National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for growth rates fo

  1. Bubble growth rates in boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1956-01-01

    The conditions determining the growth rate of a bubble on a surface in boiling are considered and a mathematical model framed in the light of these conditions. The growth rate is then calculated for bubbles growing under ...

  2. Eucalyptus fuelwood growth rate improves with age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eucalyptus fuelwood growth rate improves with age Dean R. Donaldson 0 Richard B. Standiford I n The two species of Eucalyptus were the fastest growing of the five tree spe- cies evaluated at Grant Street (table 1). Manna gum, Eucalyptus viminalis, al- though about a year younger, is signifi- cantly

  3. Growth Rates of Global Energy Systems and Future Outlooks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeoek, Mikael; Li, Junchen; Johansson, Kersti; Snowden, Simon

    2012-03-15

    The world is interconnected and powered by a number of global energy systems using fossil, nuclear, or renewable energy. This study reviews historical time series of energy production and growth for various energy sources. It compiles a theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding the behaviour underlying global energy systems' growth. The most extreme growth rates are found in fossil fuels. The presence of scaling behaviour, i.e. proportionality between growth rate and size, is established. The findings are used to investigate the consistency of several long-range scenarios expecting rapid growth for future energy systems. The validity of such projections is questioned, based on past experience. Finally, it is found that even if new energy systems undergo a rapid 'oil boom'-development-i.e. they mimic the most extreme historical events-their contribution to global energy supply by 2050 will be marginal.

  4. Constant Sustainable Consumption Rate in Optimal Growth with Exhaustible Resources*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Frederic Yui-Ming

    ;48 Frederic Y. M. Wan resources which are essential to the production of consumption goods. To those concernedConstant Sustainable Consumption Rate in Optimal Growth with Exhaustible Resources* By Frederic Y's criterion of maximum sustainable consumption rate, previously formulated as a minimum

  5. Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jos. B.

    primarily of greater metabolic inten- sities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient500 Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic/22/2007; Electronically Published 7/13/2007 ABSTRACT We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR

  6. Growth-rate dependent partitioning of RNA polymerases in bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Klumpp; Terence Hwa

    2008-12-11

    Physiological changes which result in changes in bacterial gene expression are often accompanied by changes in the growth rate for fast adapting enteric bacteria. Since the availability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) in cells is dependent on the growth rate, transcriptional control involves not only the regulation of promoters, but also depends on the available (or free) RNAP concentration which is difficult to quantify directly. Here we develop a simple physical model describing the partitioning of cellular RNAP into different classes: RNAPs transcribing mRNA and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), RNAPs non-specifically bound to DNA, free RNAP, and immature RNAP. Available experimental data for E. coli allow us to determine the two unknown parameters of the model and hence deduce the free RNAP concentration at different growth rates. The results allow us to predict the growth-rate dependence of the activities of constitutive (unregulated) promoters, and to disentangle the growth-rate dependent regulation of promoters (e.g., the promoters of rRNA operons) from changes in transcription due to changes in the free RNAP concentration at different growth rates. Our model can quantitatively account for the observed changes in gene expression patterns in mutant E. coli strains with altered levels of RNAP expression without invoking additional parameters. Applying our model to the case of the stringent response following amino acid starvation, we can evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of passive transcriptional control proposed to account for the observed changes in the expression of rRNA and biosynthetic operons.

  7. The growth rate of gas hydrate from refrigerant R12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendoush, Abdullah Abbas; Jassim, Najim Abid [Centre of Engineering Physics, Ministry of Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 765, Baghdad (Iraq); Joudi, Khalid A. [Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2006-07-15

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were presented dealing with three phase direct-contact heat transfer by evaporation of refrigerant drops in an immiscible liquid. Refrigerant R12 was used as the dispersed phase, while water and brine were the immiscible continuous phase. A numerical solution is presented to predict the formation rate of gas hydrates in test column. The solution provided an acceptable agreement when compared with experimental results. The gas hydrate growth rate increased with time. It increased with increasing dispersed phase flow rate. The presence of surface-active sodium chloride in water had a strong inhibiting effect on the gas hydrate formation rate. (author)

  8. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  9. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Rhiju

    Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock Enrique Rojasa,b,c , Julie A. Theriotb of pressure. Oscillatory hyper- osmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion

  10. AGE -A HEA Cancer FoRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    CANCER CANCER R REVIEW D DR ADAM B FoRs RESEARCH DOCUMENT BUTLER, RE H COVERA T ESEARCH P AGE;Cancer FoRs 5 June 2013 Page 2 BACKGROUND This document was created for the Health and Medical Research Strategic Review and attempts to outline the coverage of cancer research throughout the university

  11. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? – ? • ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at kmore »relation and nonlinearity are more pronounced for halos, M ? 5 x 10¹²Mh?¹, compared to the dark matter at z – 0 and 1. Nonlinear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean (???) away from the linear theory prediction –fLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k LT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less

  12. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Jennings, David [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? – ? • ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at kLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k LT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  13. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? – ? • ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at k<0.2hMpc?¹ to 25% at k ~ 0.45hMpc?¹ at z – 0. Both the stochastic relation and nonlinearity are more pronounced for halos, M ? 5 x 10¹²Mh?¹, compared to the dark matter at z – 0 and 1. Nonlinear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean (???) away from the linear theory prediction –fLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k < 0.1 hMpc?¹. The stochasticity in the ? – ? relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  14. Percolation model for growth rates of aggregates and its application for business firm growth Dongfeng Fu,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buldyrev, Sergey

    Percolation model for growth rates of aggregates and its application for business firm growth of business firm growth, we develop a dynamic percolation model which captures some of the features of the economical system--i.e., merging and splitting of business firms-- represented as aggregates on a d

  15. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-12-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  16. Long-run growth rate in a random multiplicative model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirjol, Dan [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-08-01

    We consider the long-run growth rate of the average value of a random multiplicative process x{sub i+1} = a{sub i}x{sub i} where the multipliers a{sub i}=1+?exp(?W{sub i}?1/2 ?²t{sub i}) have Markovian dependence given by the exponential of a standard Brownian motion W{sub i}. The average value (x{sub n}) is given by the grand partition function of a one-dimensional lattice gas with two-body linear attractive interactions placed in a uniform field. We study the Lyapunov exponent ?=lim{sub n??}1/n log(x{sub n}), at fixed ?=1/2 ?²t{sub n}n, and show that it is given by the equation of state of the lattice gas in thermodynamical equilibrium. The Lyapunov exponent has discontinuous partial derivatives along a curve in the (?, ?) plane ending at a critical point (?{sub C}, ?{sub C}) which is related to a phase transition in the equivalent lattice gas. Using the equivalence of the lattice gas with a bosonic system, we obtain the exact solution for the equation of state in the thermodynamical limit n ? ?.

  17. Constant Growth Rate Can Be Supported by Decreasing Energy Flux and Increasing Aerobic Glycolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slavov, Nikolai

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting ...

  18. GROWTH RATE OF THE SAND CRAB, EMERITA ANALOGA, (HIPPIDAE) IN TWO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GROWTH RATE OF THE SAND CRAB, EMERITA ANALOGA, (HIPPIDAE) IN TWO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS CRAIG of the present work. This study is an analysis of the growth rate in two nearby populations of the sand crab. tions are not considered here. The crab normally lives between high and low tide marks buried in sand

  19. The effect of density gradient on the growth rate of relativistic Weibel instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahdavi, M.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, the effect of density gradient on the Weibel instability growth rate is investigated. The density perturbations in the near corona fuel, where temperature anisotropy, ?, is larger than the critical temperature anisotropy, ?{sub c}, (??>??{sub c}), enhances the growth rate of Weibel instability due to the sidebands coupled with the electron oscillatory velocity. But for ??growth rate. Also, the growth rate can be reduced if the relativistic parameter (Lorentz factor) is sufficiently large, ??>?2. The analysis shows that relativistic effects and density gradient tend to stabilize the Weibel instability. The growth rate can be reduced by 88% by reducing ? by a factor of 100 and increasing relativistic parameter by a factor of 3.

  20. MHK Technologies/FO | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050Enermar < MHK Technologies Jump to:Evopod E1FO

  1. Driving Smart Growth: Electric Vehicle Adoption and OffPeak Electricity Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holsinger, Kent

    Driving Smart Growth: Electric Vehicle Adoption and OffPeak Electricity Rates Peter with either flat or variable electricity rates. Michigan's Detroit Edison Energy (DTE) early experience recharging units, free parking commensurate with lower emissions, and offpeak or flat electricity rates

  2. Field Study of Growth and Calcification Rates of Three Species of Articulated Coralline Algae in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martone, Patrick T.

    Field Study of Growth and Calcification Rates of Three Species of Articulated Coralline Algae of coralline algae. Decreases in coralline abundance may have cascading effects on marine ecosys- tems- mon species of articulated coralline algae (Bossiella plu- mosa, Calliarthron tuberculosum

  3. Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, P. Buford

    , energy sources, room for growth, and no predators, some microbial species can double in about an hourTemperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival P. Buford nutrient in ice and permafrost, with implica- tions for past or present microbial life in Martian

  4. Contributions of vital rates to growth of a protected population of American black bears

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Mike

    Contributions of vital rates to growth of a protected population of American black bears Michael S have evaluated such contributions of vital rates to l for American black bears (Ursus americanus). We sensitivity and elasticity analyses to examine the actual and potential contributions of variation of vital

  5. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kay, Steve A. [University of California San Diego

    2013-05-02

    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  6. WA_98_023_McDERMOTT_TECHNOLOGY_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Fo...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    23McDERMOTTTECHNOLOGYINCWaiverofDomesticandFo.pdf WA98023McDERMOTTTECHNOLOGYINCWaiverofDomesticandFo.pdf WA98023McDERMOTTTECHNOLOGYINCWaiverofDomesticand...

  7. Rate-dependent morphology of Li2O2 growth in Li-O2 batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horstmann, B; Mitchell, R; Bessler, W G; Shao-Horn, Y; Bazant, M Z

    2013-01-01

    Compact solid discharge products enable energy storage devices with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, but solid deposits on active surfaces can disturb charge transport and induce mechanical stress. In this Letter we develop a nanoscale continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes, based on a theory of electrochemical non-equilibrium thermodynamics originally applied to Li-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory predicts a transition from complex to uniform morphologies of Li2O2 with increasing current. Discrete particle growth at low discharge rates becomes suppressed at high rates, resulting in a film of electronically insulating Li2O2 that limits cell performance. We predict that the transition between these surface growth modes occurs at current densities close to the exchange current density of the cathode reaction, consistent with experimental observations.

  8. Implications of the recent fluctuations in the growth rate of tropospheric methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Implications of the recent fluctuations in the growth rate of tropospheric methane Isobel J] Global measurements show that the mixing ratio of tropo- spheric methane (CH4) increased by 1.1% (19 (0315, 0325) 1. Introduction [2] Methane (CH4) plays critical roles in the chemistry and radiative

  9. Effect of vitamin E and thiamin supplementation on growth rate of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swart, Jonathan Edward

    2001-01-01

    A four-month feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of added dietary vitamin E and thiamin on the growth rate, feed efficiency, and plasma vitamin E concentrations in the American alligator. Seventy-two one-week-old alligators...

  10. ON EXACT RATES OF GROWTH AND DECAY OF SOLUTIONS OF A LINEAR VOLTERRA EQUATION IN LINEAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bending quasi--statically. A su#cient condition for the trivial solution to be asymptotic stable is given is unstable, the exact rate of growth of solutions is specified. 1. Introduction In this paper we investigate. This equation is satisfied by the modes of a viscoelastic rod bending quasi--statically, as is explained

  11. Maximal Sum of Metabolic Exchange Fluxes Outperforms Biomass Yield as a Predictor of Growth Rate of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruppin, Eytan

    to CO2. CO2, the main product of cellular catabolism, was necessarily released from the cell in nearly.g., predictions of biomass yield using GEnome- scale metabolic Models (GEMs)] or notably require many empirical) in a genome-scale metabolic model. SUMEX successfully predicts relative microbial growth rates across species

  12. Violation of Invariance of Measurement for GDP Growth Rate and its Consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseiny, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim here is to address the origins of sustainability for the real growth rate in the United States. For over a century of observations on the real GDP per capita of the United States a sustainable two percent growth rate has been observed. To find an explanation for this observation I consider the impact of utility preferences and the effect of mobility of labor \\& capital on every provided measurement. Mobility of labor results in heterogenous rates of increase in prices which is called Baumol's cost disease phenomenon. Heterogeneous rates of inflation then make it impossible to define an invariant measure for the real growth rate. Paradoxical and ambiguous results already have been observed when different measurements provided by the World Bank have been compared with the ones from the central banks. Such ambiguity is currently being discussed in economy. I define a toy model for caring out measurements in order to state that this ambiguity can be very significant. I provide examples in which GDP ex...

  13. Supermassive Black Hole Growth and Merger Rates from Cosmological N-body Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslav Micic; Kelly Holley-Bockelmann; Steinn Sigurdsson; Tom Abel

    2007-03-20

    Understanding how seed black holes grow into intermediate and supermassive black holes (IMBHs and SMBHs, respectively) has important implications for the duty-cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxy evolution, and gravitational wave astronomy. Most studies of the cosmological growth and merger history of black holes have used semianalytic models and have concentrated on SMBH growth in luminous galaxies. Using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations, we track the assembly of black holes over a large range of final masses -- from seed black holes to SMBHs -- over widely varying dynamical histories. We used the dynamics of dark matter halos to track the evolution of seed black holes in three different gas accretion scenarios. We have found that growth of Sagittarius A* - size SMBH reaches its maximum mass M_{SMBH}~10^6Msun at z~6 through early gaseous accretion episodes, after which it stays at near constant mass. At the same redshift, the duty-cycle of the host AGN ends, hence redshift z=6 marks the transition from an AGN to a starburst galaxy which eventually becomes the Milky Way. By tracking black hole growth as a function of time and mass, we estimate that the IMBH merger rate reaches a maximum of R_{max}=55 yr^-1 at z=11. From IMBH merger rates we calculate N_{ULX}=7 per Milky Way type galaxy per redshift in redshift range 2

  14. Computation of Growth Rates and Threshold of the Electromagnetic Electron Temperature Gradient Modes in Tokamaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varun Tangri

    2013-01-29

    In this manuscript, eigenvalues of the Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) modes and Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) modes are determined numerically using Hermite and Sinc differentiation matrices based methods. It is shown that these methods are very useful for the computation of growth rates and threshold of the ETG and ITG modes. The total number of accurately computed eigenvalues for the modes have also been computed. The ideas developed here are also of relevance to other modes that use Ballooning formalism.

  15. Computation of Growth Rates and Threshold of the Electromagnetic Electron Temperature Gradient Modes in Tokamaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tangri, Varun

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, eigenvalues of the Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) modes and Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) modes are determined numerically using Hermite and Sinc differentiation matrices based methods. It is shown that these methods are very useful for the computation of growth rates and threshold of the ETG and ITG modes. The total number of accurately computed eigenvalues for the modes have also been computed. The ideas developed here are also of relevance to other modes that use Ballooning formalism.

  16. Crack growth rates of irradiated austenitic stainless steel weld heat affected zone in BWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.

  17. bold aspirations THE STRATEGIC PlAN FoR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bold aspirations THE STRATEGIC PlAN FoR THE UNIVERSITY oF KANSAS 2012­2017 #12;#12;bold aspirations international research university. This is the inspiration for our strategic plan. The state of Kansas demands Aspirations, the strategic plan for the University of Kansas, is the product of nearly a year of effort

  18. Influence of finite radial geometry on the growth rate of ion-channel free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahmani, Mohammad; Hamzehpour, Hossein; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-11-15

    The influence of finite radial geometry on the instability of a tenuous relativistic electron beam propagating in an ion-channel in a waveguide is investigated. The instability analysis is based on the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the perturbation about a self-consistent beam equilibrium. With the help of characteristic method the dispersion relation for the TE-mode is derived and analyzed through the numerical solutions. It is found that the positioning of the beam radius R{sub b} relative to the waveguide radius R{sub c}, and the ion-channel frequency can have a large influence on the maximum growth rate and corresponding wave number.

  19. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  20. Environmental Dependence of Dark Matter Halo Growth I: Halo Merger Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onsi Fakhouri; Chung-Pei Ma

    2009-01-23

    In an earlier paper we quantified the mean merger rate of dark matter haloes as a function of redshift z, descendant halo mass M0, and progenitor halo mass ratio xi using the Millennium simulation of the LCDM cosmology. Here we broaden that study and investigate the dependence of the merger rate of haloes on their surrounding environment. A number of local mass overdensity variables, both including and excluding the halo mass itself, are tested as measures of a halo's environment. The simple functional dependence on z, M0, and xi of the merger rate found in our earlier work is largely preserved in different environments, but we find that the overall amplitude of the merger rate has a strong positive correlation with the environmental densities. For galaxy-mass haloes, we find mergers to occur ~2.5 times more frequently in the densest regions than in voids at both z=0 and higher redshifts. Higher-mass haloes show similar trends. We present a fitting form for this environmental dependence that is a function of both mass and local density and is valid out to z=2. The amplitude of the progenitor (or conditional) mass function shows a similarly strong correlation with local overdensity, suggesting that the extended Press-Schechter model for halo growth needs to be modified to incorporate environmental effects.

  1. The trade-off between growth rate and yield in microbial communities and the consequences for under-snow soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Steven K.

    at the ecosystem and global scales, representing about half of total CO2 flux from soils (Hanson et al. 2000 of soil microbial communities. In particular, the rate and efficiency of growth determine how much CO2 unit substrate consumed) convert a larger fraction of substrate into CO2 during growth, and so respire

  2. Effects of ion abundances on electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave growth rate in the vicinity of the plasmapause

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henning, F. D. Mace, R. L.

    2014-04-15

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in multi-ion species plasmas propagate in branches. Except for the branch corresponding to the heaviest ion species, which has only a resonance at its gyrofrequency, these branches are bounded below by a cutoff frequency and above by a resonant gyrofrequency. The condition for wave growth is determined by the thermal anisotropies of each ion species, j, which sets an upper bound, ?{sub j}{sup ?}, on the wave frequency below which that ion species contributes positively to the growth rate. It follows that the relative positions of the cutoffs and the critical frequencies ?{sub j}{sup ?} play a crucial role in determining whether a particular wave branch will be unstable. The effect of the magnetospheric ion abundances on the growth rate of each branch of the EMIC instability in a model where all the ion species have kappa velocity distributions is investigated by appealing to the above ideas. Using the variation of the cutoff frequencies predicted by cold plasma theory as a guide, optimal ion abundances that maximise the EMIC instability growth rate are sought. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of H{sup +} ions, all branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the proton branch having the maximum growth rate. When the O{sup +} ion abundance in the ring current is increased, a decrease in the growth rate of the proton branch and cyclotron damping of the helium branch are observed. The oxygen branch, on the other hand, experiences an increase in the maximum growth rate with an increase in the O{sup +} ion abundance. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of He{sup +} ions, only the helium and oxygen branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the helium branch having the maximum growth rate.

  3. Effect of flow rate of ethanol on growth dynamics of VA-SWNT -Transition from no-flow CVD to normal ACCVD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Effect of flow rate of ethanol on growth dynamics of VA-SWNT - Transition from no-flow CVD a growth model [2]. In this study, the flow rate of ethanol during the CVD was controlled precisely. Figure 1 shows the growth curve of VA-SWNT film for various ethanol flow rates. In the figure, "No

  4. Effect of mono- and dichromatic light quality on growth rates and photosynthetic performance of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Konopka, Allan; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Zhang, Shuyi; Shen, Gaozhong; Bryant, Donald A.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2014-09-19

    Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was grown to steady state in optically thin turbidostat cultures under conditions for which light quantity and quality was systematically varied by modulating the output of narrow-band LEDs. Cells were provided photons absorbed primarily by chlorophyll (680 nm) or phycocyanin (630 nm) as the organism was subjected to four distinct mono- and dichromatic regimes. During cultivation with dichromatic light, growth rates displayed by Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 were generally proportional to the total incident irradiance at values < 275 µmol photons m-2 s-1 and were not affected by the ratio of 630:680 nm wavelengths. Notably, under monochromatic light conditions, cultures exhibited similar growth rates only when they were irradiated with 630 nm light; cultures irradiated with only 680 nm light grew at rates that were 60 – 70% of those under other light quality regimes at equivalent irradiances. The functionality of photosystem II and associated processes such as maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, rate of cyclic electron flow, and rate of dark respiration generally increased as a function of growth rate. Nonetheless, some of the photophysiological parameters measured here displayed distinct patterns with respect to growth rate of cultures adapted to a single wavelength including phycobiliprotein content, which increased under severely light-limited growth conditions. Additionally, the ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I increased approximately 40% over the range of growth rates, although cells grown with 680 nm light only had the highest ratios. These results suggest the presence of effective mechanisms which allow acclimation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 acclimation to different irradiance conditions.

  5. Discriminating dark energy models by using the Statefinder hierarchy and the growth rate of matter perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Rongjia; Chen, Bohai, E-mail: litianshiiiii@163.com, E-mail: yangrj08@gmail.com, E-mail: bchenphy@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Hebei University, No. 180, Wusi East Road, Baoding, 071002 China (China)

    2014-12-01

    We apply the Statefinder hierarchy and the growth rate of matter perturbations to discriminate modified Chaplygin gas (MCG), generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG), superfluid Chaplygin gas (SCG), purely kinetic k-essence (PKK), and ?CDM model. We plot the evolutional trajectories of these models in the Statefinder plane and in the composite diagnostic plane. We find that GCG, MCG, SCG, PKK, and ?CDM can be distinguished well from each other at the present epoch by using the composite diagnostic (?(z), S{sup (1)}{sub 5}). Using other combinations, such as (S{sup (1)}{sub 3}, S{sup (1)}{sub 4}), (S{sup (1)}{sub 3}, S{sub 5}), (?(z), S{sup (1)}{sub 3}), and (?(z), S{sub 4}), some of these five dark energy models cannot be distinguished.

  6. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and PACI Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  7. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - 392K) Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  8. Quantitative determination of proximal radial and ulnar growth rates in foals using orthopedic markers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barbara Lynn

    1988-01-01

    and ulna. Horse 6 both limbs 29 10 Cumulative growth of proximal radius and ulna. All horses all limbs 31 FIGURE page Cumulative growth of proximal radius and ulna. All horses left limbs 34 12 Cumulative growth of proximal radius and ulna. All horses... 27 Cumulati ve growth of radius and ulna at epiphyseal and meta- physeal levels. All horses left limbs 70 28 Cumulative growth between radius and ulna at epiphyseal and meta- physeal levels. All horses right limbs 72 29 Immediate postop...

  9. Isolation and cultivation of microalgae select for low growth rate and tolerance to high pH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isolation and cultivation of microalgae select for low growth rate and tolerance to high pH Terje microalgae, especially oceanic forms from stable pH environments (ca. pH 8.1 Æ 0.5) and large species et al., 2007). Because microalgae have species-specific differences in their upper pH tolerance

  10. Kinetic model of IIVI(001) semiconductor surfaces: Growth rates in atomic layer epitaxy T. Volkmann, M. Ahr, and M. Biehl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biehl, Michael

    be found in, e.g., Refs. 1--4. II­VI semiconductors, as a promising class of materials, have been vacuum. Specific properties of the material system and the attractive clarity of the ALE technique allowKinetic model of II­VI(001) semiconductor surfaces: Growth rates in atomic layer epitaxy T

  11. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Model for Metallic Alloys R. C. Dimitriu and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    ] expressed the crack growth rate in terms of the elastic modulus, toughness, and ductility: da dN = 32 1 2 1 2 f E(KIc - Kmax) 1 - K KIc 1 K 2 (3) where and are the fatigue ductility exponent and coefficient respectively, E is the elastic modulus, KIc is the critical stress intensity for fracture

  12. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Washoe Project, Stampede Division FERC Order Approving Extension of Non-Firm Power Formula Rate - Rate Order No. WAPA-160 (Sept. 5, 2013) (PDF - 22K) Notice of Extension of...

  13. Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tachikawa, T; Minohara, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hikita, Y.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-06-21

    We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO{sub 2} samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

  14. The effect of water content, cooling rate, and growth temperature on the freezing temperature of 4 Tillandsia species 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagar, Christopher Flint

    1990-01-01

    the exotherm initiation temperatures (EIT) of leaf sections. The effect of 2 growth temperatures (5 and 25oC) on the absolute water content and EIT of T. recurvata and T. usneoides was also determined. All p * * pt T. mb'1 ', f o t ld temperatures at 80... minimum winter temperatures of their different northern boundaries. Cooling rate affected the EIT of T. recurvata and T. d* b t t T. b~l' T. o tll . L f t of the former 2 species froze at colder temperatures when cooled at a rate of 25oC per hour than...

  15. Reduced methane growth rate explained by decreased Northern Hemisphere microbial sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai, FM; Kai, FM; Tyler, SC; Tyler, SC; Randerson, JT; Blake, DR

    2011-01-01

    rate of the atmospheric methane burden. Nature 393, 447–of global tropospheric methane. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33,M. J. in Atmospheric Methane: its Role in the Global

  16. On the scalability of BGP: the roles of topology growth and update rate-limiting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dovrolis, Constantinos

    objective is to characterize the churn increase experienced by ASes in different levels of the Internet to faster churn increase, and emphasize the importance of not rate-limiting explicit withdrawals (despite, and increasing rate of BGP up- dates (churn). Note that, in general, an increase in the routing table size

  17. Dynamic estimation of specific growth rates and concentrations of bacteria for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -digestion of several wastes (manure, sewage sludge and wastes from food processing industry) is another environmentally ­ the dilution rate and the flow rates of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas. The estimation schemes thus. Keywords: Waste treatment, Biotechnology, Observer, Estimation theory, Algebraic systems theory 1

  18. Dynamic estimation of specific growth rates and concentrations of bacteria for the anaerobic digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    measured quantities ­ the dilution rate and the flow rates of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas by microorganisms into biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) and digestate (natural manure) in the absence of oxygen [1, 2, 6]. The biogas is an additional energy source and the methane is a greenhouse gas

  19. Determination of redox reaction rates and orders by in situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-11-19

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. In addition, by comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  20. Determination of redox reaction rates and orders by in situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-11-19

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pdmore »deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. In addition, by comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.« less

  1. The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negres, R A; Norton, M A; Liao, Z M; Cross, D A; Bude, J D; Carr, C W

    2009-10-29

    Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. In this study, we focus on the effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant dependence of growth rate at 351 nm on pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns as {tau}{sup 0.3} for sites in the 50-100 {micro}m size range.

  2. The effect of substrate temperature and growth rate on the doping efficiency of single crystal boron doped diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demlow, SN; Rechenberg, R; Grotjohn, T

    2014-10-01

    The substrate growth temperature dependence of the plasma gas-phase to solid-phase doping efficiency in single crystal, boron doped diamond (BDD) deposition is investigated. Single crystal diamond (SCD) is grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD) on high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) type Ib substrates. Samples are grown at substrate temperatures of 850-950 degrees C for each of five doping concentration levels, to determine the effect of the growth temperature on the doping efficiency and defect morphology. The substrate temperature during growth is shown to have a significant effect on the grown sample defect morphology, and a temperature dependence of the doping efficiency is also shown. The effect of the growth rate on the doping efficiency is discussed, and the ratio of the boron concentration in the gas phase to the flux of carbon incorporated into the solid diamond phase is shown to be a more predictive measure of the resulting boron concentration than the gas phase boron to carbon ratio that is more commonly reported. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anderson transition at 2 dimensional growth rate on antitrees and spectral theory for operators with one propagating channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Sadel

    2015-06-15

    We show that the Anderson model has a transition from localization to delocalization at exactly 2 dimensional growth rate on antitrees with normalized edge weights which are certain discrete graphs. The kinetic part has a one-dimensional structure allowing a description through transfer matrices which involve some Schur complement. For such operators we introduce the notion of having one propagating channel and extend theorems from the theory of one-dimensional Jacobi operators that relate the behavior of transfer matrices with the spectrum. These theorems are then applied to the considered model. In essence, in a certain energy region the kinetic part averages the random potentials along shells and the transfer matrices behave similar as for a one-dimensional operator with random potential of decaying variance. At $d$ dimensional growth for $d>2$ this effective decay is strong enough to obtain absolutely continuous spectrum, whereas for some uniform $d$ dimensional growth with $denergy region. At exactly uniform $2$ dimensional growth also some singular continuous spectrum appears, at least at small disorder. As a corollary we also obtain a change from singular spectrum ($d\\leq 2$) to absolutely continuous spectrum ($d\\geq 3)$ for random operators of the type $\\mathcal{P}_r \\Delta_d \\mathcal{P}_r+\\lambda \\mathcal{V}$ on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$, where $\\mathcal{P}_r$ is an orthogonal radial projection, $\\Delta_d$ the discrete adjacency operator (Laplacian) on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$ and $\\lambda \\mathcal{V}$ a random potential.

  4. The effect of threadfin shad introduction on growth rates of largemouth bass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivings, Albert Eugene

    1976-01-01

    . Nat. Hist. Surv. 24(3):377-412. Carlander, K. D. 1956. Fish growth studies: techniques and roles in surveys and management. Trans . N . Am . Wi ldl . Conf . 21: 262-274. 1973. Handbook of freshwater fishery biology, Yol. 2, tecgemo th h ss, ~Mic o... of fishery science. Cornell Univ. Press. Ithaca. 288 pp. Grizzell, R. A. , Jr. 1965. Diuron as an aquatic herbicide. Proc. Annu . Conf . Southeastern Assoc . Game and Fish Comm . 19: 194-197 . Neman, N. L. , R. S. Campbell, and L. C. Redmond. 1969...

  5. Effects of pre-feedlot growth rate on carcass composition and meat tenderness 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brigman, Ivan Todd

    2001-01-01

    within breed type and sex to low (3.7 hd/ha), medium (5.1 hd/ha) or high (6.8 hd/ha) stocking rate (SR) pastures. Calves were fed a high-grain diet in a commercial feedlot to an approximate carcass weight of 361 kg. Carcass characteristics were measured...

  6. ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    U.S. Iron and Steel Industry steelprofile.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry Bandwidth Study U.S....

  7. Torque Generation by the Fo motor of the Sodium ATPase Jianhua Xing,* Hongyun Wang,y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oster, George

    . The Fo motor is one of the two known molecular rotary engines that derive their energy from of the protein, both of which are rotary motors. The soluble F1 portion contains the catalytic sites

  8. Effects of Context Fo Range in Perception and Production of a Lexical, Tonal Distinction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wade, Travis

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental frequency range is generally considered a variable, non-linguistic element of speech intonation. This study examined whether absolute FO is predictable based on previous intonational context and is perceptually significant. Tokyo...

  9. In situ x-ray scattering study on the evolution of Ge island morphology and relaxation for low growth rate: Advanced transition to superdomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, M.-I. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee/SP2M/NRS, CEA Grenoble, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); ID01/ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Schuelli, T. U.; Renaud, G. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee/SP2M/NRS, CEA Grenoble, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Wintersberger, E.; Chen, G.; Bauer, G. [Institut fuer Halbleiter- und Festkrperphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, 4040 Linz (Austria); Holy, V. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-15

    The kinetics of the growth of Ge superdomes and their facets on Si(001) surfaces are analyzed as a function of deposited Ge thickness for different growth temperatures and at a low growth rate by in situ grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering in combination with in situ grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. At a low growth rate, intermixing is found to be enhanced and superdomes are formed already at lower coverages than previously reported. In addition, we observe that at the dome-to-superdome transition, a large amount of material is transferred into dislocated islands, either by dome coalescence or by anomalous coarsening. Once dislocated islands are formed, island coalescence is a rare event and introduction of dislocations is preferred. The superdome growth is thus stabilized by the insertion of dislocations during growth.

  10. A physiological and morphological analysis of the effects of nitrogen supply on the relative growth rates of nine loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) clones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, Corey Michael

    2006-08-16

    The influence of nitrogen supply on relationships of relative growth rate (RGR) to leaf physiology, structural and non-structural carbon partitioning, and nitrogen- and water-use efficiencies were examined in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) clonal...

  11. Rate-Dependent Morphology of Li2O2 Growth in Li-O2 Batteries Birger Horstmann,1, 2, 3, 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Rate-Dependent Morphology of Li2O2 Growth in Li-O2 Batteries Birger Horstmann,1, 2, 3, 4 Betar continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory

  12. Fertility and rate of growth in a beef cattle herd in the 0rient of Venezuela 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Crespo, Justo Nicolas

    1978-01-01

    status upon pregnancy rate in Venezuela. They calculated adjusted means of lactating and nonlactating cows to be 54. 3~~ and 89. 2~ respect. ively. Such results have been re- ported by . , everal authors in Bolivia (Plasse et aL. , 1975 and Bauer et a... and Huertas, 1974, in Colombia and Bauer, 1973, in Bolivia). Thc negative effect of lactation upon ferti. lity seems to be related to the plane of nutrition (IViltbank et al. , 1961, 1964; Villar et al, 1975; Stonaker et al, 1975 and Bazan et al. , 1975...

  13. Exploring a new interaction between dark matter and dark energy using the growth rate of structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richarte, Martín G

    2015-01-01

    We present a phenomenological interaction with a scale factor power law form which leads to the appearance of two kinds of perturbed terms, a scale factor spatial variation along with perturbed Hubble expansion rate. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution within the parametrized post-Friedmann scheme, obtaining that the exchange of energy-momentum can flow from dark energy to dark matter in order to keep dark energy and dark matter densities well defined at all times. We combine several measures of the cosmic microwave background (WMAP9+Planck) data, baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, redshift-space distortion data, JLA sample of supernovae, and Hubble constant for constraining the coupling constant and the exponent provided both parametrized the interaction itself. The joint analysis of ${\\rm Planck+WMAP9+BAO}$ ${\\rm +RSD+JLA+HST}$ data seems to favor large coupling constant, $\\xi_c = 0.34403427_{- 0.18907353}^{+ 0.14430125}$ at 1 $\\sigma$ level, and prefers a power law interactio...

  14. Exploring a new interaction between dark matter and dark energy using the growth rate of structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martín G. Richarte; Lixin Xu

    2015-06-08

    We present a phenomenological interaction with a scale factor power law form which leads to the appearance of two kinds of perturbed terms, a scale factor spatial variation along with perturbed Hubble expansion rate. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution within the parametrized post-Friedmann scheme, obtaining that the exchange of energy-momentum can flow from dark energy to dark matter in order to keep dark energy and dark matter densities well defined at all times. We combine several measures of the cosmic microwave background (WMAP9+Planck) data, baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, redshift-space distortion data, JLA sample of supernovae, and Hubble constant for constraining the coupling constant and the exponent provided both parametrized the interaction itself. The joint analysis of ${\\rm Planck+WMAP9+BAO}$ ${\\rm +RSD+JLA+HST}$ data seems to favor large coupling constant, $\\xi_c = 0.34403427_{- 0.18907353}^{+ 0.14430125}$ at 1 $\\sigma$ level, and prefers a power law interaction with a negative exponent, thus $\\beta= -0.50863232_{- 0.40923857}^{+ 0.48424166}$ at 1 $\\sigma$ level. The CMB temperature power spectrum indicates that a large coupling constant produces a shift of the acoustic peaks and affects their amplitudes at lower multipoles. In addition, a larger $\\beta$ exponent generates a shift of the acoustic peaks, pointing a clear deviation with respect to the concordance model. The matter power spectrum are sensitive to the variation of the coupling constant and the $\\beta$ exponent. In this context, the interaction alters the scale of matter and radiation equality and pushes it away from the present era, which in turn generates a shift of the turnover point toward to smaller scale.

  15. Spectroscopic analysis of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} microwave plasma and fast growth rate of diamond single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derkaoui, N.; Rond, C. Hassouni, K.; Gicquel, A.

    2014-06-21

    One of the best ways to increase the diamond growth rate is to couple high microwave power to the plasma. Indeed, increasing the power density leads to increase gas temperature the atomic hydrogen density in the plasma bulk, and to produce more hydrogen and methyl at the diamond surface. Experimental and numerical approaches were used to study the microwave plasma under high power densities conditions. Gas temperature was measured by optical emission spectroscopy and H-atom density using actinometry. CH{sub 3}-radical density was obtained using a 1D model that describes temperatures and plasma composition from the substrate to the top of the reactor. The results show that gas temperature in the plasma bulk, atomic hydrogen, and methyl densities at the diamond surface highly increase with the power density. As a consequence, measurements have shown that diamond growth rate also increases. At very high power density, we measured a growth rate of 40??m/h with an H-atom density of 5 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup ?3} which corresponds to a H{sub 2} dissociation rate higher than 50%. Finally, we have shown that the growth rate can be framed between a lower and an upper limit as a function depending only on the maximum of H-atom density measured or calculated in the plasma bulk. The results also demonstrated that increasing fresh CH{sub 4} by an appropriate injection into the boundary layer is a potential way to increase the diamond growth rates.

  16. Exact analytical solution of the linear structure growth rate in {Lambda}CDM cosmology and its cosmological applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Pengjie [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai, China, 200030 (China)

    2011-03-15

    We derive the exact analytical solution of the linear structure growth rate in {Lambda}CDM cosmology with flat or curved geometry, under the Newtonian gauge. Unlike the well known solution under the Newtonian limit [D. J. Heath, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 179, 351 (1977)], our solution takes all general relativistic corrections into account and is hence valid at both the sub- and superhorizon scales. With this exact solution, we evaluate cosmological impacts induced by these relativistic corrections. (1) General relativistic corrections alter the density growth from z=100 to z=0 by 10% at k=0.01 h/Mpc and the impact becomes stronger toward larger scales. We caution the readers that the overdensity is not gauge invariant and the above statement is restrained to the Newtonian gauge. (2) Relativistic corrections introduce a k{sup -2} scale dependence in the density fluctuation. It mimics a primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type with f{sub NL}{sup local{approx}}1. This systematical error may become non-negligible for future all sky deep galaxy surveys. (3) Cosmological simulations with box size greater than 1 Gpc are also affected by these relativistic corrections. We provide a postprocessing recipe to correct for these effects. (4) These relativistic corrections affect the redshift distortion. However, at redshifts and scales relevant to redshift distortion measurements, such effect is negligible.

  17. Improved Performance of GaInNAs Solar Cells Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy Using Increased Growth Rate Instead of Surfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Jiang, C. S.; Romero, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    GaInNAs is potentially useful for increasing the conversion efficiency of multijunction solar cells if low photocurrents and photovoltages can be increased. Wide-depletion width devices generate significant photocurrents using an n-i-p structure grown by molecular-beam epitaxy, but these wide depletion widths are only realized in a region of parameter space that leads to rough surface morphologies. Surfactants are effective at reducing the surface roughness, but lead to increased defect densities and changes in the net acceptor or donor concentration. Here, we show that increasing the growth rate of GaInNAs solar cells leads to smooth surfaces without the use of a surfactant, even at high In compositions and substrate temperatures. No degradation in material quality is observed when increasing the growth rate from 1.5 to 3.0 {micro}m/h, but a shunt resistance does appear for the high-growth-rate samples. This shunt is attributed to increased spitting of the Ga cell, leading to an increase in the oval defect density, at the higher effusion cell temperatures used to achieve high growth rates. As with the case of Bi in GaInNAs, increased growth rates also appear to increase the net donor concentration, but it is not clear if these effects have the same cause.

  18. Growth rate of the tidal p-mode g-mode instability in coalescing binary neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinberg, Nevin N

    2015-01-01

    We recently described an instability due to the nonlinear coupling of p-modes to g-modes and, as an application, we studied the stability of the tide in coalescing binary neutron stars. Although we found that the tide is p-g unstable early in the inspiral and rapidly drives modes to large energies, our analysis only accounted for three-mode interactions. Venumadhav, Zimmerman, and Hirata showed that four-mode interactions must also be accounted for as they enter into the analysis at the same order. They found a near-exact cancellation between three- and four-mode interactions and concluded that while the tide in binary neutron stars can be p-g unstable, the growth rates are not fast enough to impact the gravitational wave signal. Their analysis assumes that the linear tide is incompressible, which is true of the static linear tide (the m=0 harmonic) but not the non-static linear tide (m=+/- 2). Here we account for the compressibility of the non-static linear tide and find that the three- and four-mode interac...

  19. COMPARING HUMAN AND MACHINE PERFORMANCE FO R NATURAL LANGUAGE INFORMATION EXTRACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COMPARING HUMAN AND MACHINE PERFORMANCE FO R NATURAL LANGUAGE INFORMATION EXTRACTION: Results the state of technology for extracting information from natural language text by machine, it i s valuable. Production of templates was performed by human analysts extracting the data from the text and structurin g it

  20. Metal ions and protein aggregation: the case fo Prion protein and -amyloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morante, Silvia

    Metal ions and protein aggregation: the case fo Prion protein and -amyloids Silvia Morante community, is the structural rôle played by metals in intra-molecular and inter-molecular interactions. Metals are essential elements for many of the fundamental activities of cells. Storing, metabolism

  1. Spectra and Growth Rates of Fluctuating Magnetic Fields in the Kinematic Dynamo Theory with Large Magnetic Prandtl Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Schekochihin; Stanislav Boldyrev; Russell Kulsrud

    2002-03-05

    The existence of a weak galactic magnetic field has been repeatedly confirmed by observational data. The origin of this field has not as yet been explained in a fully satisfactory way and represents one of the main challenges of the astrophysical dynamo theory. In both the galactic dynamo theory and the primordial-origin theory, a major influence is exerted by the small-scale magnetic fluctuations. This article is devoted to constructing a systematic second-order statistical theory of such small-scale fields. The statistics of these fields are studied in the kinematic approximation and for the case of large Prandtl numbers, which is relevant for the galactic and protogalactic plasma. The advecting velocity field is assumed to be Gaussian and short-time correlated. Theoretical understanding of this kinematic dynamo model is a necessary prerequisite for any prospective nonlinear dynamo theory. The theory is developed for an arbitrary degree of compressibility and formally in d dimensions, which generalizes the previously known results, elicits the structure of the solutions, and uncovers a number of new effects. The magnetic energy spectra are studied as they grow and spread over scales during the initial stage of the field amplification. Exact Green's-function solutions are obtained. The spectral theory is supplemented by the study of magnetic-field correlation functions in the configuration space, where the dynamo problem can be mapped onto a particular one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problem. The latter approach is most suitable for the description of the kinematic dynamo in the long-time limit, i.e. when the magnetic excitation has spread over all scales present in the system. A simple way of calculating the growth rates of the magnetic fields in this long-time limit is proposed.

  2. A cosmological exclusion plot: Towards model-independent constraints on modified gravity from current and future growth rate data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Taddei; Luca Amendola

    2014-08-15

    Most cosmological constraints on modified gravity are obtained assuming that the cosmic evolution was standard $\\Lambda$CDM in the past and that the present matter density and power spectrum normalization are the same as in a $\\Lambda$CDM model. Here we examine how the constraints change when these assumptions are lifted. We focus in particular on the parameter $Y$ (also called $G_{\\mathrm{eff}}$) that quantifies the deviation from the Poisson equation. This parameter can be estimated by comparing with the model-independent growth rate quantity $f\\sigma_{8}(z)$ obtained through redshift distortions. We reduce the model dependency in evaluating $Y$ by marginalizing over $\\sigma_{8}$ and over the initial conditions, and by absorbing the degenerate parameter $\\Omega_{m,0}$ into $Y$. We use all currently available values of $f\\sigma_{8}(z)$. We find that the combination $\\hat{Y}=Y\\Omega_{m,0}$, assumed constant in the observed redshift range, can be constrained only very weakly by current data, $\\hat{Y}=0.28_{-0.23}^{+0.35}$ at 68\\% c.l. We also forecast the precision of a future estimation of $\\hat{Y}$ in a Euclid-like redshift survey. We find that the future constraints will reduce substantially the uncertainty, $\\hat{Y}=0.30_{-0.09}^{+0.08}$ , at 68\\% c.l., but the relative error on $\\hat{Y}$ around the fiducial remains quite high, of the order of 30\\%. The main reason for these weak constraints is that $\\hat{Y}$ is strongly degenerate with the initial conditions, so that large or small values of $\\hat{Y}$ are compensated by choosing non-standard initial values of the derivative of the matter density contrast. Finally, we produce a forecast of a cosmological exclusion plot on the Yukawa strength and range parameters, which complements similar plots on laboratory scales but explores scales and epochs reachable only with large-scale galaxy surveys. (abridged)

  3. F.O. Licht's 17th Annual World Ethanol & Biofuels Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The F.O. Licht's 17th Annual World Ethanol & Biofuels Conference will be held on November 3–6, 2014, in Budapest, Hungary. Valerie Reed, Deputy Director of the Bioenergy Technolgies Office will be serving on two panels: "Maintaining Next Generation Investments in the Years Ahead" on November 4 and "Putting Together a Constant Supply of Feedstocks for Advanced and Cellulosic Biofuels, Biochemicals and Aviation Fuels" on November 5.

  4. Achieving high mobility ZnO:Al at very high growth rates by dc filtered cathodic arc deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendelsberg, Rueben

    2013-01-01

    scale heating in cathodic arc plasma deposition. Appl. Phys.modest 25-70 A dc. The arc plasma was ?ltered using aenergy of the cathodic arc plasma is utilized for ?lm growth

  5. DEMONSTRATING SLOW GROWTH RATES IN OPAL FROM Y.M.,NV, USING MICRODIGESTION AND ION-PROBE URANIUM-SERIES DATING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. PACES; L. NEYMARK; H. PERSING; J. WOODEN

    2000-07-25

    Thinly laminated (<0.01 mm) opal sheets and globules associated with calcite in fractures and cavities in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have U concentrations of 50 to 300 ppm. Previous uranium-series thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) analyses of 0.2- to 1-mm-thick subsamples resulted in a model of slow mineral growth at rates of 0.5 to 5 mm/m.y. To test this growth model using finer sampling resolution, in situ microdigestions were performed by applying a drop of hydrofluoric acid directly to opal surfaces within a small area encircled by jeweler's wax. After several minutes, the liquid was removed, spiked with a tracer solution, and analyzed by TIMS for both U and Th using a single rhenium filament with colloidal graphite. Solutions contained about 0.5 nanograms of U, equivalent to opal weights of 1 to 10 micrograms and dissolved-layer thicknesses less than 0.003 mm. Microdigested opal surfaces have Th-230/U ages of 5 to 10 thousand years (ka) in contrast to much older ages of 150 to 250 ka obtained previously from whole-globule digestions. Additional tests of the growth model were made on cross sections of identical opal globules using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) with a 0.04-mm-diameter O-minus primary beam. Counting rates for Tho-246 and U-234 varied between 5 and 70 counts per second with Th-230/Th-232 activity ratios typically much greater than a million. The Th-230/U ages in the outer 0.3 mm of the globules ranged from about 30 ka at the outer edge to 400 ka at depth. Ages correlate with microstratigraphic depths and indicate average growth rates between 0.5 and 0.7 mm/m.y. Current U-series data do not resolve differential growth rates related to climate changes during this time period. However, both microdigestion and SHRIMP results confirm the previous TIMS-based model of slow, uniform rates of mineral growth in a hydrologically stable environment.

  6. Reduce growth rate of light-duty vehicle travel to meet 2050 global climate goals This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Reduce growth rate of light-duty vehicle travel to meet 2050 global climate goals This article has of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About) 024018 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/2/024018 Reduce growth rate of light-duty vehicle travel to meet

  7. Effect of milk consumption, forage availability and cow phenotype on rate of preweaning growth of calves in a semiarid Texas rangeland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saunders, Susan Lynn

    1990-01-01

    levels were comparable with 1986 yet growth rates were considerably lower. This may be explained by a decrease in forage quality in 1987. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my committee Co-chairmen Dr. John P. Walter... environmental stress far outweigh the economic benefits in productivity attained. An alternative is to identify the breed or breed cross that is most productive in the available envimnment. Furthermore, within breeds or breed crosses there may be an optimally...

  8. Determination of redox reaction rates and –orders by in-situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-11-19

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  9. Determination of redox reaction rates and –orders by in-situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sutter, Eli A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sutter, Peter W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-03

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  10. ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

    2012-08-31

    Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both ���µCSi and ���±Si-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products�¢���� electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

  11. A comparison of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with Gasoline and Ramses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabor, J M; Volonteri, Marta; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bellovary, Jillian; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Supermassive black hole dynamics during galaxy mergers is crucial in determining the rate of black hole mergers and cosmic black hole growth. As simulations achieve higher resolution, it becomes important to assess whether the black hole dynamics is influenced by the treatment of the interstellar medium in different simulation codes. We here compare simulations of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with two codes: the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code Gasoline, and the Adaptive Mesh Refinement code Ramses. We seek to identify predictions of these models that are robust despite differences in hydrodynamic methods and implementations of sub-grid physics. We find that the general behavior is consistent between codes. Black hole accretion is minimal while the galaxies are well-separated (and even as they "fly-by" within 10 kpc at first pericenter). At late stages, when the galaxies pass within a few kpc, tidal torques drive nuclear gas inflow that triggers bursts of black hole accretion accompanied by star fo...

  12. The influence of prey consumption and demographic stochasticity on population growth rate of Isle Royale wolves Canis lupus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    efficiency is important because it links population ecology and energy flux through ecosystems (Odum 1969. For the isolated wolf population on Isle Royale, annual variation in kill rate explains 22% of the variation efficiency (ratio of production to respiration) of wolves is between 0.5% and 1.5%. More generally, we assess

  13. Crack growth rates and metallographic examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from field components and laboratory materials tested in PWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-05-05

    In light water reactors, components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This report summarizes the crack growth rate results and related metallography for field and laboratory-procured Alloy 600 and its weld alloys tested in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. The report also presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for a shielded-metal-arc weld of Alloy 182 in a simulated PWR environment as a function of temperature between 290 C and 350 C. These data were used to determine the activation energy for crack growth in Alloy 182 welds. The tests were performed by measuring the changes in the stress corrosion CGR as the temperatures were varied during the test. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. These values are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed.

  14. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, L. C.; Leousis, D. P.

    2014-03-15

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

  15. Il teatro come denuncia e strumento di espressione del popolo: " I Dialoghi" di Ruzzante e "Morte accidentale di un anarchico" di Dario Fo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zamboni, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    cancaro, la sarae stà da riso, s’a’i ligava! 20 [RUZANTE –afferma Fo, “la beffa, il riso, fanno capire molto meglio

  16. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Li, Ning [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wu, Borong [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials (China); Xu, Hongliang [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wang, Lei [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Wu, Feng [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  17. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore »around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  18. Statistical investigation of the saturation effect in the ionospheric foF2 versus sunspot, solar radio noise, and solar EUV radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yuh-Ing

    Statistical investigation of the saturation effect in the ionospheric foF2 versus sunspot, solar radio noise, and solar EUV radiation J. Y. Liu Institute of Space Science and Center for Space in the ionospheric foF2 due to sunspot number R, solar radio noise (10.7 cm) flux F10.7, and solar EUV fluxes

  19. The effect of in-situ noble metal chemical addition on crack growth rate behavior of structural materials in 288 C water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andresen, P.L.; Angeliu, T.

    1996-10-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC), especially in existing boiling water reactor (BVM) components, is most effectively accomplished by reducing the corrosion potential. This was successfully demonstrated by adding hydrogen to BNM water, which reduced oxidant concentration and corrosion potential by recombining with the radiolytically formed oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. However, reduction in the corrosion potential for some vessel internals is difficult, and others require high hydrogen addition rates, which results in an increase in the main steam radiation level from volatile N{sup 16}. Noble metal electrocatalysis provides a unique opportunity to efficiently achieve a dramatic reduction in corrosion potential and SCC in BWRs, by catalytically reacting all oxidants that diffuse to a (catalytic) metal surface with hydrogen. There are many techniques for creating catalytic surfaces, including alloying with noble metals or applying noble metal alloy powders to existing BWR components by thermal spraying or weld cladding. A novel system-wide approach for producing catalytic surfaces on all wetted components has been developed which employs the reactor coolant water as the medium of transport. This approach is termed in-situ noble metal chemical addition (NMCA), and has been successfully used in extensive laboratory tests to coat a wide range of pre-oxidized structural materials. In turn, these specimens have maintained catalytic response in long term, cyclic exposures to extremes in dissolved gases, impurity levels, pH, flow rate, temperature, straining, etc. With stoichiometric excess H{sub 2}, the corrosion potential drops dramatically and crack initiation and growth are greatly reduced, even at high O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels. Without excess H{sub 2} (i.e., in normal BWR water chemistry), noble metals do not increase the corrosion potential or SCC.

  20. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-02-21

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  1. The impact of monolayer coverage, barrier thickness and growth rate on the thermal stability of photoluminescence of coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dot hetero-structure with quaternary capping of InAlGaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandal, A.; Verma, U.; Halder, N.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2012-03-15

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupled InAs/GaAs MQDs with (In{sub 0.21}Al{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.58}As + GaAs) caps are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monolayer coverage, barrier thickness and growth rate of the dots are the factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL peaks for the samples are within 1.1-1.3 {mu}m; significant for IBSCs and lasers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NPTP (non-resonant multi-phonon assisted tunneling process) effect on FWHM of PL. -- Abstract: The self-assembled InAs/GaAs MQDs are widely investigated for their potential application in optoelectronic devices like lasers and photovoltaics. We have explored the effect of QD growth rate and structural parameters like capping layer thickness on the morphology and optical properties of the MQD heterostructures overgrown with a combination capping of InAlGaAs and GaAs. The growth rate of the seed layers in the MQD samples is also varied to investigate its effect in the vertical stacking of the islands. The change in the morphology and the optical properties of the samples due to variation in growth and structural parameters are explained by the presence of strain in the QD structures, which arises due to lattice mismatch.

  2. Birth to slaughter growth and carcass composition of Simmental-sired calves as influenced by birth season, pre-weaning stock rate, and sex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Estefan, Antonio

    1996-01-01

    of the stocker phase, cattle were transported to TAES-Amarillo for feedlot and slaughter. Fallborn calves from low stocking rates weaned heaviest (305 kg), and winter-born calves grazed at high stocking rates weaned lightest (216 kg) (P<.05). Respective...

  3. The influence of nitrogen rate and source on plant and soil properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Flake Leroy

    1959-01-01

    1000 pounds added. This d if fe ren ce in rate of in c rea se was thought to be due to gaseous lo s s o f nitrogen fr om the ammonia p lo ts . A lkali so luble nitrogen was in c rea sed approx im ate ly 250 and 200 pounds fo r each 1 0 0 0... stubble of 2 1 /2 to 3 in ches rem a ined . The harvested m a ter ia l was caught in a c o l le c t io n pan attached to the trailing edge of the cutter b a r . The f r e sh weight o f the fo ra g e p rodu ced on a 2 .5 by 17 .5 fo o...

  4. First Principles Simulations fo the Supercritical Behavior of Ore Forming Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weare, John H

    2013-04-19

    Abstract of Selected Research Progress: I. First-principles simulation of solvation structure and deprotonation reactions of ore forming metal ions in very nonideal solutions: Advances in algorithms and computational performance achieved in this grant period have allowed the atomic level dynamical simulation of complex nanoscale materials using interparticle forces calculated directly from an accurate density functional solution to the electronic Schr���������������¶dinger equation (ab-initio molecular dynamics, AIMD). Focus of this program was on the prediction and analysis of the properties of environmentally important ions in aqueous solutions. AIMD methods have provided chemical interpretations of these very complex systems with an unprecedented level of accuracy and detail. The structure of the solvation region neighboring a highly charged metal ion (e.g., 3+) in an aqueous solution is very different from that of bulk water. The many-body behaviors (polarization, charge transfer, etc.) of the ion-water and water-water interactions in this region are difficult to capture with conventional empirical potentials. However, a large numbers of waters (up to 128 waters) are required to fully describe chemical events in the extended hydrations shells and long simulation times are needed to reliably sample the system. Taken together this makes simulation at the 1st principles level a very large computational problem. Our AIMD simulation results using these methods agree with the measured octahedral structure of the 1st solvation shell of Al3+ at the 1st shell boundary and a calculated radius of 1.937���������������� (exp. 1.9����������������). Our calculated average 2nd shell radius agrees remarkably well with the measured radius, 4.093 ���������������� calculated vs. the measured value of 4.0-4.15 ����������������. Less can be experimentally determined about the structure of the 2nd shell. Our simulations show that this shell contains roughly 12 water molecules, which are trigonally coordinated to the 1st shell waters. This structure cannot be measured directly. However, the number of 2nd shell water molecules predicted by the simulation is consistent with experimental estimates. Tetrahedral bulk water coordination reappears just after the 2nd shell. Simulations with 128 waters are close to the maximum size that can effectively be performed with present day methods. While the time scale of our simulation are not long enough to observe transfers of waters from the 1st to the 2nd shell, we do see transfers occurring on a picosecond time scale between the 2nd shell and 3rd shell via an associative mechanism. This is faster than, but consistent with, the results of measurements on the more tightly bound Cr3+ system. For high temperature simulations, proton transfers occur in the solvation shells leading to transient hydrolysis species. The reaction coordinate for proton transfer involves the coordinates of neighboring solvent waters as in the Grotis mechanism for proton transfer in bulk water. Directly removing a proton from the hexaqua Al3+ ion leads to a much more labile solvation shell and to a five coordinated Al3+ ion. This is consistent with very recent rate measurements of ligand exchange and the conjugate base labilization effect. For the Al3+-H2O system results for high but subcritical temperatures are qualitatively similar to room temperature simulations. However, preliminary simulations for supercritical temperatures (750K) suggest that there may be a dramatic change in be

  5. The Very Long Run Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Lemin

    2013-01-01

    the stochastic growth of technology as the source of inter-2000. “Population, technology, and growth: From Malthusianhas constant growth rates of technology g A and g B , then g

  6. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steel. Part 2, Water flow rate effects in high sulfur plate steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, L.A; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R.; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high- sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/sec. or 4.7 m/sec. was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi- stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/sec. and 5.0 m/sec. parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity.

  7. Proposal to extend a blanket contract for the supply and maintenance fo Network-Attached Storage systems for Oracle databases and for shared file servers for the LHC experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Proposal to extend a blanket contract for the supply and maintenance fo Network-Attached Storage systems for Oracle databases and for shared file servers for the LHC experiments

  8. ARM - Lesson Plans: Rate of Coral Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Room News PublicationsClimatePast Sea LevelRainfall

  9. Mu ltip le V ie w p o in ts fo r In fo r m a tio n R e tr ie v a l A.C . C h a p in , Ja m e s C . F re n c h , W o rth y N . M a rtin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    French, James C.

    Mu ltip le V ie w p o in ts fo r In fo r m a tio n R e tr ie v a l A.C . C h a p in , Ja m e s C . F re n c h , W o rth y N . M a rtin U n iv e rsity o f V irg in ia D e p a rtm e n t o f C o m p u te r S c ie n c e h ttp ://w w w .c s.v irg in ia .e d u /~ c y b e ria A sy ste m o f m u ltip le v

  10. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  11. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    period FY2015 through 2028. Customers have a diversification right to limit the amount of power they purchase at the Load Growth rate in future years with notice provided by...

  12. Human linear growth trajectory defined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    a child’s height in its 3rd year of age is greater than thatbut its growth rate in the 3rd year is slower than that in

  13. Reaction Rate Constant for Radiative Association of CF$^+$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Öström, Jonatan; Nyman, Gunnar; Gustafsson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Reaction rate constants and cross sections are computed for the radiative association of carbon cations ($\\text{C}^+$) and fluorine atoms ($\\text{F}$) in their ground states. We consider reactions through the electronic transition $1^1\\Pi \\rightarrow X^1\\Sigma^+$ and rovibrational transitions on the $X^1\\Sigma^+$ and $a^3\\Pi$ potentials. Semiclassical and classical methods are used for the direct contribution and Breit--Wigner theory for the resonance contribution. Quantum mechanical perturbation theory is used for comparison. A modified formulation of the classical method applicable to permanent dipoles of unequally charged reactants is implemented. The total rate constant is fitted to the Arrhenius--Kooij formula in five temperature intervals with a relative difference of $10$ to $250\\:\\text{K}$, the rate constant is about $10^{-21}\\:\\text{cm}^3\\text{s}^{-1}$, rising toward $10^{-16}\\:\\text{cm}^3\\text{s}^{-1}$ fo...

  14. Internet growth: Myth and reality, use and abuse Andrew Odlyzko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odlyzko, Andrew M.

    Internet growth: Myth and reality, use and abuse Andrew Odlyzko AT&T Labs - Research amo@research.att.com http://www.research.att.com/ amo Abstract Actual Internet traffic growth rates of 100 percent per year to Internet growth claim astronomical rates of increase; the usual phrase is that "Internet traffic

  15. Energy for the future with Ris from nuclear power to sustainable energy Ris NatioNal laboRatoRy foR sustaiNable eNeRgy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy for the future ­ with Risø from nuclear power to sustainable energy Risø NatioNal laboRatoRy foR sustaiNable eNeRgy edited by MoRteN JastRup #12;Energy for the future #12;Energy for the future ­ with Risø from nuclear power to sustainable energy Translated from 'Energi til fremtiden ­ med Risø fra

  16. ECEEE 2011 SUMMER STUDY EnERgY EffiCiEnCY fiRST: ThE foUnDaTion of a low-CaRbon SoCiETY 2037 The significance of difference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Mark

    ECEEE 2011 SUMMER STUDY · EnERgY EffiCiEnCY fiRST: ThE foUnDaTion of a low-CaRbon SoCiETY 2037 The significance of difference: Understanding variation in household energy consumption Janine Morley School@comp.lancs.ac.uk Keywords socio-technical, energy behaviour, interaction, consumption dynamics, demand patterns, domestic

  17. Proceedings of the 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference GTR-NRS-P-142 251 A PReLIMINARy AboveGRoUND LIve bIoMASS MoDeL FoR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GRoUND LIve bIoMASS MoDeL FoR UNDeRSToRy HARDwooDS FRoM ARkANSAS, LoUISIANA, AND MISSISSIPPI Don C. bragg biomass and fuel loads, but few models are available to directly quantify this component. In part to determine diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), so conventional models (e.g., the National Biomass Estimators

  18. Sapienza Univ Area Offerta Fo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidoni, Leonardo

    (+39) 06 4 12968 it ZIONE COLL RAZIONE CO O FIXO S&U ento all'avviso e continuativa ti candidati son

  19. MEMORANDUM FO~~~ ATE DIRECTORS FROM:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport) | SciTech ConnectFuture3, Washington,

  20. Grazing incidence angle based sensing approach integrated with fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) spectroscopy for remote and label-free detection of medical device contaminations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Moinuddin Ilev, Ilko

    2014-10-15

    Contamination of medical devices has become a critical and prevalent public health safety concern since medical devices are being increasingly used in clinical practices for diagnostics, therapeutics and medical implants. The development of effective sensing methods for real-time detection of pathogenic contamination is needed to prevent and reduce the spread of infections to patients and the healthcare community. In this study, a hollow-core fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology employing a grazing incidence angle based sensing approach (FO-FTIR-GIA) was developed for detection of various biochemical contaminants on medical device surfaces. We demonstrated the sensitivity of FO-FTIR-GIA sensing approach for non-contact and label-free detection of contaminants such as lipopolysaccharide from various surface materials relevant to medical device. The proposed sensing system can detect at a minimum loading concentration of approximately 0.7 ?g/cm{sup 2}. The FO-FTIR-GIA has the potential for the detection of unwanted pathogen in real time.

  1. RATE OF STRAIN TENSOR STATISTICS IN COMPRESSIBLE HOMOGENEOUS G. Erlebacher 1 , S. Sarkar 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Gordon

    RATE OF STRAIN TENSOR STATISTICS IN COMPRESSIBLE HOMOGENEOUS TURBULENCE G. Erlebacher 1 , S. Sarkar examined to determine the effect of compressibility on the growth of kinetic energy and of dissipation Mach number) decrease the growth rate of the kinetic energy. This reduction in the growth rate

  2. How are mortality rates affected by population density?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lei; Di, Zengru; Roehner, Bertrand M

    2013-01-01

    Biologists have found that the death rate of cells in culture depends upon their spatial density. Permanent "Stay alive" signals from their neighbours seem to prevent them from dying. In a previous paper (Wang et al. 2013) we gave evidence for a density effect for ants. In this paper we examine whether there is a similar effect in human demography. We find that although there is no observable relationship between population density and overall death rates, there is a clear relationship between density and the death rates of young age-groups. Basically their death rates decrease with increasing density. However, this relationship breaks down around 300 inhabitants per square kilometre. Above this threshold the death rates remains fairly constant. The same density effect is observed in Canada, France, Japan and the United States. We also observe a striking parallel between the density effect and the so-called marital status effect in the sense that they both lead to higher suicide rates and are both enhanced fo...

  3. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Ti-1100 at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.C.; Nicholas, T.

    1995-12-31

    Effects of temperature, frequency, and cycles with superimposed hold times are evaluated in Ti-1100 in order to study the complex creep-fatigue-environment interactions in this material. Crack growth rate tests conducted at cyclic loading frequency of 1.0 Hz show that raising the temperature from 593 to 650 C has only a slightly detrimental effect on crack growth rate, although these temperatures produce growth rates significantly higher than at room temperature. From constant {Delta}K tests, the effects of temperature at constant frequency show a minimum crack growth rate at 250 C. From the minimum crack growth rate at 250 C, the crack growth rate increases linearly with temperature. Increases in frequency at constant temperatures of 593 and 650 C produce a continuous decrease in growth rate in going from 0.001 to 1.0 Hz, although the behavior is primarily cycle dependent in this region. Tests at 1.0 Hz with superimposed hold times from 1 to 1,000 s are used to evaluate creep-fatigue-environment interactions. Hold times at maximum load are found to initially decrease and then increase the cyclic crack growth rate with increasing duration. This is attributed to crack-tip blunting during short hold times and environmental degradation at long hold times. Hold times at minimum load show no change in growth rates, indicating that there is no net environmental degradation to the bulk material beyond that experienced during the baseline 1 Hz cycling.

  4. Logistic Growth Logistic growth is a simple model for predicting the size y(t) of a population as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Joel

    Logistic Growth Logistic growth is a simple model for predicting the size y(t) of a population the differential equation y (t) = by(t) Logistic growth adds one more wrinkle to this model. It assumes available to each member decreases. This in turn causes the net birth rate b to decrease. In the logistic

  5. The growth of business firms: Theoretical framework and empirical evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buldyrev, Sergey

    Pg(g) of business-firm growth rates. The model pre- dicts that Pg(g) is exponential in the central rate at all levels of aggregation studied. The Theoretical Framework We model business firms as classesThe growth of business firms: Theoretical framework and empirical evidence Dongfeng Fu* , Fabio

  6. FRN and Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  7. FRN & Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  8. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  9. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  10. Some factors influencing digestion and growth rates of beef steers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gossett, John Warren

    1955-01-01

    a 3 lb, JGfelfa 3 lb. Alfalfa 2 lb. Cottccs ' ~0 1 lb Salt 1 Ib Salt ~ ~ 3 lb tie~lao Xtsxs Trial ~ Esxdsar af etaora Uatriossta oosssmacl par trials Protein (lbe) Credo fiber (lb ) Ether extract (lbe) Eitrodan fros extract (1'b. ) Didcetian... ooafficden&s Credo protein, 5 Crads fibers g Ether extract, 5 Eitro~ free oxtraota $ 19e21 43. 49 6, 97 22e62 45. 49 3 e29 5, 31 24. 32 50e91 3e53 63e97 + lel4 60e27 + 1. 15 67. 74 + 0. 78 64. 51 + 2 33 77. 36 + 1 JA 73 IS + 0 74 74e30 e Oe59...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Effects of temperature on growth rate and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caron, David

    living biomass within these systems, serve as the major top­down control on bacterial assemblages, and are an important source of mortality for microalgae and other heterotrophic protists (Sanders et al., 1992; Sherr

  12. Slow growth rates of Amazonian trees: Consequences for carbon cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    m, and Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura?UniversidadIsoto´pica, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, P.O.

  13. 2004 Rate Adjustments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Transmission and Ancillary Services Federal Register Notice -- Rate Order WAPA-141: Notice of Extension of Formula Rates for Transmission and Ancillary Services If you have any...

  14. Rate Schedule CPP-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    points established by contract, in accordance with approved policies and procedures. Formula Rate: The formula rate for CPP includes three components: Component 1: The customer...

  15. Coral Extension Rate Analysis Using Computed Axial Tomography 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yudelman, Eleanor Ann

    2014-01-10

    Biological and geological studies of coral reefs often rely on measured Scleractinian coral skeletal extension rates. Ideally, corallites are oriented parallel to a coral core’s longitudinal axis and perpendicular to its annual high-density growth...

  16. Technology Policy and Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrus, Michael; Stowsky, Jay

    1997-01-01

    economic growth) and the Pentagon’s Technology Reinvestment20 Tassey, Technology and Economic Growth: Implications forTechnology Policy and Economic Growth Michael Borrus Jay

  17. 1 NCGR 2003 Connecting metabolic rate and temperature to population growth rates in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , of the Department of Energy Genomes to Life project: Carbon Sequestration in Synechococcus sp.: From Molecular. A specific challenge for this project is to integrate the biotic molecular mechanism of carbon sequestration in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus to the abiotic process of carbon cycling and ecosystem dynamics

  18. Vital Signs -For the Best Pick-Me-Up, Lie Down -NYTimes.com http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/02/health/research/02regi.html?sq=fo... 1 of 1 12/1/2008 1:38 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mednick, Sara C.

    Vital Signs - For the Best Pick-Me-Up, Lie Down - NYTimes.com http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/02/health/research/02regi.html?sq=fo... 1 of 1 12/1/2008 1:38 PM December 2, 2008 VITAL SIGNS For the Best

  19. Distributed H{sub 2} Supply for Fuel Cell Utility Vehicles Year 6 - Activity 3.5 - Development fo a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almlie, Jay

    2012-04-15

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a high-pressure hydrogen production system that reforms a liquid organic feedstock and water at operating pressures up to 800 bar (~12,000 psig). The advantages of this system include the elimination of energy-intensive hydrogen compression, a smaller process footprint, and the elimination of gaseous or liquid hydrogen transport. This system could also potentially enable distributed hydrogen production from centralized coal. Processes have been investigated to gasify coal and then convert the syngas into alcohol or alkanes. These alcohols and alkanes could then be easily transported in bulk to distributed high-pressure water-reforming (HPWR)-based systems to deliver hydrogen economically. The intent of this activity was to utilize the EERC’s existing HPWR hydrogen production process, previously designed and constructed in a prior project phase, as a basis to improve operational and production performance of an existing demonstration unit. Parameters to be pursued included higher hydrogen delivery pressure, higher hydrogen production rates, and the ability to refill within a 5-minute time frame.

  20. Somatic growth functions are critical parameters for understanding the life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    181300 Corpus Christi, Texas 78480 Wendy G. Teas Wayne N. Witzell Southeast Fisheries Science Center growth rates was tested in a population of green turtles, Chelonia mydas, in the south- ern Bahamas

  1. Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godin, Michel

    We used a suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) combined with picoliter-scale microfluidic control to measure buoyant mass and determine the 'instantaneous' growth rates of individual cells. The SMR measures mass with ...

  2. Global investments for sustainable growth in the wireless telecommunication industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuda, Osamu, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1992, NTT DoCoMo had accomplished rapid growth by developing innovative strategies and meeting consumer demands. However, the population-based penetration rate of Japanese wireless phones now ...

  3. U.S. Metropolitan Spatial Structure and Employment Growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xiaoyan

    2014-08-13

    This study explores the influence of US metropolitan spatial structure evolution on regional employment growth rate. The first part of this study investigates the evolution of US metropolitan spatial structures from 2000 to 2010. At the macro level...

  4. Internet traffic growth: Sources and implications Andrew M. Odlyzko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odlyzko, Andrew M.

    Internet traffic growth: Sources and implications Andrew M. Odlyzko University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA ABSTRACT The high tech bubble was inflated by myths of astronomical Internet traffic growth rates. Yet although these myths were false, Internet traffic was increasing very rapidly, close

  5. Lesson 22 Related Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-10-11

    Oct 11, 2013 ... A spherical weather balloon is being inflated with helium at a rate of 82 cubic meters per minute. Find the rate at which its radius is increasing.

  6. Naughton's related rates problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dominic

    2013-02-25

    Related rates (1). (1) Oil spills from a rupture container in a circular pattern whose radius increases at a rate of 2 ft/s. How fast is the area of the oil spill increasing ...

  7. Strategic Growth Initiative (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A joint venture between Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the Strategic Growth Initiative Grant Program was...

  8. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim Meco

    2004-12-19

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt-pool oscillation may be the dominant factor governing the onset of unsteady thermal conditions accompanied by varying amounts of crystalline nucleation observed near the lower limit. At high quench-wheel velocities, the influence of these oscillations is minimal due to very short melt-pool residence times. However, microstructural evidence suggests that the entrapment of gas pockets at the wheel-metal interface plays a critical role in establishing the upper rate limit. An observed transition in wheel-side surface character with increasing melt-spinning rate supports this conclusion.

  9. Controlled VLS Growth of Indium, Gallium and Tin Oxide Nanowires via Chemical Vapor Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, M.C.; Aloni, S.; McCready, D.E.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    2006-01-01

    6 Growth Rate (um/hr) Vapor Pressure (Torr) In2O3 Ga2O3 SnO2Rate (µm/hr) Metal Vapor Pressure (Torr) Crystalline phaseto the source metal vapor pressure. Initial experiments show

  10. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  11. LCC Guidance Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  12. Operational Effectiveness in Use fo BAS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bobker, M.; Joseph, M.; Ascazubi, M.; Brown, T.; Thorpe, K.; Essman, J.

    2013-01-01

    ?Collect?BAS?data?with?analytics?from?3rd party? vendor ? Not?allowed?by?university?.. ? Now?developing?system?process?from?ground?up.?? Ugh!???But?important?learning ICEBO?2013???????????????????????????CITY?UNIVERSITY?OF?NY Currently?evolving?paradigm:?2?sides?(?) ? Machine...?TMI?? guiding?focus ? KPI?for?Continuous?Improvement?process ICEBO?2013???????????????????????????CITY?UNIVERSITY?OF?NY Conclusion ? Brave?New?World?of?Building?Big?Data,?much?of?which?will?be? streaming?from?BAS.??Our?new?paradigm.?? ? Furor?&?competition?over??new?apps...

  13. Large Scale Evaluation fo Nickel Aluminide Rolls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    This completed project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem Steel (now Mittal Steel) to demonstrate the effectiveness of using nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated, energy-efficient, commercial annealing furnace system.

  14. Experimental quiescent drifting dusty plasmas and temporal dust acoustic wave growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merlino, Robert L.

    Experimental quiescent drifting dusty plasmas and temporal dust acoustic wave growth J. R. Heinrich quiescent drifting dusty plasmas and temporal dust acoustic wave growth J. R. Heinrich, S.-H. Kim, J. K report on dust acoustic wave growth rate measurements taken in a dc (anode glow) discharge plasma device

  15. The basic tenet of skeletochronology is that bone growth is cyclic and has an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States. and amphibians include double (Chin- samy et al., 1995; El Mouden et al., 1997; Guarino et's ridley sea turtles from a comparison of death date and amount of bone growth following the comple- tion-at-age and growth rates can be estimated from dimen- sions of early growth marks. These results validate

  16. Cellular growth and division in the Gillespie T. Lu, D. Volfson, L. Tsimring and J. Hasty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasty, Jeff

    Cellular growth and division in the Gillespie algorithm T. Lu, D. Volfson, L. Tsimring and J. Hasty of growth and division of the cellular volume, and demonstrate that a careful re-derivation of the Gillespie to the cellular growth rate. For an unregulated single-gene system, we illustrate our findings using recently

  17. Economic Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Indian Experience of Reforms and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    Economic Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Indian Experience of Reforms and Development Panchanan Das suggest that the faster economic growth causes higher incidence of poverty and inequality. Income inequality across regions is rising at an alarming rate due to higher economic growth during the reform

  18. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >

  19. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >

  20. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | FY

  1. Previous Power Rates (rates/current)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal PlumesPress1,Previous EventsRates

  2. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  3. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  4. Robust Growth Determinants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2011-01-31

    growth in European regions, allowing for spa- tial spillovers across regions. The robust model averaging approach can also account for spatial clustering of errors by accommodating outliers and heteroscedastic errors. In both Classical and Bayesian...

  5. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  6. Cellular growth and division in the Gillespie , Dmitri Volfson2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsimring, Lev S.

    1 Cellular growth and division in the Gillespie algorithm Ting Lu1 , Dmitri Volfson2,3 , Lev of the cellular volume, and demonstrate that a careful rederivation of the Gillespie algorithm is important when all stochastically simulated reactions have rates slower or comparable to the cellular growth rate

  7. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  8. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 3.98 4.17 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  9. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.17 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  10. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for HLH and LLH. 2. OTHER RATE PROVISIONS a. BPA Incremental Cost BPA's incremental cost will be based on an hourly energy index in the Pacific Northwest. If no adequate...

  11. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    1996-12-02

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

  12. Why is GDP growth linear?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Jörg D

    2015-01-01

    In many European countries the growth of the real GDP per capita has been linear since 1950. An explanation for this linearity is still missing. We propose that in artificial intelligence we may find models for a linear growth of performance. We also discuss possible consequences of the fact that in systems with linear growth the percentage growth goes to zero.

  13. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-09-29

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  14. Journal of Crystal Growth ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 ¼ 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used and the dissolved quantity of CO2 have a significant effect on the average particle size, specific surface areaJournal of Crystal Growth ] (

  15. Shallow melt apparatus for semicontinuous czochralski crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  16. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mok, H. S.; Murata, Y.; Kodambaka, S., E-mail: kodambaka@ucla.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebnonnasir, A.; Ciobanu, C. V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Nie, S.; McCarty, K. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we follow the growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate temperature, nucleation of graphene begins on graphene-free Pd surface and continues to occur during graphene growth. Measurements of graphene growth rates and Pd surface work functions establish that this continued nucleation is due to increasing C adatom concentration on the Pd surface with time. We attribute this anomalous phenomenon to a large barrier for attachment of C adatoms to graphene coupled with a strong binding of the non-graphitic C to the Pd surface.

  17. Daily digestible protein and energy requirements for growth and maintenance of sub-adult Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siccardi, Anthony Joseph, III

    2009-06-02

    This study utilized two diets (25 and 35% crude protein) fed at 10 different rates to produce differences in shrimp specific growth rate which were regressed against daily digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) intake to estimate daily...

  18. Eco-Growth: A Framework for Sustainable Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanco, Edgar E.

    Growth is imperative for corporate success and yet the environmental impact of this growth is not sustainable. In this paper we offer a framework for thinking about the stages of tackling the environmental sustainability ...

  19. A mechanical model of early salt dome growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Frank Albert

    1988-01-01

    salt and the upper layer representing the overlying sediment, is used to study the mechanics of growth in the early stages of salt dome formation. Three cases of this model, each representing a particular rate of removal of the surface topography..., are examined to determine which case best fits observations of salt domes in East Texas, Northwest Germany, and the North Sea. These observations include the spacing and growth rate of the dome and the amount of deformation of the sediments above the dome...

  20. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  1. Geometry of Valley Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  2. absolute reaction rate theory 156 accelerated cooled steels 3538

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    ±4 dislocation density 26±9, 70±1 distribution of carbon 71±2 driving forces 202±4 dual phase steels 358absolute reaction rate theory 156 accelerated cooled steels 353±8 acicular ferrites 237±76 forging steels 273±4 growth 240±3 inoculation 267±75 lattice matches 245 morphology 237±40 nucleation 243

  3. 1.5 Malthusian Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRETEX (Halifax NS) #1 1054 1999 Mar 05 10:59:16

    2010-01-20

    Feb 16, 2007 ... Logistic Population Model. The Malthusian growth law (1.5.1) does not provide an accurate model for the growth of a population over a long ...

  4. Real-Time, Non-Contact Plant Growth Monitoring at Microscopic Levels using 3D Laser Scanner.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, John

    Real-Time, Non-Contact Plant Growth Monitoring at Microscopic Levels using 3D Laser Scanner. M differential inspection techniques applied to plant growth monitoring. Experimental results shows growth rate of detailed plants and leaves motion. Such studies have been made on single or few leaves at a time

  5. A Minimal Model for Large-scale Epitaxial Growth Kinetics of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huijun

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition is considered to be the most promising way towards synthesizing large area graphene with high quality. However, it remains a big theoretical challenge to reveal growth kinetics with atomically energetic and large-scale spatial information included. Here, we propose a minimal kinetic Monte Carlo model to address such an issue on an active catalyst surface with graphene/substrate lattice mismatch, which facilitates us to perform large scale simulations of the growth kinetics over two dimensional surface with growth fronts of complex shapes. A geometry-determined large-scale growth mechanism is revealed, where the rate-dominating event is found to be $C_{1}$-attachment for concave growth front segments and $C_{5}$-attachment for others. This growth mechanism leads to an interesting time-resolved growth behavior which is well consistent with that observed in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  6. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding in ActinideRail betweenProtectionCurrentJobPower-Rates

  7. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | Careers |

  8. Rate Design and Renewables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | Careers

  9. Studies on the effect of 1,2-dimethyl-5-nitroimidazole on growth and reproduction in turkeys and its residual concentration in tissues 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Condren, Howard B

    1961-01-01

    ) of Broad Breasted Sronse Poults. Table 6 Mortality of Crowing Birds Receiving DNI. Table 7 Effect of . DNl on the growth of Broad Breasted White Poults Table 8 Effect of DN1 on Peed Conversion (lbs, fesd/lb. gain) of Broad Breasted White Poults Table 9...(es&116 A s . ". I oo) grig&a&I(A A ga 'Pe&I'? &K?dc ' 1 5 'I & cD 'Yf I YII( polarogt'aph equipped 1? It!? a mt . &'D Ca&Age ewi eixde r. 8188 use&i fo' ?he drug anafys fa. 18 sit&sf Iu' (Dl(t ID?us ? t h(' drug 8". &Id?i:?:. -' csrhod I . wave at...

  10. Local debts, international authority : rating agencies' emergence in regulating subnational debt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathe, Ommeed S. (Ommeed Sanjay)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores the growth of subnational debt ("SND") and the different regulatory responses to this debt. It focuses on the recent emergence of credit rating agencies (e.g. Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch) as ...

  11. Real-time variable rate Pix® application system using a plant height sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, Andy Dwayne

    2001-01-01

    . A cotton growth regulator (Pix) was applied at uniform and biomass-based variable rates in a replicated study that included two cotton fields. Plant mapping data was collected during the season. Plant heights were significantly shorter in areas...

  12. Quantitative genetics of growth, carcass-quality traits, and disease resistance in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops [female] x Morone saxatilis [male]) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaoxue

    2009-05-15

    (REML) algorithm were used to estimate variance components associated with dam, sire, and dam x sire interaction effects. Dam and sire effect on juvenile growth (weight, length and growth rates) were significant, whereas dam by sire interaction effect...

  13. FoS Faculty Recruiting FoS Guidelines for Faculty Recruitment Check-list

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Spencer

    Dean completed Recruitment "tool-kit" distributed. Conflict of Interest guidelines distributed estimate Dean's Office signoff !2. Tracking of applicant pool. Diversity Survey link received from Dean's office Survey link provided to applicants Two weeks prior to application deadline - survey results

  14. Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments Constraint in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansky, Joshua

    Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments Constraint in Mexico Carlos of a model of balance-of-payments-constrained growth for Mexico, with disaggregated exports (manufactured for the slowdown in Mexico's actual growth during the early phase of trade liberalization and macro stabilization

  15. Jointness of Growth Determinants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2006-03-14

    @cam.ac.uk, Tel: +44 1223 335200, Fax: +44 1223 335475. ‡Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 9DD, UK. Email: mw217@econ.cam.ac.uk 1 Introduction Model uncertainty is encountered in many areas of empirical work in economics... presents the empirical results for jointness of growth, and section 5 concludes. 2 Bayesian Model Averaging Consider the following general linear regression model y = X? + ? (1) where y is a (T × 1) vector of observations of the dependent variable...

  16. Growth, microstructure, and luminescent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Lowï‚— WeUpdate Jon Peschong Richland5 EOCGroveGrowth,

  17. Regional companies eye growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProtonAbout UsRegional companies eye growth Regional

  18. Energy Management Through Innovative Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so....

  19. Interface limited growth of heterogeneously nucleated ice in supercooled water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razvan A. Nistor; Thomas E. Markland; B. J. Berne

    2013-12-30

    Heterogeneous ice growth exhibits a maximum in freezing rate arising from the competition between kinetics and the thermodynamic driving force between the solid and liquid states. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the atomistic details of this competition, focusing on water properties in the interfacial region along the secondary prismatic direction. The crystal growth velocity is maximized when the efficiency of converting interfacial water molecules to ice, collectively known as the attachment kinetics, is greatest. We find water molecules that contact the intermediate ice layer in concave regions along the atomistically roughened surface are more likely to freeze directly. The increased roughening of the solid surface at large undercoolings consequently plays an important limiting role on the rate of ice growth, as water molecules are unable to integrate into increasingly deeper surface pockets. These results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms for self-assembly of solid phases that are important in many biological and atmospheric processes.

  20. Growth & Development / Parental Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Christopher J.

    the egg The hatching muscle helps the chick break out of the egg Parents typically dispose of the egg independently #12;Skeletal muscle (primarily leg and pectoral muscles) is mean source of heat #12;Energy largest mouth & loudest cries gets the most food Food delivery rates range from food every other day (or

  1. Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  2. Light-induced transcriptional responses associated with proteorhodopsin-enhanced growth in a marine flavobacterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimura, Hiroyuki

    Proteorhodopsin (PR) is a photoprotein that functions as a light-driven proton pump in diverse marine Bacteria and Archaea. Recent studies have suggested that PR may enhance both growth rate and yield in some flavobacteria ...

  3. Effect of oxygen potential on high temperature crack growth in alloy 617

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, Julian K

    2009-01-01

    The effect of oxygen partial pressure on crack growth rates in Alloy 617 has been studied using both static and fatigue loading at 650°C. Tests were conducted at a constant stress intensity factor, K, for static loading ...

  4. The effects of Bio-Mos on lamb growth and immune function 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thayne, Jeffrey Thomas

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion of Bio-Mos in the growing ration for weaned lambs on growth rate, feed efficiency, and clinical measures of health of the lambs. Mannan oligosaccharides ...

  5. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  6. Growth Termination of Carbon Nanotubes at Millimeter Thickness Due to Structural Change in Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Growth Termination of Carbon Nanotubes at Millimeter Thickness Due to Structural Change in Catalyst, it is reported that "supergrowth" rate decreases with reaction time and finally the growth terminates [2]. Our group recently reproduced "supergrowth" [3] and observed similar "supergrowth" termination within a few

  7. Fatigue-Crack Growth Behavior in the Superelastic and Shape-Memory Alloy Nitinol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Fatigue-Crack Growth Behavior in the Superelastic and Shape-Memory Alloy Nitinol A.L. McKELVEY and R.O. RITCHIE This article presents a study of fatigue-crack propagation behavior in Nitinol, a 50Ni, and constitutive behavior on crack-growth rates in NiTi.* NITINOL is a thermoelastic alloy with a composition

  8. Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest, the availability of light and nitrogen (N) limits the rate of woody plant growth in the forest understory and N to the availability of these resources could affect the species composition of forest communities. While many studies

  9. Fibrous illite in oilfield sandstones a nucleation kinetic theory of growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    Fibrous illite in oilfield sandstones ­ a nucleation kinetic theory of growth Mark Wilkinson* and R), but modelling of sandstone-like systems shows that reaction kinetics are very rapid, and not rate-limiting (Berger et al., 1997). Any model for illite growth in sandstones should offer explanations

  10. Kinetics of Mineral Dissolution and Growth as Reciprocal Microscopic Surface Processes Across

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dove, Patricia M.

    and defects of minerals and materials. Keywords: mineral, dissolution, demineralization, growth, AFM, surface scientists alike are investigating the formation and demineralization of ionic and covalently bonded phases' methods that evaluated the rates and mechanisms of growth and demineralization using indirect methods

  11. Growth performance, voluntary intake and nutrient digestibility in horses grazing Bermudagrass pastures and fed Bermudagrass hay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aiken, Glen Eris

    1986-01-01

    of horses grazing Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. ) Pers. ] pastures with no supplementation. Stocking rate treatments of 6. 7, 7. 9, 9. 5 and 12. 4 yearlings per hectare were imposed on two Bermuda- grass pastures. Average daily weight gain... Bermudagrass pastures at stocki ng rates of 6. 7, 7. 9, 9. 5 and 12. 4 yearlings per hectare. 2. Determine the relationship between growth of yearlings and the amount of forage available to them. 3. Determine the relationship between growth of yearlings...

  12. Dimension growth for C -algebras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-05-14

    Feb 6, 2007 ... its range is exhausted by simple, nuclear C?-algebras. As consequences we obtain a well developed the- ory of dimension growth for ...

  13. Precision growth index using the clustering of cosmic structures and growth data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pouri, Athina; Basilakos, Spyros; Plionis, Manolis E-mail: svasil@academyofathens.gr

    2014-08-01

    We use the clustering properties of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) and the growth rate data provided by the various galaxy surveys in order to constrain the growth index ?) of the linear matter fluctuations. We perform a standard ?{sup 2}-minimization procedure between theoretical expectations and data, followed by a joint likelihood analysis and we find a value of ?=0.56± 0.05, perfectly consistent with the expectations of the ?CDM model, and ?{sub m0} =0.29± 0.01, in very good agreement with the latest Planck results. Our analysis provides significantly more stringent growth index constraints with respect to previous studies, as indicated by the fact that the corresponding uncertainty is only ? 0.09 ?. Finally, allowing ? to vary with redshift in two manners (Taylor expansion around z=0, and Taylor expansion around the scale factor), we find that the combined statistical analysis between our clustering and literature growth data alleviates the degeneracy and obtain more stringent constraints with respect to other recent studies.

  14. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  15. Commercial Building Asset Rating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides from a Commercial Building Initiative webinar outlining the Commercial Building Asset Rating Program on August 23, 2011.

  16. Methane oxidation rates by AMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pack, M; Heintz, M; ReeburGh, WS; Trumbore, SE; Valentine, DL; Xu, X

    2009-01-01

    second case. Number of cases Methane oxidation rates by AMSIn the marine environment methane (CH 4 ) oxidation consumes

  17. Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

  18. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System:...

  19. Growth management and sustainable transport: Do growth management policies promote transit use? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deal, Brian; Kim, Jae H; Chackraborty, Arnab

    2009-01-01

    4). Figure 4. Sustainable Growth Management and TransportIntegration Growth Management and Sustainable Transport2004. Do state growth management regulations reduce sprawl?

  20. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, R.V.; Parida, B.K.

    1995-12-31

    Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441 having a marginally lower lithium content, compared to 80xx and 20xx series Al-Li alloys is presented in this paper. This investigation was conducted on single edge tension--SE(T)--specimens, under constant amplitude as well as under MiniLCA flight spectrum loading with the specific objective of determining the effects of stress ratio, orientation, thickness and cladding. Three thicknesses were considered: 1.2 mm(clad and unclad), 2.0 mm(clad and unclad) and 8.0 mm unclad. Constant amplitude fatigue tests were conducted at stress ratios of {minus}0.3, 0.1 and 0.7. Testing was performed under ambient conditions and along three orientations, namely L-T, T-L and L+45 degrees. Crack growth characteristics of this alloy are compared with that of BS:L73 (2014-T4 equivalent) for assessing the possibility of replacing BS:L73. Significant effect of stress ratio on crack growth rate was observed in all thicknesses. However, in case of 1.2 and 2.0 mm thick sheets, the effect was minimal at intermediate-crack growth regime. The orientation of the specimen does not adversely affect the fatigue crack growth behavior of 8.0 mm and 2.0 mm thick specimens. However, for 1.2 mm unclad sheet crack growth resistance in L-T direction was found to be superior to that along T-L direction. In majority of test cases considered, no significant effect was observed on crack growth rate due to thickness or cladding. Crack growth characteristics of Al-Li alloy 1441 and Al-Cu alloy BS:L73 under constant amplitude as well as MiniLCA spectrum loading are similar in the low and intermediate-crack growth rate regime. Based on these observations, it is felt that this Al-Li alloy has the potential for future aerospace applications.

  1. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  2. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  3. Logistic Growth The logistic equation is a model of limited population growth. The exponential growth model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikenaga, Bruce

    9­28­1998 Logistic Growth The logistic equation is a model of limited population growth of organisms runs out of food, encounters predators, or fouls its own environment with waste. The logistic the carrying capacity. Example. A population of roaches grows logistically in Calvin Butterball's kitchen

  4. Modeling carbon nanotube growth on the catalyst-substrate surface subjected to reactive plasma [

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2014-06-15

    The paper presents a theoretical model to study the growth of the carbon nanotube (CNT) on the catalyst substrate surface subjected to reactive plasma. The charging rate of the CNT, kinetics of electron, ions and neutral atoms, the growth rate of the CNT because of diffusion and accretion of ions on the catalyst nanoparticle inclusion of the issue of the plasma sheath is undertaken in the present model. Numerical calculations on the effect of ion density and temperature and the substrate bias on the growth of the CNT have been carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that the height of CNT increases with the ion density of carbon ions and radius of CNT decreases with hydrogen ion density. The substrate bias also affects the growth rate of the CNT. The field emission characteristics from the CNTs can be analyzed from the results obtained.

  5. LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2014/15 SUBSCRIPTION RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2014/15 SUBSCRIPTION RATES LMS membership subscription: £ US.00 Associate membership 16.00 32.00 Free membership (see note 2) Print only Online only Print & online* LMS, or are unemployed or otherwise in hardship. Contact membership@lms.ac.uk to enquire further. #12;LMS PUBLICATIONS 4

  6. LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2013/14 SUBSCRIPTION RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2013/14 SUBSCRIPTION RATES LMS membership subscription: £ US.00 Associate membership 15.00 30.00 Free membership (see note 2) Print only Online only Print & online* LMS, or are unemployed or otherwise in hardship. Contact membership@lms.ac.uk to enquire further. #12;LMS PUBLICATIONS 4

  7. Upper Great Plains Rates information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 2014 (112 KB .pdf) FRN Notice of Proposed Transmission and Ancillary Services Formula Rates November 3, 2014 (93 KB .pdf) SPP Membership Information Integrated System (IS)...

  8. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  9. Growth machine theory: a qualitative analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Gavin Paul

    1993-01-01

    of land inherent in growth machine theory, does not necessarily result in a dialectic, win-lose situation. Furthermore, it is argued that the growth coalition may not always ado t a unidimensional roach to development where further growth...

  10. The Annual Growth In Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtright, J. E.

    1903-01-01

    KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection The Annual Growth In Plants 1903 by J. E. Courtright This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center...

  11. Growth of filaments and saturation of the filamentation instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gedalin, M.; Medvedev, M.; Spitkovsky, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Vaivads, A.; Perri, S.

    2010-03-15

    The filamentation instability of counterstreaming beams is a nonresonant hydrodynamic-type instability whose growth rate is a smooth function of the wavelength (scale). As a result, perturbations with all unstable wavelengths develop, and the growth saturates due to the saturation of available current. For a given scale, the magnetic field at saturation is proportional to the scale. As a result, the instability develops in a nearly linear regime, where the unstable modes stop growing as soon as the saturation of the corresponding wavelength is reached. At each moment there exists a dominant scale of the magnetic field which is the scale that reached saturation at this particular time. The smaller scales do not disappear and can be easily distinguished in the current structure. The overall growth of the instability stops when the loss of the streaming ion energy because of deceleration is comparable to the initial ion energy.

  12. Lid for improved dendritic web growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Charles S. (Penn Hills, PA); Kochka, Edgar L. (Greentree, PA); Piotrowski, Paul A. (Monroeville, PA); Seidensticker, Raymond G. (Forest Hills, PA)

    1992-03-24

    A lid for a susceptor in which a crystalline material is melted by induction heating to form a pool or melt of molten material from which a dendritic web of essentially a single crystal of the material is pulled through an elongated slot in the lid and the lid has a pair of generally round openings adjacent the ends of the slot and a groove extends between each opening and the end of the slot. The grooves extend from the outboard surface of the lid to adjacent the inboard surface providing a strip contiguous with the inboard surface of the lid to produce generally uniform radiational heat loss across the width of the dendritic web adjacent the inboard surface of the lid to reduce thermal stresses in the web and facilitate the growth of wider webs at a greater withdrawal rate.

  13. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-21

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  14. Cosmic Growth History and Expansion History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linder, Eric V.

    2009-01-01

    LBNL- 58260 Cosmic Growth History andExpansion History Eric V. Linder Physics Division, LawrenceCalifornia. Cosmic Growth History and Expansion History Eric

  15. A Statistical Physics Perspective on Web Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. L. Krapivsky; S. Redner

    2002-06-07

    Approaches from statistical physics are applied to investigate the structure of network models whose growth rules mimic aspects of the evolution of the world-wide web. We first determine the degree distribution of a growing network in which nodes are introduced one at a time and attach to an earlier node of degree k with rate A_ksim k^gamma. Very different behaviors arise for gamma1. We also analyze the degree distribution of a heterogeneous network, the joint age-degree distribution, the correlation between degrees of neighboring nodes, as well as global network properties. An extension to directed networks is then presented. By tuning model parameters to reasonable values, we obtain distinct power-law forms for the in-degree and out-degree distributions with exponents that are in good agreement with current data for the web. Finally, a general growth process with independent introduction of nodes and links is investigated. This leads to independently growing sub-networks that may coalesce with other sub-networks. General results for both the size distribution of sub-networks and the degree distribution are obtained.

  16. On the origin of radiation growth of hcp crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golubov, Stanislav I; Barashev, Aleksandr; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work is to study theoretically the radiation growth (RG) of hcp-type materials with a particular focus on the effect of one-dimensionally (1-D) migrating clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), which are steadily produced in displacement cascades under neutron or heavy-ion irradiation. A reaction-diffusion model is developed for the description of RG in single hcp-type metallic crystals. The model reproduces all RG stages observed in neutron-irradiated annealed samples of pure Zr and Zr alloys, such as high strain rate at low, strain saturation at intermediate and breakaway growth at relatively high irradiation doses. In addition, it accounts for the striking observations of negative strains in prismatic directions and coexistence of vacancy- and SIA-type prismatic loops. The role of cold work in RG behavior and alignment of the vacancy-type loops along basal planes are revealed and the maximum strain rate is estimated.

  17. Biological Electric Fields and Rate Equations for Biophotons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Alvermann; Y. N. Srivastava; J. Swain; A. Widom

    2014-04-13

    Ultraweak bioluminescence - the emission of biophotons - remains an experimentally well-established, but theoretically poorly understood phenomenon. This paper presents several related investigations into the physical process of both spontaneous biophoton emission and delayed luminescence. Since light intensities depend upon the modulus squared of their corresponding electric fields we first make some general estimates about the inherent electric fields within various biological systems. Since photon emission from living matter following an initial excitation ("delayed luminescence") typically does not follow a simple exponential decay law after excitation we discuss such non-exponential decays from a general theoretical perspective and argue that they are often to be expected and why. We then discuss the dynamics behind some nonlinear rate equations, connecting them both to biological growth rates and biophoton emission rates, noting a possible connection with cancer. We then return to non-exponential decay laws seen for delayed luminescence in an experimental context and again note a possible connection with cancer.

  18. Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Letter to South Texas Electric Coop., Inc requesting an extension of the existing rate formula FalconAmistad WAPA-143 FERC Approval FalconAmistad Published WAPA-143 Falcon...

  19. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2003-08-01

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that ...

  20. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2004-11-30

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that stock market prices are correlated ...

  1. High repetition rate fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

  2. High compression rate text summarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

  3. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori; Davidson, Carolyn; McLaren, Joyce; Miller, John

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  4. Ion and electron beam assisted growth of nanometric SimOn structures for near-field microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    Ion and electron beam assisted growth of nanometric SimOn structures for near-field microscopy E. J-field optical probes by both ion beam and electron beam assisted deposition techniques IBAD and EBAD . The ion beam provides a higher SimOn growth rate than the electron beam, though the undesirable implantation

  5. Internet growth: Is there a "Moore's Law" for data traffic? K. G. Coffman and A. M. Odlyzko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odlyzko, Andrew M.

    Internet growth: Is there a "Moore's Law" for data traffic? K. G. Coffman and A. M. Odlyzko AT Internet traffic is approximately doubling each year. This growth rate applies not only to the entire Internet, but to a large range of individual institutions. For a few places we have records going back

  6. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  7. Coccolith Sr/Ca as a new indicator of coccolithophorid calcification and growth rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrag, Daniel

    . Stoll Department of Geology, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Asturias 33005, Spain (heather.stoll@asturias

  8. Measuring Root Growth Response to Nitrogen Fertilization Rates in Young Pecan Seedlings Using the Minirhizotron Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, Paige

    2014-11-25

    Pecan is an important nut crop in Texas and the United States. Increased demand for pecan exports has created an interest for new and current growers to plant new orchards. Nitrogen (N) application is an important step in establishing a productive...

  9. Human Disturbance Influences Reproductive Success and Growth Rate in California Sea Lions (Zalophus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Leah R.

    . To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental States of America, 2 Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated

  10. A determination of in vivo growth rates for Perkinsus marinus, a parasite of Crassostrea virginica 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saunders, Georgianna L

    1992-01-01

    in the oyster at time of death was assayed using an amino acid analyzer. A 500 ltl aliquot of the oyster homogenate, frozen immediately following homogenization, was treated with 500 ltl of 10% v/v trichloroacetic acid (TCA) at 4cC for 30 minutes. The extent... to measurement on the liquid scintillation counter. The specific activity of the free aspartic acid in the oyster at the time of death was calculated by dividing the molar concentration of the free t~C-aspartic acid by the molar concentration of the total free...

  11. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater and marine algae: II. Temperature and nitrogen limited growth rate effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachs, Julian P.

    Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater and marine algae: II. Temperature and nitrogen limited Accepted 7 November 2008 Available online 17 November 2008 a b s t r a c t Zhang and Sachs [Hydrogen. Introduction Hydrogen isotope ratios in plant and algal lipids from sediments are increasingly used

  12. Growth Rate of Marine Microalgal Species using Sodium Bicarbonate for Biofuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gore, Matthew

    2013-08-05

    With additional research on species characteristics and continued work towards cost effective production methods, algae are viewed as a possible alternative biofuel crop to current feedstocks such as corn. Current open pond production methods...

  13. Apparent differences in stochastic growth rates based on timing of census: a cautionary note

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockwell, Robert F.

    ´ Laval, Ste-Foy, Quebec, Canada G1K 7P4 c Department of Ornithology, American Museum of Natural History) is often deter- mined by logistical constraints. In many cases, field studies focus on post-breeding census

  14. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER A comparison of specific growth rates of periphytic diatoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 1977; Tilman et al., 1981, 1986; van Donk & Kilham, 1990; Wood & Leatham, 1992; Descamps or contaminations with toxicants. This stud

  15. Effects of flow regime on growth rate in freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyron, Mark

    . Jacquemin & Jason C. Doll & Mark Pyron & Michael Allen & Dustin A. S. Owen Received: 21 January 2014. Doll :M. Pyron :M. Allen Aquatic Biology and Fisheries Center, Department of Biology, Ball State

  16. Reduced Heart Rate and Cardiac Output Differentially Affect Angiogenesis, Growth, and Development in Early

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burggren, Warren

    pressure as well as circumferential stretch (tension) in compliant vessels through the fluctuating blood circulation chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). To test this hypothesis, angiogenesis in the CAM, development and dry body mass decreased by 20%). CAM vessel density index (reflecting an- giogenesis) measured 200

  17. Pulses of marine subsidies amplify reproductive potential of lizards by increasing individual growth rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    EV-1 Pulses of marine subsidies amplify reproductive potential of lizards by increasing individual into the relationship between individual traits and population responses. Here we investigated how pulsed marine

  18. Size-dependent standard deviation for growth rates: Empirical results and theoretical modeling Boris Podobnik*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podobnik, Boris

    , Croatia; Zagreb School of Economics and Management, Zagreb, Croatia; and Center for Polymer Studies of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Fabio Pammolli Faculty of Economics

  19. Long-run growth rate in a random multiplicative model (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy ofArticle) | SciTechPrinciples and(TechnicalSimultaneous In

  20. Increasing plant growth by modulating omega-amidase expression in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2015-06-30

    The present disclosure relates to compositions and methods for increasing the leaf-to-root ratio of the signal metabolite 2-oxoglutaramate and related proline molecules in plants by modulating levels of .omega.-amidase to increase nitrogen use efficiency, resulting in enhanced growth, faster growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields.

  1. Bi flux-dependent MBE growth of GaSbBi alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rajpalke, M. K.; Linhart, W. M.; Yu, K. M.; Jones, T. S.; Ashwin, M. J.; Veal, T. D.

    2015-09-01

    The incorporation of Bi in GaSb1-xBix alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated as a function of Bi flux at fixed growth temperature (275 °C) and growth rate (1 ?m h?¹). The Bi content is found to vary proportionally with Bi flux with Bi contents, as measured by Rutherford backscattering, in the range 0more »with a reduction of ~32 meV/%Bi.« less

  2. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  3. SBA Growth Accelerator Fund Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is accepting applications for the Growth Accelerator Fund Competition to identify the nation's innovative accelerators and similar organizations and award them cash prizes they may use to fund their operations costs and allow them to bring startup competitions to scale and new ideas to life.

  4. Graphene Growth and Device Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INVITED P A P E R Graphene Growth and Device Integration This paper describes one of the emerging methods for growing grapheneVthe chemical vapor deposition methodVwhich is based on a catalytic reaction, Fellow IEEE, Robert M. Wallace, Fellow IEEE, and Rodney S. Ruoff ABSTRACT | Graphene has been introduced

  5. Effects of catalyst film thickness on plasma-enhanced carbon nanotube growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmann, S.; Cantoro, M.; Kleinsorge, B.; Casiraghi, C.; Parvez, A.; Robertson, J.; Ducati, C.

    2005-08-01

    A systematic study is presented of the influence of catalyst film thickness on carbon nanostructures grown by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition from acetylene and ammonia mixtures. We show that reducing the Fe/Co catalyst film thickness below 3 nm causes a transition from larger diameter (>40 nm), bamboolike carbon nanofibers to small diameter ({approx}5 nm) multiwalled nanotubes with two to five walls. This is accompanied by a more than 50 times faster growth rate and a faster catalyst poisoning. Thin Ni catalyst films only trigger such a growth transition when pretreated with an ammonia plasma. We observe a limited correlation between this growth transition and the coarsening of the catalyst film before deposition. For a growth temperature of {<=}550 deg. C, all catalysts showed mainly a tip growth regime and a similar activity on untreated silicon, oxidized silicon, and silicon nitride support.

  6. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  7. Initial Studies Toward Real-Time Transmission Path Rating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ruchi; Diao, Ruisheng; Cai, Niannian; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuck, Brian; Guo, Xinxin

    2012-07-26

    Demand continues to increase while transmission line construction is being constrained by multiple factors— economic, environmental, and political. Effective and efficient utilization of transmission lines is thus of great importance in an open access environment. Large blocks of power are transferred from areas with inexpensive generation to heavy load demand areas or areas with high generation costs. This results in some transmission paths being loaded closer to their path ratings, which limits further power transfer between areas. Traditionally, rating of important paths was determined off line by assuming the worst-case study scenario; once determined, it could be used for years. With increasing uncertainty arising from rapid growth of renewable energy and smart technologies, path rating studies are needed in near-real time to account for the latest system status and support a reliable and economic power grid. This paper adopts a simplified procedure based on standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to determine total transfer capability (TTC) or transfer limit for the purpose of demonstrating the benefits and necessity of real-time path rating. Initial studies are conducted to compute TTC of a two-area test system and a 39-bus test system. Results indicate that path rating can be significantly affected by loading conditions, generator schedules, system topology and other factors.

  8. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  9. MEDICAL RATES for Active Employees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    -time, your base salary is calculated on the full-time equivalent. For example, if you are at an appointment percentage of 50% and earn $12,000 per year, your base salary is $24,000 and UNM would contribute 40%. UNM Health-Bi-Weekly Rates Annualized Salary $34,999 and below Annualized Salary $35,000 - $49,999 Annualized

  10. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew (Shoreham, NY); Falkowski, Paul (Stony Brook, NY)

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  11. Root responses of Tifway bermudagrass to nitrogen application rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilstrap, David Murphy

    1992-01-01

    both soil-nitrate utilization and water-use efficiency. Texas turfgrass specialists recommend that one-time applications of water soluble N not exceed 49 kg N/ha (1 lb N/1, 000 ft'); this recommendation is supported mainly by cool-season turfgrass... research. This field study was conducted to assess root growth following ammonium nitrate fertilization. Seven N rates (0, 24, 49, 73, 98, 146, and 195 kg N/ha) in four replications were applied once to established Tifway bermudagrass grown on a...

  12. Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials instead of from vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Puretzky, Alex A. (Knoxville, TN); Fan, Xudong (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-10-19

    Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed phase matrix material instead of from vapor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

  13. Contribution of radicals and ions in catalyzed growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes from low-temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marvi, Z.; Xu, S.; Foroutan, G.; Ostrikov, K.

    2015-01-15

    The growth kinetics of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a low-temperature, low-pressure reactive plasma is investigated using a multiscale numerical simulation, including the plasma sheath and surface diffusion modules. The plasma-related effects on the characteristics of SWCNT growth are studied. It is found that in the presence of reactive radicals in addition to energetic ions inside the plasma sheath area, the effective carbon flux, and the growth rate of SWCNT increase. It is shown that the concentration of atomic hydrogen and hydrocarbon radicals in the plasma plays an important role in the SWCNT growth. The effect of the effective carbon flux on the SWCNT growth rate is quantified. The dependence of the growth parameters on the substrate temperature is also investigated. The effects of the plasma sheath parameters on the growth parameters are different in low- and high-substrate temperature regimes. The optimum substrate temperature and applied DC bias are estimated to maximize the growth rate of the single-walled carbon nanotubes.

  14. Method for crystal growth control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Douglas A. (Burlington, MA); Hatch, Arthur E. (Waltham, MA); Goldsmith, Jeff M. (Medford, MA)

    1981-01-01

    The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

  15. Nutritional Modulations of Piglet Growth and Survival 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rezaei, Reza

    2012-02-14

    on mortality, growth performance, and efficiency of sow-reared piglets; and 2) determine the effects of a phytochemical (Yucca schidigera) on growth performance of postweaning pigs. In the first experiment, piglets (n=160) from 18 multiparous sows (Landrace X...

  16. New Partners for Smart Growth Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Partners for Smart Growth Conference is the nation's largest smart growth and sustainability conference. The three-day conference is themed, "Practical Tools and Innovative Strategies for Creating Great Communities."

  17. Stress corrosion crack growth in porous sandstones. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojala, Ira O

    Stress corrosion crack growth occurs when the chemical weakening of strained crack tip bonds facilitates crack propagation. I have examined the effect of chemical processes on the growth of a creack population by carrying out triaxial compression...

  18. Electric Rate Alternatives to Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, K. R. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    ALTERNATIVES TO COGENERATION" K. R. SANDBERG, JR. INDUSTRIAL ACCOUNTS MANAGER - TEXAS GULF STATES UTILITIES COMPANY BEAUMONT, TEXAS ABSTRACT This paper discusses electric rate slternatives to cogeneration for the industrisl customer and attempts... electricity to municipalities and rural electric cooperatives in both Texas and Louisiana. In Baton Rouge. GSU supplies steam and electricity to a large industrial customer through a cogeneration facility that the company has had in operation since...

  19. Chemical beam epitaxy growth of III–V semiconductor nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohummed Noori, Farah T. [University of Baghdad , College of science, Physics department , Jadiriya ,Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-12-16

    Indium- Arsenide (InAs) nanowires were grown in a high vacuum chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) unit on InAs(111) wafers substrates at 425–454°C. Two types of nanogold were used as orientation catalyst, 40nm and 80nm. The measurements were performed using scanning electron microscopy showed that uniform nanowires. The nanowires orient vertically in the InAs nanowire scanning electron microscopy of an array 80nm diameter InAs nanowire with length is in the range 0.5–1 ?m and of an array 40nm diameter with length is in the range 0.3–0.7?m. The nanowire length with growth time shows that the linear increase of nanowires start to grow as soon as TMIn is available. The growth rate with temperature was studied.

  20. Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansky, Joshua

    Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012 Carlos structural changes in the composition of Mexico's trade and the parameters that affect it across five-of-payments constraint may account for the post-liberalization slowdown in Mexico's growth only during certain subperiods

  1. Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlini, David

    Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012 Carlos in Mexico's growth only during certain subperiods of the post-liberalization era, and that the impact the recent crisis), Mexico stands out for having fully embraced trade liberalization and undergoing deep

  2. Cooling rate, heating rate and aging effects in glassy water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Giovambattista; H. Eugene Stanley; Francesco Sciortino

    2004-03-03

    We report a molecular dynamics simulation study of the properties of the potential energy landscape sampled by a system of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process of regenerating the equilibrium liquid by heating the glass. We study the dependence of these processes on the cooling/heating rates as well as on the role of aging (the time elapsed in the glass state). We compare the properties of the potential energy landscape sampled during these processes with the corresponding properties sampled in the liquid equilibrium state to elucidate under which conditions glass configurations can be associated with equilibrium liquid configurations.

  3. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0Photos and Videos Videos Re-EntryApproval OMB No.:Rates

  4. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power are

  5. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power

  6. October 2001 - September 2006 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power1 -

  7. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power1

  8. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power13 -

  9. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power13

  10. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power135

  11. WP-07 Rate Case Workshops (rates/meetings)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02) nerg *415,Rates > Meetings &

  12. Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardsley, John

    Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario, Leonid Kalachev Marko Laine, Lappeenranta University of the phenomena studied. Here, in the case of algae growth modelling, we show how a systematic model reduction may: Algae growth modelling, asymptotic methods, model reduction, MCMC, Adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo. 1

  13. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive CompensationEnergyGetDepartment1Sustained Pumping at2009ofGrowth

  14. GALAXY GROWTH BY MERGING IN THE NEARBY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Tao; Hogg, David W.; Blanton, Michael R., E-mail: david.hogg@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We measure the mass growth rate by merging for a wide range of galaxy types. We present the small-scale (0.014 h {sup -1} {sub 70} Mpc < r < 11 h {sub 70} {sup -1} Mpc) projected cross-correlation functions w(r {sub p}) of galaxy subsamples from the spectroscopic sample of the NYU Value-Added Galaxy Catalog (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} galaxies of redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.15) with galaxy subsamples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging (4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} galaxies). We use smooth fits to de-project the two-dimensional functions w(r {sub p}) to obtain smooth three-dimensional real-space cross-correlation functions {xi}(r) for each of several spectroscopic subsamples with each of several imaging subsamples. Because close pairs are expected to merge, the three-space functions and dynamical evolution time estimates provide galaxy accretion rates. We find that the accretion onto massive blue galaxies and onto red galaxies is dominated by red companions, and that onto small-mass blue galaxies, red and blue galaxies make comparable contributions. We integrate over all types of companions and find that at fixed stellar mass, the total fractional accretion rates onto red galaxies ({approx}3 h {sub 70} percent per Gyr) are greater than that onto blue galaxies ({approx}1 h {sub 70} percent per Gyr). These rates are almost certainly overestimates because we have assumed that all close pairs merge as quickly as the merger time that we used. One conclusion of this work is that if the total growth of red galaxies from z = 1 to z = 0 is mainly due to merging, the merger rates must have been higher in the past.

  15. Rate Schedule CV-SPR4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that is available immediately to serve load and is synchronized with the power system. Formula Rate: The formula rate for spinning reserve includes three components: Component 1:...

  16. Rate Schedule CV-SUR4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    within the first 10 minutes to take load and is synchronized with the power system. Formula Rate: The formula rate for supplemental reserve service includes three components:...

  17. Rate Schedule COTP-T3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and system control and dispatch service needed to support the transmission service. Formula Rate: The formula rate for COTP firm and non-firm PTP transmission service includes...

  18. Rate Schedule CV-NWT5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and system control and dispatch service needed to support the transmission service. Formula Rate: The formula rate for CVP NITS includes three components: Component 1: The NITS...

  19. Rate Schedule PACI-T3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and system control and dispatch service needed to support the transmission service. Formula Rate: The formula rate for PACI firm and non-firm transmission includes three...

  20. Rate Schedule CV-RFS4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    load and for maintaining scheduled interconnection frequency at 60-cycles per second. Formula Rate: The formula rate for regulation includes three components: Component 1: Annual...

  1. Rate Schedule CV-EID4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that is established in the service agreement or Interconnected Operations Agreements. Formula Rate: The formula rate for EI service includes three components: Component 1: EI...

  2. Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and Developing New Growth Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change...

  3. Coastal and Waterfront Smart Growth and Hazard Mitigation Roundtable Report Coastal and Waterfront Smart Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Coastal and Waterfront Smart Growth and Hazard Mitigation Roundtable Report Coastal and Waterfront Smart Growth and Hazard Mitigation Roundtable Report Achieving Hazard-Resilient Coastal & Waterfront Smart Growth #12;2 Achieving Hazard-Resilient Coastal & Waterfront Smart Growth www

  4. Evolution of the galaxy merger rate in model universes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abilio Mateus

    2008-02-20

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy merger rate predicted by two semi-analytical galaxy formation models implemented on the Millennium Simulation of dark matter structure growth. The fraction of merging galaxy pairs at each time-step of the simulation is derived from the galaxy catalogues obtained by the models and the results are compared with various observational estimates of merger fractions taken from the literature. We find a good match between the pair fractions derived from the simulation and the observed counting of galaxy pairs obtained by different sources in the redshift range 0 evolution of the number of galaxy mergers per Gyr grows with redshift as an exponential rate proportional to (1+z)^m, with m ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 for 0 evolution in the fraction of galaxy mergers since z ~ 1.2. The weak evolution predicted for the galaxy merger rate in an hierarchical model universe shows that the mass assembly evolution of galaxies through mergers does not follow the rapid evolution of the halo merger rate obtained in previous studies.

  5. Power Rates Study Final Proposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >5

  6. Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices |ProjectKnow Your PowerWeatherize »Rain orRate

  7. LERU Roadmap foR REsEaRch data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zürich, Universität

    -Maximilians-Universität München - University of Oxford - Pierre & Marie Curie University - Université Paris-Sud - University RESEARCH UNIVERSITIES #12;Contributors Pablo Achard (University of Geneva) Paul Ayris, UCL (University

  8. Seismic and Rockphysics Diagnostics fo Multiscale Reservoir Textures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2005-02-01

    We have continued to finish up our work on analyzing relationships between elastic properties and rock microstructure. We have worked on theoretical models for the effects of sorting and packing on elastic moduli and seismic velocities. After analyzing the scanning acoustic images of shales to quantify textures at different scales, we are now using theoretical inclusion models to quantify the elastic property variation with texture. In the closing phases of this project most of our efforts are now focused on writing up the results and preparing the final reports.

  9. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pfeifer, Mary Catherine (San Antonio, NM)

    2003-11-18

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  10. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pfeifer, Mary Catherine (San Antonio, NM)

    2005-09-27

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  11. College of Engineering Newsletter -Spirit fo Helios Spring 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    -source power station." The "windmill" Yeh refers to is the Franklin Vertical Axis Wind Turbine installed

  12. Harris, S. Yada, L dated 2/18/2015. Fo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    ://u t pastes ­ publi Nut product te Almonds, Pecans Coconut, Hazelnu Almonds Almonds, Walnut Pistachios Coconut

  13. FO:AFWC/2012/9 January 2012 E

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the implementation of community-based forest and related natural resources management activities. II. Disseminate effects of Eucalyptus plantations in Eastern Africa; a review of the status of forest policy in Ethiopia file of the manual "The biometrics of Non Wood Forest Products resource assessment: a review of current

  14. I RADIOLOGICAL SCOPING SURVEY OF FO,RMER MONSANTO' FACILITIES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and MyersHr. Anthony V. Andolina: lHeader5s I -I a.d

  15. 2013 guidance fo real Property Inventory Reporting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s s i sEnergy ItMisc.theTechnology

  16. Dynamic Void Growth and Shrinkage in Mg under Electron Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, W. Z. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Zhang, Y. F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cheng, G. M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Jian, W. W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Millett, P. C. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Mecanical Engineering; Koch, C. C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Mathaudhu, S. N. [U.S. Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Materials Science Division; Zhu, Y. T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2014-04-30

    We report in-situ atomic-scale investigation of void evolution, including growth, coalescence and shrinkage, under electron irradiation. With increasing irradiation dose, the total volume of voids increased linearly, while nucleation rate of new voids decreased slightly, and the total number of voids decreased. Some voids continued to grow while others shrank to disappear, depending on the nature of their interactions with nearby self-interstitial loops. For the first time, surface diffusion of adatoms was observed largely responsible for the void coalescence and thickening. These findings provide fundamental understanding to help with the design and modeling of irradiation-resistant materials.

  17. Was Brazil's recent growth acceleration the world's most overrated boom?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palma, Jose Gabriel

    2012-11-01

    to such 2 Perhaps the main reason why for the ‘new’ left is so difficult to continue thinking critically in their new, ‘modern’, ideology (and in their new, ‘modern’ relationship to power) is explained by Freud’s idea that “[a]nyone who knows anything... , the year of the military coup); China*, rate of growth 1980-2011 = 8.7%; co = Colombia; cr = Costa Rica; dr = Dominican Republic e = Ecuador; gt = Guatemala; mx = Mexico; pe = Peru; us = United States; ur = Uruguay; ve = Venezuela; and za = South Africa...

  18. Platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor beta synergistically potentiate inflammatory mediator synthesis by fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosengren, Sanna; Corr, Maripat; Boyle, David L

    2010-01-01

    et al. , Platelet-derived growth factor and transformingactivated by platelet-derived growth factor. Clin Expmesylate inhibits platelet derived growth factor stimulated

  19. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right...

  20. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Chen, Jin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Energy Plant Research Lab., Dept. of Computer Science; Anozie, Fransisca C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Morales, Alejandro [Wageningen Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Center for Crop Systems Analysis; Weise, Sean E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Sharkey, Thomas D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.

  1. Gas-bubble growth mechanisms in the analysis of metal fuel swelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    During steady-state irradiation, swelling rates associated with growth of fission-gas bubbles in metallic fast reactor fuels may be expected to remain small. As a consequence, bubble-growth mechanisms are not a major consideration in modeling the steady-state fuel behavior, and it is usually adequate to consider the gas pressure to be in equilibrium with the external pressure and surface tension restraint. On transient time scales, however, various bubble-growth mechanisms become important components of the swelling rate. These mechanisms include growth by diffusion, for bubbles within grains and on grain boundaries; dislocation nucleation at the bubble surface, or ''punchout''; and bubble growth by creep. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and applied to provide information on the conditions and the relative time scales for which the various processes should dominate fuel swelling. The results are compared to a series of experiments in which the swelling of irradiated metal fuel was determined after annealing at various temperatures and pressures. The diffusive growth of bubbles on grain boundaries is concluded to be dominant in these experiments.

  2. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  3. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  4. A parallel algorithm for step- and chain-growth polymerization in Molecular Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre de Buyl; Erik Nies

    2015-03-03

    Classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations provide insight on the properties of many soft-matter systems. In some situations it is interesting to model the creation of chemical bonds, a process that is not part of the MD framework. In this context, we propose a parallel algorithm for step- and chain-growth polymerization that is based on a generic reaction scheme, works at a given intrinsic rate and produces continuous trajectories. We present an implementation in the ESPResSo++ simulation software and compare it with the corresponding feature in LAMMPS. For chain growth, our results are compared to the existing simulation literature. For step growth, a rate equation is proposed for the evolution of the crosslinker population that compares well to the simulations for low crosslinker functionality or for short times.

  5. Controlling the Nucleation and Growth of Silver on Palladium Nanocubes by Manipulating the Reaction Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng J.; Tao J.; Zhu, C.; Jin, M.; Zhang, H.; Li, Z.-Y.; Zhu, Y.; Xia, Y.

    2012-03-05

    By manipulating the rate at which Ag atoms were generated from a precursor, the nucleation and growth of Ag on Pd nanocubes with six equivalent {l_brace}100{r_brace} facets were controlled to generate three different types of bimetallic nanocrystals: Pd-Ag hybrid dimers, Pd-Ag eccentric nanobars, and Pd{at}Ag core-shell nanocrystals.

  6. Nucleation and growth in the initial stage of metastable titanium disilicide formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Nucleation and growth in the initial stage of metastable titanium disilicide formation Z. Ma, Y. Xu, University of Illinois, Urbana, IIlinois 61801 S. Lee Microelectronics Division, NCR Corporation, Colorado of the C49-TiSi, formation was investigated at 530 "C and at a rate of 10 "C/m using transmission electron

  7. Nucleation and growth of carbon nanotubes by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at a very rapid and constant rate 100 nm/s that decreases sharply after the catalyst Co particles become. Experi- ments performed, mostly on individual nanotubes, show that they have extraordinary electrical conditions such as substrate, catalyst, feed gas, and temperature, the growth model proposed by several

  8. Growth window and possible mechanism of millimeter-thick single-walled carbon nanotube forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    the SWNT growth rate and quality. Because Al2O3 catalyzes hydrocarbon reforming, Al2O3 support possibly is essential, and various catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) methods have been developed to achieve catalytic CCVD (ACCVD).3 VA-SWNTs have now been achieved using several CVD methods and conditions.4

  9. New Phytol. (1992), 120, 543-549 Effects of soil temperature on growth,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heckathorn, Scott

    1992-01-01

    in the growing season. Key words: Andropogon gerardii, nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, relative growth rate and function, as well as indirect season may cause substantial reductions in the effects on shoot processes, cause uncoupling of air and soil thermal regimes. 1985; Setter & Greenway, 1988; Tindall, Mills

  10. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier4Rate | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo,AltFuelVehicle2 JumpPublicationDate Jump to:InformationEnergyInformation Rate Jump

  11. 069 MCNITORINGTHE GROWTH OF SEODNDARYPRECIPITATES UPON METALSORPTICN CM CLAY MINERALS AND ALUMINUM OXIDES USING X-RAY ABSORPTICN FINE STRUCIURE (XAFS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    069 MCNITORINGTHE GROWTH OF SEODNDARYPRECIPITATES UPON METALSORPTICN CM CLAY MINERALS AND ALUMINUM and oxide minerals is typically fast initially, then the rates gradually diminish. In the literature on surfaces of clay minerals and aluminum oxides. #12;

  12. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  13. Method and apparatus for aluminum nitride monocrystal boule growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Shaoping (Brookfield, CT)

    2009-04-28

    A crystal growth setup within a physical vapor transport growth furnace system for producing AlN monocrystal boules at high temperatures includes a crucible effective to contain an AlN source material and a growing AlN crystal boule. This crucible has a thin wall thickness in at least that portion housing the growing AlN crystal boule. Other components include a susceptor, in case of an inductive heating, or a heater, in case of a resistive heating, a thermal insulation enclosing the susceptor or heater effective to provide a thermal gradient inside the crucible in the range of 5-100.degree. C./cm and a furnace chamber capable of being operated from a vacuum (<0.1 torr) to a gas pressure of at least 4000 torr through filling or flowing a nitrogen gas or a mixture of nitrogen gas and argon gas. The high temperatures contribute to a high boule growth rate and the thin wall thickness contributes to reduced imparted stress during boule removal.

  14. Well having inhibited microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Brady D.; Dooley, Kirk J.

    2006-08-15

    The invention includes methods of inhibiting microbial growth in a well. A packing material containing a mixture of a first material and an antimicrobial agent is provided to at least partially fill a well bore. One or more access tubes are provided in an annular space around a casing within the well bore. The access tubes have a first terminal opening located at or above a ground surface and have a length that extends from the first terminal opening at least part of the depth of the well bore. The access tubes have a second terminal opening located within the well bore. An antimicrobial material is supplied into the well bore through the first terminal opening of the access tubes. The invention also includes well constructs.

  15. Differential growth of wrinkled biofilms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espeso, D R; Einarsson, B

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are antibiotic-resistant bacterial aggregates that grow on moist surfaces and can trigger hospital-acquired infections. They provide a classical example in biology where the dynamics of cellular communities may be observed and studied. Gene expression regulates cell division and differentiation, which affect the biofilm architecture. Mechanical and chemical processes shape the resulting structure. We gain insight into the interplay between cellular and mechanical processes during biofilm development on air-agar interfaces by means of a hybrid model. Cellular behavior is governed by stochastic rules informed by a cascade of concentration fields for nutrients, waste and autoinducers. Cellular differentiation and death alter the structure and the mechanical properties of the biofilm, which is deformed according to Foppl-Von Karman equations informed by cellular processes and the interaction with the substratum. Stiffness gradients due to growth and swelling produce wrinkle branching. We are able to repr...

  16. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  17. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  18. Low-temperature growth and orientational control in RuO{sub 2} thin films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, G.R.; Wang, A.; Foster, C.M.; Vetrone, J.; Patel, J.; Wu, X.

    1996-08-01

    For growth temperatures in the range of 275 C to 425 C, highly conductive RuO{sub 2} thin films with either (110)- or (101)-textured orientations have been grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on both SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) and Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates. Both the growth temperature and growth rate were used to control the type and degree of orientational texture of the RuO{sub 2} films. In the upper part of this growth temperature range ({approximately} 350 C) and at a low growth rate (< 30 {angstrom}/min.), the RuO{sub 2} films favored a (110)-textured. In contrast, at the lower part of this growth temperature range ({approximately} 300 C) and at a high growth rate (> 30 {angstrom}/min.), the RuO{sub 2} films favored a (101)-textured. In contrast, a higher growth temperatures (> 425 C) always produced randomly-oriented polycrystalline films. For either of these low-temperature growth processes, the films produced were crack-free, well-adhered to the substrates, and had smooth, specular surfaces. Atomic force microscopy showed that the films had a dense microstructure with an average grain size of 50--80 nm and a rms. surface roughness of {approximately} 3--10 nm. Four-probe electrical transport measurements showed that the films were highly conductive with resistivities of 34--40 {micro}{Omega}-cm ({at} 25 C).

  19. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  20. Can we predict long-run economic growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    For those concerned with the long-term value of their accounts, it can be a challenge to plan in the present for inflation-adjusted economic growth over coming decades. Here, I argue that there exists an economic constant that carries through time, and that this can help us to anticipate the more distant future: global economic wealth has a fixed link to civilization's overall rate of energy consumption from all sources; the ratio of these two quantities has not changed over the past 40 years that statistics are available. Power production and wealth rise equally quickly because civilization, like any other system in the universe, must consume and dissipate its energy reserves in order to sustain its current size. One perspective might be that financial wealth must ultimately collapse as we deplete our energy reserves. However, we can also expect that highly aggregated quantities like global wealth have inertia, and that growth rates must persist. Exceptionally rapid innovation in the two decades following 19...

  1. Interface control and snow crystal growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jessica Li; Laura P. Schaposnik

    2015-05-08

    The growth of snow crystals is dependent on the temperature and saturation of the environment. In the case of dendrites, Reiter's local two-dimensional model provides a realistic approach to the study of dendrite growth. In this paper we obtain a new geometric rule that incorporates interface control, a basic mechanism of crystallization that is not taken into account in the original Reiter's model. By defining two new variables, growth latency and growth direction, our improved model gives a realistic model not only for dendrite but also for plate forms.

  2. Graphene Growth on Low Carbon Solubility Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wofford, Joseph Monroe

    2012-01-01

    graphene is both a semimetal and a zero bandgap semiconductorgraphene growth. Ge wafers are also available with the exceptional surface qualities common to semiconductor

  3. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State of the Economy Presentation: Presentation Abstract: Abstract Conflict Between Economic Growth and...

  4. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-01-01

    Structural Evolution in Metal Oxide/Semiconductor Colloidalasymmetric one-sided metal-tipped semiconductor nanocrystalGrowth of Magnetic-Metal- Functionalized Semiconductor Oxide

  5. The Very Long Run Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Lemin

    2013-01-01

    Growth before the Industrial Revolution. ” Journal of Law2001. “ Was an Industrial Revolution Inevitable? EconomicThe British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective. ”

  6. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    J Bradshaw, "SLate ’F~es’ Gasoline Tax So ~t Wdl Rise," TheVarlable-Rate State Gasoline Taxers Jeffrey Ang-Olson MartinVariable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes Jeffrey Ang-Olson

  7. Rate Schedule CV-TPT7

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or receipt, adjusted for losses, and delivered to points as agreed to by the parties. Formula Rate: The formula rate for transmission of Western's power by others includes three...

  8. Fluorescence Assay for Polymerase Arrival Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin

    2003-08-31

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  9. Fluorescence assay for polymerase arrival rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  10. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For new and existing home purchases that are rated 6 Star or 5 Star Plus, applicants are eligible for an interest rate reduction for the first $200,000 of the loan amount, with a blended interest...

  11. Rate Setting for Small Water Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

    2007-03-28

    Knowing how to set the proper rate for water service is a challenge for small water systems. They must generate enough revenue to remain solvent, but offer affordable service. This publication describes the various types of rates and explains...

  12. Home Energy Ratings and Building Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    climate as they affect the rating score of a proposed or completed structure. The rating is used to determine the most cost effective mechanical systems, building envelope design including window and door types, effect of various roofing materials...

  13. Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

  14. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growthmore »analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.« less

  15. Kiwifruitsize influences softening rate during storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crisosto, Carlos H.

    Kiwifruitsize influences softening rate during storage Carlos H. Crisosto o David Garner D Katia)at 32*F for 16 weeks. Un- der both storage conditions,large fruit had a slower rate of softening than fruit size and the rate of softening under air and CA conditions will help cold storage managerssafely

  16. An analysis of international grain freight rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonnala, Sneha Latha

    1999-01-01

    decreasing rate as shipment quantity increases. Highest rates were associated with the berth term followed by the free discharge and free-in-and-out terms. The ships with U.S. flags were found to charge higher rates when compared to ships with foreign flags...

  17. The evolution of the cosmic SN rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrico Cappellaro; Maria Teresa Botticella; Laura Greggio

    2007-06-09

    We briefly review the contribution of SN rate measurements to the debate on SN progenitor scenarios. We find that core collapse rates confirms the rapid evolution of the star formation rate with redshift. After accounting for the dispersion of SN Ia measurements and uncertainty of the star formation history, the standard scenarios for SN Ia progenitors appear consistent with all observational constraints.

  18. Journal of Crystal Growth 304 (2007) 399401 Growth of high quality, epitaxial InSb nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    2007-01-01

    Journal of Crystal Growth 304 (2007) 399­401 Growth of high quality, epitaxial InSb nanowires Hyun, Washington, DC. 20375, USA b School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology March 2007 Communicated by R.M. Biefeld Available online 1 April 2007 Abstract The growth of In

  19. Graphene Growth on Low Carbon Solubility Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wofford, Joseph Monroe

    2012-01-01

    preparation of Cu substrates will lead to larger grapheneGraphene Growth on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Au(111) Substrate selection and preparationGraphene Growth on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Au(111) 3.1 Substrate selection and preparation

  20. SMOOTHING SPLINE GROWTH CURVES WITH COVARIATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #11;ect growth curves. Due to the repeated measurement structure of his model, he is able to determine adapt the interactive spline model of Wahba to growth curves with covariates. The smoothing spline smoothing spline models (Ch. 10, Wahba (1990)). In this brief article, we adapt interactive spline models

  1. Limiting Abnormal Mold Growth in Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, C. W.

    2002-01-01

    in wood, or rusting and corrosion of metals. Abnormal mold or fungal growth, then, can create major problems for building owners. Moisture is the key factor that building designers and owners can manage in order to limit mold growth. This paper introduces...

  2. Export Growth and Credit Constraints Tibor Besedes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Export Growth and Credit Constraints Tibor Besedes Byung-Cheol Kim Volodymyr Lugovskyy§ May 14, 2014 Abstract We investigate the effect of credit constraints on the growth of exports at the micro of exporting, but not in later stages. Our empirical results using product level data on exports to twelve

  3. Communications CVD Growth of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in dense thickets on and about nickel boride catalyst particles at 1100 °C. The BN nanotubes resemble thoseCommunications CVD Growth of Boron Nitride Nanotubes Oleg R. Lourie, Carolyn R. Jones, Bart M Manuscript Received May 9, 2000 We describe BN-nanotube growth by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using

  4. Economic Growth, Physical Limits and Liveability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic Growth, Physical Limits and Liveability: Can Metro Vancouver Achieve all Three? by Jeremy of Thesis: Economic Growth, Physical Limits and Liveability: Can Metro Vancouver Achieve all Three. The Local Energy scenario adds a local energy limit. For each scenario I assume continuous economic

  5. Fish production: integrating growth, mortality, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limburg, Karin E.

    1 Fish production: integrating growth, mortality, and population density K. Limburg lecture notes, Fisheries Science Outline: 1. Biological production ­ a critical ecological parameter 2. How to compute production from a simple biomass model 3. Production:biomass ratios 4. Growth: mortality ratios Reading

  6. Structural Controls on Growth Stratigraphy in Contractional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connors, Christopher D.

    Structural Controls on Growth Stratigraphy in Contractional Fault-related Folds John H. Shaw Dept stratigraphy. An understanding of this interplay between local deformation and dep- osition helps us infer on growth stratigraphy in contractional fault-related folds, in K. R. McClay, ed., Thrust tectonics

  7. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  8. Continuous growth of droplet size variance due to condensation in turbulent clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sardina, Gaetano; Brandt, Luca; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    We use a stochastic model and direct numerical simulation to study the impact of turbulence on cloud droplet growth by condensation. We show that the variance of the droplet size distribution increases in time as $t^{1/2}$, with growth rate proportional the large-to-small turbulent scale separation and to the turbulence integral scales but independent of the smallest turbulence scale. Direct numerical simulations confirm this result and produce realistically broad droplet size spectra over time intervals of 20 minutes, comparable with the time of rain formation.

  9. Growth of highly oriented carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Z.P.; Xu, J.W.; Ren, Z.F.; Wang, J.H.; Siegal, M.P.; Provencio, P.N.

    1998-12-01

    Highly oriented, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were grown on polished polycrystalline and single crystal nickel substrates by plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition at temperatures below 666 {degree}C. The carbon nanotubes range from 10 to 500 nm in diameter and 0.1 to 50 {mu}m in length depending on growth conditions. Acetylene is used as the carbon source for the growth of the carbon nanotubes and ammonia is used for dilution gas and catalysis. The plasma intensity, acetylene to ammonia gas ratio, and their flow rates, etc. affect the diameters and uniformity of the carbon nanotubes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Standard test method for measurement of creep crack growth times in metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep crack growth (CCG) in metals at elevated temperatures using pre-cracked specimens subjected to static or quasi-static loading conditions. The time (CCI), t0.2 to an initial crack extension ?ai = 0.2 mm from the onset of first applied force and creep crack growth rate, ?a or da/dt is expressed in terms of the magnitude of creep crack growth relating parameters, C* or K. With C* defined as the steady state determination of the crack tip stresses derived in principal from C*(t) and Ct (1-14). The crack growth derived in this manner is identified as a material property which can be used in modeling and life assessment methods (15-25). 1.1.1 The choice of the crack growth correlating parameter C*, C*(t), Ct, or K depends on the material creep properties, geometry and size of the specimen. Two types of material behavior are generally observed during creep crack growth tests; creep-ductile (1-14) and creep-brittle (26-37). In creep ductile materials, where cr...

  11. A Model for High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Uranium-Niobium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.L.Addessio; Q.H.Zuo; T.A.Mason; L.C.Brinson

    2003-05-01

    A thermodynamic approach is used to develop a framework for modeling uranium-niobium alloys under the conditions of high strain rate. Using this framework, a three-dimensional phenomenological model, which includes nonlinear elasticity (equation of state), phase transformation, crystal reorientation, rate-dependent plasticity, and porosity growth is presented. An implicit numerical technique is used to solve the evolution equations for the material state. Comparisons are made between the model and data for low-strain-rate loading and unloading as well as for heating and cooling experiments. Comparisons of the model and data also are made for low- and high-strain-rate uniaxial stress and uniaxial strain experiments. A uranium-6 weight percent niobium alloy is used in the comparisons of model and experiment.

  12. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G.

    2009-07-15

    There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

  13. Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Palaniappan, Kumaranand; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Smith, Nickolaus A.; Dickerson, Robert M.; Casson, Joanna L.; Baldwin, Jon K.

    2012-06-07

    Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth rates as a function of catalyst size/SC-NW diameter and shown for the first time that SLS is governed by Gibbs-Thomson effects. Lastly, from an applications standpoint, we report growth of SC-NWs from a range of substrates, including ITO-coated glass for fabrication of hybrid photovoltaic devices, comparing these to their quasi zero-dimensional quantum-dot counterparts.

  14. JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES & LIFE SCIENCES EDUCATION VOLUME 38 2009 87 exceeds the harvesting rate, forest carbon uptake during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grogan, Paul

    , and lifestyle/ social dimensions. For example, is an energy-efficient hybrid car (with regenerative braking the harvesting rate, forest carbon uptake during growth of new trees in the harvested forest or woodlot offsets, Increasing energy costs as well as concerns about climate change associated with fossil fuel use have

  15. High Rate Deposition of High Quality ZnO:Al by Filtered Cathodic Arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Lim, S.H.N.; Milliron, D.J.; Anders, Andre

    2010-11-18

    High quality ZnO:Al (AZO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by direct current filtered cathodic arc deposition. Substrate temperature was varied from room temperature to 425oC, and samples were grown with and without the assistance of low power oxygen plasma (75W). For each growth condition, at least 3 samples were grown to give a statistical look at the effect of the growth environment on the film properties and to explore the reproducibility of the technique. Growth rate was in the 100-400 nm/min range but was apparently random and could not be easily traced to the growth conditions explored. For optimized growth conditions, 300-600 nm AZO films had resistivities of 3-6 x 10-4 ?Omega cm, carrier concentrations in the range of 2-4 x 1020 cm3, Hall mobility as high as 55 cm2/Vs, and optical transmittance greater than 90percent. These films are also highly oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate and a surface roughness of 2-4 nm.

  16. Final Report, Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2014-04-20

    This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-antimonide cathodes b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns and copper RF photoguns

  17. Hypersonic Measurements of Roughness-Induced Transient Growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, Nicole Susanne

    2014-04-17

    The effects of surface roughness on boundary-layer disturbance growth and laminar-to-turbulent transition are not well understood, especially in hypersonic boundary layers. The transient growth mechanism that produces algebraic growth of stream wise...

  18. CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Availability:This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency (hereinafter...

  19. Rating the energy performance of buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olofsson, Thomas; Meier, Alan; Lamberts, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    T. , (1998), Building Energy Measurement and PerformanceRating a building’s energy performance is becoming anrating of energy performance of buildings. Modern existing

  20. BPA proposes rate increase to bolster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the proposed wholesale power rate increase is reduced revenue expectations from surplus power sales. Market prices have been, and are forecast to continue to be, suppressed...

  1. Confronting the Graduation Rate Crisis in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Losen, Daniel; Orfield, Gary; Balfanz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    of minority students in Texas attend these schools, comparedfourths of the high schools in Texas where graduation is notthe Graduation Rate Crisis in Texas By Daniel Losen, Gary

  2. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  3. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.

    1983-05-09

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.

  4. Reallocating innovative resources around growth bottlenecks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bresnahan, Timothy

    Economy-wide increasing returns to scale embodied in a general purpose technology (GPT) and its applications are often a key source of long-run growth. Yet the successful exploitation of increasing returns calls for ...

  5. Unlocking Growth Opportunities for Minority Businesses Through...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    around 80,000 a year and 5.4 million of economic growth. At the Energy Innovation Portal, the Department's hub for technology transfer resources, minority owned firms and...

  6. Geothermal Energy Growth Continues, Industry Survey Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey released by the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) shows continued growth in the number of new geothermal power projects under development in the United States, a 20% increase since January of this year.

  7. Nanoscale Surface Topography to Guide Bone Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanoscale Surface Topography to Guide Bone Growth P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Jirun Sun (American T S Designed and fabricated devices with nanoscale surface topography. Controlled cell alignment by varying

  8. Modeling plant growth and development Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    Modeling plant growth and development Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz Department of Computer Science plant models or "virtual plants" are increasingly seen as a useful tool for comprehending complex relationships between gene function, plant physiology, plant development, and the resulting plant form

  9. Selective anisotropic growth of zeolite crystals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Tasha April

    2013-02-22

    Precise control over particle size and morphology is emerging as a critical issue in the design of nanostructured materials. The explosive growth of nanoparticle synthesis is a good example of this. As material chemists have developed the ability...

  10. GROWTH OF SOUTH AFRICAN AFRICA' ~-' ,, I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GROWTH OF SOUTH AFRICAN FISHERIES -SQUTH-: WEST .-' AFRICA' ~-' ,, I I , I :--. .,' UN I .............................................. Regrouping of Interests ······························ Fisheries Development Corporation of South Africa, Ltd and the trawling interests, respectively. The quasi-official Fisheries Develop- ment Corporation of South Africa

  11. Introduction: California's Growth: An Uncertain Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teitz, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    s Growth: An Uncertain Future BY MICHAEL B. TEITZ Editor'shave to be California’s future? Clearly, not so. This ofat the issue of accommodating future tions within them, for

  12. Graphene Growth on Low Carbon Solubility Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wofford, Joseph Monroe

    2012-01-01

    growth. LEEM micrographs and LEED patterns showing thespecies of sp 2 bonded C. LEED from a large region of aof rotational variants. LEED from a R0 oriented domain of

  13. Role of Hydrogen in CVD Growth of Large Single Crystal Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regmi, Murari [ORNL; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Vlassiouk, Ivan V [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    We show that graphene chemical vapor deposition growth on copper foil using methane as a carbon source is strongly affected by hydrogen, which appears to serve a dual role: an activator of the surface bound carbon that is necessary for monolayer growth and an etching reagent that controls the size and morphology of the graphene domains. The resulting growth rate for a fixed methane partial pressure has a maximum at hydrogen partial pressures 200400 times that of methane. The morphology and size of the graphene domains, as well as the number of layers, change with hydrogen pressure from irregularly shaped incomplete bilayers to well-defined perfect single layer hexagons. Raman spectra suggest the zigzag termination in the hexagons as more stable than the armchair edges.

  14. Graphene Layer Growth Chemistry: Five-Six-Ring Flip Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitesides, R.; Domin, D.; Salomon-Ferrer, R.; Lester Jr., W.A.; Frenklach, M.

    2007-12-01

    Reaction pathways are presented for hydrogen-mediated isomerization of a five and six member carbon ring complex on the zigzag edge of a graphene layer. A new reaction sequence that reverses orientation of the ring complex, or 'flips' it, was identified. Competition between the flip reaction and 'ring separation' was examined. Ring separation is the reverse of the five and six member ring complex formation reaction, previously reported as 'ring collision'. The elementary steps of the pathways were analyzed using density-functional theory (DFT). Rate coefficients were obtained by solution of the energy master equation and classical transition state theory utilizing the DFT energies, frequencies, and geometries. The results indicate that the flip reaction pathway dominates the separation reaction and should be competitive with other pathways important to the graphene zigzag edge growth in high temperature environments.

  15. Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Presented at...

  16. Vietnam-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth in Developing Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian...

  17. Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on Superstructured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on Superstructured Mn-Cu(111) Surface Prev Next Title: Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on...

  18. Atomistic surface erosion and thin film growth modelled over...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomistic surface erosion and thin film growth modelled over realistic time scales Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomistic surface erosion and thin film growth...

  19. Enhancing Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance through Use of Fungi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhancing Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance through Use of Fungi and Bacteria that Comprise Plant Microbiomes Enhancing Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance through Use of Fungi and...

  20. Agricultural Productivity Growth in China: Farm Level versus National Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Colin A.; Chen, Jing; Chu, Baojin

    1999-01-01

    bias any measurement of agricultural productivity, becauseProductivity Growth in China: Farm Level versus National MeasurementProductivity Growth in China: Farm Level versus National Measurement

  1. Growth Mode and Substrate Symmetry Dependent Strain in Epitaxial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth Mode and Substrate Symmetry Dependent Strain in Epitaxial Graphene. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Growth Mode and Substrate Symmetry Dependent Strain in...

  2. The Confluent System Formalism: II. The Growth History of Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberto Manrique; Eduard Salvador-Sole

    1996-03-09

    With the present paper we conclude the presentation of a semianalytical model of hierarchical clustering of bound virialized objects formed by gravitational instability from a random Gaussian field of density fluctuations. In paper I, we introduced the basic tool, the so-called ``confluent system'' formalism, able to follow the evolution of bound virialized objects in the peak model. This was applied to derive the mass function of objects. In the present paper, we calculate other important quantities characterizing the growth history of objects. This model is compared with a similar one obtained by Lacey \\& Cole (1993) following the Press \\& Schechter (1974) approach. The interest of the new modeling presented here is twofold: 1) it is formally better justified as far as peaks are more reasonable seeds of objects than the indetermined regions in the Press \\& Schechter prescription, and 2) it distinguishes between merger and accretion enabling us to unambiguously define the formation and destruction of objects and to estimate growth rates and characteristic times not available in the previous approach.

  3. Bulge growth through disk instabilities in high-redshift galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bournaud, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The role of disk instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disk galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges. This secular growth of bulges in modern disk galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudo-bulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disk instabilities at high redshift (z>1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (10^10 to a few 10^11 Msun of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift disks are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 10^8-10^9 Msun of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disk evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms, on short timescales. The giant clumps can...

  4. Modeling of Interaction Layer Growth Between U-Mo Particles and an Al Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeon Soo Kim; G. L. Hofman; Ho Jin Ryu; Jong Man Park; A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs

    2013-12-01

    Interaction layer growth between U-Mo alloy fuel particles and Al in a dispersion fuel is a concern due to the volume expansion and other unfavorable irradiation behavior of the interaction product. To reduce interaction layer (IL) growth, a small amount of Si is added to the Al. As a result, IL growth is affected by the Si content in the Al matrix. In order to predict IL growth during fabrication and irradiation, empirical models were developed. For IL growth prediction during fabrication and any follow-on heating process before irradiation, out-of-pile heating test data were used to develop kinetic correlations. Two out-of-pile correlations, one for the pure Al matrix and the other for the Al matrix with Si addition, respectively, were developed, which are Arrhenius equations that include temperature and time. For IL growth predictions during irradiation, the out-of-pile correlations were modified to include a fission-rate term to consider fission enhanced diffusion, and multiplication factors to incorporate the Si addition effect and the effect of the Mo content. The in-pile correlation is applicable for a pure Al matrix and an Al matrix with the Si content up to 8 wt%, for fuel temperatures up to 200 degrees C, and for Mo content in the range of 6 – 10wt%. In order to cover these ranges, in-pile data were included in modeling from various tests, such as the US RERTR-4, -5, -6, -7 and -9 tests and Korea’s KOMO-4 test, that were designed to systematically examine the effects of the fission rate, temperature, Si content in Al matrix, and Mo content in U-Mo particles. A model converting the IL thickness to the IL volume fraction in the meat was also developed.

  5. Optimal Rate Allocation in Overlay Content Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Optimal Rate Allocation in Overlay Content Distribution Chuan Wu and Baochun Li Department. This paper addresses the optimal rate allocation problem in overlay content distribution for efficient, these scenarios reflect the contrast between elastic and streaming content distribution, with either per

  6. China's High Savings Rates Rick Harbaugh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martins, Emília

    the highest in the world. That savings would grow in a country emerging from poverty is not necessarilyChina's High Savings Rates Rick Harbaugh Prepared for conference on "The Rise of China Revisited Abstract Since the early 1980s China has witnessed a rapid increase in its national savings rate to one

  7. Heat release rate markers for premixed combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolaou, Zacharias M.; Swaminathan, Nedunchezhian

    2014-06-16

    The validity of the commonly used flame marker for heat release rate (HRR) visualization, namely the rate of the reaction OH + CH2O ? HCO + H2O is re-examined. This is done both for methane–air and multi-component fuel–air mixtures for lean...

  8. Variable word rate N-grams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gotoh, Yoshihiko; Renals, Steve

    The rate of occurrence of words is not uniform but varies from document to document. Despite this observation, parameters for conventional N-gram language models are usually derived using the assumption of a constant word rate. In this paper we...

  9. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Valeo, Ernest J. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Goldhaber, Maurice (Bayport, NY)

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  10. Resonances and the thermonuclear reaction rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Hussein; M. Ueda; A. J. Sargeant; M. P. Pato

    2003-07-21

    We present an approximate analytic expression for thermonuclear reaction rate of charged particles when the cross section contains a single narrow or wide resonance described by a Breit-Wigner shape. The resulting expression is uniformly valid as the effective energy and resonance energy coalesce. We use our expressions to calculate the reaction rate for $^{12}$C(p,$\\gamma$)$^{13}$N.

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Rates: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Rates: A Structure-Based Study K R I S T I N E H . W structure in determining the biodegradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Laboratory. Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic pollutants that are commonly found

  12. Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass J I N B A I Y A N G A N D B O H U M I L V Sargassum fluitans biomass was accompanied by the release of hydrogen protons from the biomass. The uptake the overall biosorption rate of cadmium ions in flat seaweed biomass particles. The overall biosorption

  13. Determination of the specific growth of molds on semi-solid cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrizalez, V.; Rodriguez, H.; Sardina, I.

    1981-02-01

    The determination of growth constants of Aspergillus niger were obtained for semisolid cultures on cassava flour, Manihot esculenta, as a sole carbon source. As a consequence, a technique was developed that consisted of the use of a packed-bed microfermentor with a working volume of 16 cubic centimetres. The bed consisted of gelatinized and granulated cassava flour containing material nutrients and mold spores. The carbon dioxide produced during the respiration was drawn off with a current of air and then absorbed in a solution of sodium hydroxide. The absorption of CO/sub 2/, P, was correlated with the specific growth rate mu by means of the equation P equals Kemut, where t is time and K is a constant. Ammonium nitrogen was used as a limiting substrate and its concentration was varied from 0.039 to 2.5% in dry base. The maximum growth rate, mu maximum, and the saturation constant, Ks, were 0.31/hour and 0.065 mmol (N/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4//g total dry solids. The proposed method is highly recommended for the evaluation of the semisolid fermentation of molds and for strictly aerobic bacteria and yeasts. It can be used especially in the evaluation of the growth of microorganisms on peanut shells, coffee residues, sugar cane bagasse, and other agricultural wastes.

  14. Apparatus for silicon web growth of higher output and improved growth stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Charles S. (Penn Hills, PA); Piotrowski, Paul A. (Monroeville, PA)

    1989-01-01

    This disclosure describes an apparatus to improve the web growth attainable from prior web growth configurations. This apparatus modifies the heat loss at the growth interface in a manner that minimizes thickness variations across the web, especially regions of the web adjacent to the two bounding dendrites. In the unmodified configuration, thinned regions of web, adjacent to the dendrites, were found to be the origin of crystal degradation which ultimately led to termination of the web growth. According to the present invention, thinning adjacent to the dendrites is reduced and the incidence of crystal degradation is similarly reduced.

  15. Time dependent crack growth in polyethylene: characterizing the da/dt = AKn dependence and the effects of Igepal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slay, Jeremy Buc

    1999-01-01

    slow crack growth (SCG) rate as a function of stress intensity. Constant load single-edge-notch bend (SENB) tests commonly know as ''three point bend'' tests have been performed on deeply notched specimens. The load-line displacement as a function...

  16. Stress-corrosion fatigue-crack growth in a Zr-based bulk amorphousmetal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, V.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2005-09-21

    Electrochemical and mechanical experiments were conducted to analyze the environmentally-influenced cracking behavior of a bulk amorphous metal, Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5. This study was motivated by a scientific interest in mechanisms of fatigue-crack propagation in an amorphous metal, and by a practical interest in the use of this amorphous metal in applications that take advantage of its unique properties, including high specific strength, large elastic strains and low damping. The objective of the work was to determine the rate and mechanisms of subcritical crack growth in this metallic glass in an aggressive environment. Specifically, fatigue-crack propagation behavior was investigated at a range of stress intensities in air and aqueous salt solutions by examining the effects of loading cycle, stress-intensity range, solution concentration, anion identity, solution de-aeration, and bulk electrochemical potential. Results indicate that crack growth in aqueous solution in this alloy is driven by a stress-assisted anodic reaction at the crack tip. Rate-determining steps for such behavior are reasoned to be electrochemical, stress-dependent reaction at near-threshold levels, and mass transport at higher (steady-state) growth rates.

  17. Associations between iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticle growth and metal adsorption/structural incorporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, C.S.; Lentini, C.J.; Waychunas, G.A.

    2008-09-15

    The interaction of metal ions and oxyanions with nanoscale mineral phases has not yet been extensively studied despite the increased recognition of their prevalence in natural systems as a significant component of geomedia. A combination of macroscopic uptake studies to investigate the adsorption behavior of As(V), Cu(II), Hg(II), and Zn(II) onto nanoparticulate goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) as a function of aging time at elevated temperature (75 C) and synchrotron-based X-ray studies to track changes in both the sorption mode and the rate of nanoparticle growth reveal the effects that uptake has on particle growth. Metal(loid) species which sorb quickly to the iron oxyhydroxide particles (As(V), Cu(II)) appear to passivate the particle surface, impeding the growth of the nanoparticles with progressive aging; in contrast, species that sorb more slowly (Hg(II), Zn(II)) have considerably less impact on particle growth. Progressive changes in the speciation of these particular metals with time suggest shifts in the mode of metal uptake with time, possibly indicating structural incorporation of the metal(loid) into the nanoparticle; this is supported by the continued increase in uptake concomitant with particle growth, implying that metal species may transform from surface-sorbed species to more structurally incorporated forms. This type of incorporation would have implications for the long-term fate and mobility of metals in contaminated regions, and affect the strategy for potential remediation/modeling efforts.

  18. A kinetic model of tumor growth and its radiation response with an application to Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin Z; Hui, Susanta K

    2015-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model to simulate the growth of tumor volume and its response to a single fraction of high dose irradiation. We made several key assumptions of the model. Tumor volume is composed of proliferating (or dividing) cancer cells and non-dividing (or dead) cells. Tumor growth rate (or tumor volume doubling time, Td) is proportional to the ratio of the volumes of tumor vasculature and the tumor. The vascular volume grows slower than the tumor by introducing the vascular growth retardation factor, theta. Upon irradiation the proliferating cells gradually die over a fixed time period after irradiation. Dead cells are cleared away with cell clearance time, Tcl. The model was applied to simulate pre-treatment growth and post-treatment radiation response of rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumor and metastatic brain tumors of five patients who were treated by Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). By selecting appropriate model parameters, we showed the temporal variation of the tumors for both th...

  19. Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

    2011-02-01

    A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

  20. Considerations for How to Rate CPV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Miller, M.; Marion, B.; Emery, K.; McConnell, R.; Surendran, S.; Kimber, A.

    2011-02-01

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) industry is introducing multiple products into the marketplace, but, as yet, the; community has not embraced a unified method for assessing a nameplate rating. The choices of whether to use 850,; 900, or 1000 W/m2 for the direct-normal irradiance and whether to link the rating to ambient or cell temperature will; affect how CPV modules are rated and compared with other technologies. This paper explores the qualitative and; quantitative ramifications of these choices using data from two multi-junction CPV modules and two flat-plate; modules.

  1. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtility RateUtility Rate

  2. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtilityRateUtility Rate

  3. Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1 H. Eugene of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process on the cooling/heating rates as well as on the role of aging (the time elapsed in the glass state). We compare

  4. Dependence of Up-scaled Reaction Rate on Flow Rate in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    to inherent heterogeneities in structure, mineral placement and fluid velocity in rock, bulk reaction rates1 Dependence of Up-scaled Reaction Rate on Flow Rate in Porous Media D. Kim · W. B. Lindquist model simulations of anorthite and kaolinite reactions in two sandstone pore networks under acidic

  5. Growth Kinetics and Modeling of Direct Oxynitride Growth with NO-O2 Gas Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everist, Sarah; Nelson, Jerry; Sharangpani, Rahul; Smith, Paul Martin; Tay, Sing-Pin; Thakur, Randhir

    1999-05-03

    We have modeled growth kinetics of oxynitrides grown in NO-O2 gas mixtures from first principles using modified Deal-Grove equations. Retardation of oxygen diffusion through the nitrided dielectric was assumed to be the dominant growth-limiting step. The model was validated against experimentally obtained curves with good agreement. Excellent uniformity, which exceeded expected walues, was observed.

  6. Growth of the NGV Market:Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons LearnedLessons Learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growth of the NGV Market:Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons LearnedLessons Learned Roadmap NGVAmerica #12;""Roadmap For Development ofRoadmap For Development of NGV Fueling InfrastructureNGV FuelingData Collection Section · Report defines underlying problem with current data ­ Lack of fuel consumption and NGV

  7. Journal of Crystal Growth 307 (2007) 302308 Equilibrium analysis of zirconium carbide CVD growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Journal of Crystal Growth 307 (2007) 302­308 Equilibrium analysis of zirconium carbide CVD growth analysis; A3. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition; A3. Zirconium carbide 1. Introduction Zirconium, is not straightforward particularly by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Although atmospheric halide CVD using zirconium

  8. Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production@nmsu.edu #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth i Disclaimer This report States Government or any agency thereof. #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic

  9. Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Rating and Feedback Systems Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems Better Buildings Residential Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Contractor Rating and...

  10. Vectorial Growth of Metallic and Semiconducting Single-Wall Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joselevich, Ernesto

    obstacles toward nanotube-based electronic technology. Vectorial growth of SWNTs is a new approach wherebyVectorial Growth of Metallic and Semiconducting Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Ernesto Joselevich growth of single-wall carbon nanotube arrays is presented. The origin of growth is defined by patterning

  11. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop II

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates. These are intended to be based on specific resource costs for customers that need power to be based on specific resource types (e.g., renewable) or that want to know more...

  12. Rate Schedule CV-F13

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the entire FY. The PRR is allocated to FP Customers and BR Customers based on formula rates, as adjusted for Hourly Exchange (HE), FP true-up calculation, and midyear...

  13. Regularization of Tunneling Rates with Quantum Chaos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pecora, Louis M; Wu, Dong-Ho

    2012-01-01

    We study tunneling in various shaped, closed, two-dimensional, flat potential, double wells by calculating the energy splitting between symmetric and anti-symmetric state pairs. For shapes that have regular or nearly regular classical behavior (e.g. rectangular or circular) the tunneling rates vary greatly over wide ranges often by several orders of magnitude. However, for well shapes that admit more classically chaotic behavior (e.g. the stadium, the Sinai billiard) the range of tunneling rates narrows, often by orders of magnitude. This dramatic narrowing appears to come from destabilization of periodic orbits in the regular wells that produce the largest and smallest tunneling rates and causes the splitting vs. energy relation to take on a possibly universal shape. It is in this sense that we say the quantum chaos regularizes the tunneling rates.

  14. Essays on exchange rates and electricity demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiangming, 1966-

    1999-01-01

    This thesis examines two important issues in economic development: exchange rates and electricity demand and addresses methodological issues of using time series and panel data analysis to investigate important policy ...

  15. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  16. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  17. Extratropical Lapse Rates in Very Hot Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zamora, Ryan Alexander

    2013-07-02

    circulation in progressively warmer climate states. As a tool to assess the stability of the atmosphere, we calculate a thermodynamic variable called saturation potential vorticity (P*), which has the property of being identically zero wherever lapse rates...

  18. Negotiating Rates and Contracts for Qualifying Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, S. E.

    1986-01-01

    . This paper describes the key issues involved in the development of purchase rates, as well as supplemental power services, and contract terms and conditions. Attention is given to special issues such as wheeling, losses, and regulatory proceedings. A general...

  19. PSNC Energy (Gas)- Green Building Rate Discount

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This discounted rate is available to commercial customers whose building meets the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification or equivalent. To...

  20. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Kenneth H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  1. Role of nucleation in nanodiamond film growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, C.H.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, W.J.; Bello, I.; Lee, S.T.

    2006-06-12

    Nanodiamond films were deposited using different microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition schemes following several nucleation pretreatment methods. The nucleation efficiency and the films structure were investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. C{sub 2} dimer growth (CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} in 90% Ar) cannot nucleate diamond and works only on existing diamond surfaces. The methyl radical process (up to 20% CH{sub 4} in H{sub 2}) allows some nucleation probability on appropriate substrates. Prolonged bias enhanced nucleation initiates both diamond nucleation and growth. C{sub 2} dimer growth results in pure nanodiamond free of amorphous carbon, while prolonged bias enhanced nucleation forms an amorphous carbon/nanodiamond composite.

  2. Efg Crystal Growth Apparatus And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackintosh, Brian H. (Concord, MA); Ouellette, Marc (Nashua, NH)

    2003-05-13

    An improved mechanical arrangement controls the introduction of silicon particles into an EFG (Edge-defined Film-fed Growth) crucible/die unit for melt replenishment during a crystal growth run. A feeder unit injects silicon particles upwardly through a center hub of the crucible/die unit and the mechanical arrangement intercepts the injected particles and directs them so that they drop into the melt in a selected region of the crucible and at velocity which reduces splashing, whereby to reduce the likelihood of interruption of the growth process due to formation of a solid mass of silicon on the center hub and adjoining components. The invention also comprises use of a Faraday ring to alter the ratio of the electrical currents flowing through primary and secondary induction heating coils that heat the crucible die unit and the mechanical arrangement.

  3. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³?Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d?¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did notmore »affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d?¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.« less

  4. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stark, Karolina [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Scott, David E. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Tsyusko, Olga [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Coughlin, Daniel P. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Hinton, Thomas G. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Inst. of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Cadarache (France); Amendola, Roberto [ENEA, (Italy)

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³?Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d?¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d?¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  5. Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, K.

    2012-06-01

    Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

  6. Intraclass Price Elasticity & Electric Rate Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gresham, K. E.

    1987-01-01

    beyond this becomes more elastic as usage increases. In the book "Innovative Electric, Rates," John Chamberlin and Charles Dickson utilize an economic model to test conservation programs. This model utilizes intrac1ass price elasticities and has a.... Utilities must rely on customer data and intuition to estimate customer response to rate changes. These methods have several downfalls. First, the customer data may not reflect customer behavior in an economic downturn. Second, the data may not exactly...

  7. Solar Models and NACRE thermonuclear reaction rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Morel; B. Pichon; J. Provost; G. Berthomieu

    1999-07-27

    Using the most recent updated physics, calibrated solar models have been computed with the new thermonuclear reaction rates of NACRE, the recently available European compilation. Comparisons with models computed with the reaction rates of Caughlan & Fowler (\\cite{cf88}) and of Adelberger et al. (\\cite{a98}) are made for global structure, expected neutrinos fluxes, chemical composition and sound speed profiles, helioseismological properties of p-modes and g-modes.

  8. Rating of Mixed Split Residential Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domanski, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    require that manufac- turers derive cooling ratings for unitary systems by testing a sample of sufficient size to meet certain specified statistical confidence levels. For split unitary systems comprising an outdoor unit and an indoor coil assembly...(95), SEER, and recommended indoor volumetric flow rate of air, are publicly available. The procedure also assumee that the matched indoor section is available for inspection and evaluation of the indoor coil capacity and the indoor fan power...

  9. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  10. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Triplett, Eric W. (Middleton, WI); Kaeppler, Shawn M. (Oregon, WI); Chelius, Marisa K. (Greeley, CO)

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  11. Direct growth of graphene on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanh Trung, Pham Joucken, Frédéric; Colomer, Jean-François; Robert, Sporken; Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoît; Santos, Cristiane N.

    2014-06-14

    Due to the need of integrated circuit in the current silicon technology, the formation of graphene on Si wafer is highly desirable, but is still a challenge for the scientific community. In this context, we report the direct growth of graphene on Si(111) wafer under appropriate conditions using an electron beam evaporator. The structural quality of the material is investigated in detail by reflection high energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experimental results confirm that the quality of graphene is strongly dependent on the growth time during carbon atoms deposition.

  12. The dynamic shape factor of sodium chloride nanoparticles as regulated by drying rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z.; Lewis, E.; King, S. M.; Freney, E.; Rosenoern, T.; Smith, M.; Chen, Q.; Kuwata, M.; Poschl, U.; Wang, W.; Buseck, P. R.; Martin, S. T.

    2010-09-01

    The influence of drying rate on the dynamic shape factor {chi} of NaCl particles was investigated. The drying rate at the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of 45% was controlled in a laminar flow tube and varied from 5.5 {+-} 0.9 to 101 {+-} 3 RH s{sup -1} at ERH, where RH represents one percent unit of relative humidity. Dry particles having mobility diameters of 23-84 nm were studied, corresponding to aqueous particles of 37-129 nm at the RH (57%) prior to drying. At each mobility diameter and drying rate, the critical supersaturation of cloud-condensation activation was also measured. The mobility diameter and the critical supersaturation were combined in an analysis to determine the value of {chi}. The measured values varied from 1.02 to 1.26. For fixed particle diameter the {chi} value decreased with increasing drying rate. For fixed drying rate, a maximum occurred in {chi} between 35- and 40-nm dry mobility diameter, with a lower {chi} for both smaller and larger particles. The results of this study, in conjunction with the introduced apparatus for obtaining quantified drying rates, can allow the continued development of a more detailed understanding of the morphology of submicron salt particles, with the potential for the follow-on development of quantitative modeling of evaporation and crystal growth at these dimensions.

  13. Use of poultry manure for amendment of oil-polluted soils in relation to growth of maize (Zea mays L. )

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amadi, A. (Rivers State Univ. of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt (Nigeria)) Ue Bari, Y. (Univ. of Ibadan (Nigeria))

    1992-01-01

    The use of poultry manure for amelioration of oil-polluted soil was investigated by growing maize (Zea mays L.) under two experimental conditions: increasing the poultry manure rate from 0-20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} at 0.03 L/kg oil treatment level; and increasing the rate of oil treatment from 0-0.2 between the rate of poultry manure added and the enhancement of maize growth. But only a 16-kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure rate and above exerted some beneficial effects on the maize growth relative to the unpolluted, unamended soil. Conversely, increasing oil concentration, regardless of the poultry manure level added, depressed maize growth, but only at oil levels of 0.03 L/kg. A positive correlation was recorded between maize height and leaf area growing in oil-treated soil amended with different poultry manure rates and growing in oil-treated amended with 20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure. Amending oil-contaminated soils with poultry manure, should possibly improve soil fertility and maize production.

  14. Utility Rate Structures and the Impact of Energy Efficiency and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    FL Energy Efficiency Calculations * Rates: most common are energy only rates, or a demand rate (kVa or kW) * Demand Rate - Can't use the average cost per kWh for calculations -...

  15. FITCH RATES ENERGY NORTHWEST, WA'S ELECTRIC REV RFDG BONDS 'AA...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FITCH RATES ENERGY NORTHWEST, WA'S ELECTRIC REV RFDG BONDS 'AA'; OUTLOOK STABLE Fitch Ratings-Austin-22 September 2015: Fitch Ratings assigns its 'AA' rating to the following bonds...

  16. Fast and slow crystal growth kinetics in glass-forming melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orava, J.; Greer, A. L., E-mail: alg13@cam.ac.uk [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan and Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-07

    Published values of crystal growth rates are compared for supercooled glass-forming liquids undergoing congruent freezing at a planar crystal-liquid interface. For the purposes of comparison pure metals are considered to be glass-forming systems, using data from molecular-dynamics simulations. For each system, the growth rate has a maximum value U{sub max} at a temperature T{sub max} that lies between the glass-transition temperature T{sub g} and the melting temperature T{sub m}. A classification is suggested, based on the lability (specifically, the propensity for fast crystallization), of the liquid. High-lability systems show “fast” growth characterized by a high U{sub max}, a low T{sub max}?/?T{sub m}, and a very broad peak in U vs. T?/?T{sub m}. In contrast, systems showing “slow” growth have a low U{sub max}, a high T{sub max}?/?T{sub m}, and a sharp peak in U vs. T?/?T{sub m}. Despite the difference of more than 11 orders of magnitude in U{sub max} seen in pure metals and in silica, the range of glass-forming systems surveyed fit into a common pattern in which the lability increases with lower reduced glass-transition temperature (T{sub g}?/?T{sub m}) and higher fragility of the liquid. A single parameter, a linear combination of T{sub g}?/?T{sub m} and fragility, can show a good correlation with U{sub max}. For all the systems, growth at U{sub max} is coupled to the atomic/molecular mobility in the liquid. It is found that, across the diversity of glass-forming systems, T{sub max}?/?T{sub g} = 1.48 ± 0.15.

  17. Achieving high mobility ZnO:Al at very high growth rates by dc filtered cathodic arc deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendelsberg, Rueben

    2013-01-01

    at the LBNL Molecular Foundry, which is supported by the O?Laboratory, Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, CA 3) Harbinat the LBNL Molecular Foundry, which is supported by the

  18. Continuous exercise enhances swim performance and alters growth rate, IGF-I, and cortisol in juvenile marine finfish in aquaculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    is not capable of gluconeogenesis. In mammals, lactatestimulates hepatic lactate gluconeogenesis, stimulation oflactate for hepatic gluconeogenesis (Milligan 1997). The

  19. The interrelationship of light and temperature on the growth rate of Isochrysis galbana Parke (Chrysophyta) in continuous culture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeberg, Larry R

    1971-01-01

    Spectraradiometer, Isco Model S. R. (Fig. 10). The quality of the light was hejd constant within the range usable for photosynthesis (400-700 mp) . Intensity was varied by changing the distance of the flood lamps from the culture vessel and the amount... 15 Cht / ll of I hlg t galba g t va 'o irradiation levels 37 I NT ROD UC TIO N The development of defined artificial seawater media (Provasoli et al. 1957; Aldrich and Wilson 1960; Gates and Wilson 1960, "Jones 1962; Paasche 1964) and axenic...

  20. Decoupling nutrient signaling from growth rate causes aerobic glycolysis and deregulation of cell size and gene expression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slavov, Nikolai G.

    To survive and proliferate, cells need to coordinate their metabolism, gene expression, and cell division. To understand this coordination and the consequences of its failure, we uncoupled biomass synthesis from nutrient ...

  1. Bioclimatology Water deficits during reproductive growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) constantly maintained at > 50% of soil available water. The treatment drought periods were: 0I) from R1 to R4 greater dry matter production than 0I and 10, and these 2 treatments produced more dry matter than 00Bioclimatology Water deficits during reproductive growth of soybeans. l. Their effects on dry

  2. Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Kai

    2000-01-01

    of metal clusters on well-defined oxide surfaces. In this work, the nucleation and growth modes of Ag on TiO?(110)(1x1) and (1x2) surfaces, Ag on ultra-thin Al?O? films, and Au on ultra-thin SiO? films were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM...

  3. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  4. Growth Of Oriented Crystals At Polymerized Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah H. (Albany, CA), Berman, Amir (Ben-Shiva, IL)

    2000-01-25

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the growth and alignment of crystals at biopolymeric films. The methods and compositions of the present invention provide means to generate a variety of dense crystalline ceramic films, with totally aligned crystals, at low temperatures and pressures, suitable for use with polymer and plastic substrates.

  5. Economic Growth and Inequality: Drawing the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    and policies in later sessions #12;Economic Growth and Inequality: The Famous Kuznets Curve #12;Income Inequality #12;The New Kuznets Curve #12;Income Inequality #12;From Income Inequality to Health #12;Percent the Channels) #12;Kuznets Curves for Socially Determined Health Outcomes David Bishai, MD,MPH, PhD Professor

  6. Emittance growth from electron beam modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2009-12-01

    In linac ring colliders like MeRHIC and eRHIC a modulation of the electron bunch can lead to a modulation of the beam beam tune shift and steering errors. These modulations can lead to emittance growth. This note presents simple formulas to estimate these effects which generalize some previous results.

  7. Melt dumping in string stabilized ribbon growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanuel M. (42 Old Middlesex Rd., Belmont, MA 02178)

    1986-12-09

    A method and apparatus for stabilizing the edge positions of a ribbon drawn from a melt includes the use of wettable strings drawn in parallel up through the melt surface, the ribbon being grown between the strings. A furnace and various features of the crucible used therein permit continuous automatic growth of flat ribbons without close temperature control or the need for visual inspection.

  8. ECONOMIC GROWTH WHILE PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    -8875 #12;Abstract This paper reviews the historical development of the energy sector in India as background to consideration of how India might develop its energy sector in the future to ensure economic growth and limit. It is estimated that India may account for 21% of the increase in energy-related carbon emissions from developing

  9. JELLYFISH BLOOMS The growth of jellyfishes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Daniel

    JELLYFISH BLOOMS The growth of jellyfishes M. L. D. Palomares Æ D. Pauly Published online: 15, Consequences, and Recent Advances M. L. D. Palomares (&) Á D. Pauly The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 e-mail: m.palomares

  10. Revisiting BGP Churn Growth Ahmed Elmokashfi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Revisiting BGP Churn Growth Ahmed Elmokashfi Simula Research Laboratory ahmed@simula.no Amogh protocol. The focus was on update churn (the number of routing protocol messages that are exchanged when the network undergoes routing changes) and whether churn was grow- ing too fast for routers to handle. Recent

  11. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uri, N.D. [Economics Research Service, Washington, DC (United States). National Resources and Environment Div.

    1995-05-01

    This analysis is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the US. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, namely unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity are investigated for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian stock scarcity and Malthusian flow scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce during the 1980s than the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has take place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent that resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. To see whether this is a relevant concern, subsequent to the examination of changing trends in resource scarcity, an objective effort is made to identify a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy scarcity and economic growth. Relying on cointegration techniques, only for crude oil is there a suggestion that resource scarcity has affected economic growth in the US over the period 1889--1992. 56 refs.

  12. Method for rapid, controllable growth and thickness, of epitaxial silicon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi (Littleton, CO); Stradins, Paul (Golden, CO); Teplin, Charles (Boulder, CO); Branz, Howard M. (Boulder, CO)

    2009-10-13

    A method of producing epitaxial silicon films on a c-Si wafer substrate using hot wire chemical vapor deposition by controlling the rate of silicon deposition in a temperature range that spans the transition from a monohydride to a hydrogen free silicon surface in a vacuum, to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness is disclosed. The method includes placing a c-Si substrate in a HWCVD reactor chamber. The method also includes supplying a gas containing silicon at a sufficient rate into the reaction chamber to interact with the substrate to deposit a layer containing silicon thereon at a predefined growth rate to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness.

  13. Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

  14. Nuclear weak interaction rates in primordial nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George M. Fuller; Christel J. Smith

    2010-09-01

    We calculate the weak interaction rates of selected light nuclei during the epoch of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), and we assess the impact of these rates on nuclear abundance flow histories and on final light element abundance yields. We consider electron and electron antineutrino captures on 3He and 7Be, and the reverse processes of positron capture and electron neutrino capture on 3H and 7Li. We also compute the rates of positron and electron neutrino capture on 6He. We calculate beta and positron decay transitions where appropriate. As expected, the final standard BBN abundance yields are little affected by addition of these weak processes, though there can be slight alterations of nuclear flow histories. However, non-standard BBN scenarios, e.g., those involving out of equilibrium particle decay with energetic final state neutrinos, may be affected by these processes.

  15. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility Rate Home > Utility Rate

  16. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility Rate Home >Utility Rate

  17. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtility Rate Home >

  18. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtility Rate Home

  19. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtility Rate HomeUtility

  20. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtility Rate

  1. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtility RateUtility

  2. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtilityRate Home >

  3. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtilityRate Home

  4. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtilityRate HomeUtility

  5. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtilityRate

  6. Financial Choices Home Page (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) |Final Report DocumentRates > Rates Announcements

  7. The heritability of daily ranges in rectal temperature, respiration rate, and pulse rate in lactating cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vega C., Eduardo Humberto

    1957-01-01

    GMV 'KLl% NOIXVEIdSZH ZHflLVKEcBCiU 'IVLVK ar SZONVK ZrZVa n urrISVZIXe SSX THE HERITABILITY QF DAILT RANGES IR RECTAL TRAPE3ATCRE y HE V IRATI CR RATE & AHD PULSE RATE IR LACTATIlgl CCHH A Thesis Muardo Susbarto Vega C Appreved as to style... for the Daily Ranges of Tem- perature, Pulse Rate? snd Respiration Rate of Holsteins and Jerseys Prior to Adjustmsnt . ~ ~ ~ 13 IXX, Beans? Standard Errors, and Nunber of Observations for the Three Chax'aeter istics Beasuxed, After Adjustment ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 13...

  8. Numerical simulations of epitaxial growth process in MOVPE reactor as a tool for design of modern semiconductors for high power electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skibinski, Jakub; Wejrzanowski, Tomasz [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02507 Warsaw (Poland); Caban, Piotr [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01919 Warsaw (Poland); Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering Woloska, 141, 02507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-06

    In the present study numerical simulations of epitaxial growth of gallium nitride in Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy reactor AIX-200/4RF-S is addressed. Epitaxial growth means crystal growth that progresses while inheriting the laminar structure and the orientation of substrate crystals. One of the technological problems is to obtain homogeneous growth rate over the main deposit area. Since there are many agents influencing reaction on crystal area such as temperature, pressure, gas flow or reactor geometry, it is difficult to design optimal process. According to the fact that it's impossible to determine experimentally the exact distribution of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor during crystal growth, modeling is the only solution to understand the process precisely. Numerical simulations allow to understand the epitaxial process by calculation of heat and mass transfer distribution during growth of gallium nitride. Including chemical reactions in numerical model allows to calculate the growth rate of the substrate and estimate the optimal process conditions for obtaining the most homogeneous product.

  9. Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Teng

    2007-12-01

    Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to characterize the cell shape and tip undercooling and the experimental results are compared with the predictions of the model. From the investigation of cell/dendrite transition, a model is proposed, from which the condition for the onset of the transition can be obtained.

  10. Economics of Future Growth in Photovoltaics Manufacturing; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basore, Paul; Chung, Donald; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-06-14

    The past decade’s record of growth in the photovoltaic manufacturing industry indicates that global investment in manufacturing capacity for photovoltaic modules tends to increase in proportion to the size of the industry. The slope of this proportionality determines how fast the industry will grow in the future. Two key parameters determine this slope. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a small improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Any accompanying improvement in CapDR will accelerate that growth.

  11. Equity Options and Stochastic Interest Rates1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouwehand, Peter

    M Acott February 14, 2006 1 The financial assistance of the Department of Labour (DoL) towards risk of equity options except around the Optimal Exercise Boundary of American options, but displays enhanced convexity (i.e. `Gamma'-type risks) over the stochastic interest rate model. #12;Acknowledgements

  12. Interruptible Electric Rates: Where We Are Today 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frees, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    of energy management. Within the past few years, time-of-use rates, for both industrial and residential users, have been touted as the answer to shaving peaks and filling valleys in a utility's load curve. Their effectiveness in doing so, however, is still...

  13. Electric germs Source: scenta Rate this item

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Electric germs Source: scenta Rate this item People in remote areas could benefit from fuel cells that contain bacteria that grows prolifically on the graphite anodes of fuel cells and can conduct electricity surface that conducted electricity. Presenting his findings at the Society for General Microbiology

  14. The distant type Ia supernova rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pain, R.; Fabbro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Ellis, R.S.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Deustua, S.E.; Fruchter, A.S.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Irwin, M.J.; Kim, A.G.; Kim, M.Y.; Knop, R.A.; Lee, J.C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.A.

    2002-05-20

    We present a measurement of the rate of distant Type Ia supernovae derived using 4 large subsets of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Within this fiducial sample,which surveyed about 12 square degrees, thirty-eight supernovae were detected at redshifts 0.25--0.85. In a spatially flat cosmological model consistent with the results obtained by the Supernova Cosmology Project, we derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at a mean red shift z {approx_equal} 0.55 of 1.53 {sub -0.25}{sub -0.31}{sup 0.28}{sup 0.32} x 10{sup -4} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1} or 0.58{sub -0.09}{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10}{sup +0.10} h{sup 2} SNu(1 SNu = 1 supernova per century per 10{sup 10} L{sub B}sun), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. The dependence of the rate on the assumed cosmological parameters is studied and the redshift dependence of the rate per unit comoving volume is contrasted with local estimates in the context of possible cosmic star formation histories and progenitor models.

  15. REVERSE-ENGINEERING COUNTRY RISK RATINGS: A ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-11-10

    Feb 19, 1999 ... This study provides new insights on the importance of variables by supporting the necessity of ..... system is that of (iii) self-containment, i.e. its non-reliance on any other past or present country risk ratings. ...... 1131-1151.

  16. Instrumented Home Energy Rating and Commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, of the U.S. DepartmentLBNL-52216 Instrumented Home Energy Rating and Commissioning Craig Wray, Iain Walker, Max Sherman Environmental Energy Technologies Division Indoor Environment Department Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  17. Overview of Field Experience - Degradation Rates & Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Dirk; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-14

    The way a PV module fails may depend not only on its design and the materials used in its construction, but also on the weather it experiences, the way it is mounted, and the quality control during its manufacture. This presentation gives an overview of Field Experience - what degradation rates and what lifetimes are being observed in various regions.

  18. Dual Baud Rate Generator Programmable Divider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mann, Tim

    to excessive loading. The output of the oscillatorlbuffer is applied to the dividers for generation, inclusive. If the divisor is even, the output will be square: otherwise the output will be high longer thanAPPENDIX B #12;#12;Dual Baud Rate Generator Programmable Divider FEATURES PIN CONFi

  19. Prediction of Thermonuclear Reaction Rates in Astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Rauscher

    1998-10-15

    Recent improvements and remaining problems in the prediction of thermonuclear rates are reviewed. The main emphasis is on statistical model calculations, but the challenge to include direct reactions close to the driplines is also briefly addressed. Further theoretical as well as experimental investigations are motivated.

  20. Growth and shortening of microtubules: a two-state model approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yunxin Zhang

    2011-08-03

    In this study, a two-state mechanochemical model is presented to describe the dynamic instability of microtubules (MTs) in cells. The MTs switches between two states, assembly state and disassembly state. In assembly state, the growth of MTs includes two processes: free GTP-tubulin binding to the tip of protofilament (PF) and conformation change of PF, during which the first tubulin unit which curls outwards is rearranged into MT surface using the energy released from the hydrolysis of GTP in the penultimate tubulin unit. In disassembly state, the shortening of MTs includes also two processes, the release of GDP-tibulin from the tip of PF and one new tubulin unit curls out of the MT surface. Switches between these two states, which are usually called rescue and catastrophe, happen stochastically with external force dependent rates. Using this two-state model with parameters obtained by fitting the recent experimental data, detailed properties of MT growth are obtained, we find that MT is mainly in assembly state, its mean growth velocity increases with external force and GTP-tubulin concentration, MT will shorten in average without external force. To know more about the external force and GTP-tubulin concentration dependent properties of MT growth, and for the sake of the future experimental verification of this two-state model, eleven {\\it critical forces} are defined and numerically discussed.