density. By assuming that the kinetic parameters remain constant beyond the onset of crystallization, the final average grain size was computed, using an analyticalmore »extrapolation to the fully crystallized state. Electron diffraction reveals a predominance of the anatase crystallographic phase.« less

  19. Homoepitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Diamond Membranes for Quantum Information Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor Aharonovich; Jonathan C. Lee; Andrew P. Magyar; Bob B. Buckley; Christopher G. Yale; David D. Awschalom; Evelyn L. Hu

    2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of devices designed to fully harness the unique properties of quantum mechanics through their coupling to quantum bits (qubits) is a prominent goal in the field of quantum information processing (QIP). Among various qubit candidates, nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have recently emerged as an outstanding platform for room temperature QIP. However, formidable challenges still remain in processing diamond and in the fabrication of thin diamond membranes, which are necessary for planar photonic device engineering. Here we demonstrate epitaxial growth of single crystal diamond membranes using a conventional microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. The grown membranes, only a few hundred nanometers thick, show bright luminescence, excellent Raman signature and good NV center electronic spin coherence times. Microdisk cavities fabricated from these membranes exhibit quality factors of up to 3000, overlapping with NV center emission. Our methodology offers a scalable approach for diamond device fabrication for photonics, spintronics, optomechanics and sensing applications.

  20. Homoepitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Diamond Membranes for Quantum Information Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aharonovich, Igor; Magyar, Andrew P; Buckley, Bob B; Yale, Christopher G; Awschalom, David D; Hu, Evelyn L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of devices designed to fully harness the unique properties of quantum mechanics through their coupling to quantum bits (qubits) is a prominent goal in the field of quantum information processing (QIP). Among various qubit candidates, nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have recently emerged as an outstanding platform for room temperature QIP. However, formidable challenges still remain in processing diamond and in the fabrication of thin diamond membranes, which are necessary for planar photonic device engineering. Here we demonstrate epitaxial growth of single crystal diamond membranes using a conventional microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. The grown membranes, only a few hundred nanometers thick, show bright luminescence, excellent Raman signature and good NV center electronic spin coherence times. Microdisk cavities fabricated from these membranes exhibit quality factors of up to 3000, overlapping with NV center emission. Our methodology offers a scalable approach for dia...

  1. The effect of crowding on the growth of fingerlings and fry of the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huq, Molla Fazlul

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fishes where it was 8. 8. This high pH was characteristic of this pond from February 28 to March 2, inclusive. On March 3, the pH of Pond 13 started to decrease to 7. 8. Between March 3 and the end of the experiment, the pH of all the ponds remained...

  2. Scaling of bubble growth in a porous medium. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satik, C.; Yortsos, Y.; Li, X. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes involving liquid-to-gas phase change in porous media are routinely encountered, for example in the recovery of oil, geothermal processes, nuclear waste disposal or enhanced heat transfer. They involve diffusion (and convection) in the pore space, driven by an imposed supersaturation in pressure or temperature. Phase change proceeds by nucleation and phase growth. Depending on pore surface roughness, a number of nucleation centers exist, thus phase growth occurs from a multitude of clusters. Contrary to growth in the bulk or in a Hele-Shaw cell, however, growth patterns in porous media are disordered and not compact. As in immiscible displacements, they reflect the underlying pore microstructure. The competition between multiple clusters is also different from the bulk. For example, cluster growth may be controlled by a combination of diffusion (e.g. Laplace equation in the quasi-static case) with percolation. Novel growth patterns axe expected from this competition. While multiple cluster growth is important, the simpler problem of single-bubble growth is still not well understood. In this section, we focus on the growth of a single bubble, subject to a fixed far-field supersaturation (e.g. by lowering the pressure in a supersaturated solution or by raising the temperature in a. superheated liquid). Our emphasis is on deriving a scaling theory for growth at conditions of quasi-static diffusion, guided by recent experimental observations. Visualization of bubble growth in model porous media was recently conducted using 2-D etched-glass micromodels.

  3. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubic, Jr., William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  4. Growth and bone development in weanling quarter horses fed diets supplemented with sodium zeolite-A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Kimberly Suzanne

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) possibly due to SZA's high ion-exchange capabilities (Roland, 1985; Miles, 1986); however, natural zeolites have not been shown to improve egg shell quality especially in diets low in calcium (Nakaue and Koelliker, 1981). This could be due...GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT IN WEANLING QUARTER HORSES FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM ZEOLITE-A A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUZANNE FREY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  5. Dynamic Modeling of Aerobic Growth of Shewanella oneidensis. Predicting Triauxic Growth, Flux Distributions and Energy Requirement for Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model-based analysis is conducted to investigate metabolism of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 strain in aerobic batch culture, which exhibits an intriguing growth pattern by sequentially consuming substrate (i.e., lactate) and by-products (i.e., pyruvate and acetate). A general protocol is presented for developing a detailed network-based dynamic model for S. oneidensis based on the Lumped Hybrid Cybernetic Model (LHCM) framework. The L-HCM, although developed from only limited data, is shown to accurately reproduce exacting dynamic metabolic shifts, and provide reasonable estimates of energy requirement for growth. Flux distributions in S. oneidensis predicted by the L-HCM compare very favorably with 13C-metabolic flux analysis results reported in the literature. Predictive accuracy is enhanced by incorporating measurements of only a few intracellular fluxes, in addition to extracellular metabolites. The L-HCM developed here for S. oneidensis is consequently a promising tool for the analysis of intracellular flux distribution and metabolic engineering.

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-111, P-11 Critical Mass Laboratory Crib, and UPR-600-16, Fire and Contamination Spread Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-045

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The UPR-600-16, Fire and Contamination Spread waste site is an unplanned release that occurred on December 4, 1951, when plutonium contamination was spread by a fire that ignited inside the 120 Experimental Building. The 120 Experimental Building was a laboratory building that was constructed in 1949 and used for plutonium criticality studies as part of the P-11 Project. In November 1951, a criticality occurred in the 120 Experimental Building that resulted in extensive plutonium contamination inside the building. The confirmatory evaluation supports a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of the extensive radiological survey of the surface soil and the confirmatory and verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. Acquisition of Single Crystal Growth and Characterization Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maple, M. Brian; Zocco, Diego A.

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Final Report for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER46178 'Acquisition of Single Crystal Growth and Characterization Equipment'. There is growing concern in the condensed matter community that the need for quality crystal growth and materials preparation laboratories is not being met in the United States. It has been suggested that there are too many researchers performing measurements on too few materials. As a result, many user facilities are not being used optimally. The number of proficient crystal growers is too small. In addition, insufficient attention is being paid to the enterprise of finding new and interesting materials, which is the driving force behind much of condensed matter research and, ultimately, technology. While a detailed assessment of this situation is clearly needed, enough evidence of a problem already exists to compel a general consensus that the situation must be addressed promptly. This final report describes the work carried out during the last four years in our group, in which a state-of-the-art single crystal growth and characterization facility was established for the study of novel oxides and intermetallic compounds of rare earth, actinide and transition metal elements. Research emphasis is on the physics of superconducting (SC), magnetic, heavy fermion (HF), non-Fermi liquid (NFL) and other types of strongly correlated electron phenomena in bulk single crystals. Properties of these materials are being studied as a function of concentration of chemical constituents, temperature, pressure, and magnetic field, which provide information about the electronic, lattice, and magnetic excitations at the root of various strongly correlated electron phenomena. Most importantly, the facility makes possible the investigation of material properties that can only be achieved in high quality bulk single crystals, including magnetic and transport phenomena, studies of the effects of disorder, properties in the clean limit, and spectroscopic and scattering studies through efforts with numerous collaborators. These endeavors will assist the effort to explain various outstanding theoretical problems, such as order parameter symmetries and electron-pairing mechanisms in unconventional superconductors, the relationship between superconductivity and magnetic order in certain correlated electron systems, the role of disorder in non-Fermi liquid behavior and unconventional superconductivity, and the nature of interactions between localized and itinerant electrons in these materials. Understanding the mechanisms behind strongly correlated electron behavior has important technological implications.

  8. High-Resolution Mapping of the Spatial Organization of a Bacterial Chromosome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Tung Ba Khanh

    Chromosomes must be highly compacted and organized within cells, but how this is achieved in vivo remains poorly understood. We report the use of chromosome conformation capture coupled with deep sequencing (Hi-C) to map ...

  9. Growth curve analysis of Rambouillet ewes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathenge, James Mwai

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for this study. However, most of the results were reported for 152 observations; a subset of the 283 records that contained the smst complete set of weighted' Type of birth and rearing was the single most significant source of variation for preweaning body... weights and growth rates. Estimation of mature weight obtained for 184 records was 59. 6 + . 77 kilograms. Based upon analysis of yearly weights, ewes had reached maturity by 42 months of age. Birth and 120-day weight were lower than those reported...

  10. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  11. #MarketGrowth | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind Hometcdb Home Graham7781'sHomewisdom#MarketGrowth

  12. Career Growth | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess StoriesFebruary 26,ComputersTrinity / NERSC-8CarbonTheGrowth |

  13. Mathematical modeling of cavity growth during underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, K.S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four two-dimensional cavity growth models are developed based on the permeation process concept in order to understand what has happened in previous field tests, and to learn better methods for future field tests and commercial scale operations. The first model considers only a wet coal region beyond the cavity. In the second model, dried coal is added to the first model, so that there are two different coal regions: the wet coal and dried coal regions. The third model includes the effect of links formed by reverse combustion, but the dried coal region is not included. Also in this model, plugging phenomenon, due to particulates carried by the injectant to the cavity wall, is introduced. The final model incorporates nonisotropic permeability, a dried coal region, links and plugging phenomenon. Considerations of a wet coal region only or of wet coal and coal drying do not explain the high recovery of coal observed in field tests. However, plugging phenomenon prevents channeling of gases down high-permeability links, and thereby the recovery of coal is increased. Also link configurations have a marked effect on the coal source recovery. Computation results from the fourth model show that coal recovery is improved greatly if a large dried coal zone exists around the cavity.

  14. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  15. Most supermassive black hole growth is obscured by dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejo Martinez-Sansigre; Steve Rawlings; Mark Lacy; Dario Fadda; Francine R. Marleau; Chris Simpson; Chris J. Willott; Matt J. Jarvis

    2005-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an alternative method to X-ray surveys for hunting down the high-redshift type-2 quasar population, using Spitzer and VLA data on the Spitzer First Look Survey. By demanding objects to be bright at 24 microns but faint at 3.6 microns, and combining this with a radio criterion, we find 21 type-2 radio-quiet quasar candidates at the epoch at which the quasar activity peaked. Optical spectroscopy with the WHT confirmed 10 of these objects to be type-2s with 1.4 < z < 4.2 while the rest are blank. There is no evidence for contamination in our sample, and we postulate that our 11 blank-spectrum candidates are obscured by kpc-scale dust as opposed to dust from a torus around the accretion disk. By carefully modelling our selection criteria, we conclude that, at high redshift, 50-80 % of the supermassive black hole growth is obscured by dust.

  16. The Proteome of Dissimilatory Metal-reducing Microorganism Geobacter Sulfurreducens under Various Growth Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Y-H R.; Hixson, Kim K.; Giometti, Carol S.; Stanley, A; Esteve-Nunez, A; Khare, Tripti; Tollaksen, Sandra L.; Zhu, Wenhong; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Mester, Tunde; Lovley, Derek R.

    2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The global protein analysis of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a model for the Geobacter species that predominate in many Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments, was characterized with ultra high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry using accurate mass and time (AMT) tags as well as with more traditional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). Cells were grown under eight different growth conditions in order to enhance the potential that genes would be expressed. Over 3,187 gene products, representing about 92% of the total predicted gene products in the genome, were detected. The AMT approach was able to identify a much higher number of proteins than could be detected with the 2-D PAGE approach. A high proportion of predicted proteins in most protein role categories were detected with the highest number of proteins identified in the hypothetical protein role category. Furthermore, 91 c-type cytochromes of 111 predicted genes in the G. sulfurreducens genome were identified. Localization studies indicated that computational predictions of cytochrome location were limited. Differences in the abundance of cytochromes and other proteins under different growth conditions provided information for future functional analysis of these proteins. These results demonstrate that a high percentage of the predicted proteins in the G. sulfurreducens genome are produced and that the AMT approach provides a rapid method for comparing differential expression of proteins under different growth conditions in this organism.

  17. Nucleation and growth of GaN nanorods on Si (111) surfaces by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy - The influence of Si- and Mg-doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furtmayr, Florian; Vielemeyer, Martin; Stutzmann, Martin; Eickhoff, Martin [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Arbiol, Jordi [EME/CeRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d'Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti Franques 1, E-08080 Barcelona, CAT (Spain); TEM-MAT, Serveis Cientificotecnics, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1-3, E-08080 Barcelona, CAT (Spain); Estrade, Sonia; Peiro, Francesca; Morante, Joan Ramon [EME/CeRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d'Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti Franques 1, E-08080 Barcelona, CAT (Spain)

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The self-assembled growth of GaN nanorods on Si (111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions is investigated. An amorphous silicon nitride layer is formed in the initial stage of growth that prevents the formation of a GaN wetting layer. The nucleation time was found to be strongly influenced by the substrate temperature and was more than 30 min for the applied growth conditions. The observed tapering and reduced length of silicon-doped nanorods is explained by enhanced nucleation on nonpolar facets and proves Ga-adatom diffusion on nanorod sidewalls as one contribution to the axial growth. The presence of Mg leads to an increased radial growth rate with a simultaneous decrease of the nanorod length and reduces the nucleation time for high Mg concentrations.

  18. A Statistical Physics Perspective on Web Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. L. Krapivsky; S. Redner

    2002-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches from statistical physics are applied to investigate the structure of network models whose growth rules mimic aspects of the evolution of the world-wide web. We first determine the degree distribution of a growing network in which nodes are introduced one at a time and attach to an earlier node of degree k with rate A_ksim k^gamma. Very different behaviors arise for gamma1. We also analyze the degree distribution of a heterogeneous network, the joint age-degree distribution, the correlation between degrees of neighboring nodes, as well as global network properties. An extension to directed networks is then presented. By tuning model parameters to reasonable values, we obtain distinct power-law forms for the in-degree and out-degree distributions with exponents that are in good agreement with current data for the web. Finally, a general growth process with independent introduction of nodes and links is investigated. This leads to independently growing sub-networks that may coalesce with other sub-networks. General results for both the size distribution of sub-networks and the degree distribution are obtained.

  19. Cavity growth patterns on the partial seam crip test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hommert, P.J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Partial Seam CRIP (PSC) test conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories was characterized by two distinctly different types of cavity growth. Portions of the thermal data from the test have been analyzed using conduction models to infer the dynamics of the cavity growth. Growth during the first phase of the test was characterized by rapid movement of the process to the top of the seam. The growth patterns during this time were remarkably similar to those observed on the Hoe Creek III test. Cavity growth observed later in the test, after the CRIP maneuver and when the horizontal production was in use, showed more lateral extent within the seam similar to patterns that were observed on the Hanna UCG tests. This type of growth resulted in improved process efficiency, at least for the early post-CRIP period. Calculations using a thermal-mechanical growth model are consistent with both types of growth observed. In particular, when stringers that were present in the seam are included in the model calculations, the more favorable growth patterns observed in the test are predicted. It is concluded that non-coal layers within the seam have the potential to significantly affect cavity growth and thus their presence should be accounted for when designing a process. 11 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  20. Growth kinetics of CaF[sub 2]/Si(111) heteroepitaxy: An x-ray photoelectron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denlinger, J.D.; Rotenberg, E. (Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); Hessinger, U.; Leskovar, M.; Olmstead, M.A. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1995-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Kinetic variations of the initial stages of CaF[sub 2] growth on Si(111) by molecular-beam epitaxy are studied with the [ital in] [ital situ] combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffraction. After the formation of a chemically reacted interface layer, the morphology of the subsequent bulk layers is found to be dependent on the substrate temperature and incident flux rate, as well as the initial interface structure. For substrate temperatures above [similar to]600 [degree]C, subsequent layers do not easily wet the interface layer, and a transition is observed from a three-dimensional island formation at low flux to a laminar growth following the coalescence of bilayer islands at higher flux. At lower substrate temperatures ([similar to]450 [degree]C), a different stoichiometry and structure of the interface layer leads to laminar growth at all fluxes, but with a different bulk nucleation behavior. Crystalline heteroepitaxy is not observed when growth initiates at room temperature, but homoepitaxy does proceed at room temperature if the first few layers are deposited at a high temperature. The different growth regimes are discussed in terms of a kinetic model separating step and terrace nucleation where, contrary to homoepitaxy, step nucleation leads to islanded growth.

  1. ZnO nanorod growth by plasma-enhanced vapor phase transport with different growth durations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Oh, Hee-bong [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyukhyun, E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jondo [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Kyungnam University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Department of Materials and Components Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the structural properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by plasma-enhanced vapor phase transport (PEVPT) were investigated. Plasma-treated oxygen gas was used as the oxygen source for the ZnO growth. The structural properties of ZnO nanostructures grown for different durations were measured by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The authors comprehensively analyzed the growth of the ZnO nanostructures with different growth durations both with and without the use of plasma-treated oxygen gas. It was found that PEVPT has a significant influence on the growth of the ZnO nanorods. PEVPT with plasma-treated oxygen gas facilitated the generation of nucleation sites, and the resulting ZnO nanorod structures were more vertical than those prepared by conventional VPT without plasma-treated oxygen gas. As a result, the ZnO nanostructures grown using PEVPT showed improved structural properties compared to those prepared by the conventional VPT method.

  2. A Quantitative Analysis of Branching, Growth Cone Turning, and Directed Growth in Zebrafish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodhill, Geoffrey J.

    in Goodhill and Richards, 1999; McLaughlin and O'Leary, 2005; Feldheim and O'Leary, 2010). Studies these maps (McLaughlin and O'Leary, 2005). In chicks and rodents, serial histology at different developmental their targets (Nakamura and O'Leary, 1989; Simon and O'Leary, 1992; Yates et al., 2001). Pri- mary axon growth

  3. Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vohra, Yogesh, K.

    2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

  4. Influence of constraints on axial growth reduction of cylindrical Li-ion battery electrode particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeevanjyoti Chakraborty; Colin P. Please; Alain Goriely; S. Jonathan Chapman

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Volumetric expansion of silicon anode particles in a lithium-ion battery during charging may lead to the generation of undesirable internal stresses. For a cylindrical particle such growth may also lead to failure by buckling if the expansion is constrained in the axial direction due to other particles or supporting structures. To mitigate this problem, the possibility of reducing axial growth is investigated theoretically by studying simple modifications of the solid cylinder geometry. First, an annular cylinder is considered with lithiation either from the inside or from the outside. In both cases, the reduction of axial growth is not found to be significant. Next, explicit physical constraints are studied by addition of a non-growing elasto-plastic material: first, an outer annular constraint on a solid silicon cylinder, and second a rod-like inner constraint for an annular silicon cylinder. In both cases, it is found that axial growth can be reduced if the yield stress of the constraining material is significantly higher than that of silicon and/or the thickness of the constraint is relatively high. Phase diagrams are presented for both the outer and the inner constraint cases to identify desirable operating zones. Finally, to interpret the phase diagrams and isolate the key physical principles two different simplified models are presented and are shown to recover important qualitative trends of the numerical simulation results.

  5. Supermassive Black Hole Growth and Merger Rates from Cosmological N-body Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslav Micic; Kelly Holley-Bockelmann; Steinn Sigurdsson; Tom Abel

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding how seed black holes grow into intermediate and supermassive black holes (IMBHs and SMBHs, respectively) has important implications for the duty-cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxy evolution, and gravitational wave astronomy. Most studies of the cosmological growth and merger history of black holes have used semianalytic models and have concentrated on SMBH growth in luminous galaxies. Using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations, we track the assembly of black holes over a large range of final masses -- from seed black holes to SMBHs -- over widely varying dynamical histories. We used the dynamics of dark matter halos to track the evolution of seed black holes in three different gas accretion scenarios. We have found that growth of Sagittarius A* - size SMBH reaches its maximum mass M_{SMBH}~10^6Msun at z~6 through early gaseous accretion episodes, after which it stays at near constant mass. At the same redshift, the duty-cycle of the host AGN ends, hence redshift z=6 marks the transition from an AGN to a starburst galaxy which eventually becomes the Milky Way. By tracking black hole growth as a function of time and mass, we estimate that the IMBH merger rate reaches a maximum of R_{max}=55 yr^-1 at z=11. From IMBH merger rates we calculate N_{ULX}=7 per Milky Way type galaxy per redshift in redshift range 2

  6. Global latitudinal-asymmetric vegetation growth trends and their driving mechanisms: 1982-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Jiafu [ORNL; Shi, Xiaoying [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Zhu, Zaichun [Boston University; Myneni, Ranga B. [Boston University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a recent Leaf Area Index (LAI) dataset and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), we investigate percent changes and controlling factors of global vegetation growth for the period 1982 to 2009. Over that 28-year period, both the remote-sensing estimate and model simulation show a significant increasing trend in annual vegetation growth. Latitudinal asymmetry appeared in both products, with small increases in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and larger increases at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The south-to-north asymmetric land surface warming was assessed to be the principal driver of this latitudinal asymmetry of LAI trend. Heterogeneous precipitation functioned to decrease this latitudinal LAI gradient, and considerably regulated the local LAI change. CO2 fertilization during the last three decades, was simulated to be the dominant cause for the enhanced vegetation growth. Our study, though limited by observational and modeling uncertainties, adds further insight into vegetation growth trends and environmental correlations. These validation exercises also provide new quantitative and objective metrics for evaluation of land ecosystem process models at multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  7. Growth of GaN on Ge(111) by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieten, R. R.; Degroote, S.; Cheng, K.; Leys, M.; Kuijk, M.; Borghs, G. [MCP/ART, IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium) and ETRO, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); MCP/ART, IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); ETRO, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); MCP/ART, IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The epitaxial growth of GaN on Ge is reported. The authors found that direct growth of GaN performs exceptionally well on Ge(111) with plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. A streaky reflection high energy electron diffraction pattern is observed during growth. X-ray diffraction showed a rocking curve full width at half maximum of only 371 arc sec for a 38 nm GaN layer and indicates an abrupt interface between the GaN and Ge. Secondary ion mass spectrometry shows limited diffusion of Ga atoms into the Ge substrate and Ge atoms into the GaN layers. Current-voltage measurements show rectifying behavior for n-GaN on p-Ge. Their results indicate that GaN growth on Ge does not require intermediate layers, allowing the Ge substrate to be used as back contact in vertical devices. A p-n junction formed between GaN and Ge can be used in heterojunction devices.

  8. Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source measurement, tube effects, CO2 infrared radiation 1. Introduction The knowledge of very high temperature for instance that the IR emission of the CO2 molecule remains predominant at temperatures as high as 4000 K [1

  9. Transformation of the courtyard house--low-rise high density urban housing in Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Gene S. (Gene Sungjin)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea of low-rise high-density urban housing is based on two fundamental objectives: 1) To provide higher density by intensifying land use as urban growth escalates at an unprecedented rate. 2) To reconsider the essential ...

  10. Resources and capabilities in high-tech enterpreneurship : a study of two generations of Chinese startups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Lin, 1964 May 1-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By examining the origin and growth dynamics of two generations of high-tech startups in China's information technology sectors, this study presents empirical research on how Chinese technology startup companies, despite ...

  11. High Critical Current Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V. (SuperPower, Inc.)

    2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

  12. Recent Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies - Slower Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies - Slower Growth Ahead? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Recent Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies -...

  13. ascites tumor growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    circular objects revealing required features, such as the velocity of the growth and fractal behavior of their contours, is presented. It enables to reproduce some of the recent...

  14. affect yeast growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were carried out under fixed dilution rate after batch growth in YPD as described... Pir, Pinar; Gutteridge, Alex; Wu, Jian; Rash, Bharat; Kell, Douglas B; Zhang, Nianshu;...

  15. Amplified Demand for Solar Trackers to Boost Market Growth in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Amplified Demand for Solar Trackers to Boost Market Growth in Middle East and Africa Home > Groups > Solar Permitting Roadmap Development Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by...

  16. anchorage independent growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hinton, Geoffrey E. 42 GEOLOG is an independent and privately owned oilfield services company with a strong track record of growth and international Specialized in Surface...

  17. androgen independent growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hinton, Geoffrey E. 31 GEOLOG is an independent and privately owned oilfield services company with a strong track record of growth and international Specialized in Surface...

  18. Hydrology, environment Four remarks on the growth of channel networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    Hydrology, environment Four remarks on the growth of channel networks Quatre remarques sur la online xxx Presented by Ghislain de Marsily Keywords: Geomorphology Hydrology River network Mots cle

  19. altered growth differentiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    although they did possess fewer eggs. Daphnia responses to chemicals from either roach or Elodea Burks, Romi 7 MATURE TLINEAGE LEUKEMIA WITH GROWTH FACTOR-INDUCED...

  20. apcam mediates growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of piscivore-mediated habitat use on growth, diet and zooplankton consumption of roach: an Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Effects of piscivore-mediated habitat use...

  1. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dedyulin, Sergey N., E-mail: sdedyuli@uwo.ca; Goncharova, Lyudmila V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ?5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T?=?450–650?°C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

  2. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Lithium-ion batteries, popular in today's electronic devices and electric vehicles, could gain significant...

  3. On Better Understanding Dilute Void Growth in Ductile Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostka, Tim

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and growth of damage in a dual-phase steel observed by X-rayWeck et al. , 2007], dual-phase steel [Maire et al. , 2008],

  4. Before the Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Job Creation and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Job Creation and Regulatory Affairs - House Committee on Oversight and Governmant Reform Before the Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Job Creation and Regulatory Affairs -...

  5. aging tumor growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1983), provide valuable data on the age 85 AGE AND GROWTH OF SKIPJACK TUNA, KATSUWONUS PELAMIS, AND YELLOWFIN TUNA, THUNNUS ALBACARES, AS INDICATED Environmental Sciences and...

  6. Grain growth and phase stability of nanocrystalline cubic zirconia...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nanocrystalline cubic zirconia under ion irradiation. Abstract: Grain growth, oxygen stoichiometry and phase stability of nanostructurally-stabilized zirconia (NSZ) in...

  7. Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In Submarine-Collected Basalts Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Growth History Of Kilauea...

  8. adaptive growth strategy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effective ionization and dielectric relaxation times scales 3 146 National Industrial Hemp Strategy ii March 2008Executive Summary Growth of the Canadian Industrial Hemp Sector...

  9. affects plant growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Biology, Allegheny College, 520 North Wilmers, Chris 29 Microbial Endophytes of crop plants and their role in plant growth promotion;. Open Access Theses and...

  10. affecting plant growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Biology, Allegheny College, 520 North Wilmers, Chris 29 Microbial Endophytes of crop plants and their role in plant growth promotion;. Open Access Theses and...

  11. Low Carbon Green Growth: Integrated Policy Approach to Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    scarcity and climate change and how adopting Low Carbon Green Growth can provide win-win solutions for fostering inclusive sustainable development while mitigating and...

  12. Persistent hair growth during treatment with the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrescu, Doru T; Kauffman, C Lisa; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicleand normal hair development. Am J Pathol. 1997;150:1959-Persistent hair growth during treatment with the EGFR

  13. Philippines-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    include: Customizing low-carbon growth planning framework that is transparent, flexible, and user-friendly Helping developupdate low-carbon roadmap Providing a suite of...

  14. Growth of a susy bubble: inhomogeneity effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Clavelli

    2005-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In a dense star, the Pauli exclusion principle functions as an enormous energy storage mechanism. Supersymmetry could provide a way to recapture this energy. If there is a transition to an exactly supersymmetric (susy) phase, the trapped energy can be released with consequences similar to gamma ray burst observations. Previous zeroth order calculations have been based on the behavior in a prototypical white dwarf of solar mass and earth radius (such as Sirius B) and have neglected density inhomogeneity. In this article we show that the effects of density inhomogeneity and of variations in masses and radii are substantial enough to encourage further exploration of the susy star model. In addition, the effects discussed here have possible applications to the growth of bubbles in other phase transition models in dense matter.

  15. Lid for improved dendritic web growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Charles S. (Penn Hills, PA); Kochka, Edgar L. (Greentree, PA); Piotrowski, Paul A. (Monroeville, PA); Seidensticker, Raymond G. (Forest Hills, PA)

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A lid for a susceptor in which a crystalline material is melted by induction heating to form a pool or melt of molten material from which a dendritic web of essentially a single crystal of the material is pulled through an elongated slot in the lid and the lid has a pair of generally round openings adjacent the ends of the slot and a groove extends between each opening and the end of the slot. The grooves extend from the outboard surface of the lid to adjacent the inboard surface providing a strip contiguous with the inboard surface of the lid to produce generally uniform radiational heat loss across the width of the dendritic web adjacent the inboard surface of the lid to reduce thermal stresses in the web and facilitate the growth of wider webs at a greater withdrawal rate.

  16. INTRACELLULAR COPPER ACCUMULATION ENHANCES THE GROWTH OF KINEOCOCCUS RADIOTOLERANS DURING CHRONIC IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagwell, C; Charles Milliken, C

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The actinobacteria Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress; though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of 6 different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased cell growth during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute irradiation induced DNA damage was similar between the copper-loaded culture as the age-synchronized no copper control culture, though low molecular weight DNA was more persistent during post-irradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 1 hr between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a radioactive environment; K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration, and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging affects ionizing radiation.

  17. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim Meco

    2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt-pool oscillation may be the dominant factor governing the onset of unsteady thermal conditions accompanied by varying amounts of crystalline nucleation observed near the lower limit. At high quench-wheel velocities, the influence of these oscillations is minimal due to very short melt-pool residence times. However, microstructural evidence suggests that the entrapment of gas pockets at the wheel-metal interface plays a critical role in establishing the upper rate limit. An observed transition in wheel-side surface character with increasing melt-spinning rate supports this conclusion.

  18. The long lives of giant clumps and the birth of outflows in gas-rich galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bournaud, Frédéric; Renaud, Florent; Daddi, Emanuele; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared M.; Juneau, Stéphanie; Kraljic, Katarina; Le Floch', Emeric [CEA, IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Perret, Valentin; Amram, Philippe; Epinat, Benoit [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille), F-13388 Marseille (France); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Teyssier, Romain [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Star-forming disk galaxies at high redshift are often subject to violent disk instability, characterized by giant clumps whose fate is yet to be understood. The main question is whether the clumps disrupt within their dynamical timescale (?50 Myr), like the molecular clouds in today's galaxies, or whether they survive stellar feedback for more than a disk orbital time (?300 Myr) in which case they can migrate inward and help building the central bulge. We present 3.5-7 pc resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of high-redshift disks including photoionization, radiation pressure, and supernovae feedback. Our modeling of radiation pressure determines the mass loading and initial velocity of winds from basic physical principles. We find that the giant clumps produce steady outflow rates comparable to and sometimes somewhat larger than their star formation rate, with velocities largely sufficient to escape the galaxy. The clumps also lose mass, especially old stars, by tidal stripping, and the stellar populations contained in the clumps hence remain relatively young (?200 Myr), as observed. The clumps survive gaseous outflows and stellar loss, because they are wandering in gas-rich turbulent disks from which they can reaccrete gas at high rates compensating for outflows and tidal stripping, overall keeping realistic and self-regulated gaseous and stellar masses. The outflow and accretion rates have specific timescales of a few 10{sup 8} yr, as opposed to rapid and repeated dispersion and reformation of clumps. Our simulations produce gaseous outflows with velocities, densities, and mass loading consistent with observations, and at the same time suggest that the giant clumps survive for hundreds of Myr and complete their migration to the center of high-redshift galaxies. These long-lived clumps are gas-dominated and contain a moderate mass fraction of stars; they drive inside-out disk evolution, thickening, spheroid growth, and fueling of the central black hole.

  19. OMVPE growth and characterization of GaInAsSb for thermophotovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, C.A.; Charache, G.W.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies on the materials development of Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} alloys for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices are reviewed. Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} epilayers were grown lattice matched to GaSb substrates by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) using all organometallic precursors including triethylgallium, trimethylindium, tertiarybutylarsine, and trimethylantimony with diethyltellurium and dimethylzinc as the n- and p-type dopants, respectively. The overall material quality of these alloys depends on growth temperature, In content, V/III ratio, substrate misorientation, and to a lesser extent, growth rate. A mirror-like surface morphology and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) are obtained for GaInAsSb layers with peak emission in the wavelength range between 2 and 2.5 {micro}m. The crystal quality improves for growth temperature decreasing from 575 to 525 C, and with decreasing In content, as based on epilayer surface morphology and low temperature PL spectra. A trend of smaller full width at half-maximum for low temperature PL spectra is observed as the growth rate is increased from 1.5 to 2.5 and 5 {micro}m/h. In general, GaInAsSb layers grown on (100) GaSb substrates with a 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation exhibited overall better material quality than layers grown on the more standard substrate (100) 2{degree} toward (110). Consistent growth of high performance lattice-matched GaInAsSb TPV devices is also demonstrated.

  20. Disturbance legacies and climate jointly drive tree growth and mortality in an intensively studied boreal forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Rocha, Adrian; Calvin, Katherine V.; Holmes, Bruce; Wang, Chuankuan; Goulden, Michael L.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How will regional growth and mortality change with even relatively small climate shifts, even independent of catastrophic disturbances? This question is particularly acute for the North American boreal forest, which is carbon-dense and subject The goals of this study were to combine dendrochronological sampling, inventory records, and machine-learning algorithms to understand how tree growth and death have changed at one highly studied site (Northern Old Black Spruce, NOBS) in the central Canadian boreal forest. Over the 1999-2012 inventory period, mean DBH increased even as stand density and basal area declined significantly from 41.3 to 37.5 m2 ha-1. Tree mortality averaged 1.4±0.6% yr-1, with most mortality occurring in medium-sized trees. A combined tree ring chronology constructed from 2001, 2004, and 2012 sampling showed several periods of extreme growth depression, with increased mortality lagging depressed growth by ~5 years. Minimum and maximum air temperatures exerted a negative influence on tree growth, while precipitation and climate moisture index had a positive effect; both current- and previous-year data exerted significant effects. Models based on these variables explained 23-44% of the ring-width variability. There have been at least one, and probably two, significant recruitment episodes since stand initiation, and we infer that past climate extremes led to significant NOBS mortality still visible in the current forest structure. These results imply that a combination of successional and demographic processes, along with mortality driven by abiotic factors, continue to affect the stand, with significant implications for our understanding of previous work at NOBS and the sustainable management of regional forests.

  1. HIGH RESOLUTION FORWARD AND INVERSE EARTHQUAKE MODELING ON TERASCALE COMPUTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shewchuk, Jonathan

    highly populated seismic region in the U.S., it has well- characterized geological structures (including in characterizing earthquake source and basin material properties, a critical remaining challenge is to invert basin geology and earthquake sources, and to use this capability to model and forecast strong ground

  2. Metabolic indices for growth: endocrine profile of steers on different nutritional and growth regulation regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinhardt, Christopher Dean

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IN PRELIMINARY MODELS. . Page 45 TABLE 15. SAMPLING DAYS FOR ENDOCRINE AND METABOLITE FACTORS USED IN FINAL MODELS PRODUCED FROM BACKWARD STEPWISE REGRESSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 TABLE 16. FINAL LINEAR PREDICTION MODELS... tends to reflect plasma glucose level and may be elevated when growth regulators alter plasma glucose (Sharp and Dyer, 1970), but this response is also inconsistent with changes in insulin independent of glucose reported by Olsen et al. (1977...

  3. Effects of microorganisms growth on the long-term stability of cement and bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libert, M.F.; Sellier, R.; Jouquet, G.; Trescinski, M.; Spor, H. [Nuclear Research Center of Cadarache, St.Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement is used as a coating matrix for nuclear waste or as an engineered barrier of waste repositories situated in geological formations. The effect of mineral acids excreted by bacteria (Thiobacillus) or organic acids produced by fungi, on the biodegradation of cement is discussed. Organic acids are quantitatively and qualitatively determined during growth of fungi over a two-year period. Even with high pH conditions, pH of the cement {approx} 11, growth of microorganisms occurs. Biodeterioration of cement is expressed in terms of bioleaching velocity of calcium and is observed by electron microscopy. Bitumen is commonly used as a matrix for the long-term storage of radioactive wastes. Long-term biodegrability of bitumen is discussed as a function of its chemical composition and various studied microorganisms.

  4. Growth of epitaxial iron nitride ultrathin film on zinc-blende gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pak, J.; Lin, W.; Wang, K.; Chinchore, A.; Shi, M.; Ingram, D. C.; Smith, A. R.; Sun, K.; Lucy, J. M.; Hauser, A. J.; Yang, F. Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report the growth of iron nitride on zinc-blende gallium nitride using molecular beam epitaxy. First, zinc-blende GaN is grown on a magnesium oxide substrate having (001) orientation; second, an ultrathin layer of FeN is grown on top of the GaN layer. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction is used to monitor the surface during growth, and a well-defined epitaxial relationship is observed. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy is used to reveal the epitaxial continuity at the gallium nitride-iron nitride interface. Surface morphology of the iron nitride, similar to yet different from that of the GaN substrate, can be described as plateau valley. The FeN chemical stoichiometry is probed using both bulk and surface sensitive methods, and the magnetic properties of the sample are revealed.

  5. Study of small-scale cavity growth mechanisms for UCG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeary, D.L.; Riggs, J.B.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate previously proposed small-scale cavity growth mechanisms in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). Quarried blocks of lignite from Rockdale, Texas, and subbituminous coal from Hanna, Wyoming, were exposed to high-temperature gases in a refractory chamber in order to access their behavior under UCG conditions. Effects of gas temperature, gas composition, and gas flow rate on the surface recession rates were studied for coal samples using the bedding plan orientation of the side wall of the cavity. The effect of gas temperature on the surface recession rate with cavity roof bedding plane orientation was also studied. For the side wall tests, structural failure of the char or ash was not observed. In addition, the surface recession rate was round to increase significantly with gas temperature and gas flow rate. These results indicate that the surface recession process was heat transfer controlled gasification. For the tests conducted using the bedding plane orientation of the cavity roof, it was found that significant structural failure of the lignite resulted while no structural failure of the subbituminous coal was observed. As a result, the surface recession rate for lignite was three times that for subbituminous coal at 1300/sup 0/K. It is theorized that the structural failure of the lignite is caused by clay stringers present in the lignite.

  6. Dynamical mechanism of antifreeze proteins to prevent ice growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kutschan; K. Morawetz; S. Thoms

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The fascinating ability of algae, insects and fishes to survive at temperatures below normal freezing is realized by antifreeze proteins (AFPs). These are surface-active molecules and interact with the diffusive water/ice interface thus preventing complete solidification. We propose a new dynamical mechanism on how these proteins inhibit the freezing of water. We apply a Ginzburg-Landau type approach to describe the phase separation in the two-component system (ice, AFP). The free energy density involves two fields: one for the ice phase with a low AFP concentration, and one for liquid water with a high AFP concentration. The time evolution of the ice reveals microstructures resulting from phase separation in the presence of AFPs. We observed a faster clustering of pre-ice structure connected to a locking of grain size by the action of AFP, which is an essentially dynamical process. The adsorption of additional water molecules is inhibited and the further growth of ice grains stopped. The interfacial energy between ice and water is lowered allowing the AFPs to form smaller critical ice nuclei. Similar to a hysteresis in magnetic materials we observe a thermodynamic hysteresis leading to a nonlinear density dependence of the freezing point depression in agreement with the experiments.

  7. Simulating the growth of Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pacucci, Fabio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical models predict that a population of Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) of mass $M_\\bullet \\approx 10^{4-5} \\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$ might form at high ($z > 10$) redshift by different processes. Such objects would represent the seeds out of which $z > 6$ Super-Massive Black Holes (SMBHs) grow. We numerically investigate the radiation-hydrodynamic evolution governing the growth of such seeds via accretion of primordial gas within their parent dark matter halo of virial temperature $T_{vir} \\sim 10^4 \\, \\mathrm{K}$. We find that the accretion onto a Direct Collapse Black Hole (DCBH) of initial mass $M_0=10^5 \\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$ occurs at an average rate $\\dot{M}_{\\bullet} \\simeq 1.35 \\, \\dot{M}_{Edd} \\simeq 0.1 \\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot} \\, yr^{-1}}$, is intermittent (duty-cycle $ emits on average at super-Eddington luminosities, progressively becoming more luminous as the density of the inner mass shells, directly feeding the central obj...

  8. Void Nucleation, Growth and Coalescence in Irradiated Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surh, M P; Sturgeon, J B; Wolfer, W G

    2008-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel computational treatment of dense, stiff, coupled reaction rate equations is introduced to study the nucleation, growth, and possible coalescence of cavities during neutron irradiation of metals. Radiation damage is modeled by the creation of Frenkel pair defects and helium impurity atoms. A multi-dimensional cluster size distribution function allows independent evolution of the vacancy and helium content of cavities, distinguishing voids and bubbles. A model with sessile cavities and no cluster-cluster coalescence can result in a bimodal final cavity size distribution with coexistence of small, high-pressure bubbles and large, low-pressure voids. A model that includes unhindered cavity diffusion and coalescence ultimately removes the small helium bubbles from the system, leaving only large voids. The terminal void density is also reduced and the incubation period and terminal swelling rate can be greatly altered by cavity coalescence. Temperature-dependent trapping of voids/bubbles by precipitates and alterations in void surface diffusion from adsorbed impurities and internal gas pressure may give rise to intermediate swelling behavior through their effects on cavity mobility and coalescence.

  9. Differences in growth and toxicity of Karenia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neely, Tatum Elizabeth

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the Gulf of Mexico are primarily caused by dense aggregations of the dinoflagellate species, Karenia brevis. Karenia brevis produces a highly toxic neurotoxin, brevetoxin which has been shown to cause Neurotoxic...

  10. Differences in growth and toxicity of Karenia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neely, Tatum Elizabeth

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the Gulf of Mexico are primarily caused by dense aggregations of the dinoflagellate species, Karenia brevis. Karenia brevis produces a highly toxic neurotoxin, brevetoxin which has been shown to cause Neurotoxic...

  11. Export sophistication and economic growth: evidence from China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Export sophistication and economic growth: evidence from China Joachim Jarreau PSE CEPII sandra halshs-00962593,version1-21Mar2014 #12;Export Sophistication and Economic Growth: evidence from China Joachim Jarreau and Sandra Poncet January 4, 2011 Abstract We consider the effect of export sophistication

  12. Original article Effects of arginine, growth hormone-releasing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    release of ARG (1 g/kg body weight, infused between times-15 and -5 min), growth hormone-releasing hormone Growth hormone (GH) secretion is regu- lated by many factors including nutrients. Arginine (ARG) infused infusions of ARG can stimulate GH secre- tion in lambs (Davenport et al, 1990a, 1995), adult sheep

  13. FAST GROWTH IN THE FOLNER FUNCTION FOR THOMPSON'S GROUP F

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Justin Tatch

    FAST GROWTH IN THE FOLNER FUNCTION FOR THOMPSON'S GROUP F on the growth of Folner functions for Thompson's group F . Specifi- cally I will prove that, for any). 1. Introduction In this paper we will study the Folner function for Thompson's group F

  14. FAST GROWTH IN THE FLNER FUNCTION FOR THOMPSON'S GROUP F

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Justin Tatch

    FAST GROWTH IN THE F�LNER FUNCTION FOR THOMPSON'S GROUP F JUSTIN TATCH MOORE Abstract. The purpose of this note is to prove a lower bound on the growth of Følner functions for Thompson's group F. Specifi- callyF,(Cn ) expn(0). 1. Introduction In this paper we will study the Følner function for Thompson's group F. Recall

  15. FAST GROWTH IN THE FLNER FUNCTION FOR THOMPSON'S GROUP F

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Justin Tatch

    FAST GROWTH IN THE F�LNER FUNCTION FOR THOMPSON'S GROUP F JUSTIN TATCH MOORE Abstract. The purpose of this note is to prove a lower bound on the growth of Følner functions for Thompson's group F . Specifi,# (C n ) # exp n (0). 1. Introduction In this paper we will study the Følner function for Thompson

  16. Efficacy and Phytotoxicity of Sumagic (Uniconazole) for Growth Control of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    Efficacy and Phytotoxicity of Sumagic (Uniconazole) for Growth Control of Egyptian Star Star-Cluster Pentas lanceolata cv. `Butterfly Pink' REASON: Control of vegetative growth SOIL TYPE OR TYPE OF POTTING MIX: UC Mix % SAND 30 % SILT % CLAY % OM 70 pH 6.5 SEEDING DATE EMERGENCE DATE

  17. Modulation of germination, elongation growth and flowering time in plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modulation of germination, elongation growth and flowering time in plants Reference Number B69259 Background · The present invention relates to a method for modulating plant developmen- tal processes that have direct impact on plant growth and yield. · Identified genes act downstream from the gibberelic

  18. UNEDITED PREPRINT Building a dynamic growth model for trembling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    García, Oscar

    UNEDITED PREPRINT Building a dynamic growth model for trembling aspen in Western Canada without age for even-aged thinned or unthinned stands dominated by trembling aspen. Estimation used permanent sample words: Forest growth and yield, Populus tremuloides, quacking aspen, thinning, dynamical systems, TAG. 1

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER Growth and frost hardening of European aspen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Growth and frost hardening of European aspen and backcross hybrid aspen) supply influence the growth, bud phenology and frost hardening of seven young European aspen (Populus tremula) and backcross hybrid aspen ([P. tremula × Populus tremuloides] × P. tremula) families. & Results

  20. ccsd00004619, BSDE with quadratic growth and unbounded terminal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ccsd­00004619, version 1 ­ 1 Apr 2005 BSDE with quadratic growth and unbounded terminal value with quadratic growth and unbounded terminal value. We apply a localization procedure together with a priori bounds. As a byproduct, we apply the same method to extend a result on BSDEs with integrable terminal