National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for growth rate wood

  1. Growth Rates of Global Energy Systems and Future Outlooks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeoek, Mikael; Li, Junchen; Johansson, Kersti; Snowden, Simon

    2012-03-15

    The world is interconnected and powered by a number of global energy systems using fossil, nuclear, or renewable energy. This study reviews historical time series of energy production and growth for various energy sources. It compiles a theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding the behaviour underlying global energy systems' growth. The most extreme growth rates are found in fossil fuels. The presence of scaling behaviour, i.e. proportionality between growth rate and size, is established. The findings are used to investigate the consistency of several long-range scenarios expecting rapid growth for future energy systems. The validity of such projections is questioned, based on past experience. Finally, it is found that even if new energy systems undergo a rapid 'oil boom'-development-i.e. they mimic the most extreme historical events-their contribution to global energy supply by 2050 will be marginal.

  2. The growth rate of gas hydrate from refrigerant R12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendoush, Abdullah Abbas; Jassim, Najim Abid; Joudi, Khalid A.

    2006-07-15

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were presented dealing with three phase direct-contact heat transfer by evaporation of refrigerant drops in an immiscible liquid. Refrigerant R12 was used as the dispersed phase, while water and brine were the immiscible continuous phase. A numerical solution is presented to predict the formation rate of gas hydrates in test column. The solution provided an acceptable agreement when compared with experimental results. The gas hydrate growth rate increased with time. It increased with increasing dispersed phase flow rate. The presence of surface-active sodium chloride in water had a strong inhibiting effect on the gas hydrate formation rate. (author)

  3. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  4. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1.4 M - Cord Wood 275 - 300 per cord - Kwh 0.51 (rate increase coming) - Propane 193 per 100 lbs tank - Funder reassurance - Consultant accountability - Harvest ...

  5. Rate and peak concentrations of off-gas emissions in stored wood pellets sensitivities to temperature, relative humidity, and headspace volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang, Xingya; Shankar, T.J.; Bi, X.T.; Lim, C. Jim; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-08-01

    Wood pellets emit CO, CO2, CH4 and other volatiles during storage. Increased concentration of these gases in a sealed storage causes depletion of concentration of oxygen. The storage environment becomes toxic to those who operate in and around these storages. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature, moisture and storage headspace on emissions from wood pellets in an enclosed space. Twelve 10-liter plastic containers were used to study the effects of headspace ratio (25%, 50%, and 75% of container volume) and temperatures (10-50oC). Another eight containers were set in uncontrolled storage relative humidity and temperature. Concentrations of CO2, CO and CH4 were measured by a gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that emissions of CO2, CO and CH4 from stored wood pellets are most sensitive to storage temperature. Higher peak emission factors are associated with higher temperatures. Increased headspace volume ratio increases peak off-gas emissions because of the availability of oxygen for pellet decomposition. Increased relative humidity in the enclosed container increases the rate of off-gas emissions of CO2, CO and CH4 and oxygen depletion.

  6. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? ? ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at kmorerelation and nonlinearity are more pronounced for halos, M ? 5 x 10Mh?, compared to the dark matter at z 0 and 1. Nonlinear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean (???) away from the linear theory prediction fLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k LT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.less

  7. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? ? ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at k<0.2hMpc? to 25% at k ~ 0.45hMpc? at z 0. Both the stochastic relation and nonlinearity are more pronounced for halos, M ? 5 x 10Mh?, compared to the dark matter at z 0 and 1. Nonlinear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean (???) away from the linear theory prediction fLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k < 0.1 hMpc?. The stochasticity in the ? ? relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  8. Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at kmore » ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M⊙ h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less

  9. Daniel Wood

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Daniel Wood is the Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist in the Office of Public Affairs at the Department of Energy. He develops creative and interactive ways of viewing the Energy...

  10. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-12-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  11. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Oil cost per year for school 210,000 Fuel cost for electrical generation 1.4 M Cord Wood 275 - 300 per cord Kwh 0.77 (rate increase coming) Propane 203.89 per 100 ...

  12. Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

    2006-05-04

    The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

  13. The effect of density gradient on the growth rate of relativistic Weibel instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahdavi, M.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, the effect of density gradient on the Weibel instability growth rate is investigated. The density perturbations in the near corona fuel, where temperature anisotropy, η, is larger than the critical temperature anisotropy, η{sub c}, (η > η{sub c}), enhances the growth rate of Weibel instability due to the sidebands coupled with the electron oscillatory velocity. But for η < η{sub c}, the thermal spread of the energetic electrons reduces the growth rate. Also, the growth rate can be reduced if the relativistic parameter (Lorentz factor) is sufficiently large, γ > 2. The analysis shows that relativistic effects and density gradient tend to stabilize the Weibel instability. The growth rate can be reduced by 88% by reducing η by a factor of 100 and increasing relativistic parameter by a factor of 3.

  14. Wood and Pellet Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Looking for an efficient, renewable way to heat your home? Wood or pellets are renewable fuel sources, and modern wood and pellet stoves are efficient heaters.

  15. Ab initio determination of the instability growth rate of warm dense beryllium-deuterium interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Zi; Li, DaFang

    2015-10-15

    Accurate knowledge about the interfacial unstable growth is of great importance in inertial confinement fusion. During implosions, the deuterium-tritium capsule is driven by laser beams or X-rays to access the strongly coupled and partially degenerated warm dense matter regime. At this stage, the effects of dissipative processes, such as diffusion and viscosity, have significant impact on the instability growth rates. Here, we present ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine the equations of state and the transport coefficients. Several models are used to estimate the reduction in the growth rate dispersion curves of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities with considering the presence of these dissipative effects. We show that these instability growth rates are effectively reduced when considering diffusion. The findings provide significant insights into the microscopic mechanism of the instability growth at the ablator-fuel interface and will refine the models used in the laser-driven hydrodynamic instability experiments.

  16. An Improved Reaction Rate Equation for Simulating the Ignition and Growth of Reaction in High Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M J

    2010-03-08

    We describe an improved reaction rate equation for simulating ignition and growth of reaction in high explosives. It has been implemented into CALE and ALE3D as an alternate to the baseline the Lee-Tarver reactive flow model. The reactive flow model treats the explosive in two phases (unreacted/reactants and reacted/products) with a reaction rate equation to determine the fraction reacted, F. The improved rate equation has fewer parameters, is continuous with continuous derivative, results in a unique set of reaction rate parameters for each explosive while providing the same functionality as the baseline rate equation. The improved rate equation uses a cosine function in the ignition term and a sine function in the growth and completion terms. The improved rate equation is simpler with fewer parameters.

  17. Primary water stress corrosion crack growth rates in Alloy 600 steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lott, R.G.; Jacko, R.J.; Gold, R.E.

    1992-12-31

    Direct measurements of SCC crack growth rates have been used to determine the effects of changes in PWR primary water chemistry on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Reversing current DC potential measurement techniques have been adapted for use on thin walled tubing containing through-wall circumferential cracks. These techniques have been used to monitor crack rates in Alloy 600 tubing exposed to typical PWR primary water chemistries at 330{degrees}C. Crack growth rate studies, conducted under well defined stress intensity conditions, provide a sensitivity in the assessment of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility that is not possible using more traditional techniques. Preliminary studies have been conducted to determine the effects of B and Li concentrations on the stress corrosion crack growth rate of Alloy 600 tubing.

  18. Collaborative Project: Understanding the Chemical Processes tat Affect Growth rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurry, Peter; Smuth, James

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate.

  19. Radiocarbon-Based Ages and Growth Rates of Bamboo Corals from the Gulf of Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Flood-Page, S; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L; Fallon, S J; McCulloch, M

    2004-12-12

    Deep-sea coral communities have long been recognized by fisherman as areas that support large populations of commercial fish. As a consequence, many deep-sea coral communities are threatened by bottom trawling. Successful management and conservation of this widespread deep-sea habitat requires knowledge of the age and growth rates of deep-sea corals. These organisms also contain important archives of intermediate and deep-water variability, and are thus of interest in the context of decadal to century-scale climate dynamics. Here, we present {Delta}{sup 14}C data that suggest that bamboo corals from the Gulf of Alaska are long-lived (75-126 years) and that they acquire skeletal carbon from two distinct sources. Independent verification of our growth rate estimates and coral ages is obtained by counting seasonal Sr/Ca cycles and probable lunar cycle growth bands.

  20. Effect of different carrier gases and their flow rates on the growth of carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2015-04-15

    The present paper examines the effect of different carrier gases and their flow rates on the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A theoretical model is developed incorporating the charging rate of the carbon nanotube, kinetics of all the plasma species, and the growth rate of the CNTs because of diffusion and accretion of ions on the catalyst nanoparticle. The three different carrier gases, i.e., argon (Ar), ammonia, and nitrogen, are considered in the present investigation, and flow rates of all the three carrier gases are varied individually (keeping the flow rates of hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas constant) to investigate the variations in the number densities of hydrocarbon and hydrogen ions in the plasma and their consequent effects on the height and radius of CNT. Based on the results obtained, it is concluded that Ar favors the formation of CNTs with larger height and radius whereas ammonia contributes to better height of CNT but decreases the radius of CNT, and nitrogen impedes both the height and radius of CNT. The present work can serve to the better understanding of process parameters during growth of CNTs by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process.

  1. Effect of cold work on the growth rates of stress corrosion cracks in structural materials of nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdowski, R.; Speidel, M.O.

    1996-10-01

    The growth rates of stress corrosion cracks in austenitic stainless steels and nickel base alloy 600 exposed to simulated boiling water reactor coolant were measured by fracture mechanics testing techniques. Cold work may increase the crack growth rates up to one hundred times. In both, the annealed condition and the cold worked condition, the stress corrosion crack growth rates are independent of stress intensity over a wide K-range and crack growth rates correlate well with yield strength and hardness. In the annealed condition the fracture path is intergranular, but higher degrees of cold work introduce higher proportions of transgranular stress corrosion cracking.

  2. Wood pellet production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

  3. Wood energy system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook, Wood Energy System Design, was prepared with the support of the Council of Great Lakes Governors and the US Department of Energy. It contains: wood fuel properties; procurement; receiving, handling, and storage; combustion; gasification; emission control; electric power generation and cogeneration; and case studies. (JF)

  4. Magnesite Step Growth Rates as a Function of the Aqueous Magnesium:Carbonate Ratio

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N.; Stack, Andrew G.; Higgins, Steven R.

    2014-10-01

    Step velocities of monolayer-height steps on the (101⁻4) magnesite surface have been measured as functions of the aqueous magnesium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index (SI) using a hydrothermal atomic force microscope (HAFM). At SI ≤ 1.9 and 80-90 °C, step velocities were found to be invariant with changes in the magnesium-to-carbonate ratio, an observation in contrast with standard models for growth and dissolution of ionically-bonded, multi-component crystals. However, at high saturation indices (SI = 2.15), step velocities displayed a ratio dependence, maximized at magnesium-to-carbonate ratios slightly greater than 1:1. Traditional affinity-based models were unable to describe growth rates at the highermore » saturation index. Step velocities also could not be modeled solely through nucleation of kink sites, in contrast to other minerals whose bonding between constituent ions is also dominantly ionic in nature, such as calcite and barite. Instead, they could be described only by a model that incorporates both kink nucleation and propagation. Based on observed step morphological changes at these higher saturation indices, the step velocity maximum at SI = 2.15 is likely due to the rate of attachment to propagating kink sites overcoming the rate of detachment from kink sites as the latter becomes less significant under far from equilibrium conditions.« less

  5. Influence of finite radial geometry on the growth rate of ion-channel free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahmani, Mohammad; Hamzehpour, Hossein; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-11-15

    The influence of finite radial geometry on the instability of a tenuous relativistic electron beam propagating in an ion-channel in a waveguide is investigated. The instability analysis is based on the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the perturbation about a self-consistent beam equilibrium. With the help of characteristic method the dispersion relation for the TE-mode is derived and analyzed through the numerical solutions. It is found that the positioning of the beam radius R{sub b} relative to the waveguide radius R{sub c}, and the ion-channel frequency can have a large influence on the maximum growth rate and corresponding wave number.

  6. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  7. STEO October 2012 - wood

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, reversing two-decade decline Burning wood as the primary heating source in U.S. households has risen over the last 10 years, reversing the decline seen in the 1980s and 1990s. About 2.6 million households out of 115 million will rely on wood as the main way to warm their homes this winter. That's up 3 percent from last year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. The West will have the most

  8. Generating power with waste wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkins, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

  9. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  10. James F. Wood

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's...

  11. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  12. Effects of ion abundances on electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave growth rate in the vicinity of the plasmapause

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henning, F. D. Mace, R. L.

    2014-04-15

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in multi-ion species plasmas propagate in branches. Except for the branch corresponding to the heaviest ion species, which has only a resonance at its gyrofrequency, these branches are bounded below by a cutoff frequency and above by a resonant gyrofrequency. The condition for wave growth is determined by the thermal anisotropies of each ion species, j, which sets an upper bound, ?{sub j}{sup ?}, on the wave frequency below which that ion species contributes positively to the growth rate. It follows that the relative positions of the cutoffs and the critical frequencies ?{sub j}{sup ?} play a crucial role in determining whether a particular wave branch will be unstable. The effect of the magnetospheric ion abundances on the growth rate of each branch of the EMIC instability in a model where all the ion species have kappa velocity distributions is investigated by appealing to the above ideas. Using the variation of the cutoff frequencies predicted by cold plasma theory as a guide, optimal ion abundances that maximise the EMIC instability growth rate are sought. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of H{sup +} ions, all branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the proton branch having the maximum growth rate. When the O{sup +} ion abundance in the ring current is increased, a decrease in the growth rate of the proton branch and cyclotron damping of the helium branch are observed. The oxygen branch, on the other hand, experiences an increase in the maximum growth rate with an increase in the O{sup +} ion abundance. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of He{sup +} ions, only the helium and oxygen branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the helium branch having the maximum growth rate.

  13. Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

  14. Effect of mono- and dichromatic light quality on growth rates and photosynthetic performance of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Konopka, Allan; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Zhang, Shuyi; Shen, Gaozhong; Bryant, Donald A.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2014-09-19

    Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was grown to steady state in optically thin turbidostat cultures under conditions for which light quantity and quality was systematically varied by modulating the output of narrow-band LEDs. Cells were provided photons absorbed primarily by chlorophyll (680 nm) or phycocyanin (630 nm) as the organism was subjected to four distinct mono- and dichromatic regimes. During cultivation with dichromatic light, growth rates displayed by Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 were generally proportional to the total incident irradiance at values < 275 mol photons m-2 s-1 and were not affected by the ratio of 630:680 nm wavelengths. Notably, under monochromatic light conditions, cultures exhibited similar growth rates only when they were irradiated with 630 nm light; cultures irradiated with only 680 nm light grew at rates that were 60 70% of those under other light quality regimes at equivalent irradiances. The functionality of photosystem II and associated processes such as maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, rate of cyclic electron flow, and rate of dark respiration generally increased as a function of growth rate. Nonetheless, some of the photophysiological parameters measured here displayed distinct patterns with respect to growth rate of cultures adapted to a single wavelength including phycobiliprotein content, which increased under severely light-limited growth conditions. Additionally, the ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I increased approximately 40% over the range of growth rates, although cells grown with 680 nm light only had the highest ratios. These results suggest the presence of effective mechanisms which allow acclimation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 acclimation to different irradiance conditions.

  15. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  16. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  17. Daily treatment with {alpha}-naphthoflavone enhances follicular growth and ovulation rate in the rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barreiro, Karina A.; Di Yorio, Maria P.; Artillo-Guida, Romina D.; Paz, Dante A.; Faletti, Alicia G.

    2011-04-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and the first protein involved in a variety of physiological and toxicological processes, including those of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. AhR has been found in the ovary of many species and seems to mediate the ovarian toxicity of many environmental contaminants, which are AhR ligands. However, the role of AhR in the ovarian function is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the action of {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}NF), known to be an AhR antagonist, on both follicular growth and ovulation. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats were daily injected intraperitoneally with {alpha}NF (0.1-80 mg/kg) or vehicle for 12 days, and primed with gonadotrophins (eCG/hCG) to induce follicular growth and ovulation. Ovaries were obtained 20 h after hCG administration. By means of immunohistochemistry, we found that the numbers of primordial, primary and antral follicles were increased in rats treated with 80 mg/kg {alpha}NF and that there were no differences with other doses. Likewise, the ovarian weight and the ovulation rate, measured by both number of oocytes within oviducts and corpora lutea in ovarian sections, were increased when the rats received either 1 or 10 mg/kg daily. Although further studies are necessary to know the mechanism of action of {alpha}NF, it is possible that the different ovarian processes can be differentially responsive to the presence of different levels of {alpha}NF, and that the same or different endogenous AhR ligands can be involved in these ovarian processes in a cell type-dependent manner.

  18. The Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Rate of Alloy 600 Heat Affected Zones Exposed to High Purity Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George A. Young; Nathan Lewis

    2003-04-05

    Grain boundary chromium carbides improve the resistance of nickel based alloys to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). However, in weld heat affected zones (HAZ's), thermal cycles from fusion welding can solutionize beneficial grain boundary carbides, produce locally high residual stresses and strains, and promote PWSCC. The present research investigates the crack growth rate of an A600 HAZ as a function of test temperature. The A600 HAZ was fabricated by building up a gas-tungsten-arc-weld deposit of EN82H filler metal onto a mill-annealed A600 plate. Fracture mechanics based, stress corrosion crack growth rate testing was performed in high purity water between 600 F and 680 F at an initial stress intensity factor of 40 ksi {radical}in and at a constant electrochemical potential. The HAZ samples exhibited significant SCC, entirely within the HAZ at all temperatures tested. While the HAZ samples showed the same temperature dependence for SCC as the base material (HAZ: 29.8 {+-} 11.2{sub 95%} kcal/mol vs A600 Base: 35.3 {+-} 2.58{sub 95%} kcal/mol), the crack growth rates were {approx} 30X faster than the A600 base material tested at the same conditions. The increased crack growth rates of the HAZ is attributed to fewer intergranular chromium rich carbides and to increased plastic strain in the HAZ as compared to the unaffected base material.

  19. Feasibility for Wood Heat - Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Wood Heat * Non-Profit Consortium of Ten Tribal ... Forestry, Fire Management, Self- Governance, ... coordination's across organizations 2 boilers and one ...

  20. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An

  1. Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tachikawa, T; Minohara, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hikita, Y.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-06-21

    We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO{sub 2} samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

  2. Study of radial growth rate and size control of silicon nanocrystals in square-wave-modulated silane plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen-Tran, Th.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Patriarche, G.

    2007-09-10

    The growth of silicon nanocrystals in high pressure and high dilution silane plasmas is investigated by using the temporal evolution of the self-bias on the radio frequency electrode and transmission electron microscopy. A square-wave-modulated plasma was used in order to control the growth of monodispersed nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 12 nm. To this end, the plasma on time was kept below 1 s. The radial growth rate of nanoparticles was varied in the range from 7.5 to 75 nm/s by changing silane partial pressure. Nanoparticles grown in silane-helium discharges have been found amorphous while they are crystalline in silane-hydrogen-argon discharges. Surprisingly, the crystallization in the gaseous phase does not depend on how slow or fast the particles grow but on the presence of atomic hydrogen.

  3. Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood3 Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood3 Resources Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77056-2409 Product: Wood3 Resources is an energy project development firm run by former...

  4. Wanda Woods | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wanda Woods Budget & Resource Administrator Wanda Woods Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue Building 240 - Wkstn. 1C9 Argonne, IL 60439 630-252-1353...

  5. Determination of redox reaction rates and orders by in situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-11-19

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e⁻aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e⁻aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pdmore » deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e⁻aq]. In addition, by comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e⁻aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.« less

  6. Determination of redox reaction rates and orders by in situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-11-19

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. In addition, by comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  7. Prediction of pure water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in nickel base alloys using crack growth rate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.D.; Krasodomski, H.T.; Lewis, N.; Makar, G.L.

    1995-02-22

    The Ford/Andresen slip dissolution SCC model, originally developed for stainless steel components in BWR environments, has been applied to Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 tested in deaerated pure water chemistry. A method is described whereby the crack growth rates measured in compact tension specimens can be used to estimate crack growth in a component. Good agreement was found between model prediction and measured SCC in X-750 threaded fasteners over a wide range of temperatures, stresses, and material condition. Most data support the basic assumption of this model that cracks initiate early in life. The evidence supporting a particular SCC mechanism is mixed. Electrochemical repassivation data and estimates of oxide fracture strain indicate that the slip dissolution model can account for the observed crack growth rates, provided primary rather than secondary creep rates are used. However, approximately 100 cross-sectional TEM foils of SCC cracks including crack tips reveal no evidence of enhanced plasticity or unique dislocation patterns at the crack tip or along the crack to support a classic slip dissolution mechanism. No voids, hydrides, or microcracks are found in the vicinity of the crack tips creating doubt about classic hydrogen related mechanisms. The bulk oxide films exhibit a surface oxide which is often different than the oxides found within a crack. Although bulk chromium concentration affects the rate of SCC, analytical data indicates the mechanism does not result from chromium depletion at the grain boundaries. The overall findings support a corrosion/dissolution mechanism but not one necessarily related to slip at the crack tip.

  8. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt

  9. Growth rates of upper Permian carbonate platform, Capitan margin of northern Delaware basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, P.M.; Grover, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Subsurface and outcrop studies of the Capitan margin (late Guadalupian, Capitanian) in the northern Delaware basin have revealed that over 80% of the total progradation of the margin, over half the total aggradation of the platform (150 of 290 m), and over two-thirds of the basin fill (190 of 280 m) occurred during an early phase of development equating with Seven Rivers beds on the platform. The amount of progradation varied from 6 km from outcrop data in the Guadalupe Mountains to 19 km along trend to the east from subsurface information. The later phase of Capitan margin development was coincident with Yates and Tansill deposition on the platform and was dominated by aggradation and steepening of the margin. Corresponding to this two-phase model, two third-order cycles of relative sea level occur within the Capitanian on the eustasy curve of Ross and Ross: a Seven Rivers cycle lasting 1.5 m.y. and a Yates-Tansill cycle of 1.0 m.y. Progradation rates for the Capitan range from 2.6 to 8.3 m/1000 years. Similar rates are calculated from high-resolution seismic lines across the Cenozoic margin of northwestern great Bahama Bank. Accumulation rates for the Capitan, uncorrected for compaction, average 125 ..mu..m/year and 335 ..mu..m/year for the early phase shelf and shelf margin, respectively, and 160 ..mu..m/year and 430..mu..m/year for the later phase shelf and shelf margin. These accumulation rates are similar to those of other ancient, prograding platforms.

  10. The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negres, R A; Norton, M A; Liao, Z M; Cross, D A; Bude, J D; Carr, C W

    2009-10-29

    Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. In this study, we focus on the effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant dependence of growth rate at 351 nm on pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns as {tau}{sup 0.3} for sites in the 50-100 {micro}m size range.

  11. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment Name: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment...

  13. Impact of Pretreatment Tumor Growth Rate on Outcome of Early-Stage Lung Cancer Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atallah, Soha; Cho, B.C. John; Allibhai, Zishan; Taremi, Mojgan; Giuliani, Meredith; Le, Lisa W.; Brade, Anthony; Sun, Alexander; Bezjak, Andrea; Hope, Andrew J.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of pretreatment tumor growth rate on outcomes in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A review was conducted on 160 patients with T1-T2N0M0 NSCLC treated with SBRT at single institution. The patient's demographic and clinical data, time interval (t) between diagnostic and planning computed tomography (CT), vital status, disease status, and cause of death were extracted from a prospectively kept database. Differences in gross tumor volume between diagnostic CT (GTV1) and planning CT (GTV2) were recorded, and growth rate was calculated by use of specific growth rate (SGR). Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for overall survival (OS). Differences between groups were compared with a log-rank test. Multivariate analyses were performed by use of the Cox proportional hazard model with SGR and other relevant clinical factors. Cumulative incidence was calculated for local, regional, and distant failures by use of the competing risk approach and was compared with Gray's test. Results: The median time interval between diagnostic and planning CT was 82 days. The patients were divided into 2 groups, and the median SGR was used as a cut-off. The median survival times were 38.6 and 27.7 months for the low and high SGR groups, respectively (P=.03). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (P=.01), sex (P=.04), SGR (P=.03), and GTV2 (P=.002) were predictive for OS in multivariable Cox regression analysis and, except sex, were similarly predictive for failure-free survival (FFS). The 3-year cumulative incidences of regional failure were 19.2% and 6.0% for the high and low SGR groups, respectively (P=.047). Conclusion: High SGR was correlated with both poorer OS and FFS in patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with SBRT. If validated, this measurement may be useful in identifying patients most likely to benefit from adjuvant

  14. Exact analytical solution of the linear structure growth rate in {Lambda}CDM cosmology and its cosmological applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Pengjie [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai, China, 200030 (China)

    2011-03-15

    We derive the exact analytical solution of the linear structure growth rate in {Lambda}CDM cosmology with flat or curved geometry, under the Newtonian gauge. Unlike the well known solution under the Newtonian limit [D. J. Heath, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 179, 351 (1977)], our solution takes all general relativistic corrections into account and is hence valid at both the sub- and superhorizon scales. With this exact solution, we evaluate cosmological impacts induced by these relativistic corrections. (1) General relativistic corrections alter the density growth from z=100 to z=0 by 10% at k=0.01 h/Mpc and the impact becomes stronger toward larger scales. We caution the readers that the overdensity is not gauge invariant and the above statement is restrained to the Newtonian gauge. (2) Relativistic corrections introduce a k{sup -2} scale dependence in the density fluctuation. It mimics a primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type with f{sub NL}{sup local{approx}}1. This systematical error may become non-negligible for future all sky deep galaxy surveys. (3) Cosmological simulations with box size greater than 1 Gpc are also affected by these relativistic corrections. We provide a postprocessing recipe to correct for these effects. (4) These relativistic corrections affect the redshift distortion. However, at redshifts and scales relevant to redshift distortion measurements, such effect is negligible.

  15. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Preto, F.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  16. Spectroscopic analysis of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} microwave plasma and fast growth rate of diamond single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derkaoui, N.; Rond, C. Hassouni, K.; Gicquel, A.

    2014-06-21

    One of the best ways to increase the diamond growth rate is to couple high microwave power to the plasma. Indeed, increasing the power density leads to increase gas temperature the atomic hydrogen density in the plasma bulk, and to produce more hydrogen and methyl at the diamond surface. Experimental and numerical approaches were used to study the microwave plasma under high power densities conditions. Gas temperature was measured by optical emission spectroscopy and H-atom density using actinometry. CH{sub 3}-radical density was obtained using a 1D model that describes temperatures and plasma composition from the substrate to the top of the reactor. The results show that gas temperature in the plasma bulk, atomic hydrogen, and methyl densities at the diamond surface highly increase with the power density. As a consequence, measurements have shown that diamond growth rate also increases. At very high power density, we measured a growth rate of 40??m/h with an H-atom density of 5 10{sup 17} cm{sup ?3} which corresponds to a H{sub 2} dissociation rate higher than 50%. Finally, we have shown that the growth rate can be framed between a lower and an upper limit as a function depending only on the maximum of H-atom density measured or calculated in the plasma bulk. The results also demonstrated that increasing fresh CH{sub 4} by an appropriate injection into the boundary layer is a potential way to increase the diamond growth rates.

  17. Marcia A. Wood | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marcia A. Wood Group Leader, Information Solutions and Technology Assurance B.S. Computer Science, University of St. Francis Telephone 630.252.4656 Fax 630.252.6866 E-mail wood@anl.gov

  18. Wood To Fuel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    To Fuel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood To Fuel LLC Place: Lackawana, New York Zip: 14208 Product: Wood fuelproduct supplier. Coordinates: 41.401932, -75.637848...

  19. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed, these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  20. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed; these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  1. Duffield Wood Pellets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Duffield Wood Pellets Jump to: navigation, search Name: Duffield Wood Pellets Place: North Yorkshire, United Kingdom Zip: HG4 5JB Product: A Yorkshire-based, family-run producer of...

  2. Kenneth L. Wood | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kenneth L. Wood Senior Engineering Specialist Telephone (630) 252-3971 E-mail klw@hep.anl

  3. Improved Performance of GaInNAs Solar Cells Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy Using Increased Growth Rate Instead of Surfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Jiang, C. S.; Romero, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    GaInNAs is potentially useful for increasing the conversion efficiency of multijunction solar cells if low photocurrents and photovoltages can be increased. Wide-depletion width devices generate significant photocurrents using an n-i-p structure grown by molecular-beam epitaxy, but these wide depletion widths are only realized in a region of parameter space that leads to rough surface morphologies. Surfactants are effective at reducing the surface roughness, but lead to increased defect densities and changes in the net acceptor or donor concentration. Here, we show that increasing the growth rate of GaInNAs solar cells leads to smooth surfaces without the use of a surfactant, even at high In compositions and substrate temperatures. No degradation in material quality is observed when increasing the growth rate from 1.5 to 3.0 {micro}m/h, but a shunt resistance does appear for the high-growth-rate samples. This shunt is attributed to increased spitting of the Ga cell, leading to an increase in the oval defect density, at the higher effusion cell temperatures used to achieve high growth rates. As with the case of Bi in GaInNAs, increased growth rates also appear to increase the net donor concentration, but it is not clear if these effects have the same cause.

  4. Guidance for growth factors, projections, and control strategies for the 15 percent rate-of-progress plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Section 182(b)(1) of the Clean Air Act (Act) requires all ozone nonattainment areas classified as moderate and above to submit a State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision by November 15, 1993, which describes, in part, how the areas will achieve an actual volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions reduction of at least 15 percent during the first 6 years after enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). In addition, the SIP revision must describe how any growth in emissions from 1990 through 1996 will be fully offset. It is important to note that section 182(b)(1) also requires the SIP for moderate areas to provide for reductions in VOC and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as necessary to attain the national primary ambient air quality standard for ozone by November 15, 1996. The guidance document focuses on the procedures for developing 1996 projected emissions inventories and control measures which moderate and above ozone nonattainment areas must include in their rate-of-progress plans. The document provides technical guidance to support the policy presented in the 'General Preamble: Implementation of Title I of the CAAA of 1990' (57 FR 13498).

  5. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of

  6. Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Heating Systems » Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1

  7. Difference in C3–C4 metabolism underlies tradeoff between growth rate and biomass yield in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fu, Yanfen; Beck, David A. C.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2016-07-19

    In this study, two variants of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 demonstrated a trade-off between growth rate and biomass yield. In addition, growth rate and biomass yield were also affected by supplementation of growth medium with different amounts of cobalt. The metabolism changes relating to these growth phenomena as well as the trade-off were investigated in this study. 13C metabolic flux analysis was used to generate a detailed central carbon metabolic flux map with both absolute and normalized flux values. As a result, the major differences between the two variants occurred at the formate node as well as within C3-C4 inter-conversion pathways.more » Higher relative fluxes through formyltetrahydrofolate ligase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and malic enzyme led to higher biomass yield, while higher relative fluxes through pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase led to higher growth rate. These results were then tested by phenotypic studies on three mutants (null pyk, null pck mutant and null dme mutant) in both variants, which agreed with the model prediction. In this study, 13C metabolic flux analysis for two strain variants of M. extorquens AM1 successfully identified metabolic pathways contributing to the trade-off between cell growth and biomass yield. Phenotypic analysis of mutants deficient in corresponding genes supported the conclusion that C3-C4 inter-conversion strategies were the major response to the trade-off.« less

  8. Densified fuels from wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickering, W.H.

    1995-11-01

    Wood compressed to a specific gravity of about 1.2 constitutes an excellent clean burning fuel. {open_quotes}Prestologs{close_quotes} were marketed before 1940, but in the past ten years a much larger and growing market is densified pellet fuel has developed. The market for pellet fuel is about 90% residential, using special pellet burning stoves. Initial sales were almost entirely in the northwest, but sales in other parts of the country are now growing rapidly. Approximately 300,000 stoves are in use. Note that this industry developed from the private sector with little or no support from federal or state governments. Densified fuel is manufactured by drying and compressing sawdust feedstock. Combustion is different than that of normal wood. For example, wood pellets require ample supplies of air. They then burn with a hot flame and very low particulate emissions. Volatile organic compounds are burned almost completely and carbon monoxide can also be kept very low. Stoves burning pellets easily meet EPA standards. This paper discusses technical and economic factors associated with densified fuel and considers the future of the industry.

  9. Effects of zinc additions on the stress corrosion crack growth rate of sensitized stainless steel, Alloy 600 and Alloy 182 weld metal in 288 C water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andresen, P.L.; Angeliu, T.M.

    1995-09-01

    ZnO additions to boiling water reactor (BWR) water have been the focus of recent interest, primarily because of their beneficial influence in reducing buildup of radioactive species such as Co{sup 60} in the oxide film of structural components, e.g., stainless steel piping. The effect of ZnO additions on stress corrosion crack growth rates were studied using 1T CT fracture mechanics specimens of sensitized type 304 stainless steel, sensitized Alloy 600, and Alloy 182 weld metal exposed to {approx}288 C water containing various levels of dissolved oxygen and impurities. Zn levels of 5 to 100 ppb Zn{sup 2+} were evaluated and found to reduce crack growth rates for all materials and in all water chemistries. Many Zn tests involved long term exposure and were performed at somewhat reduced corrosion potential (e.g., from {approx}+200 to 0 {minus}+50 mV{sub she}); variations in corrosion potential from +200, to +50, to {minus}50 mV{sub she} clearly had an important effect. The benefit of Zn appeared to be most pronounced when the growth rate was decreased (e.g., by corrosion potential). This was consistent with the findings of mechanistic studies, which showed that Zn decreased the repassivation response at times >10{sup 4} s, which is associated with low crack tip strain rates, i.e., low growth rates. Reduced corrosion potentials are also expected to directly effect Zn, since high (crack mouth) corrosion potentials inhibit the transport of Zn{sup 2+} into the crack. Zn also increased the fracture strain of the oxide on stainless steel, and may also reduce crack growth rates by increasing the pH in the crack. Similar benefits are expected for other structural materials, such as nonsensitized or irradiated stainless steel, carbon steel, low alloy steel, and other nickel alloys.

  10. Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for any table cell, multiply the cell's" "corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ... "Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: ...

  11. A cosmological exclusion plot: towards model-independent constraints on modified gravity from current and future growth rate data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taddei, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Most cosmological constraints on modified gravity are obtained assuming that the cosmic evolution was standard ΛCDM in the past and that the present matter density and power spectrum normalization are the same as in a ΛCDM model. Here we examine how the constraints change when these assumptions are lifted. We focus in particular on the parameter Y (also called G{sub eff}) that quantifies the deviation from the Poisson equation. This parameter can be estimated by comparing with the model-independent growth rate quantity fσ{sub 8}(z) obtained through redshift distortions. We reduce the model dependency in evaluating Y by marginalizing over σ{sub 8} and over the initial conditions, and by absorbing the degenerate parameter Ω{sub m,0} into Y. We use all currently available values of fσ{sub 8}(z). We find that the combination Y-circumflex =YΩ{sub m,0}, assumed constant in the observed redshift range, can be constrained only very weakly by current data, Y-circumflex =0.28{sub −0.23}{sup +0.35} at 68% c.l. We also forecast the precision of a future estimation of Y-circumflex in a Euclid-like redshift survey. We find that the future constraints will reduce substantially the uncertainty, Y-circumflex =0.30{sub −0.09}{sup +0.08} , at 68% c.l., but the relative error on Y-circumflex around the fiducial remains quite high, of the order of 30%. The main reason for these weak constraints is that Y-circumflex is strongly degenerate with the initial conditions, so that large or small values of Y-circumflex are compensated by choosing non-standard initial values of the derivative of the matter density contrast. Finally, we produce a forecast of a cosmological exclusion plot on the Yukawa strength and range parameters, which complements similar plots on laboratory scales but explores scales and epochs reachable only with large-scale galaxy surveys. We find that future data can constrain the Yukawa strength to within 3% of the Newtonian one if the range is around a few

  12. Grant F. Wood | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grant F. Wood Consultant - Project Management 9700 S. Cass Avenue Building 240 Wkstn. 3D18 Argonne, IL 60439 630-252-5315 gfwood

  13. Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Total cost, exclusive of taxes, interest and other finance charges Summary This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a ...

  14. Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: AB30 1PA Product: Wood pellet producer. Coordinates: 56.932781, -2.42531 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlema...

  15. Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.568752, -90.330887 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice"...

  16. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0

  17. Flash pyrolysis products from beech wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, O.

    1985-04-01

    Flash pyrolysis products from beech wood obtained in an original pyrolysis apparatus were analyzed. The analytical procedure is described, and the composition of pyrolytic oil presented with more than 50 compounds. Comparison of pyrolytic products of cellulose, hemicellulose, and wood indicates the origin of each product. 19 references.

  18. Rachel Woods-Robinson | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rachel Woods-Robinson About Us Rachel Woods-Robinson - Guest Blogger, Cycle for Science Most Recent Rain or Shine: We Cycle for Science July 2 Mountains, and Teachers, and a Bear, Oh My! June 2 Sol-Cycle: Biking Across America for Science Education May 1

  19. DEMONSTRATING SLOW GROWTH RATES IN OPAL FROM Y.M.,NV, USING MICRODIGESTION AND ION-PROBE URANIUM-SERIES DATING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. PACES; L. NEYMARK; H. PERSING; J. WOODEN

    2000-07-25

    Thinly laminated (<0.01 mm) opal sheets and globules associated with calcite in fractures and cavities in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have U concentrations of 50 to 300 ppm. Previous uranium-series thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) analyses of 0.2- to 1-mm-thick subsamples resulted in a model of slow mineral growth at rates of 0.5 to 5 mm/m.y. To test this growth model using finer sampling resolution, in situ microdigestions were performed by applying a drop of hydrofluoric acid directly to opal surfaces within a small area encircled by jeweler's wax. After several minutes, the liquid was removed, spiked with a tracer solution, and analyzed by TIMS for both U and Th using a single rhenium filament with colloidal graphite. Solutions contained about 0.5 nanograms of U, equivalent to opal weights of 1 to 10 micrograms and dissolved-layer thicknesses less than 0.003 mm. Microdigested opal surfaces have Th-230/U ages of 5 to 10 thousand years (ka) in contrast to much older ages of 150 to 250 ka obtained previously from whole-globule digestions. Additional tests of the growth model were made on cross sections of identical opal globules using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) with a 0.04-mm-diameter O-minus primary beam. Counting rates for Tho-246 and U-234 varied between 5 and 70 counts per second with Th-230/Th-232 activity ratios typically much greater than a million. The Th-230/U ages in the outer 0.3 mm of the globules ranged from about 30 ka at the outer edge to 400 ka at depth. Ages correlate with microstratigraphic depths and indicate average growth rates between 0.5 and 0.7 mm/m.y. Current U-series data do not resolve differential growth rates related to climate changes during this time period. However, both microdigestion and SHRIMP results confirm the previous TIMS-based model of slow, uniform rates of mineral growth in a hydrologically stable environment.

  20. Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota Baudette, Minnesota Roosevelt, Minnesota Williams, Minnesota Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLakeoftheWoodsC...

  1. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

  2. Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Facility Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy...

  3. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 November 2008 Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation CATG - AWEA For-Profit Wood Energy Business Model Fort Yukon * Forest Management Service - CATG * For-Profit Wood Utility Company -...

  4. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  5. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humar, Miha; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-07-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes.

  6. ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

    2012-08-31

    Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both µCSi and αSi-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products’ electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

  7. Determination of redox reaction rates and orders by in-situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-11-19

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  8. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  9. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  10. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Woods to the Refinery CORRIM Life Cycle Analyses of Woody Feedstocks Dr. Steve Kelley ... composition, sugar types, residue fuel value * TC models are sensitive to MC, much less ...

  11. Wood Fuel LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    77034 Region: Texas Area Sector: Biomass Product: Wood by-products consulting and marketing Website: www.woodfuel.com Coordinates: 29.6221328, -95.1872605 Show Map Loading...

  12. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

  13. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Clean energy can come from the sun. The energy in wind can make electricity. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use ...

  14. Wood Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood Energy Ltd Place: Devon, United Kingdom Zip: EX16 9EU Product: Specialises in the design, installation and service of automatic...

  15. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Homes in the San Geronimo Valley (Forest Knolls, Lagunitas, San Geronimo, and Woodacre) can receive a rebate of $1,500 for the removal and replacement of non-certified wood burning appliances with...

  16. Determination of crystal growth rates during rapid solidification of polycrystalline aluminum by nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zweiacker, K.; McKeown, J. T.; Liu, C.; LaGrange, T.; Reed, B. W.; Campbell, G. H.; Wiezorek, J. M. K.

    2016-08-04

    In situ investigations of rapid solidification in polycrystalline Al thin films were conducted using nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Differences in crystal growth rates and asymmetries in melt pool development were observed as the heat extraction geometry was varied by controlling the proximity of the laser-pulse irradiation and the associated induced melt pools to the edge of the transmission electron microscopy support grid, which acts as a large heat sink. Experimental parameters have been established to maximize the reproducibility of the material response to the laser-pulse-related heating and to ensure that observations of the dynamical behavior of themore » metal are free from artifacts, leading to accurate interpretations and quantifiable measurements with improved precision. Interface migration rate measurements revealed solidification velocities that increased consistently from ~1.3 m s–1 to ~2.5 m s–1 during the rapid solidification process of the Al thin films. Under the influence of an additional large heat sink, increased crystal growth rates as high as 3.3 m s–1 have been measured. The in situ experiments also provided evidence for development of a partially melted, two-phase region prior to the onset of rapid solidification facilitated crystal growth. As a result, using the experimental observations and associated measurements as benchmarks, finite-element modeling based calculations of the melt pool evolution after pulsed laser irradiation have been performed to obtain estimates of the temperature evolution in the thin films.« less

  17. Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances The following is a brief overview of the different types of wood and pellet fuel appliances available. High-Efficiency Fireplaces and Fireplace Inserts Designed more for show, traditional open masonry fireplaces should not be considered heating devices.

  18. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, L. C.; Leousis, D. P.

    2014-03-15

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

  19. Crack growth rates and metallographic examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from field components and laboratory materials tested in PWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-05-05

    In light water reactors, components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This report summarizes the crack growth rate results and related metallography for field and laboratory-procured Alloy 600 and its weld alloys tested in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. The report also presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for a shielded-metal-arc weld of Alloy 182 in a simulated PWR environment as a function of temperature between 290 C and 350 C. These data were used to determine the activation energy for crack growth in Alloy 182 welds. The tests were performed by measuring the changes in the stress corrosion CGR as the temperatures were varied during the test. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. These values are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed.

  20. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " ...

  1. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  2. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore » around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  3. Effects of pH and stress intensity on crack growth rate in Alloy 600 in lithiated + borated water at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R.B.; Szklarska-Smialowska, Z.; McIlree, A.R.

    1992-12-31

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking studies were performed on Alloy 600. Constant load tests were conducted at 330 and 350{degrees}C in solutions containing dissolved hydrogen, boric acid (0 < B < 1200 ppm) and lithium hydroxide (0 < Li < 10 ppm). In the PWR working conditions range, that is, 6.9 < pH < 7.4 (or 0.5 ppm < Li < 3.5), there is little effect of the solution pH on the intergranular crack growth rate (IGSCC). However, there is a strong influence of the stress intensity on the IGSCC. K{sub ISCC} {approx} 5-10 MPa{radical}m. Dissolution plays an important role in the IGSCC process.

  4. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  5. Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New York Department of Taxation and Finance publishes a variety of sales tax reports detailing local tax rates and exemptions, including those for residential energy services. The residential...

  6. New England Wood Pellet LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pellet LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: New England Wood Pellet LLC Place: Jaffrey, New Hampshire Zip: NH 03452 Product: New England Wood Pellet LLC is a manufacturer and...

  7. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  8. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Prev Next Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ; Salamov, Asaf ; Min, Byoungnam ; Choi, In-Geol ; ...

  9. City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood River Municipal Power Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 308.583-2515; 308-583-2066 Website:...

  10. Wood County Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Place: Texas Phone Number: 1-866-415-2951 Website: www.wcec.org Facebook: https:...

  11. One on One - Douglas K Woods | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    One on One - Douglas K Woods One on One - Douglas K Woods A September 2014 interview with Douglas K Woods, the President of the Association for Manufacturing Technology, on the state of US manufacturing. One on One - Douglas K Woods (97.92 KB) More Documents & Publications Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation Advanced Microturbine System: Market Assessment, May 2003 Green Leasing Deployment Portfolio - 2014 BTO Peer Review

  12. Tracing the mass growth and star formation rate evolution of massive galaxies from Z ∼ 6 to Z ∼ 1 in the Hubble ultra-deep field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundgren, Britt F.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Oesch, Pascal; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Bouwens, Rychard; Trenti, Michele; Gonzalez, Valentino; Illingworth, Garth; Magee, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of an H {sub 160}-selected photometric catalog of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, using imaging from the WFC3/IR camera on the Hubble Space Telescope in combination with archival ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared imaging. Using these data, we measure the spectral energy distributions of ∼1500 galaxies to a limiting H {sub 160} magnitude of 27.8, from which we fit photometric redshifts and stellar population estimates for all galaxies with well-determined Spitzer IRAC fluxes, allowing for the determination of the cumulative mass function within the range 1 < z < 6. By selecting samples of galaxies at a constant cumulative number density, we are able to explore the coevolution of stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) for progenitor galaxies and their descendants from z ∼ 6. We find a steady increase in the SFRs of galaxies at constant number density from z ∼ 6 to z ∼ 3, accompanied by gradually declining specific star formation rates (sSFRs) during this same period. The peak epoch of star formation is also found to shift to later times for galaxies with increasing number densities, in agreement with the expectations from cosmic downsizing. The observed SFRs can fully account for the mass growth to z ∼ 2 among galaxies with cumulative number densities greater than 10{sup –3.5} Mpc{sup –3}. For galaxies with a lower constant number density (higher mean mass), we find the observed stellar masses are ∼three times greater than that which may be accounted for by the observed star formation alone at late times, implying that growth from mergers plays an important role at z < 2. We additionally observe a decreasing sSFR, equivalent to approximately one order of magnitude, from z ∼ 6 to z ∼ 2 among galaxies with number densities less than 10{sup –3.5} Mpc{sup –3}, along with significant evidence that at any redshift the sSFR is higher for galaxies at higher number density. The combination of these findings

  13. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Wood and Wood Waste - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - Energy Information Administration Wood and Wood Waste Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From

  15. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  16. The effect of in-situ noble metal chemical addition on crack growth rate behavior of structural materials in 288 C water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andresen, P.L.; Angeliu, T.

    1996-10-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC), especially in existing boiling water reactor (BVM) components, is most effectively accomplished by reducing the corrosion potential. This was successfully demonstrated by adding hydrogen to BNM water, which reduced oxidant concentration and corrosion potential by recombining with the radiolytically formed oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. However, reduction in the corrosion potential for some vessel internals is difficult, and others require high hydrogen addition rates, which results in an increase in the main steam radiation level from volatile N{sup 16}. Noble metal electrocatalysis provides a unique opportunity to efficiently achieve a dramatic reduction in corrosion potential and SCC in BWRs, by catalytically reacting all oxidants that diffuse to a (catalytic) metal surface with hydrogen. There are many techniques for creating catalytic surfaces, including alloying with noble metals or applying noble metal alloy powders to existing BWR components by thermal spraying or weld cladding. A novel system-wide approach for producing catalytic surfaces on all wetted components has been developed which employs the reactor coolant water as the medium of transport. This approach is termed in-situ noble metal chemical addition (NMCA), and has been successfully used in extensive laboratory tests to coat a wide range of pre-oxidized structural materials. In turn, these specimens have maintained catalytic response in long term, cyclic exposures to extremes in dissolved gases, impurity levels, pH, flow rate, temperature, straining, etc. With stoichiometric excess H{sub 2}, the corrosion potential drops dramatically and crack initiation and growth are greatly reduced, even at high O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels. Without excess H{sub 2} (i.e., in normal BWR water chemistry), noble metals do not increase the corrosion potential or SCC.

  17. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-02-21

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  18. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Program in the Yukon Flats Region

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy Program for Fort Yukon Implementation DOE Tribal Energy Program 2 0 November 2008 Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation CATG - AWEA For-Profit Wood Energy Business Model Fort Yukon * Forest Management Service - CATG * For-Profit Wood Utility Company - Vertically Integrated * Gwitchyaa Zhee Native Corporation - Wood Harvest Company - Village Wood Yard/Distribution Company - Wood Energy Utility - Diesel Biomass - Wood diesel hybrid power plant CHP - still dreaming for

  19. Effects of Headspace and Oxygen Level on Off-gas Emissions from Wood Pellets in Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Kuang, Xingya; Shankar, T.S.; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-10-01

    Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO2, CO, and CH4 from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO2, CO, and CH4 in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO2 and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH4 emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.

  20. Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Rate Testing and Analytical Electron Microscopy of Alloy 600 as a Function of Pourbaix Space and Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Lewis; S.A. Attanasio; D.S. Morton; G.A. Young

    2000-10-04

    Stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth rate tests and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) studies were performed over a broad range of environments and heat treatments of Alloy 600. This effort was conducted to correlate bulk environmental conditions such as pH and electrochemical potential (EcP) with the morphology of the SCC crack. Development of a library of AEM morphologies formed by SCC in different environments is an important step in identifying the conditions that lead to SCC in components. Additionally, AEM examination of stress corrosion cracks formed in different environments and microstructures lends insight into the mechanism(s) of stress corrosion cracking. Testing was conducted on compact tension specimens in three environments: a mildly acidic oxidizing environment containing sulfate ions, a caustic environment containing 10% NaOH, and hydrogenated near-neutral buffered water. Additionally, stress corrosion cracking testing of a smooth specimen was conducted in hydrogenated steam. The following heat treatments of Alloy 600 were examined: mill annealed at 980 C (near-neutral water), mill annealed at 1010 C (steam), sensitized (acid and caustic), and mill annealed + healed to homogenize the grain boundary Cr concentration (caustic). Crack growth rate (CGR) testing showed that sensitized Alloy 600 tested in the mildly acidic, oxidizing environment containing sulfate ions produced the fastest cracking ({approx} 8.8 {micro}m/hr at 260 C), and AEM examination revealed evidence of sulfur segregation to the crack tip. The caustic environment produced slower cracking ({approx} 0.4 {micro}m/hr at 307 C) in the mill annealed + healed heat treatment but no observed cracking in the sensitized condition. In the caustic environment, fully oxidized carbides were present in the crack wake but not ahead of the crack tip. In near-neutral buffered water at 338 C, the CGR was a function of dissolved hydrogen in the water and exhibited a maximum (0.17 {micro}m/hr) near the

  1. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  2. Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets August 20, 2015 - 5:22pm Addthis Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the Massachusetts schools switching their heating fuel source from petroleum based fuels to wood pellets. Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the

  3. Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Alabama Program Type Rebate Amount 100% Summary This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The...

  4. Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  5. Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  6. Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  7. Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  8. Water Sampling At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Salton...

  9. Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  10. Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  11. Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  12. Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Heber Area...

  13. Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  14. Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  15. Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  16. Title: Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart Lessons Learned Statement- Cumulative damage can cause a loss of structural integrity. When furnishings are repeatedly exposed to water,...

  17. International WoodFuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maine Zip: 4101 Product: Maine-based pellet producer and installer of commercial wood pellet heating systems. Coordinates: 45.511795, -122.675629 Show Map Loading map......

  18. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Existing Homes Building America Case Study Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: The...

  19. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...cofiring of Biomass and Coal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasificationcofiring of Biomass and Coal Utilization of biomass as a ...

  20. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  1. Mathematical model of steam drying of wood chips and other hygroscopic porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fyhr, C.; Rasmuson, A.

    1996-09-01

    A model is presented that is focused on the drying kinetics of single wood chips as a function of time and external conditions, such as temperature, pressure and velocity of the superheated steam. A multiphase and 2-D approach was used to model the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat in anisotropic hygroscopic porous media. The model was verified by drying experiments where measurements of the average moisture content, center temperature and pressure in a single wood chip could be performed simultaneously. A comparison between the calculations and the measurements showed that the drying behavior was well predicted. The drying can be divided into three stages: a heat-up period when condensation on the surface initially increases the moisture content; a period of constant drying rate when the external heat transfer controls the drying rate; and a period of decreasing drying rate when the drying is controlled by internal mass transfer. Many interesting features of the drying could be assigned to the strong anisotropicity of wood, which makes a 2-D model necessary.

  2. The impact of monolayer coverage, barrier thickness and growth rate on the thermal stability of photoluminescence of coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dot hetero-structure with quaternary capping of InAlGaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandal, A.; Verma, U.; Halder, N.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2012-03-15

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupled InAs/GaAs MQDs with (In{sub 0.21}Al{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.58}As + GaAs) caps are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monolayer coverage, barrier thickness and growth rate of the dots are the factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL peaks for the samples are within 1.1-1.3 {mu}m; significant for IBSCs and lasers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NPTP (non-resonant multi-phonon assisted tunneling process) effect on FWHM of PL. -- Abstract: The self-assembled InAs/GaAs MQDs are widely investigated for their potential application in optoelectronic devices like lasers and photovoltaics. We have explored the effect of QD growth rate and structural parameters like capping layer thickness on the morphology and optical properties of the MQD heterostructures overgrown with a combination capping of InAlGaAs and GaAs. The growth rate of the seed layers in the MQD samples is also varied to investigate its effect in the vertical stacking of the islands. The change in the morphology and the optical properties of the samples due to variation in growth and structural parameters are explained by the presence of strain in the QD structures, which arises due to lattice mismatch.

  3. Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In parts of this country, wood seems like the outsider in the biomass family. New ethanol plants that grind down millions of bushels of corn in the Midwest and breakthroughs in algae along the coasts always garner the most attention. But in states like Montana, a place with over 70 million acres of forest, wood is the biofuel of choice.

  4. Wood fuel technologies and group-oriented Timber Stand Improvement Program: model for waste wood utilization and resource renewal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: educating and assisting landowners in the most efficient and profitable use of wood resources; developing local timber resources as energy alternatives by representing collective interests to Consumers Power, the woodchip industry, firewood retailers, country residents, and woodlot owners; and providing public information on the economics and methods of wood heat as a supplemental energy source. (MHR)

  5. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  6. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  7. An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, J.

    2010-08-01

    This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

  8. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gago, J.; Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, J.; Acevedo, M.

    2007-10-26

    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

  9. Wood chips: an exploration of problems and opportunities. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report evaluates the current use of and potential market for wood chips as a fuel in the Northeast. This study covers the residential, commercial, and light industrial sectors and addresses cost, reliability, marketing systems, and technology improvements. A review of the available equipment for wood chip harvesting, processing, handling, drying, and transport is included. Three representative strategic business guides for different chip suppliers are presented. There is also a recommended action plan for future programs with initiatives that could facilitate the development of the wood chip market. 25 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Research into the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, lignin, and birch wood flour in the China Lake entrained-flow reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diebold, J.

    1980-06-01

    This experimental program used the China Lake entrained-flow pyrolysis reactor to briefly investigate the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, pure lignin, and birch wood flour. The study determined that the cellulose and wood flour do pyrolyze to produce primarily gaseous products containing significant amounts of ethylene and other useful hydrocarbons. During attempts to pyrolyze powdered lignin, the material melted and bubbled to block the reactor entrance. The pure cellulose and wood flour produced C/sub 2/ + yields of 12% to 14% by weight, which were less than yields from an organic feedstock derived from processed municipal trash. The char yields were 0.1% by weight from cellulose and 1.5% from birch wood flour - one to two orders of magnitude less than were produced from the trash-derived feedstock. In scanning electron microscope photographs, most of the wood flour char had a sintered and agglomerated appearance, although some particles retained the gross cell characteristics of the wood flour. The appearance of the char particles indicated that the material had once been molten and possibly vapor before it formed spheroidal particles about 1 ..mu..m diameter which agglomerated to form larger char particles. The ability to completely melt or vaporize lignocellulosic materials under conditions of high heating rates has now been demonstrated in a continuous flow reactor and promises new techniques for fast pyrolysis. This char was unexpectedly attracted by a magnet, presumably because of iron contamination from the pyrolysis reactor tube wall. The production of water-insoluble tars was negligible compared to the tars produced from trash-derived feedstock. The production of water-soluble organic materials was fairly low and qualitatively appeared to vary inversely with temperature. This study was of a preliminary nature and additional studies are necessary to optimize ethylene production from these feedstocks.

  11. Permeability of wood pellets in the presence of fines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazdanpanah, F.; Lau, A.K.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Melin, Staffan; Bi, X.T.; Afzal, M

    2010-03-01

    Broken pellets and fines are produced during mechanical handlings of wood pellets. The resistance to air flow was measured for clean pellets and for pellets mixed with 1 to 20% broken pellets (fines). A pellet diameter was 6 mm. The lengths ranged from from 6 to 12 mm. Clean pellets were defined as particles that remained on a 4 mm screen. A typical sieve analysis showed 30% of the mass of particles passed through the 4 mm screen were smaller than 1 mm. The airflow rates used in the experiment ranged from 0.004 to 0.357 ms-1. The corresponding pressure drop ranged from 1.9 Pa m-1 to 271 Pa m-1 for clean pellets and from 4.8 to 1100 Pa m 1 for pellets mixed with 10% fines. The pressure drop increased for pellets mixed with increasing fines content. Coefficients of Hukill and Ives equation were estimated for clean pellets and a multiplier was defined to calculate pressure drop for pellets mixed with fines.

  12. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  13. Laguna Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Laguna Woods is a city in Orange County, California. It falls under California's 48th...

  14. Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Mission Woods is a city in Johnson County, Kansas. It falls under Kansas's 3rd congressional district.12 References...

  15. Huntington Woods, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Huntington Woods is a city in Oakland County, Michigan. It falls under Michigan's 12th...

  16. Wood Dale, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood Dale is a city in DuPage County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois' 6th congressional...

  17. Wood County, West Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood County is a county in West Virginia. Its FIPS County Code is 107. It is classified as...

  18. Wood County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood County is a county in Texas. Its FIPS County Code is 499. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  19. Wood Village, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood Village is a city in Multnomah County, Oregon. It falls under Oregon's 3rd...

  20. Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.8456555, -74.0879195 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  1. Study of emissions from small woods - fired boiler systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    This short article announces a testing project RFP to determine the air emissions produced by small wood-chip fired combustion systems and to determine associated health risks if any.

  2. Improving combustion in residential size wood chip fireboxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, E.R.

    1982-12-01

    In a small experimental wood chip firebox with separate control of grate and overfire air, combustion intensity was increased with reduction in flyash and carbon monoxide by reducing air through the grate to a small fraction of stoichiometric air.

  3. Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    80,000 acres in one month Proposed Rural Wood Fuel Supply System *Capital costs for system capable of producing 7,000 TPY: 600,000 Key Obstacles to Overcome Development...

  4. Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that wood-composite development is something that will bolster the U.S. economy, matches the funding from the WBC. "People in this industry are always looking for ways to...

  5. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Feasibility Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Wood Energy Program for Yukon Flats Villages DOE Tribal Energy Program 20 November 2008 Feasibility for Wood Heat Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments (CATG) * Non-Profit Consortium of Ten Tribal Governments within the Yukon Flats. * CATG Administers several Tribal Programs on behalf of the Tribes. * CATG also applies for and administers several other grants. - IHS, Regional Clinic (Fort Yukon), Health Aids in Each Village, drug and alcohol programs, and other health related

  6. How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    North Country School in Lake Placid, New York, recently installed a high-efficiency wood chip boiler using Recovery Act funds from the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Using wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests, the school will be able to cut energy costs by $38,970 annually and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 184 tons per year.

  7. The influence of the drying medium on high temperature convective drying of single wood chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, A.; Rasmuson, A.

    1997-10-01

    High temperature convective drying of single wood chips with air and superheated steam respectively is studied theoretically. The two-dimensional model presented describes the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat. Transport mechanisms included are the convection of gas and liquid, intergas as well as bound water diffusion. In the initial part of the drying process, moisture is transported to the surface mainly due to capillary forces in the transversal direction where evaporation occurs. As the surface becomes dry, the drying front moves towards the center of the particle and an overpressure is simultaneously built up which affects the drying process. The differences between drying in air and steam respectively can be assigned to the physical properties of the drying medium. The period of constant drying rate which does not exist (or is very short) in air drying becomes more significant with decreasing amounts of air in the drying medium and is clearly visible in pure superheated steam drying. The maximal drying rate is larger in air drying, and shorter drying times are obtained since the heat flux to the wood chip particle increases with increasing amounts of air in the drying medium. The period of falling drying rate can be divided into two parts: in the first, the drying rate is dependent upon the humidity of the drying medium whereas in the second, there is no such correlation.

  8. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  9. Rate Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  10. Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity in varying thicknesses of wood and steel cargo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Prussin, S

    2006-10-05

    The influence of incident neutron attenuation on signal strengths in the Nuclear Car Wash has been observed experimentally for both wood and steel-pipe mock cargos. Measured decay curves are presented for {beta}-delayed high-energy {gamma}-rays and thermalized neutrons following neutron-induced fission of HEU through varying irradiation lengths. Error rates are extracted for delayed-{gamma} and delayed-n signals integrated to 30 seconds, assuming Gaussian distributions for the active background. The extrapolation to a field system of 1 mA deuterium current and to a 5 kg sample size is discussed.

  11. Wind Farm Growth Through the Years | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Farm Growth Through the Years Wind Farm Growth Through the Years August 6, 2013 - 8:32am Addthis 1975 Start Slow Stop Year Wind Farms Homes Powered Added Current Year 833 Wind Farms Online. Enough to Power 15 M Homes Data provided by the EIA. The number of homes powered is estimated through conversion factors provided by the EIA. Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs As we publish the 2012 Wind Technologies Market Report, we are excited

  12. Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1997-07-01

    The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

  13. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  14. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steel. Part 2, Water flow rate effects in high sulfur plate steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, L.A; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R.; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high- sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/sec. or 4.7 m/sec. was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi- stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/sec. and 5.0 m/sec. parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity.

  15. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.

    2015-06-23

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, wherein W.sub.C>L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is less than T.sub.D.

  16. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-08-13

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  17. Gas pollution control apparatus and method and wood drying system employing same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eatherton, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    Pollution control apparatus and method are disclosed in which hot exhaust gas containing pollutants including solid particles and hydrocarbon vapors is treated by transmitting such exhaust gas through a container containing wood members, such as wood chips, which serve as a filter media for filtering out such pollutants by causing such solids to deposit and such hydrocarbon vapors to condense upon the surface of the wood members. The contaminated wood chips are discharged from the filter and further processed into chip board or other commercial wood products thereby disposing of the pollutants. Lumber may be used as the wood members of the filter in a lumber kiln by deposition of solid particles on the rough surface of such lumber. The contaminated surfaces of the lumber are removed by a planer which produces a smooth finished lumber and contaminated wood chips that may be processed into chip board or other commercial wood products. A wood drying system employing such pollution control apparatus and method includes a hot air dryer for wood or other organic material, such as a wood chip rotary dryer or a wood veneer dryer, which produces hot exhaust gases containing pollutants including hydrocarbon vapors and solid particles. This hot exhaust air is transmitted through a lumber kiln to dry lumber thereby conserving heat energy and causing solid particle pollutants to deposit on the surface of the lumber. The kiln exhaust air containing solid and hydrocarbon vapor pollutants is then transmitted up through a filter stack of wood chips.

  18. Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon A Systems Integration Bill Wall, PhD Alaska Wood Energy Associates Village Survival Highest Energy Costs in Nation Project Initiation Partners 2005  Council of Athabascan Tribal Government  Alaska Village Initiatives  Original Goal: Displace as much diesel fuel as possible through development of a sustainable community based program  $0.51 per kWh electricity  $6.75 per gallon gasoline  $7.00 per gallon heating fuel  $200 per

  19. Wood energy in Georgia: a five-year progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An increasing number of industrial plants and public and residential facilities in Georgia are using wood, Georgia's greatest renewable energy source, to replace gas, oil, coal, and electricity. All wood systems described in this report are or will soon be in operation in schools, prisons, hospitals, and other state facilities, and are producing substantial financial savings. The economic values from increased markets and jobs are important in all areas of the state, with total benefits projected at $2.9 million a year for state taxpayers. 2 figures.

  20. 01-02-2008 - Wood Cabinet Falls Apart | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 - Wood Cabinet Falls Apart Document Number: NA Effective Date: 012008 File (public): PDF icon 01-02-2008blue...

  1. Effect of wood chip size on update gasifier-combustor operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, F.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Caussanel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three wood chip sizes were tested in a 0.3 GJ/h updraft gasifier-combustor. Thermal output did not vary significantly between wood chips. Pressure and temperature profiles were measured in the gasifier bed. Channeling occurred with the small wood chips. Efficiency of the combustor was determined by a mass and energy balance and an enthalpy technique.

  2. Wood pellet market and trade: a global perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun Sheng Goh; Martin Junginger; Maurizio Cocchi; Didier Marchal; Daniela Thran; Christiane Hennig; Jussi Heinimo; Lars Nikolaisen; Peter-Paul Schouwenberg; Douglas Bradley; J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Leslie Ovard; Michael Deutmeyer

    2001-01-01

    This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high significance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric tonnes) and 13.5 Mt, respectively, while the global installed production capacity had reached over 28 Mt. Two types of pellets are mainly traded (i) for residential heating and (ii) for large-scale district heating or co-fi ring installations. The EU was the primary market, responsible for nearly 61% and 85% of global production and consumption, respectively in 2010. EU markets were divided according to end use: (i) residential and district heating, (ii) power plants driven market, (iii) mixed market, and (iv) export-driven countries. North America basically serves as an exporter, but also with signifi cant domestic consumption in USA. East Asia is predicted to become the second-largest consumer after the EU in the near future. The development perspective in Latin America remains unclear. Five factors that determine the market characteristics are: (i) the existence of coal-based power plants, (ii) the development of heating systems, (iii) feedstock availability, (iv) interactions with wood industry, and (v) logistics factor. Furthermore, intervention policies play a pivotal role in market development. The perspective of wood pellets industry was also analyzed from four major aspects: (i) supply potential, (ii) logistics issues, (iii) sustainability considerations, and (iv) technology development.

  3. Engineering methods for the design and employment of wood cribs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barczak, T.M. ); Gearhart, D.F. )

    1993-01-01

    Wood cribs are used extensively by the mining industry to stabilize mine openings. While the cost per crib is relatively low, their extensive use can result in annual mine costs of over $1 million. In an effort to improve the utilization of these supports and to reduce ground control hazards, the US Bureau of Mines has developed engineering methods to assist mine operators in wood-crib design and employment. Design and employment criteria are established based on the strength, stiffness, and stability of the crib structure in relation to the load conditions imposed by the mine environment. Models have been developed based on full-scale tests in the USBM's Mine Roof Simulator that compute the capacity of wood cribs of various configurations and material constructions as a function of displacement of the crib structure due to roof-and-floor convergence. These models permit the comparison of the loading characteristics and cost of employment of different crib designs, and in conjunction with roof behavior models, provide a means to determine the optimum design and employment strategy. In eastern coal mines, wood cribs generally are constructed from hardwood timbers, while softwood timbers generally are used in western coal mines. 11 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  5. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  6. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer; Fallon, Peter

    1984-07-31

    A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  7. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1983-06-01

    A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  8. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  9. PROCESS FOR CONTROLLING ANIMAL GROWTH RATE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visek, W.J.

    1962-04-10

    A method of injecting growing animals with the enzyme urease subcutaneously in increasing dosages is described; this generates within the blood anti-urease which enters the intestinal tract and inhibits the enzymatic decomposition of urea by urease in that location. Ammonia, one of the decomposition products, is thereby kept from diffusing through the intestinal walls into the blood, and this greatly reduces the energy requirements of the liver for removing the ammonia, thereby increasing the feeding efficiency of the animals. (AEC)

  10. ARM - Lesson Plans: Rate of Coral Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  11. Using recycled wood waste as a fuel in the northeast: A handbook for prospective urban wood waste producers, suppliers and consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prast, W.G.; Donovan, C.T.

    1988-03-01

    This report provides a comprehensive analysis of existing and future markets for recycled wood wastes in the eleven-state northeast region. The purpose of the report is to estimate the availability of wood and woody materials in the solid waste stream and to determine the technical and economic viability of separating and recycling them for other uses. The topics discussed include: current and future markets for recycled wood wastes; key components of successful wood waste processing facilities; decisionmaking process used to determine technical and economic viability of a proposed processing facility; environmental regulations and the permitting process required for recycled wood waste processors and users; case studies and annotated listings of existing wood waste processors and uses; detailed assessments of market opportunities in three metropolitan areas including Boston, New York, and Philadelphia; and a proposed action plan to stimulate and facilitate future market development.

  12. Steam-explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid, moisture content and pressure drop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownell, H.H.; Yu, E.K.C.; Saddler, J.N.

    1986-06-01

    Material balances for pentosan, lignin, and hexosan, during steam-explosion pretreatment of aspenwood, showed almost quantitative recovery of cellulose in the water-insoluble fraction. Dilute acid impregnation resulted in more selective hydrolysis of pentosan relative to undesirable pyrolysis, and gave a more accessible substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Thermocouple probes, located inside simulated aspenwood chips heated in 240 degrees C-saturated steam, showed rapid heating of air-dry wood, whereas green or impregnated wood heated slowly. Small chips, 3.2 mm in the fiber direction, whether green or air dry gave approximately equal rates of pentosan destruction and solubilization, and similar yields of glucose and of total reducing sugars on enzmatic hydrolysis with Trichoderma harzianum. Partial pyrolysis, destroying one-third of the pentosan of aspenwood at atmospheric pressure by dry steam at 276 degrees C, gave little increase in yield of reducing sugars on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment with saturated steam at 240 degrees C gave essentially the same yields of butanediol and ethanol on fermentation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, whether or not 80% of the steam was bled off before explosion and even if the chips remained intact, showing that explosion was unnecessary. 17 references.

  13. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  14. Rate of reduction of ore-carbon composites: Part II. Modeling of reduction in extended composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortini, O.M.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2005-12-01

    A new process for ironmaking was proposed using a rotary hearth furnace and an iron bath smelter to produce iron employing wood charcoal as an energy source and reductant. This paper examines reactions in composite pellet samples with sizes close to sizes used in industrial practice (10 to 16 min in diameter). A model was constructed using the combined kinetic mechanism developed in Part I of this series of articles along with equations for the computation of pellet temperature and shrinkage during the reaction. The analysis of reaction rates measured for pellets with wood charcoal showed that heat transfer plays a significant role in their overall rate of reaction at elevated temperatures. The slower rates measured in pellets containing coal char show that the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation is more significant than heat transfer. Model calculations suggest that the rates are highly sensitive to the thermal conductivity of pellets containing wood charcoal and are less sensitive to the external conditions of heat transfer. It was seen that the changes in pellet surface area and diameter due to shrinkage introduce little change on reaction rates. The model developed provides an adequate description of pellets of wood charcoal up to circa 90% of reduction. Experimentally determined rates of reduction of iron oxide by wood charcoal were approximately 5 to 10 times faster than rates measured in pellets with coal char.

  15. Demonstration Results From Greenhouse Heating with Liquified Wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Parish, Don; Cooper, Jerome

    2011-07-01

    A boiler fuel known as Lignocellulosic Boiler Fuel (LBF) was developed at the Department of Forest Products, Mississippi State University for potential application for heating agricultural buildings. LBF was field tested to heat green houses in cooperation with Natchez Trace Greenhouses (NTG) located in Kosciusko, Mississippi. MSU modified an idled natural gas boiler located at NTG to combust the LBF. Thirty gallons of bio-oil were produced at the MSU Bio-oil Research Laboratory. The bio-oil was produced from the fast-pyrolysis of southern pine (15 gal) and white oak (15 gal) feedstocks and subsequently upgraded by a proprietary process. Preliminary field testing was conducted at (NTG). The LBF was produced from each wood species was tested separately and co-fed with diesel fuel to yield three fuel formulations: (1) 100% diesel; (2) 87.5% LBF from southern pine bio-oil co-fed with 12.5% diesel and (3) 87.5% LBF from white oak co-fed with 12.5% diesel fuel formulations. Each fuel formulation was combusted in a retrofit NTG boiler. Fuel consumption and water temperature were measured periodically. Flue gas from the boiler was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The 100% diesel fuel increased water temperature at a rate of 4 °F per min. for 35 min. to achieve the target 140 °F water temperature increase. The 87.5% pine LBF fuel cofed with 12.5%) diesel attained the 140 °F water temperature increase in 62 min. at a rate of 2.3 °F per min. The 87.5% white oak LBF fuel co-fed with 12.5% diesel reached the 140 °F water temperature increase in 85 min. at a rate of 1.6 °F per min. Fuel that contained 87.5% pine LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 5.3 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 22.2. Fuel formulations that contained 87.5% white oak LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 4.9 and carbon dioxide and

  16. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood

  17. Kinetics of fluidized bed combustion of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leckner, B.; Hansson, K.M.; Tullin, C.; Borodulya, A.V.; Dikalenko, V.I.; Palchonok, G.I.

    1999-07-01

    Devolatilization and char combustion of a single wood pellet in a fluidized bed has been studied. The effect of operation parameters (bed temperature, bed particle size, oxygen concentration) and pellet characteristics has been investigated. A simplified analytical model of heat-transfer controlled pyrolysis has been developed to interpret the measured volatiles release time. The model predictions are in a good agreement with the experimental data, provided that the initial physical properties of the pellet are used. The model can be used to estimate the devolatilization times in other combustion systems. Kinetic parameters of char combustion are obtained, based on the measured burnout times and simple model considerations. The physical properties of wood pellets need further study.

  18. Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into wood substrate and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rector, Kirk D; Lucas, Marcel

    2015-11-04

    Metal nanoparticles were incorporated into wood. Ionic liquids were used to expand the wood cell wall structure for nanoparticle incorporation into the cell wall structure. Nanoparticles of elemental gold or silver were found to be effective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) imaging contrast or sensing agents. Nanoparticles of elemental iron were found to be efficient microwave absorbers and caused localized heating for disrupting the integrity of the lignocellulosic matrix. Controls suggest that the localized heating around the iron nanoparticles reduces losses of cellulose in the form of water, volatiles and CO.sub.2. The ionic liquid is needed during the incorporation process at room temperature. The use of small amounts of ionic liquid combined with the absence of an ionic liquid purification step and a lower energy and water use are expected to reduce costs in an up-scaled pretreatment process.

  19. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  20. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  1. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Lau, A.K.; Melin, Staffan; Oveisi, E.; Sowlati, T.

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  2. Mechanics of compression drying solid wood cubes and chip mats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haygreen, J.G.

    1982-10-01

    Wood cubes and chip mats were compressed in a cell under ram face pressures to 13,000 psi. The amount of water removed was determined for a range of species of various specific gravities and at several green moisture contents (MCs). The time dependence of the process was also studied. The purpose of this work was to describe the mechanics of compression drying which must be considered in designing commercial equipment. Green MC of wood chip mats was reduced to 45 to 50 percent MC (31% to 33% MC, wet basis) at pressures of 13,000 psi. At low pressures of 1,000 to 2,000 psi, moisture was reduced to 60 to 75 percent MC (38% to 43% MC, wet basis). There was a significantly greater moisture reduction at these low pressures if the pressure is maintained for up to 2 minutes rather than releasing it immediately once the target pressure is obtained. Water can be removed from high density species but pressures required are higher by a factor of 2 to 3. The chip mat is reduced to about one-sixth of its original volume at 2,000 psi and one-seventh at 6,000 psi. When pressing cubes of high green MC, about 7,000 foot-pounds of work (equivalent to 9 Btu) applied to the wood will remove up to 1 pound of water. (Refs. 9).

  3. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  4. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  5. Wood-fuel use in Papua New Guinea: an assessment of industrial combustion equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendis, M.S.

    1980-11-01

    This report presents the results of an engineering and economic assessment of new and retrofit industrial combustion equipment for wood-fuel use in Papua New Guinea. Existing industrial combustion equipment and practices in Papua New Guinea are appraised. Potential industrial wood-fuel systems that utilize wood, wood wastes, charcoal and pyrolytic oils and which are particularly applicable to Papua New Guinea are identified. An economic assessment of wood-fuel systems is conducted for eleven case studies which are representative of a cross-section of Papua New Guinea industry. Conclusions and recommendations are presented to aid both government and industry in Papua New Guinea in fostering the development of appropriate wood-fuel technologies and thereby help displace the consumption of imported petroleum.

  6. Finance & Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    all of its costs in the rates it charges customers for wholesale electricity and transmission services. The agency is committed to careful cost management consistent with its...

  7. MAP: Watch 30 Years of U.S. Solar Industry Growth | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MAP: Watch 30 Years of U.S. Solar Industry Growth MAP: Watch 30 Years of U.S. Solar Industry Growth January 30, 2015 - 10:25am Addthis 1984 Start Slow Stop Year Solar Plants Homes Powered 682 Solar Plants Online. Enough to Power 1.7 M Homes Source: Preliminary data from the 2013 EIA-860 report. Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs This week the Energy Department announced a new SunShot Technology-to-Market funding opportunity, providing

  8. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on November 1, 2015 Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ;...

  9. Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Lake...

  10. Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  11. The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Eiergy ; Washington, DC 20585 -, (, > - .' c ' . FEB 1 7 1995 _ .; , _-, The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue Linden, 'New Jersey 07036 d. \ Dear Mayor Gregorio: ,' ,' .' , Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary has announced a new approach to openness, in the'llepartment' of Energy (DDE) and its co,annunications with the .public.', In sup~port of this initiative, we are.pleased to forward.the,enclosed information reiated to the.former Linden Pilot Plant of the Chemical' Construction

  12. Environmental characterization studies of a high-throughput wood gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.; Niemann, R.C.; Wilzbach, K.E.; Paisley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Potential environmental effects associated with thermochemical biomass gasification have been studied by Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL). A series of samples from the process research unit of an indirectly heated, high-throughput wood gasifier operated by BCL has been analyzed for potentially toxic organic compounds and trace elements. The results indicate that, under the test-run conditions, the gasification of both pine and hardwood is accompanied by the formation of some oil, the heavier fraction of which gives a positive response in the Ames assay for mutagenicity and contains numerous phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including some carcinogens. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  13. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Appendix A. Feasibility study of methane production via catalytic gasification of 2000 tons of wood per day

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the economic feasibility of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The plant design in this study was developed from information on gasifier operation supplied by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The plant is designed to process 2000 tons per day of dry wood to SNG. Plant production is 21.6 MM scfd of SNG with a HHV of 956 Btu per scf. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to SNG are included. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $95,115,000 - September, 1980 basis. Gas production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. For utility financing, the gas production costs are respectively $5.09, $5.56, $6.50, and $8.34 per MM Btu for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton delivered to the plant at a moisture content of 49.50 wt %. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $6.62, $7.11, $8.10, and $10.06 per MM Btu. The cost calculated by the utility financing method includes a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency without taking an energy credit for by-product char is 58.3%.

  14. ARM - Measurement - Hygroscopic growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsHygroscopic growth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hygroscopic growth The rate that aerosol particles grow at relative humidity values less than 100 percent. Sometimes supersaturation conditions are used in making this measurement. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the

  15. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    AbstractDead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  16. Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

    2009-05-01

    The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

  17. Demonstration of wood/coal co-firing in a spreader stoker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Elder, W.W.; Geiger, G.E.; Campus, N.J.; Miller, W.F.; Freeman, M.C.; McCreery, L.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is sponsoring a series of demonstrations of wood/coal co-firing in stoker boilers. The first demonstration was conducted in 1997 in an industrial traveling-grate stoker boiler and the second in May 1999 in a spreader stoker boiler operated by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) at the Bruceton Research Laboratory. The principal wood used in both demonstrations was tub-ground broken pallets. In the first phase of the NIOSH demonstration, four five-ton loads of wood/coal mixtures, varying from 3% to 12% wood (by Btu content), were combusted. The second phase of this demonstration was a 50-hour test using a 10% wood/coal blend delivered in two 20-ton loads. It has been concluded from both demonstrations that (1) a 10% wood/coal blend burns acceptably in the boiler, but (2) tub-ground urban wood is unacceptably difficult to feed through the grill above the delivery pit and through the spreader stokers. A method is being sought to acquire urban waste wood, having a more chip-like nature, to use in further testing and for commercialization.

  18. WIPP Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 WIPP Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 December 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis WIPP environmental and operations personnel gather next to pallets that will be provided to the local community as part of WIPP’s wood waste diversion program. WIPP environmental and operations personnel gather next to pallets that will be provided to the local community as part of WIPP's wood waste diversion program. CARLSBAD, N.M.

  19. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; Thomas Stickle; Jun Wang; Hongming Li; William P. Barry

    2002-06-13

    During the third quarter, the experimental portion of the project was carried out. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NIOSH Boiler Plant (NBP). Blends using hammer-milled wood were operationally successful and can form the basis of Phase II. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and the mathematical modeling of mercury speciation reactions continued, yielding many interesting results. Material and energy balances for the test periods at the NBP, as well as at the Bellefield Boiler Plant, were prepared. Steps were taken to remove severe constraints from the Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Project and to organize the supplying of landfill gas to the Bruceton federal complex. Two presentations were made to meetings of the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  20. The deposition and burning characteristics during slagging co-firing coal and wood: modeling and numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.H.; Zhao, D.Q.; Jiang, L.Q.; Yang, W.B.

    2009-07-01

    Numerical analysis was used to study the deposition and burning characteristics of combining co-combustion with slagging combustion technologies in this paper. The pyrolysis and burning kinetic models of different fuels were implanted into the WBSF-PCC2 (wall burning and slag flow in pulverized co-combustion) computation code, and then the slagging and co-combustion characteristics (especially the wall burning mechanism of different solid fuels and their effects on the whole burning behavior in the cylindrical combustor at different mixing ratios under the condition of keeping the heat input same) were simulated numerically. The results showed that adding wood powder at 25% mass fraction can increase the temperature at the initial stage of combustion, which is helpful to utilize the front space of the combustor. Adding wood powder at a 25% mass fraction can increase the reaction rate at the initial combustion stage; also, the coal ignitability is improved, and the burnout efficiency is enhanced by about 5% of suspension and deposition particles, which is helpful for coal particles to burn entirely and for combustion devices to minimize their dimensions or sizes. The results also showed that adding wood powder at a proper ratio is helpful to keep the combustion stability, not only because of the enhancement for the burning characteristics, but also because the running slag layer structure can be changed more continuously, which is very important for avoiding the abnormal slag accumulation in the slagging combustor. The theoretic analysis in this paper proves that unification of co-combustion and slagging combustion technologies is feasible, though more comprehensive and rigorous research is needed.

  1. Commercial Demonstration of Wood Recovery, Recycling, and Value Adding Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auburn Machinery, Inc.

    2004-07-15

    This commercial demonstration project demonstrated the technical feasibility of converting low-value, underutilized and waste stream solid wood fiber material into higher valued products. With a growing need to increase product/production yield and reduce waste in most sawmills, few recovery operations and practically no data existed to support the viability of recovery operations. Prior to our efforts, most all in the forest products industry believed that recovery was difficult, extremely labor intensive, not cost effective, and that recovered products had low value and were difficult to sell. This project provided an opportunity for many within the industry to see through demonstration that converting waste stream material into higher valued products does in fact offer a solution. Our work, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, throughout the project aimed to demonstrate a reasonable approach to reducing the millions of recoverable solid wood fiber tons that are annually treated as and converted into low value chips, mulch and fuel. Consequently sawmills continue to suffer from reduced availability of forest resources, higher raw material costs, growing waste disposal problems, increased global competition, and more pressure to operate in an Environmentally Friendly manner. It is our belief (based upon the experience of this project) that the successful mainstreaming of the recovery concept would assist in alleviating this burden as well as provide for a realistically achievable economic benefit to those who would seriously pursue the concept and tap into the rapidly growing ''GREEN'' building marketplace. Ultimately, with participation and aggressive pursuit of the recovery concept, the public would benefit in that: (1) Landfill/disposal waste volume could be reduced adding greater life to existing municipal landfill sites thereby minimizing the need to prematurely license and open added facilities. Also, there would be a cost avoidance benefit associated

  2. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. Furthermore, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollutionmore » from power plants.« less

  4. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. Furthermore, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollution from power plants.

  5. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. In addition, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollution from power plants.

  6. Potential role of lignin in tomorrow's wood utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glasser, W.G.

    1981-03-01

    Low-grade timber supplies and wood processing residues are presently converted into paper products, used for fuel, or remain totally unused. Competition for this resource will continue to mount, particularly when manufacturers of chemicals and liquid fuels enter the market with new technologies now under development. The type of technology that concentrates on depolymerization of carbohydrates will generate large quantities of lignin-rich residues. The potential of these lignins to contribute to the economic feasibility of new chemical wood process technologies may involve degradative depolymerization to phenols and benzene, or polymer conversion into a wide variety of dispersants, binders, reinforcing and antioxidizing agents, etc. Where lignin's fuel value lies around 3 to 4 cents/lb. (fall of 1979), its raw material value for phenol is reported to be almost 5 cents/lb., and the value of the polymeric materials is estimated to be between 6 and 20 cents/lb. At the lower end of this range of raw material values are ligninsulfonates, which contribute nearly 98 percent to the approximately 1.5 billion lb./yr. U.S. market for lignin products. Kraft lignins are located at the opposite end of this range. Novel bioconversion-type lignins are expected to be more similar in structure and properties to kraft than to sulfite lignins. Whereas application of the dispersant properties of ligninsulfonates in tertiary oil recovery operations is expected to constitute the most significant use of lignin in terms of volume, adhesive and resin applications hold the greatest promise in terms of value. Both utilization schemes seem to require pretreatments in the form of either polymeric fractionation or chemical modification. Potential savings from the use of polymeric lignins in material systems are great.

  7. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  8. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Oquirrh-Wood River basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geslin, J.K. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Strata of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Oquirrh-Wood River Basin (OWRB) lie unconformably above the Antler orogenic belt and flysch trough/starved basin in NW Utah, NE Nevada, and SC Idaho. Strata of the basin, now separated geographically by the Neogene Snake River Plain, show similar subsidence histories, identical mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary fill, and identical chert pebble conglomerate beds supplied by one or more DesMoinesian uplifts containing Lower Paleozoic strata. This conglomerate, of the lower Sun Valley Group, Snaky Canyon Formation, and parts of the Oquirrh Formation, was reworked progressively southward, to at least the Idaho-Utah border. It is present in strata as young as Virgilian. Virgilian to Leonardian rocks are ubiquitously fine-grained mixed carbonate-siliciclastic turbidites. These rocks contain cratonal, well-sorbed subarkosic and quartzose sand and silt in part derived from the Canadian Shield. This siliciclastic fraction is intimately mixed with arenaceous micritized skeletal material and peloids derived from an eastern carbonate platform represented by the Snaky Canyon Formation in east-central Idaho, an eastern facies of the Eagle Creek Member, Wood River Formation in the Boulder Mountains, and the Oquirrh Formation in the Deep Creek Mountains. Subsidence of the OWRB may have been caused by two phases (DesMoinesian and Wolfcampian to Leonardian) of crustal loading by continental margin tectonism to the west. An elevated rim separated the OWRB from coeval volcanogenic basins to the west. Earlier, Antler-age structures may have been reactivated. A new pulse of tectonism occurred in Leonardian to Guadalupian time as in most places carbonatic and phosphatic strata of the Leonardian to Guadalupian Park City and Phosphoria Formation overlie OWRB strata, with different geographic arrangement of basinal, slope, and shelf depocenters.

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 4): Coleman Evans Wood Preserving Co. , Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida, September 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-25

    The Coleman Evans Wood Preserving Company site is an active 11-acre wood-preserving facility located in the town of Whitehouse, Duval County, Florida. The site consists of two distinct areas: the western portion, which comprises the wood treating facility; and the eastern portion, which consists of a landfill area which has been used for the disposal of wood-chip and other wastes. Coleman Evans has produced wood products impregnated with PCP. Site investigations confirm soil and ground-water contamination, with PCP the primary contaminant of concern.

  10. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  11. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate Case Workshops Other Power Rates-Related Workshops July 1, 2004 - Rates and Finances Workshop (updated June 25, 2004) (financial and rate forecasts and scenarios for FY...

  12. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earths atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values. Improved

  13. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) offers rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The maximum...

  14. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Ohm, Robin A.; Riley, Robert...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Ohm, Robin A.; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Min, Byoungnam; Choi, In-Geol; Grigoriev, Igor V. Not Available Elsevier None USDOE United States...

  15. Title 43 CFR 3620 Free Use of Petrified Wood | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    620 Free Use of Petrified Wood Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation: Title 43 CFR 3620 Free Use...

  16. SEP Success Story: How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North Country School has dedicated itself to finding renewable sources of fuel to heat the approximately 85,000 square feet of classroom and office space on campus. After investigating many options, installing a wood chip boiler emerged as the most environmental and economical choice, due in large part to the availability of wood chips that are a by-product of the campus’ forest woodlot. Learn more.

  17. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-13-053 Woods Hole EC B3-16.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 SECTION A. Project Title: Advances in the Recovery of Uranium from Seawater: Studies under Real Ocean Conditions - Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution SECTION B. Project Description Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution proposes to study the effectiveness of uranium adsorbents using different field testing designs. Objectives include: 1) To test the extraction efficiency of the uranium adsorbents under changing environmental conditions in a controlled laboratory setting and then in the field.

  18. Continuous-flow wood chip reactor for biodegradation of 2,4-DCP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yum, K.J.; Peirce, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Chlorinated phenols are by-products of chlorine bleaching in numerous industries including pulp and paper mills and can be emitted from a variety of incineration processes. This research investigates the ability and efficiency of continuous-flow wood chip reactors seeded with a white-rot fungus to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) using wood chips as a carbon source. When 2,4-DCP was the only substrate (nonglucose treatment conditions), the wood chip reactor system had a high degradation efficiency and operated continuously without excessive fungal biomass buildup on the wood chips. In the presence of added glucose, a clogging problem and an effluent contamination problem of fungal cells are found during the reactor operating period. In addition, 2,4-DCP is degraded effectively both under low-nitrogen as well as high-nitrogen treatment conditions. The 2,4-DCP is degraded to a greater extent with small-size wood chips and hardwood chips as a carbon source. The results of this research demonstrate a potential application of wood chip reactor systems for the treatment of contaminated water while expanding the use of wasted forest products.

  19. Co-combustion of sludge with coal or wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leckner, B.; Aamand, L.-E.

    2004-07-01

    There are several options for co-combustion of biomass or waste with coal. In all cases the fuel properties are decisive for the success of the arrangement: contents of volatile matter and of potential emission precursors, such as sulphur, nitrogen, chlorine, and heavy metals. The content of alkali in the mineral substance of the fuel is important because of the danger of fouling and corrosion. Research activities at Chalmers University of Technology include several aspects of the related problems areas. An example is given concerning emissions from co-combustion in circulating fluidized beds with coal or wood as base fuels, and with sewage sludge as additional fuel. Two aspects of the properties of sludge are studied: emissions of nitrogen and sulphur oxides as well as of chlorine, because the contents of the precursors to these emissions are high. The possibility of utilizing the phosphorus in sludge as a fertilizer is also discussed. The results show that emissions can be kept below existing emission limits if the fraction of sludge is sufficiently small but the concentration of trace elements in the sludge ash prevents the sludge from being used as a fertilizer. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Regional Dialogue Guidebook: Background on Products, Rates, and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Block Product 4. Renewable Energy Certificates (REC Program) Part 2: Tiered Rate Methodology (TRM) A. Tier 1 Rate Design B. Tier 2 Rate Alternatives 1. Load-Growth Service 2....

  1. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2004-04-08

    An Environmental Questionnaire for the demonstration at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP) was submitted to the national Energy Technology Laboratory. An R&D variance for the air permit at the BBP was sought from the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD). R&D variances for the solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) were sought from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Verbal authorizations were received in all cases. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh with BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties and from Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were hammer milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Blends of wood and coal, produced at MVTC by staff of JARC and MVTC, were shipped by rail to BBP. The experimental portion of the project was carried out at BBP in late March and early April 2001. Several preliminary tests were successfully conducted using blends of 20% and 33% wood by volume. Four one-day tests using a blend of 40% wood by volume were then carried out. Problems of feeding and slagging were experienced with the 40% blend. Light-colored fly ash was observed coming from the stack during all four tests. Emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx and total particulates, measured by Energy Systems Associates, decreased when compared with combusting coal alone. A procedure for calculating material and energy balances on BBP's Boiler No.1 was developed, using the results of an earlier compliance test at the plant. Material and energy balances were then calculated for the four test periods. Boiler efficiency was found to decrease slightly when the fuel was shifted from coal

  2. Current BPA Power Rates (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Workshops WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  3. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power...

  4. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nautiyal, Sunil Kaechele, Harald

    2008-11-15

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  5. Flash methanolysis of wood for the production of fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Biomass in the form of less than 1000 micron oven dried fir wood particles was flash pyrolyzed in the presence of methane (methanolysis) in a downflow 1 in. I.D. tubular reactor at pressures of 20 to 200 psi and temperatures between 800/sup 0/ and 1050/sup 0/C. The major products were benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX), a heavy oily liquid (greater than or equal to C/sub 9/), ethylene and carbon monoxide. As much as 12% of the available carbon in the wood was converted to BTX, 21% to ethylene and 48% to carbon monoxide at 50 psi and 1000/sup 0/C. The maximum heavier oil yield of 11% was observed at 50 psi and 800/sup 0/C. Wood particle residence times for all experiments were calculated to be less than 1 second at 20 and 50 psi and up to 2.8 sec at 200 psi. The yelds were found to be greatly influenced by the methane to wood feed ratio. Experiments were conducted to insure the results to be that produced from the wood and methane and not a catalytic effect of the reactor wall of foreign matter. Material balance, including char analyses, indicate approximately 75 to 80% of the available carbon in the feed wood reacted. Methane balances were within the margin of error of the measuring equipment showing that there is no significant net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary economic evaluation of a 2000 ton/day wood processing plant producing ethylene, benzene and methanol showed a reasonably cmpetitive plant investment of $29,000/barrel fuel oil equivalent/day assuming 15% return on investment and present market values for the products.

  6. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  7. Simple and Inexpensive Method of Wood Pellets Macro-porosity Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Igathinathane; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; X. Bi; C. J. Lim; S. Melin; E. Mohammad

    2010-08-01

    A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0±2.5% and 35.5±2.7%, mean bulk density as and , and classified as “Class-3:Medium” and “Class-3&4:Medium to Low” for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr’s compressibility index classify wood pellets as “freely flowing.” The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials.

  8. Simple and inexpensive method of wood pellets macro-porosity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Igathinathane, C.; Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Lim, C. Jim; Melin, Staffan; Mohammad, E.

    2010-01-01

    A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0 2.5% and 35.5 2.7%, mean bulk density as and, and classified as Class-3:Medium and Class-3&4:Medium to Low for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr s compressibility index classify wood pellets as freely flowing. The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials.

  9. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2001-08-21

    During the third quarter, important preparatory work was continued so that the experimental activities can begin early in the fourth quarter. Authorization was awaited in response to the letter that was submitted to the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) seeking an R&D variance for the air permit at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP). Verbal authorizations were received from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) for R&D variances for solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Discussions were held with BBP and Energy Systems Associates (ESA) about the test program. Material and energy balances on Boiler No.1 and a plan for data collection were prepared. Presentations describing the University of Pittsburgh Wood/Coal Co-Firing Program were provided to the Pittsburgh Chapter of the Pennsylvania Society of Professional Engineers, and the Upgraded Coal Interest Group and the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). An article describing the program appeared in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. An application was submitted for authorization for a Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Program.

  10. Mass transport parameters of aspen wood chip beds via stimulus-response tracer techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hradil, G.; Calo, J.M.; Wunderlich, T.K. Jr. )

    1993-02-05

    A stimulus-response tracer technique has been used to characterize packed beds of untreated, as well as acid prehydrolyzed, and enzymatically hydrolyzed aspen wood chips. Glucose was used as the trace. Bulk liquid phase dispersion, interphase mass transfer, and intraparticle diffusion coefficients were determined for these materials as well as effective porosities and tortuosities. The untreated and prehydrolyzed aspen wood chips were found to have effective void fractions of ca. 0.8, while the enzymatically hydrolyzed wood chips exhibited a void fraction of 0.37. Intraparticle diffusion was approximately twice as rapid in the prehydrolyzed and enzymatically hydrolyzed wood chips as in the untreated wood chips. Also, under the current experimental conditions, intraparticle diffusional transport resistance accounted for roughly half of the total tracer pulse dispersion. It is demonstrated that stimulus-response tracer techniques can be useful and convenient probes for beds of lignocellulosic, or other porous materials, which vary in character with extent of conversion and/or treatment.

  11. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  12. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  13. Previous Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  14. Previous Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  15. Implications of Low Electricity Demand Growth

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 | Washington, DC Jim Diefenderfer, Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, & Renewables Analysis U.S. Energy Information Administration Implications of low electricity demand growth Growth in electricity use slows, but still increases by 29% from 2012 to 2040 -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 percent growth (3-year compounded annual growth rate) Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2014 Reference

  16. Precision wood particle feedstocks with retained moisture contents of greater than 30% dry basis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-10-28

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  17. Electric co-generation units equipped with wood gasifier and Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartolini, C.M.; Caresana, F.; Pelagalli, L.

    1998-07-01

    The disposal of industrial waste such as oil sludges, waste plastic, lubricant oils, paper and wood poses serious problems due to the ever increasing amount of material to be disposed of and to the difficulty in finding new dumping sites. The interest in energy recovery technologies is accordingly on the increase. In particular, large amounts of waste wood are simply burned or thrown away causing considerable environmental damage. In this context the co-generation technique represents one of the possible solutions for efficient energy conversion. The present paper proposes the employment of a Stirling engine as prime mover in a co-generation set equipped with a wood gasifier. A Stirling engine prototype previously developed in a joint project with Mase Generators, an Italian manufacturer of fixed and portable electrogenerators, is illustrated and its design is described.

  18. Assessment of potential wood supply for intermediate scale thermoconversion facilities, Tasks I, II, III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    The Department of Energy's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program has been concerned with the potential of wood biomass to contribute to the Nation's energy supply. One of the factors inhibiting the selection of wood biomass for energy by non-forest industries, especially by those requiring large quantities (500 to 2000 green tons per day), is concern with adequate fuel supply in terms of both a supply system and an adequate resource base. With respect to the latter, this report looks at the gross resource base as has been historically reported and also examines factors other than traditional product removals that could reduce to some degree the amount of resource that is available. The study also examined the conversion of a New England utility from coal to wood chips.

  19. PNCA-02 Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposed Adjustment to the Rate for Interchange Energy Imbalances Under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA-02 Rate Case) (updated on April 26, 2002) BPA has issued...

  20. The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1990-02-01

    The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Lowell L. Wood, 1981 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lowell L. Wood, 1981 The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award Lawrence Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates 2010's 2000's 1990's 1980's 1970's 1960's Ceremony The Life of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Contact Information The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-2411 E: Email Us 1980's Lowell L. Wood, 1981 Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page National Security: For his

  2. Investigation of possible health effects of community exposure to fermenting wood chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkhead, G.; Vogt, R.L.; Hudson, P.J.

    1988-03-01

    We conducted a case-control study of emergency room (ER) patients to evaluate whether asthma is caused by living near a wood-chip fueled power plant that released wood-chip fermentation products. Only eight (29 per cent) of 28 asthma patients seen in the ER during an 11-week period lived within 1.5 miles of the plant compared with 18 (34 per cent) of 54 control patients matched for severity of diagnosis and seen during the same period (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio controlling for age = 0.96).

  3. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine

  4. Incorporating a Time Horizon in Rate-of-Return Estimations: Discounted Cash Flow Model in Electric Transmission Rate Cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Bishu; Sharp, Peter A.

    2006-07-15

    Electric transmission and other rate cases use a form of the discounted cash flow model with a single long-term growth rate to estimate rates of return on equity. It cannot incorporate information about the appropriate time horizon for which analysts' estimates of earnings growth have predictive powers. Only a non-constant growth model can explicitly recognize the importance of the time horizon in an ROE calculation. (author)

  5. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited ...

  6. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceeding Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Rate Case Elements BPA's rate cases are decided "on the record." That is, in making a decision...

  7. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1995-07-11

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

  8. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

  9. Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1994-11-01

    In November 1994, the forest products industry published Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, which articulated the industry's vision. This document set the foundation for collaborative efforts between the industry and the federal government.

  10. X-ray computed tomography of wood-adhesive bondlines: Attenuation and phase-contrast effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paris, Jesse L.; Kamke, Frederick A.; Xiao, Xianghui

    2015-07-29

    Microscale X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is discussed as a technique for identifying 3D adhesive distribution in wood-adhesive bondlines. Visualization and material segmentation of the adhesives from the surrounding cellular structures require sufficient gray-scale contrast in the reconstructed XCT data. Commercial wood-adhesive polymers have similar chemical characteristics and density to wood cell wall polymers and therefore do not provide good XCT attenuation contrast in their native form. Here, three different adhesive types, namely phenol formaldehyde, polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate, and a hybrid polyvinyl acetate, are tagged with iodine such that they yield sufficient X-ray attenuation contrast. However, phase-contrast effects at material edgesmore » complicate image quality and segmentation in XCT data reconstructed with conventional filtered backprojection absorption contrast algorithms. A quantitative phase retrieval algorithm, which isolates and removes the phase-contrast effect, was demonstrated. The paper discusses and illustrates the balance between material X-ray attenuation and phase-contrast effects in all quantitative XCT analyses of wood-adhesive bondlines.« less

  11. Review and analysis of emissions data for residential wood-fired central furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCrillis, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    The paper reviews data published over the past 10--15 years on domestic wood-fired central heaters. Emphasis is on stick-fired units, the most common type used in the US, but also presented are data on chip- and pellet-fired units, showing that they are capable of achieving lower emissions.

  12. Renewed interest in prop supports as a replacement for wood cribs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barczak, T.M.; Gearhart, D.F.

    1995-11-01

    Wood cribs have been the dominant form of supplemental support in coal mining for many years. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in prop supports as a replacement for wood cribbing due to the increasing cost of mine timber and engineering advancements in prop design to improve their stability and yield capability. Prop supports generally consume less material, can be installed in less time with less labor, and provide less restriction to mine ventilation than wood crib supports. Several prop supports are now available or under development. These include: (1) Strata Products Propsetter{trademark} Support System, (2) Heintzmann ACS and Super Prop; (3) MBK-Hydraulik MEGA prop; (4) Advanced Mining Technology Inc. (AMTI) BTS Mortar prop; (5) Dywidag Coal Post; (6) Western Support Systems YIPPI support; and (7) ``The Can`` support by Burrell Mining Products. A comparison of the performance and cost of these support systems to wood cribs is made to provide mine operators with information needed to underground installations are discussed. Included in this assessment are full scale tests of these supports conducted in the US Bureau of Mines` Mine Roof Stimulator.

  13. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2WoodChips | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PerAreaKwhM2WoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  14. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrWoodChips | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    yNrmlYrMwhYrWoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  15. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrWoodChips | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rPeriodMwhYrWoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  16. Pennsylvanian and Permian paleogeography of south-central Idaho: The Wood River basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, J.B. ); Burton, B.R. ); O'Brien, J.P.; Link, P.K. )

    1991-02-01

    The Sun Valley Assemblage (Wood River, Dollarhide, and Grand Prize formations) was deposited in the Wood Rover basin in what is now south-central Idaho, north of the Snake River Plain, from the Atokan to Wolfcampian and Leonardian( ). Atokan and Des Moinesian deposition occurred in braided deltas and overlying clear water carbonate shoals. The rocks of this depositional system vary in thickness from tens to several hundreds of meters reflecting irregularities in the erosional surface on the underlying foundered Antler highland. This basal unconformity has been sheared during Mesozoic and Paleogene deformation. Significant regional subsidence of the Wood River basin began in the Des Moinesian, was most rapid in the Virgilian, and slowed in the Wolfcampian, resulting in total thickness of over 2,000 m for each of the three formations. In the central part of the basin (Wood River Formation) a sub-wave-base ramp system with southeastern paleoslope was fed by turbidite flows of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic fine-grained sediment that had been thoroughly mixed on a shelf area to the north and east. The carbonate fraction may have been derived from the Snaky Canyon Formation carbonate platform to the east. To the north, a siliciclastic fan or ramp system (Grand Prize Formation) was present. Virgilian and Wolfcampian strata represent highstand systems tracts and a lowstand tract is present in strata deposited near the Virgilian-Wolfcampian boundary.

  17. How chip size impacts steam pretreatment effectiveness for biological conversion of poplar wood into fermentable sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Jung, Seokwon; Kumar, Rajeev; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Wyman, Charles E.

    2015-12-09

    We report that woody biomass is highly recalcitrant to enzymatic sugar release and often requires significant size reduction and severe pretreatments to achieve economically viable sugar yields in biological production of sustainable fuels and chemicals. However, because mechanical size reduction of woody biomass can consume significant amounts of energy, it is desirable to minimize size reduction and instead pretreat larger wood chips prior to biological conversion. To date, however, most laboratory research has been performed on materials that are significantly smaller than applicable in a commercial setting. As a result, there is a limited understanding of the effects that larger biomass particle size has on the effectiveness of steam explosion pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of wood chips. To address these concerns, novel downscaled analysis and high throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis (HTPH) were applied to examine whether differences exist in the composition and digestibility within a single pretreated wood chip due to heterogeneous pretreatment across its thickness. Heat transfer modeling, Simons’ stain testing, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to probe the effects of pretreatment within and between pretreated wood samples to shed light on potential causes of variation, pointing to enzyme accessibility (i.e., pore size) distribution being a key factor dictating enzyme digestibility in these samples. Application of these techniques demonstrated that the effectiveness of pretreatment of Populus tremuloides can vary substantially over the chip thickness at short pretreatment times, resulting in spatial digestibility effects and overall lower sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, these results indicate that rapid decompression pretreatments (e.g., steam explosion) that specifically alter accessibility at lower temperature conditions are well suited for larger wood

  18. How chip size impacts steam pretreatment effectiveness for biological conversion of poplar wood into fermentable sugars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Jung, Seokwon; Kumar, Rajeev; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Wyman, Charles E.

    2015-12-09

    We report that woody biomass is highly recalcitrant to enzymatic sugar release and often requires significant size reduction and severe pretreatments to achieve economically viable sugar yields in biological production of sustainable fuels and chemicals. However, because mechanical size reduction of woody biomass can consume significant amounts of energy, it is desirable to minimize size reduction and instead pretreat larger wood chips prior to biological conversion. To date, however, most laboratory research has been performed on materials that are significantly smaller than applicable in a commercial setting. As a result, there is a limited understanding of the effects that largermore » biomass particle size has on the effectiveness of steam explosion pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of wood chips. To address these concerns, novel downscaled analysis and high throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis (HTPH) were applied to examine whether differences exist in the composition and digestibility within a single pretreated wood chip due to heterogeneous pretreatment across its thickness. Heat transfer modeling, Simons’ stain testing, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to probe the effects of pretreatment within and between pretreated wood samples to shed light on potential causes of variation, pointing to enzyme accessibility (i.e., pore size) distribution being a key factor dictating enzyme digestibility in these samples. Application of these techniques demonstrated that the effectiveness of pretreatment of Populus tremuloides can vary substantially over the chip thickness at short pretreatment times, resulting in spatial digestibility effects and overall lower sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, these results indicate that rapid decompression pretreatments (e.g., steam explosion) that specifically alter accessibility at lower temperature conditions are well suited for larger

  19. Minnesota wood energy scale-up project 1994 establishment cost data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, M.; Pierce, R.; Kroll, T.

    1996-03-18

    The Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project began in late 1993 with the first trees planted in the spring of 1994. The purpose of the project is to track and monitor economic costs of planting, maintaining and monitoring larger scale commercial plantings. For 15 years, smaller scale research plantings of hybrid poplar have been used to screen for promising, high-yielding poplar clones. In this project 1000 acres of hybrid poplar trees were planted on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land near Alexandria, Minnesota in 1994. The fourteen landowners involved re-contracted with the CRP for five-year extensions of their existing 10-year contracts. These extended contracts will expire in 2001, when the plantings are 7 years old. The end use for the trees planted in the Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project is undetermined. They will belong to the owner of the land on which they are planted. There are no current contracts in place for the wood these trees are projected to supply. The structure of the wood industry in the Minnesota has changed drastically over the past 5 years. Stumpage values for fiber have risen to more than $20 per cord in some areas raising the possibility that these trees could be used for fiber rather than energy. Several legislative mandates have forced the State of Minnesota to pursue renewable energy including biomass energy. These mandates, a potential need for an additional 1700 MW of power by 2008 by Northern States Power, and agricultural policies will all affect development of energy markets for wood produced much like agricultural crops. There has been a tremendous amount of local and international interest in the project. Contractual negotiations between area landowners, the CRP, a local Resource Conservation and Development District, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and others are currently underway for additional planting of 1000 acres in spring 1995.

  20. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov Power Rate Cases BPA's wholesale power rates are set to recover its costs and repay the U.S. Treasury for the Federal...

  1. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  2. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  3. Ferns and fires: Experimental charring of ferns compared to wood and implications for paleobiology, paleoecology, coal petrology, and isotope geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McParland, L.C.; Collinson, M.E.; Scott, A.C.; Steart, D.C.; Grassineau, N.V.; Gibbons, S.J.

    2007-09-15

    We report the effects of charring on the ferns Osmunda, Pteridium, and Matteucia with coniferous wood (Sequoia) for comparison. Like charred wood, charred ferns shrink, become black and brittle with a silky sheen, and retain three-dimensional cellular structure. Ferns yield recognizable charcoal (up to 800{sup o}C) that could potentially survive in the fossil record enabling reconstruction of ancient fire-prone vegetation containing ferns. Charred fossils of herbaceous ferns would indicate surface fires. Like charred wood, cell-wall layers of charred ferns homogenize, and their reflectance values increase with rising temperature. Charcoalified fragments of thick-walled cells from conifer wood or fern tissues are indistinguishable and so cannot be used to infer the nature of source vegetation. Charred conifer wood and charred fern tissues show a relationship between mean random reflectance and temperature of formation and can be used to determine minimum ancient fire temperatures. Charred fern tissues consistently have significantly more depleted {delta}{sup 13}C values ({le} 4 parts per thousand) than charred wood. Therefore, if an analysis of {delta} {sup 13}C through time included fern charcoal among a succession of wood charcoals, any related shifts in {delta} {sup 13}C could be misinterpreted as atmospheric changes or misused as isotope stratigraphic markers. Thus, charcoals of comparable botanical origin and temperatures of formation should be used in order to avoid misinterpretations of shifts in {delta}{sup 13}C values.

  4. Particle growth in silane-hydrogen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujundzic, Damir; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The growth of silicon particles has been measured in silane-hydrogen radio-frequency (rf) discharges using a typical hydrogen/silane dilution ratio (20) and the pressure range (1.2-2.2 Torr) used for the production of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films and devices. By operating brief discharges without gas flow, the particle size is obtained from the afterglow diffusion and the particle density from the scattered-light intensity. These small-reactor data thus provide the expected particle size and density versus location-in a commercial large-area-isothermal-flowing-gas reactor. Particle growth rate is a strong function of pressure, whereas film growth rate is almost independent of pressure. Both growth rates are sensitive to rf voltage, although particle growth is more sensitive.

  5. Use of a region of the visible and near infrared spectrum to predict mechanical properties of wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-01-01

    In a method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood, the improvement comprising: (a) illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with a reduced range of wavelengths in the VIS-NIR spectra 400 to 1150 nm, said wood having a green moisture content; (b) analyzing the surface of the wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra; and (c) using a multivariate analysis technique to predict the mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral being correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from the reference wood when dried and a having a dry moisture content.

  6. Comminution process to produce engineered wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from veneer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Comminution process of wood veneer to produce wood particles, by feeding wood veneer in a direction of travel substantially normal to grain through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of veneer travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (Td), to produce wood particles characterized by a length dimension (L) substantially equal to the Td and aligned substantially parallel to grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) substantially equal to the veneer thickness (Tv) and aligned normal to W and L, wherein the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces with end checking between crosscut fibers.

  7. Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Knapp, Steve

    2011-04-26

    Steve Knapp from Monsanto on "Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  8. Laboratory evaluation of the hazard to wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus, from the agricultural use of methiocarb molluscicide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarrant, K.A.; Westlake, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies have been carried out to determine the toxicity of methiocarb pellets to wild trapped wood mice in order to provide some background data prior to any further evaluation of hazard in the field. In this study, wood mice were exposed to dry and to dampened methiocarb pellets in order to reproduce field trial application conditions. Field observations of methiocarb pellets indicate that the physical character changes under dry and wet weather conditions. This may affect their relative attractiveness and potential toxicity to wood mice. The laboratory assessment of exposed wood mice included measurement of brain esterase activities, methiocarb residues in selected mouse tissue, carcasses, and histological evaluation of kidney, liver and lungs.

  9. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Ti-1100 at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.C.; Nicholas, T.

    1995-12-31

    Effects of temperature, frequency, and cycles with superimposed hold times are evaluated in Ti-1100 in order to study the complex creep-fatigue-environment interactions in this material. Crack growth rate tests conducted at cyclic loading frequency of 1.0 Hz show that raising the temperature from 593 to 650 C has only a slightly detrimental effect on crack growth rate, although these temperatures produce growth rates significantly higher than at room temperature. From constant {Delta}K tests, the effects of temperature at constant frequency show a minimum crack growth rate at 250 C. From the minimum crack growth rate at 250 C, the crack growth rate increases linearly with temperature. Increases in frequency at constant temperatures of 593 and 650 C produce a continuous decrease in growth rate in going from 0.001 to 1.0 Hz, although the behavior is primarily cycle dependent in this region. Tests at 1.0 Hz with superimposed hold times from 1 to 1,000 s are used to evaluate creep-fatigue-environment interactions. Hold times at maximum load are found to initially decrease and then increase the cyclic crack growth rate with increasing duration. This is attributed to crack-tip blunting during short hold times and environmental degradation at long hold times. Hold times at minimum load show no change in growth rates, indicating that there is no net environmental degradation to the bulk material beyond that experienced during the baseline 1 Hz cycling.

  10. Thermal Properties of Wood-Derived Copper-Silicon Carbide Compsites Fabricated Via Electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pappacena, Kristen E; Johnson, M. T.; Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Faber, K. T.

    2010-01-01

    Copper-silicon carbide composites were fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into pores of wood-derived silicon carbide, a ceramic with a microstructure that can be tailored via the use of different wood precursors. Thermal conductivity values were determined using flash diffusivity at temperatures from 0 to 900 C. Thermal conductivities of up to 202 W/m K at 0 C and 148 W/mK at 900 C were achieved. Object-oriented finite-element analysis (OOF) modeling was used to understand the heat flux distributions throughout the microstructures. OOF was also used to calculate the effective thermal conductivity, which correlated well with experimentally-determined values for axially-oriented composites. In addition, OOF was used to predict effective conductivity values and heat flux distributions for transversely-oriented composites.

  11. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these

  12. BP-18 Rate Proceeding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  13. BP-12 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  14. BP-16 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  15. Before a Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  16. Rating Agency Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liabilities Financial Plan Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales...

  17. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  18. Genetics of Wood Formation | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Genetics of Wood Formation Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301) 903-5051 E:

  19. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffers, Larry A.; Malito, Michael L.

    1996-01-01

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method.

  20. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

    1996-01-23

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

  1. Byggmeister Test Home. Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals that will benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. This report describes a deep retrofit project of a two-family wood-framed home in Belmont, Massachusetts, and examines the retrofit measures for the enclosure amd mechanical systems and reviews the decision-making process that took place during planning.

  2. Green Gasoline from Wood Using Carbona Gasification and Topsoe TIGAS Processes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Green Gasoline from Wood Using Carbona Gasification and Topsoe TIGAS Processes March 24, 2015 Demonstration and Market Transformation Rick Knight Gas Technology Institute This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Acronyms AGR Acid Gas Removal DME Dimethyl ether GTI Gas Technology Institute HGF Hot gas filter HTAS Haldor Topsoe A/S (Denmark) HTI Haldor Topsoe Inc. (Houston TX) TIGAS Topsoe Improved Gasoline Synthesis UHGF Ultra-hot gas

  3. New Methods for Investigating Wood Formation | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (SC) New Methods for Investigating Wood Formation Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301)

  4. Composites of Polystyrene/Wood Fiber, Processing Effect to Creep Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero-Balderrama, L.; Mendoza-Duarte, M. E.; Flores-Gallardo, S. G.; Ibarra-Gomez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109. Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Gaspar-Rosas, A. [TA Instruments-Waters LLC. 109 Lukens Drive New Castle, DE 19720 (United States)

    2008-07-07

    In the present work, PS/wood fiber composites were studied in relation to their creep response as to be affected by the incorporation of a silane type coupling agent. Two elaboration variables were also considered in the experiments: wood fiber content and type of composites processing (compression, extrusion and injection molding). A series of weight ratios PS/wood fiber, with and without coupling agent, were prepared, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40. For the compatibilized series, 1% wt of silane coupling agent in relation to the polystyrene weight was employed. The creep tests were performed inside the lineal viscoelastic region at 80 deg. C. A general improvement of the creep resistance for the compatibilized composites was observed independently of the elaboration process. However, the injection molded samples showed by far the lowest deformation with time. This behavior suggests that the high orientation of the fibers generated by the injection molding process, in relation to the extrusion and compression molding, promotes a higher superficial area of treated fiber to be in contact with the PS matrix, which enhances the adhesion and in consequence the resistance to creep.

  5. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Salamov, Asaf; Hori, Chiaki; Aerts, Andrea; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Coutinho, Pedro; Gong, Yunchen; Samejima, Masahiro; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; de Vries, Ronald P.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yadav, Jagit S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Master, Emma R.

    2012-02-17

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  6. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Aggett

    2003-12-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this segment of work, our goal was to review methods for estimating tree survival, growth, yield and value of forests growing on surface mined land in the eastern coalfields of the USA, and to determine the extent to which carbon sequestration is influenced by these factors. Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), mandates that mined land be reclaimed in a fashion that renders the land at least as productive after mining as it was before mining. In the central Appalachian region, where prime farmland and economic development opportunities for mined land are scarce, the most practical land use choices are hayland/pasture, wildlife habitat, or forest land. Since 1977, the majority of mined land has been reclaimed as hayland/pasture or wildlife habitat, which is less expensive to reclaim than forest land, since there are no tree planting costs. As a result, there are now hundreds of thousands of hectares of grasslands and scrublands in various stages of natural succession located throughout otherwise forested mountains in the U.S. A literature review was done to develop the basis for an economic feasibility study of a range of land-use conversion scenarios. Procedures were developed for both mixed hardwoods and white pine under a set of low product prices and under a set of high product prices. Economic feasibility is based on land expectation values. Further, our review shows that three types of incentive schemes might be important: (1) lump sum payment at planting (and equivalent series of annual payments); (2) revenue incentive at harvest; and (3) benefit based on carbon volume.

  7. COMPARISON OF THE POPULATIONS OF COMMON WOOD-NYMPH BUTTERFLIES IN BURNED PRAIRIE, UNBURNED PRAIRIE AND OLD FIELD GRASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, M.; Walton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Common wood-nymph butterfl ies are found throughout the United States and Canada. However, not much is known about how they overwinter or their preferences for particular grasses and habitats. In this study, the impact of prairie management plans on the abundance of the wood-nymph population was assessed, as well as the preference of these butterfl ies for areas with native or non-native grasses. The abundance of common wood-nymph butterfl ies was determined using Pollard walks; more common wood-nymph butterfl ies were found in the European grasses than were found in the burned and unburned prairie sites. The majority of the vegetation at each of the three sites was identifi ed and documented. Using a 1 X 3 ANOVA analysis, it was determined there were signifi cantly more butterfl ies in the European grasses than in the burned and unburned prairie sites (p < 0.0005). There was no signifi cant difference between the burned and unburned treatments of the prairie on the common wood-nymph population. A multiple variable linear regression model described the effect of temperature and wind speed on the number of observed common wood-nymph butterfl ies per hour (p = 0.026). These preliminary results need to be supplemented with future studies. Quadrat analysis of the vegetation from all three sites should be done to search for a correlation between common wood-nymph butterfl y abundance per hour and the specifi c types or quantity of vegetation at each site. The effect of vegetation height and density on the observers visual fi eld should also be assessed.

  8. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass and Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ping; Howard, Bret; Hedges, Sheila; Morreale, Bryan; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Berry, David

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/cofiring of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550oC for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300oC and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300oC lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300oC is probably sufficient to improve

  9. Characterization of emissions from a fluidized-bed wood chip home heating furnace. Final report Apr 82-May 83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truesdale, R.S.

    1984-03-01

    The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a residential wood-chip combustor, operated in both a fluidized-bed and cyclone-fired mode, and their comparison with those from a conventional woodstove and industrial wood-fired boilers. In general, the combustion efficiency of the fluidized-bed and cyclone-fired wood-chip burner is higher than that of conventional woodstoves. Concomitant with this increase in efficiency is a decrease in most emissions. For the fluidized-bed tests, significant reductions of total hydrocarbons and CO were observed, compared to woodstove emissions. The cyclone test showed PAH levels far below those of conventional woodstoves, approaching levels measured in industrial wood-fired boilers. A baghouse, installed during two fluidized-bed tests, was extremely effective in reducing both particulate and PAH emissions. Method 5 samples from above the fluid bed suggest that appreciable PAH is formed in the upper region of the furnace or in the watertube heat exchangers. In general, the cyclone-fired mode was more effective in reducing emissions from residential wood combustion than the fluidized-bed mode.

  10. Development and demonstration of a wood-fired gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.; Selzer, B.; Sethi, V.

    1993-08-01

    The objectives of the test program were to obtain some preliminary information regarding the nature of particulate and vapor phase alkali compounds produced and to assess any deleterious impact they might have on materials of construction. Power Generating Incorporated (PGI) is developing a wood-fired gas turbine system for specialized cogeneration applications. The system is based on a patented pressurized combustor designed and tested by PGI in conjunction with McConnell Industries. The other components of the system are fuel receiving, preparation, storage and feeding system, gas clean-up equipment, and a gas turbine generator.

  11. Final Report - National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure Final Report - National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure Awardee: Illinois State University Location: Normal, IL ...

  12. Improving Entrainment Rate Parameterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Entrainment Rate Parameterization For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight Parameterization of entrainment rate is critical for improving representation of cloud- and convection-related processes in climate models; however, much remains unclear. This work seeks to improve understanding and parameterization of entrainment rate by use of aircraft observations and large-eddy simulations of shallow cumulus clouds over

  13. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  14. LCC Guidance Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  15. Draft Tiered Rate Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Regional Dialogue Discussion Purposes Only Pre-Decisional Draft Tiered Rates Methodology March 7, 2008 Pre-decisional, Deliberative, For Discussion Purposes Only March 7,...

  16. The Influence of Process Conditions on the Chemical Composition of Pine Wood Catalytic Pyrolysis Oils

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pereira, J.; Agblevor, F. A.; Beis, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Pine wood samples were used as model feedstock to study the properties of catalytic fast pyrolysis oils. The influence of two commercial zeolite catalysts (BASF and SudChem) and pretreatment of the pine wood with sodium hydroxide on pyrolysis products were investigated. The pyrolysis oils were first fractionated using column chromatography and characterized using GC-MS. Long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, levoglucosan, aldehydes and ketones, guaiacols/syringols, and benzenediols were the major compounds identified in the pyrolysis oils. The catalytic pyrolysis increased the polycyclic hydrocarbons fraction. Significant decreases in phthalate derivatives using SudChem and long chain aliphatics using BASF catalyst were observed. Significant amountsmore » of aromatic heterocyclic hydrocarbons and benzene derivatives were formed, respectively, using BASF and SudChem catalysts. Guaiacyl/syringyl and benzenediols derivatives were partly suppressed by the zeolite catalysts, while the sodium hydroxide treatment enriched phenolic derivatives. Zeolite catalyst and sodium hydroxide were employed together; they showed different results for each catalyst.« less

  17. Effect of natural ageing on volume stability of MSW and wood waste incineration residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gori, Manuela; Bergfeldt, Britta; Reichelt, Jürgen; Sirini, Piero

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Natural weathering on BA from MSW and wood waste incineration was evaluated. ► Type of mineral phases, pH and volume stability were considered. ► Weathering reactions effect in improved stability of the materials. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of natural weathering on volume stability of bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incineration. BA samples were taken at different steps of treatment (fresh, 4 weeks and 12 weeks aged) and then characterised for their chemical and mineralogical composition and for volume stability by means of the mineralogical test method (M HMVA-StB), which is part of the German quality control system for using aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB 04). Changes of mineralogical composition with the proceeding of the weathering treatment were also monitored by leaching tests. At the end of the 12 weeks of treatment, almost all the considered samples resulted to be usable without restrictions in road construction with reference to the test parameter volume stability.

  18. Relation between combustion heat and chemical wood composition during white and brown rot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobry, J.; Dziurzynski, A.; Rypacek, V.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of beech and spruce wood were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus tigrinus and the brown rot fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Serpula lacrymans (S. lacrimans) for four months. Decomposition (expressed as percent weight loss) and amounts of holocellulose, lignin, humic acids (HU), hymatomelanic acids (HY) and fulvo acids (FU) were determined and expressed in weight percent. Combustion heat of holocellulose and lignin was determined in healthy wood and in specimens where decomposition was greater than 50%. During white rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged even at high decomposition and the relative amounts of holocellulose and lignin remained the same. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased during the initial stages and stabilized at 20%. The content of HU plus HY was negligible even at the highest degree of decomposition. During brown rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged only in the initial stages, it increased continously with increasing rot. Lignin content was unchanged in the initial stages and increased after 30% weight loss. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased continuously, reaching higher values than in white rot decomposition; there were differences between the two species. Biosynthesis of HU plus HY began when weight loss reached 30%; there were differences in absolute and relative amounts between species. 24 references.

  19. Wood energy and preservation of woodlands in semi-arid developing countries. The case of Dodoma region, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    At present little land and labour resources are expended on energy production, but the woodlands in Dodoma are disappearing, causing villagers to save time by switching from fuelwood collected on foot to charcoal shipped in by truck. Results of a linear program show that if the costs of growing the wood for charcoal are counted the switch to charcoal saves time only in areas where population is relatively dense and natural woodland remote. Woodland preservation in Dodoma will require more plantations, increased plantation productivity, improved efficiency of charcoal kilns or stoves and ultimately a switch to some other fuel than wood.

  20. Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, Kenneth L.

    1980-01-01

    A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

  1. Quartz crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  2. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and

  3. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 2:26pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers Editor's Note: Yesterday Secretary ...

  4. Best Practices: Escalation Rates

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Best Practices Escalation Rates Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Best Practices: Escalation Rate Value of future energy savings * Provides purchasing power for implementing a robust, comprehensive and customized ECM set * Provides an option for paying back financing in the shortest possible

  5. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  6. Insight into trade-off between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Ake; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred; Belbahri, Lassaad; Bouzid, Ourdia; Broberg, Anders; Canback, Bjorn; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Dalman, Kerstin; Deflorio, Giuliana; van Diepen, Linda T. A.; Dunand, Christophe; Duplessis, Sebastien; Durling, Mikael; Gonthier, Paolo; Grimwood, Jane; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Hansson, David; Henrissat, Bernard; Hietala, Ari; Himmelstrand, Kajsa; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hogberg, Nils; James, Timothy Y.; Karlsson, Magnus; Kohler, Annegret; Lucas, Susan; Lunden, Karl; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Park, Jongsun; Raffaello, Tommaso; Rouze, Pierre; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Solheim, Halvor; Stahlberg, Jerry; Velez, Heriberto; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Woodward, Steve; Yakovlev, Igor; Garbelotto, Matteo; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Stenlid, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript profiling, as well as the quantitative trait loci mapping, of one member of the species complex: H. irregulare. Quantitative trait loci critical for pathogenicity, and rich in transposable elements, orphan and secreted genes, were identified. A wide range of cellulose-degrading enzymes are expressed during wood decay. By contrast, pathogenic interaction between H. irregulare and pine engages fewer carbohydrate-active enzymes, but involves an increase in pectinolytic enzymes, transcription modules for oxidative stress and secondary metabolite production. Our results show a trade-off in terms of constrained carbohydrate decomposition and membrane transport capacity during interaction with living hosts. Our findings establish that saprotrophic wood decay and necrotrophic parasitism involve two distinct, yet overlapping, processes.

  7. Analysis of the Phlebiopsis gigantea Genome, Transcriptome and Secretome Provides Insight into Its Pioneer Colonization Strategies of Wood

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hori, Chiaki; Ishida, Takuya; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Master, Emma; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Held, Benjamin; Canessa, Paulo; et al

    2014-12-04

    Collectively classified as white-rot fungi, certain basidiomycetes efficiently degrade the major structural polymers of wood cell walls. A small subset of these Agaricomycetes, exemplified by Phlebiopsis gigantea, is capable of colonizing freshly exposed conifer sapwood despite its high content of extractives, which retards the establishment of other fungal species. The mechanism(s) by which P. gigantea tolerates and metabolizes resinous compounds have not been explored. Here, we report the annotated P. gigantea genome and compare profiles of its transcriptome and secretome when cultured on freshcut versus solvent-extracted loblolly pine wood. The P. gigantea genome contains a conventional repertoire of hydrolase genesmore » involved in cellulose/hemicellulose degradation, whose patterns of expression were relatively unperturbed by the absence of extractives. The expression of genes typically ascribed to lignin degradation was also largely unaffected. In contrast, genes likely involved in the transformation and detoxification of wood extractives were highly induced in its presence. Their products included an ABC transporter, lipases, cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Other regulated genes of unknown function and several constitutively expressed genes are also likely involved in P. gigantea’s extractives metabolism. These results contribute to our fundamental understanding of pioneer colonization of conifer wood and provide insight into the diverse chemistries employed by fungi in carbon cycling processes.« less

  8. Analysis of the Phlebiopsis gigantea Genome, Transcriptome and Secretome Provides Insight into Its Pioneer Colonization Strategies of Wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hori, Chiaki; Ishida, Takuya; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Master, Emma; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Held, Benjamin; Canessa, Paulo; Larrondo, Luis F.; Schmoll, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Gaskell, Jill A.; Kersten, Phil; St. John, Franz; Glasner, Jeremy; Sabat, Grzegorz; Splinter BonDurant, Sandra; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Yadav, Jagjit; Mgbeahuruike, Anthony C.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Lackner, Gerald; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Sun, Hui; Lindquist, Erika; Barry, Kerrie; Riley, Robert; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Berka, Randy M.; Martínez, Angel T.; Covert, Sarah F.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Cullen, Daniel; Copenhaver, Gregory P.

    2014-12-04

    Collectively classified as white-rot fungi, certain basidiomycetes efficiently degrade the major structural polymers of wood cell walls. A small subset of these Agaricomycetes, exemplified by Phlebiopsis gigantea, is capable of colonizing freshly exposed conifer sapwood despite its high content of extractives, which retards the establishment of other fungal species. The mechanism(s) by which P. gigantea tolerates and metabolizes resinous compounds have not been explored. Here, we report the annotated P. gigantea genome and compare profiles of its transcriptome and secretome when cultured on freshcut versus solvent-extracted loblolly pine wood. The P. gigantea genome contains a conventional repertoire of hydrolase genes involved in cellulose/hemicellulose degradation, whose patterns of expression were relatively unperturbed by the absence of extractives. The expression of genes typically ascribed to lignin degradation was also largely unaffected. In contrast, genes likely involved in the transformation and detoxification of wood extractives were highly induced in its presence. Their products included an ABC transporter, lipases, cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Other regulated genes of unknown function and several constitutively expressed genes are also likely involved in P. gigantea’s extractives metabolism. These results contribute to our fundamental understanding of pioneer colonization of conifer wood and provide insight into the diverse chemistries employed by fungi in carbon cycling processes.

  9. 2007-2009 Power Rate Adjustments (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Function Review (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rate Adjustments BPA's 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) took effect on...

  10. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meetings & Workshops Rate Case Parties Web Site WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  11. Reservoir characterization and performance predictions for the E.N. Woods lease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aka-Milan, Francis A.

    2000-07-07

    The task of this work was to evaluate the past performance of the E.N. WOODS Unit and to forecast its future economic performance by taking into consideration the geology, petrophysics and production history of the reservoir. The Decline Curve Analysis feature of the Appraisal of Petroleum Properties including Taxation Systems (EDAPT) software along with the Production Management Systems (PMS) software were used to evaluate the original volume of hydrocarbon in place and estimate the reserve. The Black Oil Simulator (BOAST II) was then used to model the waterflooding operation and estimate the incremental oil production attributable to the water injection. BOAST II was also used to predict future performance of the reservoir.

  12. Measurement of wood/plant cell or composite material attributes with computer assisted tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Darrell C.; Paulus, Michael J.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Wimmer, Rupert

    2004-06-08

    A method for obtaining wood-cell attributes from cellulose containing samples includes the steps of radiating a cellulose containing sample with a beam of radiation. Radiation attenuation information is collected from radiation which passes through the sample. The source is rotated relative to the sample and the radiation and collecting steps repeated. A projected image of the sample is formed from the collected radiation attenuation information, the projected image including resolvable features of the cellulose containing sample. Cell wall thickness, cell diameter (length) and cell vacoule diameter can be determined. A system for obtaining physical measures from cellulose containing samples includes a radiation source, a radiation detector, and structure for rotating the source relative to said sample. The system forms an image of the sample from the radiation attenuation information, the image including resolvable features of the sample.

  13. Fate of Cu, Cr, and As during combustion of impregnated wood with and without peat additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karin Lundholm; Dan Bostroem; Anders Nordin; Andrei Shchukarev

    2007-09-15

    The EU Directive on incineration of waste regulates the harmful emissions of particles and twelve toxic elements, including copper, chromium, and arsenic. Using a 15 kW pellets-fueled grate burner, experiments were performed to determine the fate of copper, chromium, and arsenic during combustion of chromate copper arsenate (CCA) preservative wood. The fate and speciation of copper, chromium, and arsenic were determined from analysis of the flue gas particles and the bottom ash using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, and ICP-AES. Chemical equilibrium model calculations were performed to interpret the experimental findings. The results revealed that about 5% copper, 15% chromium, and 60% arsenic were volatilized during combustion of pure CCA-wood, which is lower than predicted volatilization from the individual arsenic, chromium, and copper oxides. This is explained by the formation of more stable refractory complex oxide phases for which the stability trends and patterns are presented. When co-combusted with peat, an additional stabilization of these phases was obtained and thus a small but noteworthy decrease in volatilization of all three elements was observed. The major identified phases for all fuels were CuCrO{sub 2}(s), (Fe,Mg,Cu)(Cr,Fe,Al)O{sub 4}(s), Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s), and Ca{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s). Arsenic was also identified in the fine particles as KH{sub 2}AsO{sub 4}(s) and As{sub 2}O{sub 3}). A strong indication of hexavalent chromium in the form of K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} or as a solid solution between K{sub 3}Na(CrO{sub 4}){sub 2} and K{sub 3}Na(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} was found in the fine particles. Good qualitative agreement was observed between experimental data and chemical equilibrium model calculations. 38 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  15. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim Meco

    2004-12-19

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt

  16. UV absorption control of thin film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Zuhoski, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the rate of growth of thin films in an atmosphere of reactant gases measures the UV absorbance of the atmosphere and calculates the partial pressure of the gases. The flow of reactant gases is controlled in response to the partial pressure.

  17. Life history and habitat associations of the broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and other native cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2002-06-18

    Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.

  18. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 8): Smeltertown Site, Operable Unit 2, former Koppers Wood Treating site, Salida, CO, June 4, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action (RA) for the former Koppers Wood Treating Operable Unit (OU2) at the Smeltertown Superfund Site (the Site). This action addresses the wood-treating contaminants from the tie treating operations at the former Koppers Wood Treating Operable Unit that were conducted by Koppers Company, Inc. (now known as Beazer East, Inc.) from 1924 through 1953. This remedy calls for the containment of soils contaminated at low levels and monitors the effect of the contaminants in the soils, dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) within the groundwater.

  19. Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way When applied to plants, Take-Off(tm) speeds crop emergence, increases growth rates and yields, improves stress tolerance and nutrient value, and reduces need for nitrogen fertilizers. April 3, 2012 Farmer in wheat field inspecting wheat Biagro Western offers Take-Off(tm), a metabolic plant stimulant that will allow farmers to increase crop carbon fixation and thereby increase nitrate uptake and nitrogen

  20. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8)more » with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.« less

  1. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rábago Rábago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff ‣ Fair to the utility and non-solar customers ‣ Fair compensation to the solar customer ‣ Decouple compensation from incentives ‣ Align public policy goals (decouple compensation from consumption) ‣ Intuitively sound and administratively simple 2 Historical Antecedents ‣ Externalities ‣ Price ≠ Cost ‣ Green Power ‣ Small Is Profitable (http://www.smallisprofitable.org/) ‣ Local

  2. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  3. ,"Geographic Area",,,"Voltage",,,"Capacity Rating (MVa)","In...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...ral","AC",345,345,535,39507,"Hardin Co.","Smith OMU",-66,"OH","H-frame","wood",954,"ACSR",...,"SERC","Central","AC",345,345,535,39507,"Smith OMU","Daviess Co.",7,"OH","H-frame","wood"...

  4. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  5. Writing Effective Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR) At the end of the performance cycle, the rating official must prepare an ISR in ePerformance for each SES member who has ...

  6. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  7. Smart Cities - Smart Growth

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart Cities - Smart Growth The United States Secretaries of Commerce will co-lead a Business Development Mission to China from April 12-17, 2015. This mission will promote U.S. clean technology products and services in the areas of green building/construction, energy efficiency, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) and environmental technologies in support of the Smart Cities-Smart Growth theme. On November 12, President Obama and President Xi jointly announced the two countries'

  8. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls, Lawrence, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-10-01

    ?There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content and relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100 percent RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15 percent) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  9. Cell Wall Ultrastructure of Stem Wood, Roots, and Needles of a Conifer Varies in Response to Moisture Availability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Ingwers, Miles W.; Victoriano, Olivia L.; Kandemkavil, Sindhu; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O.; Aubrey, Doug P.

    2016-06-24

    The composition, integrity, and architecture of the macromolecular matrix of cell walls, collectively referred to as cell wall ultrastructure, exhibits variation across species and organs and among cell types within organs. Indirect approaches have suggested that modifications to cell wall ultrastructure occur in response to abiotic stress; however, modifications have not been directly observed. Glycome profiling was used to study cell wall ultrastructure by examining variation in composition and extractability of non-cellulosic glycans in cell walls of stem wood, roots, and needles of loblolly pine saplings exposed to high and low soil moisture. Soil moisture influenced physiological processes and themore » overall composition and extractability of cell wall components differed as a function of soil moisture treatments. The strongest response of cell wall ultrastructure to soil moisture was increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in the low soil moisture treatment. The higher abundance of these pectic backbone epitopes in the oxalate extract indicate that the loosening of cell wall pectic components could be associated with the release of pectic signals as a stress response. The increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in response to low soil moisture availability was more pronounced in stem wood than in roots or needles. Additional responses to low soil moisture availability were observed in lignin associated carbohydrates released in chlorite extracts of stem wood, including an increased abundance of pectic arabinogalactan epitopes. Overall, these results indicate that cell walls of loblolly pine organs undergo changes in their ultrastructural composition and extractability as a response to soil moisture availability and that cell walls of the stem wood are more responsive to low soil moisture availability compared to cell walls of roots and needles. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence, delineated by

  10. Writing Effective Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR) At the end of the performance cycle, the rating official must prepare an ISR in ePerformance for each SES member who has completed at least 90 days on an established performance plan. Rating officials must take into account the SES member's accomplishments achieved during the performance cycle and the impact to the organization's performance. Rating officials must appraise executives realistically and fairly and avoid ratings inflation.

  11. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting a specific power purchase. For more specific information see: 1996 Final Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules: Power Rates (PDF, 84 pages, 188 kb) Ancillary...

  12. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, James A

    2005-07-20

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we determined that by grinding the soil samples to a finer particle size of less than 250 μm (sieve No. 60), the effect of mine soil coal particle size on the extent to which these particles will be oxidized during the thermal treatment of the carbon partitioning procedure will be eliminated, thus making the procedure more accurate and precise. In the second phase of the carbon sequestration project, we focused our attention on determining the sample size required for carbon accounting on grassland mined fields in order to achieve a desired accuracy and precision of the final soil organic carbon (SOC) estimate. A mine land site quality classification scheme was developed and some field-testing of the methods of implementation was completed. The classification model

  13. PULSE RATE DIVIDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, H.C. Jr.

    1962-12-18

    A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)

  14. Development of laboratory studies on the off-gassing of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Xingya Kuang; Shahab Sokhansanj; C. Jim Lim; Tony Bi; Staffan Melin

    2010-12-01

    In the present study three sealed containers (304.8 mm inside diameter and 609.6 mm height) were developed to investigate the concentration of off-gases accumulated in the headspace as well as changes in some of the physical properties of wood pellets during storage. Pellets occupied 75% of the container volume leaving 25% headspace. The outside wall of the steel containers was wrapped with electric heating tapes and fiber glass insulation. The storage studies were carried out at room temperature of about 22 degrees C and at elevated temperatures of 30, 40 and 50 degrees C. The off-gases were collected and analyzed using micro gas chromatography. The accumulations of CO (5000 ppmv) and CO2 (10000 ppmv) were relatively high at room temperature of about 22 degrees C for a storage period of 24 days. These accumulations increased sharply at storage temperatures greather than 30 degrees C. At 50 degrees C, the maximum measured concentration of CO, CO2 and CH4 was about17,000, 70,000 and 3,000 ppmv, respectively. Storage temperature had a significanteffect (PB0.01) on all of the pellet properties, including pellet durability, which dropped by about 20% at the end of 60 days of storage.

  15. Mass transfer coefficients developed from the air gasification of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botts, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    A convertible updraft/downdraft, fixed-bed gasifier was used in the gasification of 3/8-inch diameter wood pellets. The test data was used to develop mass transfer coefficients and describe the gasification process for each gasifier configuration. The results show that the production of the principal combustion gases, i.e., hydrogen (H{sub c}), carbon monozide (CO), and methane (CH{sub 4}), varies directly as to their mass transfer coefficient: H{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4} = k h{sub DA}. Factoring the Reynolds (Re{sub d}) and Schmidt (Sc) numbers with the influence of the noncombustible gases, i.e., nitrogen (N{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), is used to define the mass transfer coefficients. The general form describing this joint variation is: H{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4} = kx (the effect of the noncombustible gases) x Re x Sc where Re = Reynolds number and Sc = Schmidt number. The developments of these mass transfer coefficients are shown for updraft and downdraft gasification.

  16. System Modeling of ORNL s 20 MW(t) Wood-fired Gasifying Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart; FINNEY, Charles E A; Wiggins, Gavin; Hao, Ye

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the new 20 MW(t) wood-fired steam plant currently under construction by Johnson Controls, Inc. at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. The new plant will utilize a low-temperature air-blown gasifier system developed by the Nexterra Systems Corporation to generate low-heating value syngas (producer gas), which will then be burned in a staged combustion chamber to produce heat for the boiler. This is considered a showcase project for demonstrating the benefits of clean, bio-based energy, and thus there is considerable interest in monitoring and modeling the energy efficiency and environmental footprint of this technology relative to conventional steam generation with petroleum-based fuels. In preparation for system startup in 2012, we are developing steady-state and dynamic models of the major process components, including the gasifiers and combustor. These tools are intended to assist in tracking and optimizing system performance and for carrying out future conceptual studies of process changes that might improve the overall energy efficiency and sustainability. In this paper we describe the status of our steady-state gasifier and combustor models and illustrate preliminary results from limited parametric studies.

  17. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  18. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  19. Development of a wood pellet fired burner for space heating applications in the range 5 kW--300 kW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, J.

    1999-07-01

    A compact burner has been developed, fired by wood pellets, which can compete with fossil fuel burners for space heating applications in terms of efficiency, emissions, load following capability, economics, and physical size. Greenhouse gas emissions (CO{sub 2}) are reduced by 80% or more when used to displace fossil fuel fired appliances. This includes consideration of energy use in the pelleting process. The pellet fired burner is a stand-alone hot gas generator that can be externally mounted on an existing hot water boiler, directly replacing an oil or gas fired burner. The boiler thermostat directly controls the burner. Alternatively, the burner can be integrated into a forced air furnace or a dedicated boiler for OEM applications. The burner has been scaled from 20 kW for residential use up to more than 300 kw for commercial applications. The burner incorporates a fuel metering and delivery system, an insulated refractory firebox, an agitated grate system, preheated forced air combustion, and an open loop electronic control. Pellets are delivered from a separate storage bin, and the burner exhausts not gases in excess of 1,000 C from the burner tube. Excess air for combustion is controlled below 30% and emissions, CO and NO, are less than 100 ppm. the burner can be operated at these conditions as low as 30% rated power output. Upon heat demand from the thermostat control, pellets are fed to the grate, they ignite within 2--3 minutes using an electric resistance cartridge heater, and 90% rated power output is reached within 6--8 minutes of ignition. The burner can cycle 2--3 times per hour following the load demand.

  20. Piggyback Tectonics- Long-Term Growth Of Kilauea On The South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (15-40,000 km3); lava-thickness accumulation rates appear to have remained nearly constant during edifice growth, as effusion rates increased from 25 106 m3yr at end of...

  1. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier5Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier5Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  2. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier1Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier1Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  3. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  4. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  5. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier4Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier4Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  6. High-temperature aerosol formation in wood pellets flames: Spatially resolved measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiinikka, Henrik; Gebart, Rikard; Boman, Christoffer; Bostroem, Dan; Nordin, Anders; OEhman, Marcus

    2006-12-15

    The formation and evolution of high-temperature aerosols during fixed bed combustion of wood pellets in a realistic combustion environment were investigated through spatially resolved experiments. The purpose of this work was to investigate the various stages of aerosol formation from the hot flame zone to the flue gas channel. The investigation is important both for elucidation of the formation mechanisms and as a basis for development and validation of particle formation models that can be used for design optimization. Experiments were conducted in an 8-kW-updraft fired-wood-pellets combustor. Particle samples were withdrawn from the centerline of the combustor through 10 sampling ports by a rapid dilution sampling probe. The corresponding temperatures at the sampling positions were in the range 200-1450{sup o}C. The particle sample was size-segregated in a low-pressure impactor, allowing physical and chemical resolution of the fine particles. The chemical composition of the particles was investigated by SEM/EDS and XRD analysis. Furthermore, the experimental results were compared to theoretical models for aerosol formation processes. The experimental data show that the particle size distribution has two peaks, both of which are below an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). The mode diameters of the fine and coarse modes in the PM{sub 2.5} region were {approx}0.1 and {approx}0.8 {mu}m, respectively. The shape of the particle size distribution function continuously changes with position in the reactor due to several mechanisms. Early, in the flame zone, both the fine mode and the coarse mode in the PM{sub 2.5} region were dominated by particles from incomplete combustion, indicated by a significant amount of carbon in the particles. The particle concentrations of both the fine and the coarse mode decrease rapidly in the hot oxygen-rich flame due to oxidation of the carbon-rich particles. After the hot flame, the fine mode concentration and particle

  7. Lethal synergism between organic and inorganic wood preservatives via formation of an unusual lipophilic ternary complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Li, Yan; Fan, Rui-Mei; Chao, Xi-Juan; Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331

    2013-02-01

    We have shown previously that exposing bacteria to wood preservatives pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper-containing compounds together causes synergistic toxicity. However, it is not clear whether these findings also hold true in mammalian cells; and if so, what is the underlying molecular mechanism? Here we show that PCP and a model copper complex bis-(1,10-phenanthroline) cupric (Cu(OP){sub 2}), could also induce synergistic cytotoxicity in human liver cells. By the single crystal X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy assay, the synergism was found to be mainly due to the formation of a lipophilic ternary complex with unusual structural and composition characteristics and subsequent enhanced cellular copper uptake, which markedly promoted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing pro-apoptotic protein expression, releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria and activating caspase-3, and -9. Analogous results were observed with other polychlorinated phenols (PCPs) and Cu(OP){sub 2}. Synergistic cytotoxicity could be induced by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} via formation of an unusual lipophilic complex in HepG2 cells. The formation of ternary complexes with similar lipophilic character could be of relevance as a general mechanism of toxicity, which should be taken into consideration especially when evaluating the toxicity of environmental pollutants found at currently-considered non- or sub-toxic concentrations. -- Highlights: ? The combination of PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces synergistic cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ? The synergism is mainly due to forming a lipophilic ternary complex between them. ? The formation of lipophilic ternary complex enhances cellular copper uptake. ? PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} stimulates the cellular ROS production. ? The ROS promoted by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

  8. 1979 revenue growth belies utility industry problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincicome, R.

    1980-06-01

    Despite growth in revenues during 1979, electric utilities are greatly troubled by high inflation, restricted capital, and the lack of rate relief from utility commissions. The growth, although smaller than normal, will likely convince commissions to respond to rate increase requests by authorizing only the smallest possible increases. With inflationary pressures eroding utility companies' financial base, the benefits of rate increases are wiped out after a year or so, necessitating a return to the commissions for futher adjustments. This up-down cycling is reflected in the report of the performances of the top one hundred utility companies. Earning growth statistics, sales data, financial statistics, and company performances (electric sales, customers served, revenues, and after-tax net income) of top one hundred electric utilities are given in separate tables for 1979. Overall, kWh sales were up 2.9%; revenues were up 13.4%; net income was up 8.1%; and overall earnings performance was a weak increase of 9.4%. (SAC)

  9. Interactive Effects of Climate Change and Decomposer Communities on the Stabilization of Wood-Derived Carbon Pools: Catalyst for a New Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resh, Sigrid C.

    2014-11-17

    Globally, forest soils store ~two-thirds as much carbon (C) as the atmosphere. Although wood makes up the majority of forest biomass, the importance of wood contributions to soil C pools is unknown. Even with recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of soil processes, integrative studies tracing C input pathways and biological fluxes within and from soils are lacking. Therefore, our research objectives were to assess the impact of different fungal decay pathways (i.e., white-rot versus brown-rot)—in interaction with wood quality, soil temperature, wood location (i.e., soil surface and buried in mineral soil), and soil texture—on the transformation of woody material into soil CO2 efflux, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil C pools. The use of 13C-depleted woody biomass harvested from the Rhinelander, WI free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (Aspen-FACE) experiment affords the unique opportunity to distinguish the wood-derived C from other soil C fluxes and pools. We established 168 treatment plots across six field sites (three sand and three loam textured soil). Treatment plots consisted of full-factorial design with the following treatments: 1. Wood chips from elevated CO2, elevated CO2 + O3, or ambient atmosphere AspenFACE treatments; 2. Inoculated with white rot (Bjerkandera adusta) or brown rot (Gloeophyllum sepiarium) pure fungal cultures, or the original suite of endemic microbial community on the logs; and 3. Buried (15cm in soil as a proxy for coarse roots) or surface applied wood chips. We also created a warming treatment using open-topped, passive warming chambers on a subset of the above treatments. Control plots with no added wood (“no chip control”) were incorporated into the research design. Soils were sampled for initial δ13C values, CN concentrations, and bulk density. A subset of plots were instrumented with lysimeters for sampling soil water and temperature data loggers for measuring soil temperatures. To determine the early

  10. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  11. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 30.56% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  12. April - September 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 40.77% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  13. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The PDF documents above provide tables of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with the LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustments for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply...

  14. April - September 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 36.93% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  15. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.66% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply a...

  16. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.91% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  17. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 46% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  18. April - September 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 49.50% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  19. April - September 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 47.00% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  20. FPS-96R Rate Adjustment (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Final Firm Power Products and Services (FPS-96R) Rate Adjustment In August 1999, BPA proposed to correct errors in the Firm Power Products and Services rate schedule (FPS-96), and...

  1. WP-02 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WP-02 Power Rate Case (Updated on May 7, 2004) In May of 2000, the BPA Administrator signed a Record of Decision (ROD) on the 2002 Final Power Rate Proposal for the October 2001...

  2. 2007-2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates In BPAs 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Case (WP-07), BPA agreed that it would post reports about BPAs power...

  3. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  4. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  5. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.

  6. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  7. Superfund Record of Decision amendment (EPA Region 4): Coleman-Evand Wood Preserving Co., Whitehouse, FL, September 25, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This decision document represents an amendment to the selected remedial action for the Coleman-Evans Wood preserving Site (Site) in Whitehouse, Florida. This amendment is necessary because during design of the remedy that was selected in the 1990 Amended Record of Decision, dioxin was discovered at the Site as a new contaminant of concern. This document selects a new interim remedy to address an estimated 45,000 cubic yards of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and dioxin-contaminated source material (i.e., soil, sediment, and debris) and expands the scope of the groundwater remedy to permanently address PCP-, and potentially dioxin-, contaminated groundwater in the upper surficial aquifer.

  8. Project Definition Rating Index Workbook

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI) Workbook is a tool that was developed to support DOE G-413.3-12A, U. S. Department of Energy Project Definition Rating Index Guide for Traditional Nuclear...

  9. An assessment of interlaboratory reproducibility in fenestration energy ratings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, D.J.; Shah, B.V.

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the results from the 1998 Interlaboratory Comparison Round Robin Testing. The fenestration thermal performance ratings (U-factors) were determined in accordance with NFRC 100 (1997), Procedures for Determining Fenestration Product U-factors and NFRC Test Procedure for Measuring the Steady-State Thermal Transmittance of Fenestration Systems (April 1997). A total of nine NFRC-accredited testing laboratories participated in the 1998 test round, and this paper presents the results. The round robin involved thermal performance tests on an aluminum-clad wood fixed window with high-performance glazing. Each participating laboratory received the same window product, which was shipped via common freight carrier. Each laboratory was directed to keep all test results confidential. The testing began in May and was completed in December of 1998. The results of each thermal test were reviewed and placed in a spreadsheet for analysis and data comparison. The expected results, or the relative position of data of any participating laboratory, as not divulged until all testing and data analysis was complete. Specific data regarding various measured and calculated performance values as required by the NFRC procedures and program documents are presented in this paper.

  10. Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (886 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia National Laboratories has developed a disruptive new crystal growth technology, called Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG).

  11. Growth of age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Thompson, Bradley E.; Hayes, Daniel B.; Riley, Timothy S.

    2006-12-01

    We sampled ten sites within the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan. In 2001, age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected to determine growth rates. In 2002, emergence dates of steelhead were determined by observational studies and age-0 steelhead and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected to determine growth rates. Steelhead emergence occurred from late June to mid-July 2002. Growth rates of both species varied among branches within the watershed (P<0.05). Steelhead growth varied from 0.24 to 0.42 mm/day and brook trout growth varied from 0.22 to 0.37 mm/day.

  12. Economics of Future Growth in Photovoltaics Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basore, Paul A.; Chung, Donald; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-06-14

    The past decade's record of growth in the photovoltaics manufacturing industry indicates that global investment in manufacturing capacity for photovoltaic modules tends to increase in proportion to the size of the industry. The slope of this proportionality determines how fast the industry will grow in the future. Two key parameters determine this slope. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a small improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Any accompanying improvement in CapDR will accelerate that growth.

  13. Health assessment for Coleman Evans Wood Preserving Site, Whitehouse, Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD991279894. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-21

    The Coleman Evans Wood Preserving Site is an 11-acre National Priorities List site located in Whitehouse, Duval County, Florida, approximately 8 miles west of Jacksonville. The site is an active wood treatment facility which began operating in 1954 and uses fuel oil and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the treatment process. The contamination is generally within the upper 10 feet of the surface with the highest concentrations coinciding with the water table. However, PCP has been detected to depths of 35 feet in the landfill area. Off-site surface soil, water, and sediments are also contaminated with PCP. The contamination of the surface water and sediment extends several hundred feet along a drainage ditch which runs through a residential area. The surficial soil contamination appears consistent with surface water runoff patterns. Groundwater analyses indicated the PCP contamination is limited to the surficial aquifer. The site is of potential public health concern because of the migration of PCP off-site by surface water runoff and the potential for contaminating the aquifer used for domestic purposes by area residents.

  14. Performance of a small underfed wood chip-fired stoker in a hot air-heated home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the study was to provide space heat for a home using forest biomass presently not in demand by industry, and by using a convenient, automatic, low-emission heating system. A stoker firing wood chips was installed in a home, and chips were prepared for it from the residues of a softwood clearcut. Residues from 1 and a quarter acre provided enough fuel to heat the house for the heating season. The chip-fired heating system was convenient, maintained the house at whatever temperature was set on the room thermostat, and generated little creosote or wood smoke. It was better at converting fuel to heat than the previous combustion heating systems in the house, with steady-state combustion efficiency of approximately 75% and longer-term appliance efficiency of 69%. Electric energy required for heating hot water was reduced approximately 27% as a result of a preheating coil located in the chip-fired furnace. The major cause of heat interruptions was jamming of the stoker which occurred on the average of every 18 and a half days. Clearing such jams was simple. The system operated safely throughout the test period.

  15. Validating hydrodynamic growth in National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J. L. Casey, D. T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Raman, K. S.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2015-05-15

    We present new hydrodynamic growth experiments at the National Ignition Facility, which extend previous measurements up to Legendre mode 160 and convergence ratio 4, continuing the growth factor dispersion curve comparison of the low foot and high foot pulses reported by Casey et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 011102(R) (2014)]. We show that the high foot pulse has lower growth factor and lower growth rate than the low foot pulse. Using novel on-capsule fiducial markers, we observe that mode 160 inverts sign (changes phase) for the high foot pulse, evidence of amplitude oscillations during the Richtmyer-Meshkov phase of a spherically convergent system. Post-shot simulations are consistent with the experimental measurements for all but the shortest wavelength perturbations, reinforcing the validity of radiation hydrodynamic simulations of ablation front growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules.

  16. Shallow melt apparatus for semicontinuous czochralski crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  17. SN-03 Rate Case Workshops (rates/meetings)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Related Link: SN-03 Power Rate Case May 1 & 13, 2003 - Debt and Liquidity Strategies workshops (on BPA Corporate web site) March 27, 2003 - SN CRAC Prescheduling...

  18. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: “What is the Right Rate?” call slides and discussion summary, December 1, 2011.

  19. Characterization of ashes from co-combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal, wood and bark in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M.

    1998-12-31

    The technical and environmental feasibility of co-combustion of a recovered fuel (RF) prepared from combustible waste fractions (separated at the source), together with coal, peat, wood or wood-waste in thermal power/electricity generation has been studied in several R and D projects within Finland. The current work focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of RF with coal, wood or bark, which could lead to bed agglomeration, slagging, fouling and even corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced in a 15 kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustion reactor, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analyzed by XRF. The sintering tendency behavior of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at Aabo Akademi University. Earlier, a screening program involved ashes from RF (from a waste separation scheme in Finland) co-combustion with peat, wood and bark, in which ash pellets were thermally treated in air. This showed significant sintering below 600 C as well as above 800 C for RF/wood and RF/bark, but not for RF/peat. This seemed to correlate with alkali chloride and sulfate concentrations in the ashes. The current work addresses a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark, coal, bark+coal, wood, and wood+coal (eight tests). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1,000 C. Ash from 100% RDF combustion does not sinter, 25% RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of a 25% coal fraction (on energy basis) seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows that, in general, an increased level of

  20. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mok, H. S.; Murata, Y.; Kodambaka, S., E-mail: kodambaka@ucla.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebnonnasir, A.; Ciobanu, C. V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Nie, S.; McCarty, K. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we follow the growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate temperature, nucleation of graphene begins on graphene-free Pd surface and continues to occur during graphene growth. Measurements of graphene growth rates and Pd surface work functions establish that this continued nucleation is due to increasing C adatom concentration on the Pd surface with time. We attribute this anomalous phenomenon to a large barrier for attachment of C adatoms to graphene coupled with a strong binding of the non-graphitic C to the Pd surface.

  1. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-09-29

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  2. ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Radiometric, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  3. Material and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirst, Matias

    2015-09-15

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  4. Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate levels and these studies for each of Southeastern's four power marketing systems are ...

  5. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  6. FACET Emittance Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  7. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System:...

  8. Global Green Growth Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth Institute Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Green Growth Strategy Support Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGlobalGreenGrowthIn...

  9. Machine vision based particle size and size distribution determination of airborne dust particles of wood and bark pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Igathinathane, C; Pordesimo, L.O.

    2009-08-01

    Dust management strategies in industrial environment, especially of airborne dust, require quantification and measurement of size and size distribution of the particles. Advanced specialized instruments that measure airborne particle size and size distribution apply indirect methods that involve light scattering, acoustic spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. In this research, we propose a simple and direct method of airborne dust particle dimensional measurement and size distribution analysis using machine vision. The method involves development of a user-coded ImageJ plugin that measures particle length and width and analyzes size distribution of particles based on particle length from high-resolution scan images. Test materials were airborne dust from soft pine wood sawdust pellets and ground pine tree bark pellets. Subsamples prepared by dividing the actual dust using 230 mesh (63 m) sieve were analyzed as well. A flatbed document scanner acquired the digital images of the dust particles. Proper sampling, layout of dust particles in singulated arrangement, good contrast smooth background, high resolution images, and accurate algorithm are essential for reliable analysis. A halo effect around grey-scale images ensured correct threshold limits. The measurement algorithm used Feret s diameter for particle length and pixel-march technique for particle width. Particle size distribution was analyzed in a sieveless manner after grouping particles according to their distinct lengths, and several significant dimensions and parameters of particle size distribution were evaluated. Results of the measurement and analysis were presented in textual and graphical formats. The developed plugin was evaluated to have a dimension measurement accuracy in excess of 98.9% and a computer speed of analysis of <8 s/image. Arithmetic mean length of actual wood and bark pellets airborne dust particles were 0.1138 0.0123 and 0.1181 0.0149 mm, respectively. The airborne dust particles of

  10. Role of hydrogen in evolution of plasma parameters and dust growth in capacitively coupled dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, K. B.; Choe, Wonho; Seon, C. R.; Chung, C. W.

    2010-11-15

    The temporal behavior of naturally produced dust parameters (radius and density) and plasma parameters (electron temperature and ion flux) was investigated in radio frequency SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasmas. As a result, the electron temperature and ion flux were shown to be strongly correlated with the three-step dust growth pattern. In addition, the generation of dust particles was suppressed by mixing more hydrogen gas due to the plasma chemistry, and consequently, the dust growth rate in the molecular accretion growth, which is known to be proportional to the growth rate of thin film deposition, increased.

  11. The gasification of coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures in the University of Minnesota, two-stage coal gasifier: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.P.

    1986-12-01

    The technical feasibility of gasifying coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures with the University of Minnesota, Duluth Campus commercially technology two-stage coal gasifier was demonstrated during a series of experimental tests. Three types of processed peat products were mixed with coal and gasified. The three peat products were: peat briquettes, peat pellets and sod peat. The best peat product for gasification and handling was found to be peat pellets with a diameter of 7/8 inch and a length of .75 to 2 inches. A mixture of 65% coal and 35% peat pellets was found to cause no loss in gasifier efficiency and no operational problems. However, there was found to be no economic advantage in using coal-peat mixtures. The very limited testing performed with coal-wood chip mixtures indicated that the wood chips would be difficult to handle with the coal handling-equipment and there would be no economic advantage in using wood chips. 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Mid-South Wood Products, Polk County, Arkansas, November 1986. First remedial action. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-14

    The Mid-South Wood Products site is located in Polk County, Arkansas, approximately 1/2 mile southwest of Mena, Arkansas. The 57-acre site includes the following areas: the Old Plant site, the Small Old Pond and Old Pond areas, the North and South Landfarms, the landfill, Clear Lake and an existing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment plant. The Old Plant site was used to treat wood with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote; the Small Old Pond was the original impoundment for waste PCP and creosote. These two areas have been covered with soil. The Old Pond area was used to store PCP and creosote sludge and has since been graded and covered with soil; materials from the Old Pond were spread over the Landfarm areas and mixed into the soil; the Landfill area contains deposits of sawdust, woodchips, and other waste-wood products; Clear Lake receives runoff from all the above areas; the CCA treatment plant contains an ongoing wood-treating operation where the surface drainage from the plant is put in sumps.

  13. Performance oriented packaging testing of nine Mk 3 Mod 0 signal containers in PPP-B-621 wood box for packing group II solid hazardous materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libbert, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    A PPP-B-621 wood box containing nine Mk 3 Mod 0 Signal containers was tested for conformance to Performance Oriented Packaging criteria established by Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 CFR. The container was tested with a gross weight of 123.3 pounds (56 kilograms) and met all requirements.

  14. Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California. Identification of environmental issues, second phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-14

    GeoProducts Corporation and the California Department of Water Resources have jointly proposed to develop a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize geothermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power, the first attempt to utilize these resources together on a commercial scale. This report identifies requirements for new environmental information that must be generated for permit applications and for preparation of environmental documents required by CEOA and NEPA; presents a schedule for generating new environmental data, for preparing and submitting permit applications, and for obtaining permits; presents a budget for permitting, licensing and environmental assessments as required by applicable laws, regulations and procedures; and investigates the step needed to qualify for a Small Power Plant Exemption by the State Energy Commission.

  15. Permitting: Lessons from a case study--the U.S. EPA`s Wood Products Enforcement Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umberger, N.,

    1995-12-01

    U.S. EPA`s Wood Products Initiative has resulted in the settlement with Louisiana-Pacific (L-P) for over eleven million dollars in fines and much more in expenditures for corporate environmental improvements. EPA claimed that L-P`s corporate environmental structure inadequately addressed the environmental requirements of the Clean Air Act. L-P failed to obtain the necessary permits and provide the permitting authorities with accurate and complete information on air emissions. The author concentrates on the steps companies must follow to ensure that adequate permitting is obtained. The paper states clearly the expectations EPA has of permitting authorities and permit applicants. A checklist of criteria necessary to avoid permitting dilemmas is presented, along with practical advice for environmental managers responsible for permitting and interactions with regulatory authorities. The steps of source identification, emissions quantification, control technology selection, and permit completion are detailed.

  16. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change during

  17. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Abstract Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these-two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12-have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component.

  18. Characterization of Lignin Derived from Water-only and Dilute Acid Flowthrough Pretreatment of Poplar Wood at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Background: Flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. Results: In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. Conclusions: Elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change

  19. Method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-03-14

    The authors report a method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The method uses a single reflectivity spectrum measurement to determine the structure of the partially completed VCSEL at a critical point of growth. This information, along with the extracted growth rates, allows imprecisions in growth parameters to be compensated for during growth of the remaining structure, which can then be completed with very accurate critical dimensions. Using this method, they can now routinely grow lasing VCSELs with Fabry-Perot cavity resonance wavelengths controlled to within 0.5%. 4 figs.

  20. Method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalmers, Scott A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Lear, Kevin L.

    1995-01-01

    We report a method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The method uses a single reflectivity spectrum measurement to determine the structure of the partially completed VCSEL at a critical point of growth. This information, along with the extracted growth rates, allows imprecisions in growth parameters to be compensated for during growth of the remaining structure, which can then be completed with very accurate critical dimensions. Using this method, we can now routinely grow lasing VCSELs with Fabry-Perot cavity resonance wavelengths controlled to within 0.5%.

  1. BPA revises oversupply rate proposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    comments until May 22, 2013. The rate-setting process will end with the administrator making a decision based on the record developed in the case. BPA expects to issue a final...

  2. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at a Tier 2 rate 3) Combination of the two On Nov 1, 2009, customers made their elections for how they will serve their Above-RHWM Load during the FY 2012-2014 purchase...

  3. DOE Guidance-Category Rating

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    August 27, 2010 MEMORANDUM FOR HUMAN RESOURCES DIRECTORS FROM: SARA"iJ. Boku1, DIRECToR OF HUMAN CTAL MANAGEMENT SUBJECT: GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 10 CATEGORY RATING The purpose of ...

  4. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  5. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  6. Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  7. Precision growth index using the clustering of cosmic structures and growth data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pouri, Athina; Basilakos, Spyros; Plionis, Manolis E-mail: svasil@academyofathens.gr

    2014-08-01

    We use the clustering properties of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) and the growth rate data provided by the various galaxy surveys in order to constrain the growth index ?) of the linear matter fluctuations. We perform a standard ?{sup 2}-minimization procedure between theoretical expectations and data, followed by a joint likelihood analysis and we find a value of ?=0.560.05, perfectly consistent with the expectations of the ?CDM model, and ?{sub m0}=0.290.01, in very good agreement with the latest Planck results. Our analysis provides significantly more stringent growth index constraints with respect to previous studies, as indicated by the fact that the corresponding uncertainty is only ?0.09?. Finally, allowing ? to vary with redshift in two manners (Taylor expansion around z=0, and Taylor expansion around the scale factor), we find that the combined statistical analysis between our clustering and literature growth data alleviates the degeneracy and obtain more stringent constraints with respect to other recent studies.

  8. Final Report- National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the key informational barriers for consumers, installers, regulators and policymakers, is the proper comparison cost of utility-supplied electricity that will be replaced with a Photovoltaic (PV) system. Oftentimes, these comparisons are made with national or statewide averages which results in inaccurate comparisons and conclusions. Illinois State University seeks to meet the need for accurate information about electricity costs and rate structure by building a national database of utility rates and rate structures. The database will build upon the excellent framework that was developed by the OpenEI.org initiative and extend it in several important ways. First, the data will be populated and monitored by a team of trained regulatory economists. Second, the database will be more comprehensive because it will be populated with data from newer competitive retail suppliers for states that have restructured their electricity markets to allow such suppliers. Third, the University and its Institute for Regulatory Policy Studies will maintain the database and ensure that it contains the most recent rate information.

  9. BPA Power Rates (pbl/main)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rates, please see the transmission rates web site. Inactive Rate Cases Integrated Business Review (IBR) Integrated Program Review (IPR) Quarterly Business Review (QBR) Content...

  10. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  11. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  12. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycled at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.

  13. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Here, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycled at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Lastly, further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.

  14. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Here, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycledmore » at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Lastly, further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.« less

  15. Variable gas leak rate valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eernisse, Errol P.; Peterson, Gary D.

    1976-01-01

    A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.

  16. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  17. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  18. Floating Rate Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Floating Rate Agreement Floating Rate Agreement Floating Rate Agreement (99.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Fixed Rate Agreement Energy Efficiency Loan Program Agreement Template Energy Efficiency Loan Program Agreement-Template

  19. Intercropping of two Leucaena spp. with sweet potato: yield, growth rate and biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Results of trials with Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena diversifolia at Wau, Papua New Guinea, showed potential benefits of the agroforestry cropping system. The total biomass yield (sweet potato plus firewood and green manure) was considerably greater than the yield per unit area of sweet potato alone. 3 references.

  20. Long-run growth rate in a random multiplicative model (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    exponent limsub n1n log(xsub n), at fixed 12 tsub nn, and show that it is given by the equation of state of the lattice gas in thermodynamical equilibrium. ...

  1. Evaluation Ratings Definitions (Excluding Utilization of Small...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Excluding Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ... Definitions (Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ...

  2. Vertical zone melt growth of GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, R.L.; Nordquist, P.E.R.; Gorman, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    A Vertical Zone Melt (VZM) technique has been applied to the single crystal growth of GaAs. A pyrolytic boron nitride crucible and a (100) oriented seed were used along with liquid encapsulation by boric oxide. In the case of GaAs, the ampoule was pressurized with either argon or argensic vapor from elemental arsenic at pressures ranging from 1 to 2 atmospheres. A molten zone length of 22 mm gave a growth interface which is nearly flat and resulted in routine single crystal growth. Temperature gradients of 4{degrees}C/cm. and 9{degrees}C/cm. have produced dislocation densities of <1000/cm{sup 2} and 2000-5000/cm{sup 2} respectively for 34 mm diameter crystals of GaAs. Post growth cooling rates for GaAs have been 35, 160 and 500{degrees}C/hr. The cooling rate has been found to affect the number and size of arsenic precipitates and the EL2 concentration in the GaAs crystal. The effects of these and other growth parameters on the crystalline perfection and electrical properties of the crystals will be discussed.

  3. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL),more » recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change

  4. Isotropic Monte Carlo Grain Growth

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-04-25

    IMCGG performs Monte Carlo simulations of normal grain growth in metals on a hexagonal grid in two dimensions with periodic boundary conditions. This may be performed with either an isotropic or a misorientation - and incliantion-dependent grain boundary energy.

  5. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, R.V.; Parida, B.K.

    1995-12-31

    Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441 having a marginally lower lithium content, compared to 80xx and 20xx series Al-Li alloys is presented in this paper. This investigation was conducted on single edge tension--SE(T)--specimens, under constant amplitude as well as under MiniLCA flight spectrum loading with the specific objective of determining the effects of stress ratio, orientation, thickness and cladding. Three thicknesses were considered: 1.2 mm(clad and unclad), 2.0 mm(clad and unclad) and 8.0 mm unclad. Constant amplitude fatigue tests were conducted at stress ratios of {minus}0.3, 0.1 and 0.7. Testing was performed under ambient conditions and along three orientations, namely L-T, T-L and L+45 degrees. Crack growth characteristics of this alloy are compared with that of BS:L73 (2014-T4 equivalent) for assessing the possibility of replacing BS:L73. Significant effect of stress ratio on crack growth rate was observed in all thicknesses. However, in case of 1.2 and 2.0 mm thick sheets, the effect was minimal at intermediate-crack growth regime. The orientation of the specimen does not adversely affect the fatigue crack growth behavior of 8.0 mm and 2.0 mm thick specimens. However, for 1.2 mm unclad sheet crack growth resistance in L-T direction was found to be superior to that along T-L direction. In majority of test cases considered, no significant effect was observed on crack growth rate due to thickness or cladding. Crack growth characteristics of Al-Li alloy 1441 and Al-Cu alloy BS:L73 under constant amplitude as well as MiniLCA spectrum loading are similar in the low and intermediate-crack growth rate regime. Based on these observations, it is felt that this Al-Li alloy has the potential for future aerospace applications.

  6. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori; Davidson, Carolyn; McLaren, Joyce; Miller, John

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  7. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  8. Experimental investigation of wood combustion in a fixed bed with hot air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovic, Miladin Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-15

    air speed, fuel moisture and inert content on the combustion characteristics (ignition rate, combustion rate, ignition front speed and temperature of the reaction zone) is evaluated. The upward combustion concept decouples the drying, devolatilization and burnout phase. In this way the moisture and inert content of the waste have almost no influence on the combustion process. In this paper an experimental comparison between conventional and reversed combustion is presented.

  9. Effect of low and high storage temperatures on head space gas concentrations and physical properties of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; C. Jim Lim; Tony Bi; Xingya Kuang; Staffan Melin

    2013-11-01

    Headspace gas concentrations and wood pellet properties were studied in sealed glass canisters at 5–40 degrees C storage temperatures. CO2 and CO concentrations at 5, 10, 20 and 40 degrees C at the end of 23–28 days of storage were 1600 and 200, 4700 and 1200, and 31 200 and 15 800 parts per million by volume (ppmv) respectively. Corresponding O2 concentration was about 19•49, 19•20, 18•0 and 2•07% respectively. Non-linear regression equations adequately described the gas concentrations in the storage container as a function of time. Safe level estimation functions developed were linear for O2 and logarithmic for CO and CO2 concentrations. Measured pellet properties moisture, length, diameter, unit, bulk and tapped density, durability, calorific value, ash content and per cent fines were in the range of 4•6–5•02%, 14–15 mm, 6•4–6•5 mm, 1125–1175 kg m-3, 750–770 kg m-3, 825–840 kg m-3, 73–74%, 18•32–18•78 MJ kg-1, 0•65–0•74% and 0•13–0•15%. Durability values of pellets decreased by 13% at 40 degrees C storage temperature and other properties changed marginally.

  10. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.V.

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  11. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode - Joint Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Research November 10, 2014, Research Highlights High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode Coulombic efficiency (CE) of Li plating/stripping is > 99.1% in concentrated LiFSI-DME electrolyte Scientific Achievement Lithium metal is an ideal battery anode. However, dendrite growth and limited CE during cycling have limited its practical applications. High CE (up to 99.1%) without dendrite growth is achieved by using highly concentrated electrolytes for lithium

  12. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right Rate?" ...

  13. Controlled VLS Growth of Indium, Gallium and Tin Oxide Nanowiresvia Chemical Vapor Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.C.; Aloni, S.; McCready, D.E.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    2006-03-13

    We utilized a vapor-liquid-solid growth technique to synthesize indium oxide, gallium oxide, and tin oxide nanowires using chemical vapor transport with gold nanoparticles as the catalyst. Using identical growth parameters we were able to synthesize single crystal nanowires typically 40-100 nm diameter and more than 10-100 microns long. The products were characterized by means of XRD, SEM and HRTEM. All the wires were grown under the same growth conditions with growth rates inversely proportional to the source metal vapor pressure. Initial experiments show that different transparent oxide nanowires can be grown simultaneously on a single substrate with potential application for multi-component gas sensors.

  14. Lid for improved dendritic web growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Charles S.; Kochka, Edgar L.; Piotrowski, Paul A.; Seidensticker, Raymond G.

    1992-03-24

    A lid for a susceptor in which a crystalline material is melted by induction heating to form a pool or melt of molten material from which a dendritic web of essentially a single crystal of the material is pulled through an elongated slot in the lid and the lid has a pair of generally round openings adjacent the ends of the slot and a groove extends between each opening and the end of the slot. The grooves extend from the outboard surface of the lid to adjacent the inboard surface providing a strip contiguous with the inboard surface of the lid to produce generally uniform radiational heat loss across the width of the dendritic web adjacent the inboard surface of the lid to reduce thermal stresses in the web and facilitate the growth of wider webs at a greater withdrawal rate.

  15. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conditioning biomass for microbial growth Title: Conditioning biomass for microbial growth You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) DOE Patents. This ...

  16. Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers with Air DC Plasma Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon ...

  17. Exploring growth kinetics of carbon nanotube arrays by in situ optical diagnostics and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Pannala, Sreekanth; Rouleau, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Simple kinetic models of carbon nanotube growth have been able to successfully link together many experimental parameters involved in the growth of carbon nanotubes for practical applications including the prediction of growth rates, terminal lengths, number of walls, activation energies, and their dependences on the growth environment. The implications of recent experiments utilizing in situ monitoring of carbon nanotube growth on our past kinetic model are first reviewed. Then, sub-second pulsed feedstock gas introduction is discussed to explore the nucleation and initial growth of carbon nanotubes in the context of the kinetic model. Moreover, kinetic effects in "pulsed CVD" - using repeated pulsed gas introduction to stop and restart nanotube growth - are explored to understand renucleation, the origin of alignment in nanotube arrays, and incremental growth. Time-resolved reflectivity of the surface is used to remotely understand the kinetics of nucleation and the coordinated growth of arrays. This approach demonstrates that continuous vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes can be grown incrementally by pulsed CVD, and that the first exposure of fresh catalyst to feedstock gas is critical to nanotubes site density required for coordinated growth. Aligned nanotube arrays (as short as 60 nm) are shown to nucleate and grow within single, sub-second gas pulses. The multiple-pulse growth experiments (> 100 pulses) show that a high fraction of nanotubes renucleate on subsequent gas pulses.

  18. Modeling carbon nanotube growth on the catalyst-substrate surface subjected to reactive plasma [

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2014-06-15

    The paper presents a theoretical model to study the growth of the carbon nanotube (CNT) on the catalyst substrate surface subjected to reactive plasma. The charging rate of the CNT, kinetics of electron, ions and neutral atoms, the growth rate of the CNT because of diffusion and accretion of ions on the catalyst nanoparticle inclusion of the issue of the plasma sheath is undertaken in the present model. Numerical calculations on the effect of ion density and temperature and the substrate bias on the growth of the CNT have been carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that the height of CNT increases with the ion density of carbon ions and radius of CNT decreases with hydrogen ion density. The substrate bias also affects the growth rate of the CNT. The field emission characteristics from the CNTs can be analyzed from the results obtained.

  19. Rating fenestration for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markway, R.

    1993-09-01

    The grading of windows and doors by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) opens a new era regarding the energy efficiency of fenestration products. For the first time, architects, designers, and other specifiers will find themselves on a level playing field when it comes to comparing the thermal performance of fenestration products. Although only one state, California, now requires the use of fenestration products that have gone through the NFRC's simulation and testing procedures, five other states will soon be doing so, including Washington, Alaska, Oregon, Idaho, and Wisconsin. Others will follow suit; Florida, Arizona, Texas, Louisiana, New York, Massachusetts, and Colorado have shown interest. Exactly what does this mean to architects The NFRC, which was established last year, has developed a procedure to determine accurately the U-value of fenestration products. Under the NFRC program a number of independent simulation and testing laboratories have been approved. These laboratories are charged with the responsibility of determining whether products conform to the U-values represented by the manufacturers. The rating procedure and benefits from it are described.

  20. Computer Simulation of Bubble Growth in Metals Due to He

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FOILES, STEPHEN M.; HOYT, JEFFREY J.

    2001-03-01

    Atomistic simulations of the growth of helium bubbles in metals are performed. The metal is represented by embedded atom method potentials for palladium. The helium bubbles are treated via an expanding repulsive spherical potential within the metal lattice. The simulations predict bubble pressures that decrease monotonically with increasing helium to metal ratios. The swelling of the material associated with the bubble growth is also computed. It is found that the rate of swelling increases with increasing helium to metal ratio consistent with experimental observations on the swelling of metal tritides. Finally, the detailed defect structure due to the bubble growth was investigated. Dislocation networks are observed to form that connect the bubbles. Unlike early model assumptions, prismatic loops between the bubbles are not retained. These predictions are compared to available experimental evidence.

  1. Growth of filaments and saturation of the filamentation instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gedalin, M.; Medvedev, M.; Spitkovsky, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Vaivads, A.; Perri, S.

    2010-03-15

    The filamentation instability of counterstreaming beams is a nonresonant hydrodynamic-type instability whose growth rate is a smooth function of the wavelength (scale). As a result, perturbations with all unstable wavelengths develop, and the growth saturates due to the saturation of available current. For a given scale, the magnetic field at saturation is proportional to the scale. As a result, the instability develops in a nearly linear regime, where the unstable modes stop growing as soon as the saturation of the corresponding wavelength is reached. At each moment there exists a dominant scale of the magnetic field which is the scale that reached saturation at this particular time. The smaller scales do not disappear and can be easily distinguished in the current structure. The overall growth of the instability stops when the loss of the streaming ion energy because of deceleration is comparable to the initial ion energy.

  2. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part I. Estimation of the rate constants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2008-12-15

    A new ironmaking concept using iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets has been proposed, which involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) and an iron bath smelter. This part of the research focuses on studying the two primary chemical kinetic steps. Efforts have been made to experimentally measure the kinetics of the carbon gasification by CO{sub 2} and wustite reduction by CO by isolating them from the influence of heat- and mass-transport steps. A combined reaction model was used to interpret the experimental data and determine the rate constants. Results showed that the reduction is likely to be influenced by the chemical kinetics of both carbon oxidation and wustite reduction at the temperatures of interest. Devolatilized wood-charcoal was observed to be a far more reactive form of carbon in comparison to coal-char. Sintering of the iron-oxide at the high temperatures of interest was found to exert a considerable influence on the reactivity of wustite by virtue of altering the internal pore surface area available for the reaction. Sintering was found to be predominant for highly porous oxides and less of an influence on the denser ores. It was found using an indirect measurement technique that the rate constants for wustite reduction were higher for the porous iron-oxide than dense hematite ore at higher temperatures (> 1423 K). Such an indirect mode of measurement was used to minimize the influence of sintering of the porous oxide at these temperatures.

  3. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2011 CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Big Rivers and Henderson, KY System: CU October 1, 2011 CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate...

  4. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: electric load data Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...

  5. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: DOE Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry DOE...

  6. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: API Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry API...

  7. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: EZFeed Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  8. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Database Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  9. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: bug Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Discussion bug...

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    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: energy efficiency Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...

  11. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: clean energy Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog...

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    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: datasets Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  13. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: FOA Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry FOA...

  14. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Illinois State University Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort...

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    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: building load Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog...

  16. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: building load data Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...

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  1. On the origin of radiation growth of hcp crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golubov, Stanislav I; Barashev, Aleksandr; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work is to study theoretically the radiation growth (RG) of hcp-type materials with a particular focus on the effect of one-dimensionally (1-D) migrating clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), which are steadily produced in displacement cascades under neutron or heavy-ion irradiation. A reaction-diffusion model is developed for the description of RG in single hcp-type metallic crystals. The model reproduces all RG stages observed in neutron-irradiated annealed samples of pure Zr and Zr alloys, such as high strain rate at low, strain saturation at intermediate and breakaway growth at relatively high irradiation doses. In addition, it accounts for the striking observations of negative strains in prismatic directions and coexistence of vacancy- and SIA-type prismatic loops. The role of cold work in RG behavior and alignment of the vacancy-type loops along basal planes are revealed and the maximum strain rate is estimated.

  2. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  3. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  4. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E.; Hively, Lee M.; Holdaway, Ray F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  5. LB CRAC Workshops (rates/meetings)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Load-Based (LB) CRAC Power Rate Adjustment Workshop Materials Related Links: Power Rate Adjustments > Load-Based (LB) CRAC December 13, 2006 LB CRAC Workshop Materials (updated...

  6. utility rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    utility Utility Companies utility rate Utility Rates version 1 version 2 version 3 web service Smart meter After several months of development and testing, the next...

  7. Residential Solar Valuation Rates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Solar Valuation Rates Residential Solar Valuation Rates This presentation summarizes the information discussed by Rabago Energy during the Best Practices in the Design ...

  8. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  9. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  10. Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Wei; Cui, Ping; Zhu, Wenguang; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Gao, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-08

    Epitaxial growth on metal substrates has been shown to be the most powerful approach in producing large-scale high-quality monolayer graphene, yet it remains a major challenge to realize uniform bilayer graphene growth. Here we carry out a comparative study of the atomistic mechanisms for bilayer graphene growth on the (111) surfaces of Cu and Ni, using multiscale approaches combining first-principles calculations and rate-equation analysis. We first show that the relatively weak graphene-Cu interaction enhances the lateral diffusion and effective nucleation of C atoms underneath the graphene island, thereby making it more feasible to grow bilayer graphene on Cu. In contrast,more » the stronger graphene-Ni interaction suppresses the lateral mobility and dimerization of C atoms underneath the graphene, making it unlikely to achieve controlled growth of bilayer graphene on Ni. We then determine the critical graphene size beyond which nucleation of the second layer will take place. Intriguingly, the critical size exhibits an effective inverse "Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier" effect, becoming smaller for faster C migration from the Cu surface to the graphene-Cu interface sites across the graphene edge. Lastly, these findings allow us to propose a novel alternating growth scheme to realize mass production of bilayer graphene.« less

  11. Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei; Cui, Ping; Zhu, Wenguang; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Gao, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-08

    Epitaxial growth on metal substrates has been shown to be the most powerful approach in producing large-scale high-quality monolayer graphene, yet it remains a major challenge to realize uniform bilayer graphene growth. Here we carry out a comparative study of the atomistic mechanisms for bilayer graphene growth on the (111) surfaces of Cu and Ni, using multiscale approaches combining first-principles calculations and rate-equation analysis. We first show that the relatively weak graphene-Cu interaction enhances the lateral diffusion and effective nucleation of C atoms underneath the graphene island, thereby making it more feasible to grow bilayer graphene on Cu. In contrast, the stronger graphene-Ni interaction suppresses the lateral mobility and dimerization of C atoms underneath the graphene, making it unlikely to achieve controlled growth of bilayer graphene on Ni. We then determine the critical graphene size beyond which nucleation of the second layer will take place. Intriguingly, the critical size exhibits an effective inverse "Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier" effect, becoming smaller for faster C migration from the Cu surface to the graphene-Cu interface sites across the graphene edge. Lastly, these findings allow us to propose a novel alternating growth scheme to realize mass production of bilayer graphene.

  12. 2015 NREL Industry Growth Forum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    During NREL’s 2015 Industry Growth Forum, 30 competitively selected clean energy startups will pitch their businesses to investors and compete to win the NREL Best Venture Award.  One of the...

  13. SBA Growth Accelerator Fund Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is accepting applications for the Growth Accelerator Fund Competition to identify the nation's innovative accelerators and similar organizations and award them cash prizes they may use to fund their operations costs and allow them to bring startup competitions to scale and new ideas to life.

  14. Direct flow crystal growth system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1992-01-01

    A crystal is grown in a constantly filtered solution which is flowed directly into the growing face of a crystal. In a continuous flow system, solution at its saturation temperature is removed from a crystal growth tank, heated above its saturation temperature, filtered, cooled back to its saturation temperature, and returned to the tank.

  15. Fixed Rate Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fixed Rate Agreement Fixed Rate Agreement Fixed Rate Agreement (110.33 KB) More Documents & Publications Floating Rate Agreement Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (August 6, 2009) Federal Loan Guarantees for Projects that Manufacture Commercial Technology Renewable Energy Systems and Components: August 10, 2010

  16. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  17. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  18. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules » Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2015 KP-AP-1-C Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American Electric Power System: Kerr-Philpott October 1, 2015 KP-AP-2-C Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American Electric Power System: Kerr-Philpott October 1, 2015 KP-AP-3-C Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American Electric Power System: Kerr-Philpott October 1, 2015 CU-CC-1-J Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Duke Energy Progress, Western

  19. Attachments Energy Ratings Council | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Attachments Energy Ratings Council Attachments Energy Ratings Council Attachments Energy Ratings Council Lead Performer: Window Covering Manufacturing Association - New York, NY DOE Funding: $1,600,000 Project Term: October 1, 2014 - September 30, 2018 Funding Opportunity Announcement: Certification and Rating Attachments for Fenestration Technologies DE-FOA-001000-1504 Project Objective This project is to develop an independent rating, certification, labeling, and performance verification

  20. Spark ignited turbulent flame kernel growth. Annual report, January--December, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santavicca, D.A.

    1994-06-01

    Cyclic combustion variations in spark-ignition engines limit the use of dilute charge strategies for achieving low NO{sub x} emissions and improved fuel economy. Results from an experimental study of the effect of incomplete fuel-air mixing (ifam) on spark-ignited flame kernel growth in turbulent propane-air mixtures are presented. The experiments were conducted in a turbulent flow system that allows for independent variation of flow parameters, ignition system parameters, and the degree of fuel-air mixing. Measurements were made at 1 atm and 300 K conditions. Five cases were studied; a premixed and four incompletely mixed cases with 6%, 13%, 24% and 33% RMS (root-mean-square) fluctuations in the fuel/air equivalence ratio. High speed laser shadowgraphy at 4,000 frames-per-second was used to record flame kernel growth following spark ignition, from which the equivalent flame kernel radius as a function of time was determined. The effect of ifam was evaluated in terms of the flame kernel growth rate, cyclic variations in the flame kernel growth, and the rate of misfire. The results show that fluctuations in local mixture strength due to ifam cause the flame kernel surface to become wrinkled and distorted; and that the amount of wrinkling increases as the degree of ifam. Ifam was also found to result in a significant increase in cyclic variations in the flame kernel growth. The average flame kernel growth rates for the premixed and the incompletely mixed cases were found to be within the experimental uncertainty except for the 33%-RMS-fluctuation case where the growth rate is significantly lower. The premixed and 6%-RMS-fluctuation cases had a 0% misfire rate. The misfire rates were 1% and 2% for the 13%-RMS-fluctuation and 24%-RMS-fluctuation cases, respectively; however, it drastically increased to 23% in the 33%-RMS-fluctuation case.