National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for growth rate wood

  1. Bubble growth rates in boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1956-01-01

    The conditions determining the growth rate of a bubble on a surface in boiling are considered and a mathematical model framed in the light of these conditions. The growth rate is then calculated for bubbles growing under ...

  2. Overview of Green Building Rating Systems and their Relationship(s) with Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Eleven rating systems were analyzed, including: BREEAM, Built Green TM , CASBEE® , Green GlobesTM , Green. The prevalence of wood in each of the rating systems varied from below 10% (SB Tool, LEED® NC US, and BREEAM Code

  3. Title: Wood decomposition rates and functional types in a shifting climate. Principal Investigator: Jonathan Schilling, University of Minnesota, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Wood decomposition rates and functional types in a shifting climate. Principal Investigator, focused on decomposition of black spruce wood, would complement the SPRUCE decomposition trial (Kolka PI and an approach that can be mirrored in a small-diameter wood decay study and can allow us to leverage sampling

  4. Eucalyptus fuelwood growth rate improves with age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eucalyptus fuelwood growth rate improves with age Dean R. Donaldson 0 Richard B. Standiford I n The two species of Eucalyptus were the fastest growing of the five tree spe- cies evaluated at Grant Street (table 1). Manna gum, Eucalyptus viminalis, al- though about a year younger, is signifi- cantly

  5. Growth Rates of Global Energy Systems and Future Outlooks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeoek, Mikael; Li, Junchen; Johansson, Kersti; Snowden, Simon

    2012-03-15

    The world is interconnected and powered by a number of global energy systems using fossil, nuclear, or renewable energy. This study reviews historical time series of energy production and growth for various energy sources. It compiles a theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding the behaviour underlying global energy systems' growth. The most extreme growth rates are found in fossil fuels. The presence of scaling behaviour, i.e. proportionality between growth rate and size, is established. The findings are used to investigate the consistency of several long-range scenarios expecting rapid growth for future energy systems. The validity of such projections is questioned, based on past experience. Finally, it is found that even if new energy systems undergo a rapid 'oil boom'-development-i.e. they mimic the most extreme historical events-their contribution to global energy supply by 2050 will be marginal.

  6. Constant Sustainable Consumption Rate in Optimal Growth with Exhaustible Resources*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Frederic Yui-Ming

    ;48 Frederic Y. M. Wan resources which are essential to the production of consumption goods. To those concernedConstant Sustainable Consumption Rate in Optimal Growth with Exhaustible Resources* By Frederic Y's criterion of maximum sustainable consumption rate, previously formulated as a minimum

  7. Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jos. B.

    primarily of greater metabolic inten- sities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient500 Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic/22/2007; Electronically Published 7/13/2007 ABSTRACT We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR

  8. Growth-rate dependent partitioning of RNA polymerases in bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Klumpp; Terence Hwa

    2008-12-11

    Physiological changes which result in changes in bacterial gene expression are often accompanied by changes in the growth rate for fast adapting enteric bacteria. Since the availability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) in cells is dependent on the growth rate, transcriptional control involves not only the regulation of promoters, but also depends on the available (or free) RNAP concentration which is difficult to quantify directly. Here we develop a simple physical model describing the partitioning of cellular RNAP into different classes: RNAPs transcribing mRNA and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), RNAPs non-specifically bound to DNA, free RNAP, and immature RNAP. Available experimental data for E. coli allow us to determine the two unknown parameters of the model and hence deduce the free RNAP concentration at different growth rates. The results allow us to predict the growth-rate dependence of the activities of constitutive (unregulated) promoters, and to disentangle the growth-rate dependent regulation of promoters (e.g., the promoters of rRNA operons) from changes in transcription due to changes in the free RNAP concentration at different growth rates. Our model can quantitatively account for the observed changes in gene expression patterns in mutant E. coli strains with altered levels of RNAP expression without invoking additional parameters. Applying our model to the case of the stringent response following amino acid starvation, we can evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of passive transcriptional control proposed to account for the observed changes in the expression of rRNA and biosynthetic operons.

  9. The growth rate of gas hydrate from refrigerant R12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendoush, Abdullah Abbas; Jassim, Najim Abid [Centre of Engineering Physics, Ministry of Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 765, Baghdad (Iraq); Joudi, Khalid A. [Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2006-07-15

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were presented dealing with three phase direct-contact heat transfer by evaporation of refrigerant drops in an immiscible liquid. Refrigerant R12 was used as the dispersed phase, while water and brine were the immiscible continuous phase. A numerical solution is presented to predict the formation rate of gas hydrates in test column. The solution provided an acceptable agreement when compared with experimental results. The gas hydrate growth rate increased with time. It increased with increasing dispersed phase flow rate. The presence of surface-active sodium chloride in water had a strong inhibiting effect on the gas hydrate formation rate. (author)

  10. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  11. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Rhiju

    Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock Enrique Rojasa,b,c , Julie A. Theriotb of pressure. Oscillatory hyper- osmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion

  12. Woods for Health Strategy Woods for Health Strategy | 32 | Woods for Health Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strategy Woods for Health #12;Woods for Health Strategy Woods for Health Strategy | 32 | Woods for Health Strategy Foreword Like the rest of the western world, Scotland experiences growing rates a key role in helping to promote better physical and mental health for all by providing greenspace

  13. Wood products What is wood?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slik, Ferry

    Products Particleboard sheets of woods consisting of small wood pieces Production - Wood chipping - Sorting Fiberboard sheets of wood produced from wood fibers (often feels a bit papery) Production - Wood chips for horizontal connections Functions - Protection (secondary compounds) - Horizontal transport - Storage The rays

  14. Building Profits and Goodwill in the Wood Product Industry with Time-Of-Use Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    .S. are searching for alternatives to building generating plants. One of the alternatives used by Carolina Power & Light Company is Time-of-Use Rates. These rates give monetary incentives to customers who change their electrical usage patterns to coincide... manufacturer with a 235-employee plywood plant located in Moncure, North Carolina. The plant receives electric ser vice from Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L), an investor-owned electric utility serving over 825,000 customers in North and South...

  15. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? – ? • ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at kmore »relation and nonlinearity are more pronounced for halos, M ? 5 x 10¹²Mh?¹, compared to the dark matter at z – 0 and 1. Nonlinear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean (???) away from the linear theory prediction –fLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k LT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less

  16. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Jennings, David [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? – ? • ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at kLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k LT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  17. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? – ? • ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at k<0.2hMpc?¹ to 25% at k ~ 0.45hMpc?¹ at z – 0. Both the stochastic relation and nonlinearity are more pronounced for halos, M ? 5 x 10¹²Mh?¹, compared to the dark matter at z – 0 and 1. Nonlinear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean (???) away from the linear theory prediction –fLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k < 0.1 hMpc?¹. The stochasticity in the ? – ? relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  18. Percolation model for growth rates of aggregates and its application for business firm growth Dongfeng Fu,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buldyrev, Sergey

    Percolation model for growth rates of aggregates and its application for business firm growth of business firm growth, we develop a dynamic percolation model which captures some of the features of the economical system--i.e., merging and splitting of business firms-- represented as aggregates on a d

  19. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-12-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  20. Long-run growth rate in a random multiplicative model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirjol, Dan [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-08-01

    We consider the long-run growth rate of the average value of a random multiplicative process x{sub i+1} = a{sub i}x{sub i} where the multipliers a{sub i}=1+?exp(?W{sub i}?1/2 ?²t{sub i}) have Markovian dependence given by the exponential of a standard Brownian motion W{sub i}. The average value (x{sub n}) is given by the grand partition function of a one-dimensional lattice gas with two-body linear attractive interactions placed in a uniform field. We study the Lyapunov exponent ?=lim{sub n??}1/n log(x{sub n}), at fixed ?=1/2 ?²t{sub n}n, and show that it is given by the equation of state of the lattice gas in thermodynamical equilibrium. The Lyapunov exponent has discontinuous partial derivatives along a curve in the (?, ?) plane ending at a critical point (?{sub C}, ?{sub C}) which is related to a phase transition in the equivalent lattice gas. Using the equivalence of the lattice gas with a bosonic system, we obtain the exact solution for the equation of state in the thermodynamical limit n ? ?.

  1. Constant Growth Rate Can Be Supported by Decreasing Energy Flux and Increasing Aerobic Glycolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slavov, Nikolai

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting ...

  2. GROWTH RATE OF THE SAND CRAB, EMERITA ANALOGA, (HIPPIDAE) IN TWO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GROWTH RATE OF THE SAND CRAB, EMERITA ANALOGA, (HIPPIDAE) IN TWO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS CRAIG of the present work. This study is an analysis of the growth rate in two nearby populations of the sand crab. tions are not considered here. The crab normally lives between high and low tide marks buried in sand

  3. The effect of density gradient on the growth rate of relativistic Weibel instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahdavi, M.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, the effect of density gradient on the Weibel instability growth rate is investigated. The density perturbations in the near corona fuel, where temperature anisotropy, ?, is larger than the critical temperature anisotropy, ?{sub c}, (??>??{sub c}), enhances the growth rate of Weibel instability due to the sidebands coupled with the electron oscillatory velocity. But for ??growth rate. Also, the growth rate can be reduced if the relativistic parameter (Lorentz factor) is sufficiently large, ??>?2. The analysis shows that relativistic effects and density gradient tend to stabilize the Weibel instability. The growth rate can be reduced by 88% by reducing ? by a factor of 100 and increasing relativistic parameter by a factor of 3.

  4. Driving Smart Growth: Electric Vehicle Adoption and OffPeak Electricity Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holsinger, Kent

    Driving Smart Growth: Electric Vehicle Adoption and OffPeak Electricity Rates Peter with either flat or variable electricity rates. Michigan's Detroit Edison Energy (DTE) early experience recharging units, free parking commensurate with lower emissions, and offpeak or flat electricity rates

  5. Field Study of Growth and Calcification Rates of Three Species of Articulated Coralline Algae in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martone, Patrick T.

    Field Study of Growth and Calcification Rates of Three Species of Articulated Coralline Algae of coralline algae. Decreases in coralline abundance may have cascading effects on marine ecosys- tems- mon species of articulated coralline algae (Bossiella plu- mosa, Calliarthron tuberculosum

  6. Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, P. Buford

    , energy sources, room for growth, and no predators, some microbial species can double in about an hourTemperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival P. Buford nutrient in ice and permafrost, with implica- tions for past or present microbial life in Martian

  7. European Panel FederationEuropean Panel Federation viewpoint on wood energy policiesviewpoint on wood energy policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    European Panel FederationEuropean Panel Federation viewpoint on wood energy policiesviewpoint on wood energy policies Eva JanssensEva Janssens (Economic Adviser)(Economic Adviser) #12;European PanelSupporting sustainable forest managementsustainable forest management ·· Continuously improving recycling rates

  8. Contributions of vital rates to growth of a protected population of American black bears

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Mike

    Contributions of vital rates to growth of a protected population of American black bears Michael S have evaluated such contributions of vital rates to l for American black bears (Ursus americanus). We sensitivity and elasticity analyses to examine the actual and potential contributions of variation of vital

  9. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER A comparison of specific growth rates of periphytic diatoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 1977; Tilman et al., 1981, 1986; van Donk & Kilham, 1990; Wood & Leatham, 1992; Descamps or contaminations with toxicants. This stud

  10. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kay, Steve A. [University of California San Diego

    2013-05-02

    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  11. Wood Curriculum vitae 1 ERIC MATTHEW WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    Wood ­ Curriculum vitae 1 ERIC MATTHEW WOOD Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Department. C. Radeloff, C. A. Lepczyk, E. M. Wood, S. I. Stewart, and R. B. Hammer. Systematic temporal

  12. FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES DURING CRACK PROPAGATION Noah Matsumoto Structural, USA * Corresponding author: John.Nairn@oregonstate.edu SWST member #12;Fracture Toughness of Wood and Wood Composites During Crack Propagation ABSTRACT The mode I fracture toughness as a function of crack

  13. Rate-dependent morphology of Li2O2 growth in Li-O2 batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horstmann, B; Mitchell, R; Bessler, W G; Shao-Horn, Y; Bazant, M Z

    2013-01-01

    Compact solid discharge products enable energy storage devices with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, but solid deposits on active surfaces can disturb charge transport and induce mechanical stress. In this Letter we develop a nanoscale continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes, based on a theory of electrochemical non-equilibrium thermodynamics originally applied to Li-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory predicts a transition from complex to uniform morphologies of Li2O2 with increasing current. Discrete particle growth at low discharge rates becomes suppressed at high rates, resulting in a film of electronically insulating Li2O2 that limits cell performance. We predict that the transition between these surface growth modes occurs at current densities close to the exchange current density of the cathode reaction, consistent with experimental observations.

  14. Implications of the recent fluctuations in the growth rate of tropospheric methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Implications of the recent fluctuations in the growth rate of tropospheric methane Isobel J] Global measurements show that the mixing ratio of tropo- spheric methane (CH4) increased by 1.1% (19 (0315, 0325) 1. Introduction [2] Methane (CH4) plays critical roles in the chemistry and radiative

  15. Effect of vitamin E and thiamin supplementation on growth rate of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swart, Jonathan Edward

    2001-01-01

    A four-month feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of added dietary vitamin E and thiamin on the growth rate, feed efficiency, and plasma vitamin E concentrations in the American alligator. Seventy-two one-week-old alligators...

  16. ON EXACT RATES OF GROWTH AND DECAY OF SOLUTIONS OF A LINEAR VOLTERRA EQUATION IN LINEAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bending quasi--statically. A su#cient condition for the trivial solution to be asymptotic stable is given is unstable, the exact rate of growth of solutions is specified. 1. Introduction In this paper we investigate. This equation is satisfied by the modes of a viscoelastic rod bending quasi--statically, as is explained

  17. Maximal Sum of Metabolic Exchange Fluxes Outperforms Biomass Yield as a Predictor of Growth Rate of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruppin, Eytan

    to CO2. CO2, the main product of cellular catabolism, was necessarily released from the cell in nearly.g., predictions of biomass yield using GEnome- scale metabolic Models (GEMs)] or notably require many empirical) in a genome-scale metabolic model. SUMEX successfully predicts relative microbial growth rates across species

  18. Rheological Model for Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Masoud Hassani; Falk K. Wittel; Stefan Hering; Hans J. Herrmann

    2014-10-15

    Wood as the most important natural and renewable building material plays an important role in the construction sector. Nevertheless, its hygroscopic character basically affects all related mechanical properties leading to degradation of material stiffness and strength over the service life. Accordingly, to attain reliable design of the timber structures, the influence of moisture evolution and the role of time- and moisture-dependent behaviors have to be taken into account. For this purpose, in the current study a 3D orthotropic elasto-plastic, visco-elastic, mechano-sorptive constitutive model for wood, with all material constants being defined as a function of moisture content, is presented. The corresponding numerical integration approach, with additive decomposition of the total strain is developed and implemented within the framework of the finite element method (FEM). Moreover to preserve a quadratic rate of asymptotic convergence the consistent tangent operator for the whole model is derived. Functionality and capability of the presented material model are evaluated by performing several numerical verification simulations of wood components under different combinations of mechanical loading and moisture variation. Additionally, the flexibility and universality of the introduced model to predict the mechanical behavior of different species are demonstrated by the analysis of a hybrid wood element. Furthermore, the proposed numerical approach is validated by comparisons of computational evaluations with experimental results.

  19. Violation of Invariance of Measurement for GDP Growth Rate and its Consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseiny, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim here is to address the origins of sustainability for the real growth rate in the United States. For over a century of observations on the real GDP per capita of the United States a sustainable two percent growth rate has been observed. To find an explanation for this observation I consider the impact of utility preferences and the effect of mobility of labor \\& capital on every provided measurement. Mobility of labor results in heterogenous rates of increase in prices which is called Baumol's cost disease phenomenon. Heterogeneous rates of inflation then make it impossible to define an invariant measure for the real growth rate. Paradoxical and ambiguous results already have been observed when different measurements provided by the World Bank have been compared with the ones from the central banks. Such ambiguity is currently being discussed in economy. I define a toy model for caring out measurements in order to state that this ambiguity can be very significant. I provide examples in which GDP ex...

  20. Contributed Paper Wood Density as a Conservation Tool: Quantification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contributed Paper Wood Density as a Conservation Tool: Quantification of Disturbance to easily identify areas of old-growth forest. The average density of the wood of a tree species is closely wood density can be used to quantify forest disturbance and conservation importance. The average

  1. STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Hubert G.

    2013-01-01

    co 2 By decomposition to (2) - 0 in H cf 0 in wood TABLE VForced Balance - Wood to Char Output - 55 lbs char lbsuc -61 STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION Hubert G. Davis

  2. Supermassive Black Hole Growth and Merger Rates from Cosmological N-body Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslav Micic; Kelly Holley-Bockelmann; Steinn Sigurdsson; Tom Abel

    2007-03-20

    Understanding how seed black holes grow into intermediate and supermassive black holes (IMBHs and SMBHs, respectively) has important implications for the duty-cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxy evolution, and gravitational wave astronomy. Most studies of the cosmological growth and merger history of black holes have used semianalytic models and have concentrated on SMBH growth in luminous galaxies. Using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations, we track the assembly of black holes over a large range of final masses -- from seed black holes to SMBHs -- over widely varying dynamical histories. We used the dynamics of dark matter halos to track the evolution of seed black holes in three different gas accretion scenarios. We have found that growth of Sagittarius A* - size SMBH reaches its maximum mass M_{SMBH}~10^6Msun at z~6 through early gaseous accretion episodes, after which it stays at near constant mass. At the same redshift, the duty-cycle of the host AGN ends, hence redshift z=6 marks the transition from an AGN to a starburst galaxy which eventually becomes the Milky Way. By tracking black hole growth as a function of time and mass, we estimate that the IMBH merger rate reaches a maximum of R_{max}=55 yr^-1 at z=11. From IMBH merger rates we calculate N_{ULX}=7 per Milky Way type galaxy per redshift in redshift range 2

  3. Computation of Growth Rates and Threshold of the Electromagnetic Electron Temperature Gradient Modes in Tokamaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varun Tangri

    2013-01-29

    In this manuscript, eigenvalues of the Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) modes and Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) modes are determined numerically using Hermite and Sinc differentiation matrices based methods. It is shown that these methods are very useful for the computation of growth rates and threshold of the ETG and ITG modes. The total number of accurately computed eigenvalues for the modes have also been computed. The ideas developed here are also of relevance to other modes that use Ballooning formalism.

  4. Computation of Growth Rates and Threshold of the Electromagnetic Electron Temperature Gradient Modes in Tokamaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tangri, Varun

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, eigenvalues of the Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) modes and Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) modes are determined numerically using Hermite and Sinc differentiation matrices based methods. It is shown that these methods are very useful for the computation of growth rates and threshold of the ETG and ITG modes. The total number of accurately computed eigenvalues for the modes have also been computed. The ideas developed here are also of relevance to other modes that use Ballooning formalism.

  5. Crack growth rates of irradiated austenitic stainless steel weld heat affected zone in BWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.

  6. Influence of finite radial geometry on the growth rate of ion-channel free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahmani, Mohammad; Hamzehpour, Hossein; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-11-15

    The influence of finite radial geometry on the instability of a tenuous relativistic electron beam propagating in an ion-channel in a waveguide is investigated. The instability analysis is based on the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the perturbation about a self-consistent beam equilibrium. With the help of characteristic method the dispersion relation for the TE-mode is derived and analyzed through the numerical solutions. It is found that the positioning of the beam radius R{sub b} relative to the waveguide radius R{sub c}, and the ion-channel frequency can have a large influence on the maximum growth rate and corresponding wave number.

  7. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  8. Environmental Dependence of Dark Matter Halo Growth I: Halo Merger Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onsi Fakhouri; Chung-Pei Ma

    2009-01-23

    In an earlier paper we quantified the mean merger rate of dark matter haloes as a function of redshift z, descendant halo mass M0, and progenitor halo mass ratio xi using the Millennium simulation of the LCDM cosmology. Here we broaden that study and investigate the dependence of the merger rate of haloes on their surrounding environment. A number of local mass overdensity variables, both including and excluding the halo mass itself, are tested as measures of a halo's environment. The simple functional dependence on z, M0, and xi of the merger rate found in our earlier work is largely preserved in different environments, but we find that the overall amplitude of the merger rate has a strong positive correlation with the environmental densities. For galaxy-mass haloes, we find mergers to occur ~2.5 times more frequently in the densest regions than in voids at both z=0 and higher redshifts. Higher-mass haloes show similar trends. We present a fitting form for this environmental dependence that is a function of both mass and local density and is valid out to z=2. The amplitude of the progenitor (or conditional) mass function shows a similarly strong correlation with local overdensity, suggesting that the extended Press-Schechter model for halo growth needs to be modified to incorporate environmental effects.

  9. The trade-off between growth rate and yield in microbial communities and the consequences for under-snow soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Steven K.

    at the ecosystem and global scales, representing about half of total CO2 flux from soils (Hanson et al. 2000 of soil microbial communities. In particular, the rate and efficiency of growth determine how much CO2 unit substrate consumed) convert a larger fraction of substrate into CO2 during growth, and so respire

  10. Effects of ion abundances on electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave growth rate in the vicinity of the plasmapause

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henning, F. D. Mace, R. L.

    2014-04-15

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in multi-ion species plasmas propagate in branches. Except for the branch corresponding to the heaviest ion species, which has only a resonance at its gyrofrequency, these branches are bounded below by a cutoff frequency and above by a resonant gyrofrequency. The condition for wave growth is determined by the thermal anisotropies of each ion species, j, which sets an upper bound, ?{sub j}{sup ?}, on the wave frequency below which that ion species contributes positively to the growth rate. It follows that the relative positions of the cutoffs and the critical frequencies ?{sub j}{sup ?} play a crucial role in determining whether a particular wave branch will be unstable. The effect of the magnetospheric ion abundances on the growth rate of each branch of the EMIC instability in a model where all the ion species have kappa velocity distributions is investigated by appealing to the above ideas. Using the variation of the cutoff frequencies predicted by cold plasma theory as a guide, optimal ion abundances that maximise the EMIC instability growth rate are sought. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of H{sup +} ions, all branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the proton branch having the maximum growth rate. When the O{sup +} ion abundance in the ring current is increased, a decrease in the growth rate of the proton branch and cyclotron damping of the helium branch are observed. The oxygen branch, on the other hand, experiences an increase in the maximum growth rate with an increase in the O{sup +} ion abundance. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of He{sup +} ions, only the helium and oxygen branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the helium branch having the maximum growth rate.

  11. Effect of flow rate of ethanol on growth dynamics of VA-SWNT -Transition from no-flow CVD to normal ACCVD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Effect of flow rate of ethanol on growth dynamics of VA-SWNT - Transition from no-flow CVD a growth model [2]. In this study, the flow rate of ethanol during the CVD was controlled precisely. Figure 1 shows the growth curve of VA-SWNT film for various ethanol flow rates. In the figure, "No

  12. Effect of mono- and dichromatic light quality on growth rates and photosynthetic performance of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Konopka, Allan; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Zhang, Shuyi; Shen, Gaozhong; Bryant, Donald A.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2014-09-19

    Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was grown to steady state in optically thin turbidostat cultures under conditions for which light quantity and quality was systematically varied by modulating the output of narrow-band LEDs. Cells were provided photons absorbed primarily by chlorophyll (680 nm) or phycocyanin (630 nm) as the organism was subjected to four distinct mono- and dichromatic regimes. During cultivation with dichromatic light, growth rates displayed by Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 were generally proportional to the total incident irradiance at values < 275 µmol photons m-2 s-1 and were not affected by the ratio of 630:680 nm wavelengths. Notably, under monochromatic light conditions, cultures exhibited similar growth rates only when they were irradiated with 630 nm light; cultures irradiated with only 680 nm light grew at rates that were 60 – 70% of those under other light quality regimes at equivalent irradiances. The functionality of photosystem II and associated processes such as maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, rate of cyclic electron flow, and rate of dark respiration generally increased as a function of growth rate. Nonetheless, some of the photophysiological parameters measured here displayed distinct patterns with respect to growth rate of cultures adapted to a single wavelength including phycobiliprotein content, which increased under severely light-limited growth conditions. Additionally, the ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I increased approximately 40% over the range of growth rates, although cells grown with 680 nm light only had the highest ratios. These results suggest the presence of effective mechanisms which allow acclimation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 acclimation to different irradiance conditions.

  13. Discriminating dark energy models by using the Statefinder hierarchy and the growth rate of matter perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Rongjia; Chen, Bohai, E-mail: litianshiiiii@163.com, E-mail: yangrj08@gmail.com, E-mail: bchenphy@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Hebei University, No. 180, Wusi East Road, Baoding, 071002 China (China)

    2014-12-01

    We apply the Statefinder hierarchy and the growth rate of matter perturbations to discriminate modified Chaplygin gas (MCG), generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG), superfluid Chaplygin gas (SCG), purely kinetic k-essence (PKK), and ?CDM model. We plot the evolutional trajectories of these models in the Statefinder plane and in the composite diagnostic plane. We find that GCG, MCG, SCG, PKK, and ?CDM can be distinguished well from each other at the present epoch by using the composite diagnostic (?(z), S{sup (1)}{sub 5}). Using other combinations, such as (S{sup (1)}{sub 3}, S{sup (1)}{sub 4}), (S{sup (1)}{sub 3}, S{sub 5}), (?(z), S{sup (1)}{sub 3}), and (?(z), S{sub 4}), some of these five dark energy models cannot be distinguished.

  14. WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION V #12;#12;443USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Section Overview Wood Products and Utilization1 John R. Shelly2 Forests are obviously a very important asset to California, and their economic and social value to the state is well documented. Wood

  15. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and PACI Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  16. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - 392K) Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  17. 20 Engineered Wood Journal Spring 2004 re wood design course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    20 Engineered Wood Journal · Spring 2004 A re wood design course offerings in civil, architectural, just maintaining the status quo could spell trouble for a wood products industry facing ever-greater competition from non-wood building materials. University education about wood as an engineering material

  18. Quantitative determination of proximal radial and ulnar growth rates in foals using orthopedic markers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barbara Lynn

    1988-01-01

    and ulna. Horse 6 both limbs 29 10 Cumulative growth of proximal radius and ulna. All horses all limbs 31 FIGURE page Cumulative growth of proximal radius and ulna. All horses left limbs 34 12 Cumulative growth of proximal radius and ulna. All horses... 27 Cumulati ve growth of radius and ulna at epiphyseal and meta- physeal levels. All horses left limbs 70 28 Cumulative growth between radius and ulna at epiphyseal and meta- physeal levels. All horses right limbs 72 29 Immediate postop...

  19. Global relationship of wood and leaf litter decomposability: the role of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    META ANALYSIS Global relationship of wood and leaf litter decomposability: the role of functional and their phylogenetic history influence decay rates of dead wood and leaf litter, but it remains unknown if decay rates of wood and litter covary over a wide range of tree species and across ecosystems. We evaluated

  20. Wood Resources International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Wood Resources International Production of energy from wood fuels in 2000 Source: EUBIONET 0 50 100 150.3% Sweden 5.3% Finland 4.1% Russia 13.8% US 37.3% Germany 3.3% France 2.8% Poland 2.1% Other Europe 14 #12;Wood Resources International Global Industrial Roundwood Production in 2002 Other Europe 6.9% CIS

  1. Isolation and cultivation of microalgae select for low growth rate and tolerance to high pH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isolation and cultivation of microalgae select for low growth rate and tolerance to high pH Terje microalgae, especially oceanic forms from stable pH environments (ca. pH 8.1 Æ 0.5) and large species et al., 2007). Because microalgae have species-specific differences in their upper pH tolerance

  2. Kinetic model of IIVI(001) semiconductor surfaces: Growth rates in atomic layer epitaxy T. Volkmann, M. Ahr, and M. Biehl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biehl, Michael

    be found in, e.g., Refs. 1--4. II­VI semiconductors, as a promising class of materials, have been vacuum. Specific properties of the material system and the attractive clarity of the ALE technique allowKinetic model of II­VI(001) semiconductor surfaces: Growth rates in atomic layer epitaxy T

  3. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Model for Metallic Alloys R. C. Dimitriu and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    ] expressed the crack growth rate in terms of the elastic modulus, toughness, and ductility: da dN = 32 1 2 1 2 f E(KIc - Kmax) 1 - K KIc 1 K 2 (3) where and are the fatigue ductility exponent and coefficient respectively, E is the elastic modulus, KIc is the critical stress intensity for fracture

  4. caused by the wood-rotting basidiomycete fungus Heterobasidion annosum. This pathogen gains entry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    caused by the wood-rotting basidiomycete fungus Heterobasidion annosum. This pathogen gains entry viability and discourages germination while preventing the growth of other microorganisms. The concentrated

  5. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Washoe Project, Stampede Division FERC Order Approving Extension of Non-Firm Power Formula Rate - Rate Order No. WAPA-160 (Sept. 5, 2013) (PDF - 22K) Notice of Extension of...

  6. HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, Jim

    2012-01-01

    LBL-10090 UC-61 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING JimLBL-10090 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING Jim Wrathallconversion of hydrolyzed wood slurry to fuel oil, Based on

  7. Wood energy system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook, Wood Energy System Design, was prepared with the support of the Council of Great Lakes Governors and the US Department of Energy. It contains: wood fuel properties; procurement; receiving, handling, and storage; combustion; gasification; emission control; electric power generation and cogeneration; and case studies. (JF)

  8. Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tachikawa, T; Minohara, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hikita, Y.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-06-21

    We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO{sub 2} samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

  9. The effect of water content, cooling rate, and growth temperature on the freezing temperature of 4 Tillandsia species 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagar, Christopher Flint

    1990-01-01

    the exotherm initiation temperatures (EIT) of leaf sections. The effect of 2 growth temperatures (5 and 25oC) on the absolute water content and EIT of T. recurvata and T. usneoides was also determined. All p * * pt T. mb'1 ', f o t ld temperatures at 80... minimum winter temperatures of their different northern boundaries. Cooling rate affected the EIT of T. recurvata and T. d* b t t T. b~l' T. o tll . L f t of the former 2 species froze at colder temperatures when cooled at a rate of 25oC per hour than...

  10. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  11. Wood pelletization sourcebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.; Whittier, J. [NEOS Corporation, Lakewood, CO (United States); Fisher, J. [Pellet Fuels Institute, Edina, MN (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The Wood Pelletization Sourcebook is a document that provides business guidelines and technical information to those considering entering the wood pelleting business. Also, the sourcebook is a useful supplementary document for lenders to refer to in their analysis of a potential manufacturer`s business plan. A survey of wood pellet manufacturers was conducted during the spring and summer of 1994 to gather information on marketing, pelletization technology, environmental regulations, raw material supply and costs, production costs, and the overall outlook of the industry. The study characterizes different sized pelleting operations, creates a sample business plan for potential manufacturers, and identifies key industry success factors.

  12. Creating Value Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Creating Value for the Wood Products Industry Creating Value for the Wood Products Industry for the Wood Products Industry The forest industry contributes more than 50 percent of the total value of all assistance to the primary and value-added processing wood products industries in Louisiana. Since its

  13. WOOD ANATOMY INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cufar, Katarina

    WOOD ANATOMY INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY WORK KATARINA CUFAR, MARTIN ZUPANCIC University of Ljubljana Biotechnical Faculty Department of Wood Science and Technology #12;Publisher Department of Wood The publishing of "Wood Anatomy - Instructions for Laboratory Work", a textbook by Katarina Cufar and Martin

  14. William B. Wood Complete Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Norman

    3/24/14 William B. Wood Complete Publications Scientific Research: 1. Wood, W. B., and Berg, P protein-ribosome system from Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 48: 94-104. 2. Wood, W. B Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 23: 237-246. 3. Wood, W. B., and Berg, P. (1964) Influence of DNA secondary

  15. Generating power with waste wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkins, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

  16. Reduced methane growth rate explained by decreased Northern Hemisphere microbial sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai, FM; Kai, FM; Tyler, SC; Tyler, SC; Randerson, JT; Blake, DR

    2011-01-01

    rate of the atmospheric methane burden. Nature 393, 447–of global tropospheric methane. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33,M. J. in Atmospheric Methane: its Role in the Global

  17. The relationship between wood density and mortality in a global tropical forest data set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Nathan

    The relationship between wood density and mortality in a global tropical forest data set Nathan J-offs, long-term ecological research, phylogenetic independent contrasts, trait conservatism. Summary · Wood in mortality rates with wood density, drawing on data for 765 500 trees from 1639 species at 10 sites located

  18. On the scalability of BGP: the roles of topology growth and update rate-limiting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dovrolis, Constantinos

    objective is to characterize the churn increase experienced by ASes in different levels of the Internet to faster churn increase, and emphasize the importance of not rate-limiting explicit withdrawals (despite, and increasing rate of BGP up- dates (churn). Note that, in general, an increase in the routing table size

  19. Dynamic estimation of specific growth rates and concentrations of bacteria for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -digestion of several wastes (manure, sewage sludge and wastes from food processing industry) is another environmentally ­ the dilution rate and the flow rates of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas. The estimation schemes thus. Keywords: Waste treatment, Biotechnology, Observer, Estimation theory, Algebraic systems theory 1

  20. Dynamic estimation of specific growth rates and concentrations of bacteria for the anaerobic digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    measured quantities ­ the dilution rate and the flow rates of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas by microorganisms into biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) and digestate (natural manure) in the absence of oxygen [1, 2, 6]. The biogas is an additional energy source and the methane is a greenhouse gas

  1. Determination of redox reaction rates and orders by in situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-11-19

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. In addition, by comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  2. Determination of redox reaction rates and orders by in situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-11-19

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pdmore »deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. In addition, by comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.« less

  3. James F. Wood

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's...

  4. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  5. The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negres, R A; Norton, M A; Liao, Z M; Cross, D A; Bude, J D; Carr, C W

    2009-10-29

    Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. In this study, we focus on the effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant dependence of growth rate at 351 nm on pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns as {tau}{sup 0.3} for sites in the 50-100 {micro}m size range.

  6. The effect of substrate temperature and growth rate on the doping efficiency of single crystal boron doped diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demlow, SN; Rechenberg, R; Grotjohn, T

    2014-10-01

    The substrate growth temperature dependence of the plasma gas-phase to solid-phase doping efficiency in single crystal, boron doped diamond (BDD) deposition is investigated. Single crystal diamond (SCD) is grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD) on high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) type Ib substrates. Samples are grown at substrate temperatures of 850-950 degrees C for each of five doping concentration levels, to determine the effect of the growth temperature on the doping efficiency and defect morphology. The substrate temperature during growth is shown to have a significant effect on the grown sample defect morphology, and a temperature dependence of the doping efficiency is also shown. The effect of the growth rate on the doping efficiency is discussed, and the ratio of the boron concentration in the gas phase to the flux of carbon incorporated into the solid diamond phase is shown to be a more predictive measure of the resulting boron concentration than the gas phase boron to carbon ratio that is more commonly reported. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anderson transition at 2 dimensional growth rate on antitrees and spectral theory for operators with one propagating channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Sadel

    2015-06-15

    We show that the Anderson model has a transition from localization to delocalization at exactly 2 dimensional growth rate on antitrees with normalized edge weights which are certain discrete graphs. The kinetic part has a one-dimensional structure allowing a description through transfer matrices which involve some Schur complement. For such operators we introduce the notion of having one propagating channel and extend theorems from the theory of one-dimensional Jacobi operators that relate the behavior of transfer matrices with the spectrum. These theorems are then applied to the considered model. In essence, in a certain energy region the kinetic part averages the random potentials along shells and the transfer matrices behave similar as for a one-dimensional operator with random potential of decaying variance. At $d$ dimensional growth for $d>2$ this effective decay is strong enough to obtain absolutely continuous spectrum, whereas for some uniform $d$ dimensional growth with $denergy region. At exactly uniform $2$ dimensional growth also some singular continuous spectrum appears, at least at small disorder. As a corollary we also obtain a change from singular spectrum ($d\\leq 2$) to absolutely continuous spectrum ($d\\geq 3)$ for random operators of the type $\\mathcal{P}_r \\Delta_d \\mathcal{P}_r+\\lambda \\mathcal{V}$ on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$, where $\\mathcal{P}_r$ is an orthogonal radial projection, $\\Delta_d$ the discrete adjacency operator (Laplacian) on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$ and $\\lambda \\mathcal{V}$ a random potential.

  8. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  9. The effect of threadfin shad introduction on growth rates of largemouth bass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivings, Albert Eugene

    1976-01-01

    . Nat. Hist. Surv. 24(3):377-412. Carlander, K. D. 1956. Fish growth studies: techniques and roles in surveys and management. Trans . N . Am . Wi ldl . Conf . 21: 262-274. 1973. Handbook of freshwater fishery biology, Yol. 2, tecgemo th h ss, ~Mic o... of fishery science. Cornell Univ. Press. Ithaca. 288 pp. Grizzell, R. A. , Jr. 1965. Diuron as an aquatic herbicide. Proc. Annu . Conf . Southeastern Assoc . Game and Fish Comm . 19: 194-197 . Neman, N. L. , R. S. Campbell, and L. C. Redmond. 1969...

  10. Effects of pre-feedlot growth rate on carcass composition and meat tenderness 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brigman, Ivan Todd

    2001-01-01

    within breed type and sex to low (3.7 hd/ha), medium (5.1 hd/ha) or high (6.8 hd/ha) stocking rate (SR) pastures. Calves were fed a high-grain diet in a commercial feedlot to an approximate carcass weight of 361 kg. Carcass characteristics were measured...

  11. In situ x-ray scattering study on the evolution of Ge island morphology and relaxation for low growth rate: Advanced transition to superdomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, M.-I. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee/SP2M/NRS, CEA Grenoble, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); ID01/ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Schuelli, T. U.; Renaud, G. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee/SP2M/NRS, CEA Grenoble, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Wintersberger, E.; Chen, G.; Bauer, G. [Institut fuer Halbleiter- und Festkrperphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, 4040 Linz (Austria); Holy, V. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-15

    The kinetics of the growth of Ge superdomes and their facets on Si(001) surfaces are analyzed as a function of deposited Ge thickness for different growth temperatures and at a low growth rate by in situ grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering in combination with in situ grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. At a low growth rate, intermixing is found to be enhanced and superdomes are formed already at lower coverages than previously reported. In addition, we observe that at the dome-to-superdome transition, a large amount of material is transferred into dislocated islands, either by dome coalescence or by anomalous coarsening. Once dislocated islands are formed, island coalescence is a rare event and introduction of dislocations is preferred. The superdome growth is thus stabilized by the insertion of dislocations during growth.

  12. The Pitfalls of Realist Analysis of Global Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood’s Empire of Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood's "Empire of Capital"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, William I.

    2007-01-01

    Boulder: Paradigm Press. Wood, Ellen Meiksins 2002, ‘Globalgroups. 13 Indeed, Wood 2003, p. 23. Wood 2003, p. 132.Ibid. Wood 2003, p. 129. Wood 2003, p. 133. Wood 2003, p.

  13. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  14. A physiological and morphological analysis of the effects of nitrogen supply on the relative growth rates of nine loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) clones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, Corey Michael

    2006-08-16

    The influence of nitrogen supply on relationships of relative growth rate (RGR) to leaf physiology, structural and non-structural carbon partitioning, and nitrogen- and water-use efficiencies were examined in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) clonal...

  15. Rate-Dependent Morphology of Li2O2 Growth in Li-O2 Batteries Birger Horstmann,1, 2, 3, 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Rate-Dependent Morphology of Li2O2 Growth in Li-O2 Batteries Birger Horstmann,1, 2, 3, 4 Betar continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory

  16. Avalanches in wood compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tero Mäkinen; Amandine Miksic; Markus Ovaska; Mikko J. Alava

    2015-06-15

    Wood is a multi-scale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power-laws. The stress- strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using Digital Image Correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  17. Fertility and rate of growth in a beef cattle herd in the 0rient of Venezuela 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Crespo, Justo Nicolas

    1978-01-01

    status upon pregnancy rate in Venezuela. They calculated adjusted means of lactating and nonlactating cows to be 54. 3~~ and 89. 2~ respect. ively. Such results have been re- ported by . , everal authors in Bolivia (Plasse et aL. , 1975 and Bauer et a... and Huertas, 1974, in Colombia and Bauer, 1973, in Bolivia). Thc negative effect of lactation upon ferti. lity seems to be related to the plane of nutrition (IViltbank et al. , 1961, 1964; Villar et al, 1975; Stonaker et al, 1975 and Bazan et al. , 1975...

  18. Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award Call for Nominations We are delighted to announce the Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award for an Outstanding Women's, Gender, and Sexualities (WGSS Wood, a feminist mother, wife, friend, daughter, and lawyer who is remembered by her loved ones

  19. Management of ancient wood pasture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidance Management of ancient wood pasture Summary Ancient wood pasture is recognised. This guidance note provides an introduction to the restoration and management of ancient wood pastures in Scotland. It is aimed at land managers, their advisers and agency staff involved in land management

  20. Exploring a new interaction between dark matter and dark energy using the growth rate of structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richarte, Martín G

    2015-01-01

    We present a phenomenological interaction with a scale factor power law form which leads to the appearance of two kinds of perturbed terms, a scale factor spatial variation along with perturbed Hubble expansion rate. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution within the parametrized post-Friedmann scheme, obtaining that the exchange of energy-momentum can flow from dark energy to dark matter in order to keep dark energy and dark matter densities well defined at all times. We combine several measures of the cosmic microwave background (WMAP9+Planck) data, baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, redshift-space distortion data, JLA sample of supernovae, and Hubble constant for constraining the coupling constant and the exponent provided both parametrized the interaction itself. The joint analysis of ${\\rm Planck+WMAP9+BAO}$ ${\\rm +RSD+JLA+HST}$ data seems to favor large coupling constant, $\\xi_c = 0.34403427_{- 0.18907353}^{+ 0.14430125}$ at 1 $\\sigma$ level, and prefers a power law interactio...

  1. Exploring a new interaction between dark matter and dark energy using the growth rate of structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martín G. Richarte; Lixin Xu

    2015-06-08

    We present a phenomenological interaction with a scale factor power law form which leads to the appearance of two kinds of perturbed terms, a scale factor spatial variation along with perturbed Hubble expansion rate. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution within the parametrized post-Friedmann scheme, obtaining that the exchange of energy-momentum can flow from dark energy to dark matter in order to keep dark energy and dark matter densities well defined at all times. We combine several measures of the cosmic microwave background (WMAP9+Planck) data, baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, redshift-space distortion data, JLA sample of supernovae, and Hubble constant for constraining the coupling constant and the exponent provided both parametrized the interaction itself. The joint analysis of ${\\rm Planck+WMAP9+BAO}$ ${\\rm +RSD+JLA+HST}$ data seems to favor large coupling constant, $\\xi_c = 0.34403427_{- 0.18907353}^{+ 0.14430125}$ at 1 $\\sigma$ level, and prefers a power law interaction with a negative exponent, thus $\\beta= -0.50863232_{- 0.40923857}^{+ 0.48424166}$ at 1 $\\sigma$ level. The CMB temperature power spectrum indicates that a large coupling constant produces a shift of the acoustic peaks and affects their amplitudes at lower multipoles. In addition, a larger $\\beta$ exponent generates a shift of the acoustic peaks, pointing a clear deviation with respect to the concordance model. The matter power spectrum are sensitive to the variation of the coupling constant and the $\\beta$ exponent. In this context, the interaction alters the scale of matter and radiation equality and pushes it away from the present era, which in turn generates a shift of the turnover point toward to smaller scale.

  2. Spectroscopic analysis of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} microwave plasma and fast growth rate of diamond single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derkaoui, N.; Rond, C. Hassouni, K.; Gicquel, A.

    2014-06-21

    One of the best ways to increase the diamond growth rate is to couple high microwave power to the plasma. Indeed, increasing the power density leads to increase gas temperature the atomic hydrogen density in the plasma bulk, and to produce more hydrogen and methyl at the diamond surface. Experimental and numerical approaches were used to study the microwave plasma under high power densities conditions. Gas temperature was measured by optical emission spectroscopy and H-atom density using actinometry. CH{sub 3}-radical density was obtained using a 1D model that describes temperatures and plasma composition from the substrate to the top of the reactor. The results show that gas temperature in the plasma bulk, atomic hydrogen, and methyl densities at the diamond surface highly increase with the power density. As a consequence, measurements have shown that diamond growth rate also increases. At very high power density, we measured a growth rate of 40??m/h with an H-atom density of 5 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup ?3} which corresponds to a H{sub 2} dissociation rate higher than 50%. Finally, we have shown that the growth rate can be framed between a lower and an upper limit as a function depending only on the maximum of H-atom density measured or calculated in the plasma bulk. The results also demonstrated that increasing fresh CH{sub 4} by an appropriate injection into the boundary layer is a potential way to increase the diamond growth rates.

  3. Exact analytical solution of the linear structure growth rate in {Lambda}CDM cosmology and its cosmological applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Pengjie [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai, China, 200030 (China)

    2011-03-15

    We derive the exact analytical solution of the linear structure growth rate in {Lambda}CDM cosmology with flat or curved geometry, under the Newtonian gauge. Unlike the well known solution under the Newtonian limit [D. J. Heath, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 179, 351 (1977)], our solution takes all general relativistic corrections into account and is hence valid at both the sub- and superhorizon scales. With this exact solution, we evaluate cosmological impacts induced by these relativistic corrections. (1) General relativistic corrections alter the density growth from z=100 to z=0 by 10% at k=0.01 h/Mpc and the impact becomes stronger toward larger scales. We caution the readers that the overdensity is not gauge invariant and the above statement is restrained to the Newtonian gauge. (2) Relativistic corrections introduce a k{sup -2} scale dependence in the density fluctuation. It mimics a primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type with f{sub NL}{sup local{approx}}1. This systematical error may become non-negligible for future all sky deep galaxy surveys. (3) Cosmological simulations with box size greater than 1 Gpc are also affected by these relativistic corrections. We provide a postprocessing recipe to correct for these effects. (4) These relativistic corrections affect the redshift distortion. However, at redshifts and scales relevant to redshift distortion measurements, such effect is negligible.

  4. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An alternative approach to accelerated PF curing can be accomplished with the addition amines or amides. The later functionality undergoes base catalyzed hydrolysis yielding the corresponding carboxyl ate and free amine which rapidly reacts with the phenolic methylol groups facilitating polymerization and curing of the PF resin (Pizzi, 1997).

  5. Material Point Method Simulations of Transverse Fracture in Wood with Realistic Morphologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    Material Point Method Simulations of Transverse Fracture in Wood with Realistic Morphologies By J Material point method Numerical modeling RT fracture TR fracture; Transverse fracture Summary A new used to simulate transverse fracture in solid wood. The simulations were run on the scale of growth

  6. Improved Performance of GaInNAs Solar Cells Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy Using Increased Growth Rate Instead of Surfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Jiang, C. S.; Romero, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    GaInNAs is potentially useful for increasing the conversion efficiency of multijunction solar cells if low photocurrents and photovoltages can be increased. Wide-depletion width devices generate significant photocurrents using an n-i-p structure grown by molecular-beam epitaxy, but these wide depletion widths are only realized in a region of parameter space that leads to rough surface morphologies. Surfactants are effective at reducing the surface roughness, but lead to increased defect densities and changes in the net acceptor or donor concentration. Here, we show that increasing the growth rate of GaInNAs solar cells leads to smooth surfaces without the use of a surfactant, even at high In compositions and substrate temperatures. No degradation in material quality is observed when increasing the growth rate from 1.5 to 3.0 {micro}m/h, but a shunt resistance does appear for the high-growth-rate samples. This shunt is attributed to increased spitting of the Ga cell, leading to an increase in the oval defect density, at the higher effusion cell temperatures used to achieve high growth rates. As with the case of Bi in GaInNAs, increased growth rates also appear to increase the net donor concentration, but it is not clear if these effects have the same cause.

  7. Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    German, Donovan P.

    2009-01-01

    the cellulolytic system of the wood-boring marine mollusk2008), how diVerent are the wood-eating catWshes from otherendosymbionts and digest wood, or are these wood- eating

  8. Simulating Dead Wood in the Coast Range of Oregon Rebecca S.H. Kennedy1,2 and Keith A. Olsen3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simulating Dead Wood in the Coast Range of Oregon Rebecca S.H. Kennedy1,2 and Keith A. Olsen3 1-Growth; for descriptions see Ohmann and Gregory 2002) for the range of current dead wood amounts and potential management-group selection during model runs by matching total dead wood volume and snag volume criteria for each level we

  9. SOME POV-RAY TEXTURES AND COLORS T_Wood1 to T_Wood35

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Carl

    SOME POV-RAY TEXTURES AND COLORS WOODS.INC T_Wood1 to T_Wood35 STONES.INC T_Stone1 to T_Stone44Pink DarkPurple NeonBlue CoolCopper MandarinOrange LightWood MediumWood DarkWood SpicyPink Semi

  10. Growth rate of the tidal p-mode g-mode instability in coalescing binary neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinberg, Nevin N

    2015-01-01

    We recently described an instability due to the nonlinear coupling of p-modes to g-modes and, as an application, we studied the stability of the tide in coalescing binary neutron stars. Although we found that the tide is p-g unstable early in the inspiral and rapidly drives modes to large energies, our analysis only accounted for three-mode interactions. Venumadhav, Zimmerman, and Hirata showed that four-mode interactions must also be accounted for as they enter into the analysis at the same order. They found a near-exact cancellation between three- and four-mode interactions and concluded that while the tide in binary neutron stars can be p-g unstable, the growth rates are not fast enough to impact the gravitational wave signal. Their analysis assumes that the linear tide is incompressible, which is true of the static linear tide (the m=0 harmonic) but not the non-static linear tide (m=+/- 2). Here we account for the compressibility of the non-static linear tide and find that the three- and four-mode interac...

  11. Causes and Control of Wood Decay,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Causes and Control of Wood Decay, Degradation & Stain #12;2 Contents Moisture .................................................................................3 Wood Degradation: Causes and Control..............................4 Weathering......................................................................................................4 Naturally Decay-resistant Species...........................................................5 Wood

  12. Robert Wood, University of Washington many contributors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    Robert Wood, University of Washington many contributors VOCALS Education and Outreach Snider (Wyoming) · Dave Spencer (NCSU) · Cindy Twohy (OSU) · Rob Wood/Chris Bretherton/Rhea George

  13. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Asian Wood Pellet Markets Joseph A. Roos and Allen M. Brackley United States Department Wood Pellet plant in North Pole, Alaska. Clockwise from upper left: pelleting machine; pellets bagged for home use; a Superior Pellet Fuels bag; inventory of product ready for shipment to retailers. Upper

  14. Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood 6495_C000.fm Page iii Wednesday, February 1, 2006 5:48 PM #12 through the Florida Center for Environmental Solutions, National Science Foundation Grant No. 0126172. Any of treated-wood research and their efforts in organizing the con- ference entitled Environmental Impacts

  15. Spectra and Growth Rates of Fluctuating Magnetic Fields in the Kinematic Dynamo Theory with Large Magnetic Prandtl Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Schekochihin; Stanislav Boldyrev; Russell Kulsrud

    2002-03-05

    The existence of a weak galactic magnetic field has been repeatedly confirmed by observational data. The origin of this field has not as yet been explained in a fully satisfactory way and represents one of the main challenges of the astrophysical dynamo theory. In both the galactic dynamo theory and the primordial-origin theory, a major influence is exerted by the small-scale magnetic fluctuations. This article is devoted to constructing a systematic second-order statistical theory of such small-scale fields. The statistics of these fields are studied in the kinematic approximation and for the case of large Prandtl numbers, which is relevant for the galactic and protogalactic plasma. The advecting velocity field is assumed to be Gaussian and short-time correlated. Theoretical understanding of this kinematic dynamo model is a necessary prerequisite for any prospective nonlinear dynamo theory. The theory is developed for an arbitrary degree of compressibility and formally in d dimensions, which generalizes the previously known results, elicits the structure of the solutions, and uncovers a number of new effects. The magnetic energy spectra are studied as they grow and spread over scales during the initial stage of the field amplification. Exact Green's-function solutions are obtained. The spectral theory is supplemented by the study of magnetic-field correlation functions in the configuration space, where the dynamo problem can be mapped onto a particular one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problem. The latter approach is most suitable for the description of the kinematic dynamo in the long-time limit, i.e. when the magnetic excitation has spread over all scales present in the system. A simple way of calculating the growth rates of the magnetic fields in this long-time limit is proposed.

  16. A cosmological exclusion plot: Towards model-independent constraints on modified gravity from current and future growth rate data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Taddei; Luca Amendola

    2014-08-15

    Most cosmological constraints on modified gravity are obtained assuming that the cosmic evolution was standard $\\Lambda$CDM in the past and that the present matter density and power spectrum normalization are the same as in a $\\Lambda$CDM model. Here we examine how the constraints change when these assumptions are lifted. We focus in particular on the parameter $Y$ (also called $G_{\\mathrm{eff}}$) that quantifies the deviation from the Poisson equation. This parameter can be estimated by comparing with the model-independent growth rate quantity $f\\sigma_{8}(z)$ obtained through redshift distortions. We reduce the model dependency in evaluating $Y$ by marginalizing over $\\sigma_{8}$ and over the initial conditions, and by absorbing the degenerate parameter $\\Omega_{m,0}$ into $Y$. We use all currently available values of $f\\sigma_{8}(z)$. We find that the combination $\\hat{Y}=Y\\Omega_{m,0}$, assumed constant in the observed redshift range, can be constrained only very weakly by current data, $\\hat{Y}=0.28_{-0.23}^{+0.35}$ at 68\\% c.l. We also forecast the precision of a future estimation of $\\hat{Y}$ in a Euclid-like redshift survey. We find that the future constraints will reduce substantially the uncertainty, $\\hat{Y}=0.30_{-0.09}^{+0.08}$ , at 68\\% c.l., but the relative error on $\\hat{Y}$ around the fiducial remains quite high, of the order of 30\\%. The main reason for these weak constraints is that $\\hat{Y}$ is strongly degenerate with the initial conditions, so that large or small values of $\\hat{Y}$ are compensated by choosing non-standard initial values of the derivative of the matter density contrast. Finally, we produce a forecast of a cosmological exclusion plot on the Yukawa strength and range parameters, which complements similar plots on laboratory scales but explores scales and epochs reachable only with large-scale galaxy surveys. (abridged)

  17. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. Proactive climate protection Building with wood =

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    = CO2 Proactive climate protection Building with wood = CO 2 #12;Introduction Forests play to produce wood products is vastly lower than other materials. Proactive climate protectionBuilding with wood = Proactive climate protectionBuilding with wood = CO 2 products, carbon storage p. 3 Forests = Natural

  19. Wood River Levee Reconstruction, Madison County, IL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Wood River Levee Reconstruction, Madison County, IL 25 October 2006 Abstract: The recommended plan provides for flood damage reduction and restores the original degree of protection of the Wood River Levee-federal sponsor is the Wood River Drainage and Levee District. The Wood River Levee System was authorized

  20. MARCY B. WOOD Curriculum Vitae, October 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lega, Joceline

    MARCY B. WOOD Curriculum Vitae, October 2012 University of Arizona, College of Education Department 2005 #12;Marcy B. Wood October 2012 Page 2 PUBLICATIONS REFEREED JOURNAL ARTICLES Wood, M. B., Olson, A-Oriented Perspective from Elementary Children. School Science and Mathematics. Good, T. L., Wood, M. B., Sabers, D

  1. FAO Forestry Department Wood Energy WISDOM Slovenia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in developing pellet production and district heating systems; the formulation of a national wood energy strategy

  2. The Woods Hole Laboratory, 1885-1985

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Woods Hole Laboratory, 1885-1985: A Century of Service Woods Hole Laboratory Northeast, Lectures, and Rededication of the Woods Hole Laboratory Contents Foreword and Acknowledgments Committees and Contributions of the Woods Hole Fisheries Laboratory Centennial Lecture II: The MBL and the Fisheries-A Century

  3. Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East Production of wood fuels in Estonia in 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia Wood pellets production

  4. Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update -a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update - a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC to be the major destination for Latin American wood chips, reports the Wood Resource Quarterly In late 2011 wood chips from only three countries: Vietnam, Indonesia and Australia, who together shipped 1

  5. Achieving high mobility ZnO:Al at very high growth rates by dc filtered cathodic arc deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendelsberg, Rueben

    2013-01-01

    scale heating in cathodic arc plasma deposition. Appl. Phys.modest 25-70 A dc. The arc plasma was ?ltered using aenergy of the cathodic arc plasma is utilized for ?lm growth

  6. The conservation of waterlogged wood using sucrose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrent, James Michael

    1983-01-01

    wood. This thesis investigates the use of sucrose and how it reacts with wood's ultrastucture to prevent shrinkage and warpage of waterlogged wood. Experiments using archaeological wood from the sunken city of seventeenth century Port Royal... expensive, non-toxic, non-flammable, non-hygroscopic and is readily available in most countries. Utilization of sugar to stabilize wood is not a new concept. A United States patent, No. 755, 240, was issued 32 to William Powell of Liverpool, England...

  7. Integrated Industrial Wood Chip Utilization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, E. T.

    1984-01-01

    The sources of supply of wood residues for energy generation are described and the rationale for exploring the potential available from forest harvesting is developed. Details of three industrial-scale projects are presented and the specific...

  8. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  9. Crack Propagation Fracture Toughness of Several Wood Species Elijah Wilson, Meisam Shir Mohammadi, and John A. Nairn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    1 Crack Propagation Fracture Toughness of Several Wood Species Elijah Wilson, Meisam Shir Mohammadi In materials with process zones, such as fiber bridging zones in wood, it is crucial to characterize fracture toughness as a function of crack growth, known as the material's R curve. Here, a new fracture testing

  10. DEMONSTRATING SLOW GROWTH RATES IN OPAL FROM Y.M.,NV, USING MICRODIGESTION AND ION-PROBE URANIUM-SERIES DATING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. PACES; L. NEYMARK; H. PERSING; J. WOODEN

    2000-07-25

    Thinly laminated (<0.01 mm) opal sheets and globules associated with calcite in fractures and cavities in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have U concentrations of 50 to 300 ppm. Previous uranium-series thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) analyses of 0.2- to 1-mm-thick subsamples resulted in a model of slow mineral growth at rates of 0.5 to 5 mm/m.y. To test this growth model using finer sampling resolution, in situ microdigestions were performed by applying a drop of hydrofluoric acid directly to opal surfaces within a small area encircled by jeweler's wax. After several minutes, the liquid was removed, spiked with a tracer solution, and analyzed by TIMS for both U and Th using a single rhenium filament with colloidal graphite. Solutions contained about 0.5 nanograms of U, equivalent to opal weights of 1 to 10 micrograms and dissolved-layer thicknesses less than 0.003 mm. Microdigested opal surfaces have Th-230/U ages of 5 to 10 thousand years (ka) in contrast to much older ages of 150 to 250 ka obtained previously from whole-globule digestions. Additional tests of the growth model were made on cross sections of identical opal globules using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) with a 0.04-mm-diameter O-minus primary beam. Counting rates for Tho-246 and U-234 varied between 5 and 70 counts per second with Th-230/Th-232 activity ratios typically much greater than a million. The Th-230/U ages in the outer 0.3 mm of the globules ranged from about 30 ka at the outer edge to 400 ka at depth. Ages correlate with microstratigraphic depths and indicate average growth rates between 0.5 and 0.7 mm/m.y. Current U-series data do not resolve differential growth rates related to climate changes during this time period. However, both microdigestion and SHRIMP results confirm the previous TIMS-based model of slow, uniform rates of mineral growth in a hydrologically stable environment.

  11. Reduce growth rate of light-duty vehicle travel to meet 2050 global climate goals This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Reduce growth rate of light-duty vehicle travel to meet 2050 global climate goals This article has of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About) 024018 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/2/024018 Reduce growth rate of light-duty vehicle travel to meet

  12. Effect of milk consumption, forage availability and cow phenotype on rate of preweaning growth of calves in a semiarid Texas rangeland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saunders, Susan Lynn

    1990-01-01

    levels were comparable with 1986 yet growth rates were considerably lower. This may be explained by a decrease in forage quality in 1987. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my committee Co-chairmen Dr. John P. Walter... environmental stress far outweigh the economic benefits in productivity attained. An alternative is to identify the breed or breed cross that is most productive in the available envimnment. Furthermore, within breeds or breed crosses there may be an optimally...

  13. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Preto, F.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  14. Impacts of CCA-treated wood and wood ash on arsenic concentrations in soils and plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Impacts of CCA-treated wood and wood ash on arsenic concentrations in soils and plants Lena Q. Ma.e. CCA-treated wood and wood ash. In Florida, up to 5,000,000 ft3 CCA-treated wood were used in 1996 alone and up to 50,000 tons of wood ash are produced annually. Therefore, it is critical to evaluate

  15. Determination of redox reaction rates and –orders by in-situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-11-19

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  16. Determination of redox reaction rates and –orders by in-situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sutter, Eli A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sutter, Peter W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-03

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  17. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of useful products using this technology is to scale the technology from the 700-L pilot reactor to a small-scale production facility, with dedicated operation staff and engineering controls. In addition, we recommend that a market study be conducted as well as further product development for construction products that will utilize the unique properties of this bio-based material.

  18. ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

    2012-08-31

    Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both ���µCSi and ���±Si-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products�¢���� electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

  19. CHEMISTRY AND STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, H.G.

    2012-01-01

    analysis of the wood-oil product derived from the above2 g It is probable that oil products with oxygen contentscollected with the wood-oil product. The condensate contains

  20. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed, these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  1. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed; these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  2. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28

    Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

  3. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-07-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology JAPANESE. Pupation takes place in the wood and adults emerge by chewing a round exit hole. Adults feed on the tender) #12;2Wood Borer -- WB-07-W October 2012 It is the policy of the Purdue University Cooperative

  4. Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood estimated that about 5 million tons of spent preservative treated wood istons of spent preservative treated wood is disposed of annually into landfills in thedisposed of annually into landfills in the United

  5. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-08-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology OAK, these beetles feed on oak (Quercus spp). Direct damage results from galleries in the wood that are formed in the breeding season. The host trees for these beetles are important for the wood indus- try, orna

  6. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-09-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology EUROPEAN trees are very crucial for the wood industry, ornamental industry and many species of wildlife: The beetles construct the egg gal- leries perpendicular to the grain of the wood which can be found under

  7. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-06-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology CAMPHOR August. Female beetles make a horizontal tunnel in the wood initiating gallery construction where/APHIS grant number 10-8100-1488-CA. #12;2Wood Borer -- WB-06-W October 2012 It is the policy of the Purdue

  8. WoodPolymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood­Polymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood Yong-Feng Li in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). ABSTRACT: Wood­polymer composites (WPCs) were prepared from poplar wood (P. ussuriensis Komarov) in a two-step procedure. Maleic anhydride (MAN) was first dis

  9. Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text December 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    burn wood chips or pellets, which are fed into the boilers automatically by an electronically regulatedWood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text 31st December 2010 Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Wood') supports the development of renewable energy from wood fuel. Of all the clean energy technologies, wood

  10. GUYANA FORESTRY COMMISSION NATIONAL WOOD TRACKING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timber Sales Agreement VPA Voluntary Partnership Agreement WCL Wood Cutting Lease WTS Wood Tracking chain is managed and controlled the Guyana Forestry Commission has developed a Wood Tracking System (WTS in the process as well as flow charts illustrating essential elements of the system. The WTS links closely

  11. Donald L. Wood Professional Conference Travel Grants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    Donald L. Wood Professional Conference Travel Grants for Engineering Undergraduates APPLICATION by a generous donation from the estate of Donald L. Wood. The student application and final report will be used to describe our accomplishments to the family of this sponsor. #12;Donald L. Wood Professional Conference

  12. How wood waters down wall insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunde, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    Wood framing in walls can lower the actual insulating values, since the R-value of wood is only one per inch of thickness. A chart is presented that shows how wood in the stud space reduces insulating values. Several wall systems and the nominal R-value of insulation for each is presented.

  13. The influence of prey consumption and demographic stochasticity on population growth rate of Isle Royale wolves Canis lupus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    efficiency is important because it links population ecology and energy flux through ecosystems (Odum 1969. For the isolated wolf population on Isle Royale, annual variation in kill rate explains 22% of the variation efficiency (ratio of production to respiration) of wolves is between 0.5% and 1.5%. More generally, we assess

  14. Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    of power such as ocean wave energy, and 4) hybrid vehicles that use standard propulsion systems and glider26 Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen Florida Institute of Technology United States. This is still true but scientists at various institutions such as Florida Institute of Technology's Department

  15. Crack growth rates and metallographic examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from field components and laboratory materials tested in PWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-05-05

    In light water reactors, components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This report summarizes the crack growth rate results and related metallography for field and laboratory-procured Alloy 600 and its weld alloys tested in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. The report also presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for a shielded-metal-arc weld of Alloy 182 in a simulated PWR environment as a function of temperature between 290 C and 350 C. These data were used to determine the activation energy for crack growth in Alloy 182 welds. The tests were performed by measuring the changes in the stress corrosion CGR as the temperatures were varied during the test. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. These values are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed.

  16. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, L. C.; Leousis, D. P.

    2014-03-15

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

  17. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Li, Ning [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wu, Borong [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials (China); Xu, Hongliang [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wang, Lei [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Wu, Feng [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  18. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore »around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  19. Oceanography Seminar Elisha Wood-Charlson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oceanography Seminar Elisha Wood-Charlson Communications Project Manager Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education University of Hawaii at Mnoa "Understanding the Role of Viruses

  20. One on One- Douglas K Woods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A September 2014 interview with Douglas K Woods, the President of the Association for Manufacturing Technology, on the state of US manufacturing.

  1. Using Crack Propagation Fracture Toughness to Characterize the Durability of Wood and Wood Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    Using Crack Propagation Fracture Toughness to Characterize the Durability of Wood and Wood, Corvallis, OR 97330, USA Abstract We measured fracture resistance curves (or R curves) for laminated veneer. The LVL and solid wood R curves were the same for initiation of fracture, but the LVL toughness rose much

  2. ELECTRICITY FROM WOOD-FIRED GASIFICATION IN UGANDA -A 250 AND 10KW CASE STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    electricity at US$ 0.18 and 0.34/kWh, respectively. A stable electricity demand close to the rated capacityELECTRICITY FROM WOOD-FIRED GASIFICATION IN UGANDA - A 250 AND 10KW CASE STUDY Thomas Buchholza their potential to compete economically with diesel generated electricity when operating close to the rated

  3. MODE II FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF BONDED VISCOELASTIC THERMAL COMPRESSED WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    MODE II FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF BONDED VISCOELASTIC THERMAL COMPRESSED WOOD Andreja Kutnar* Graduate Student Department of Wood Science and Technology Biotechnical Faculty University of Ljubljana 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia Frederick A. Kamke Professor John A. Nairn Professor Department of Wood Science

  4. Pellet Production Wood Pellets are made by compressing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellet Production Wood Pellets are made by compressing clean dry sawdust, under very high pressure for more information on briquettes). Because they are made from very dry wood, pellets have a very high/TS 14961. Pellets are usually wood

  5. Disposal of CCA-treated Wood: An Evaluation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    CHARACTERISTICS OF CCA-TREATED WOOD ASH II.1 Sample Preparation 10 II.2 Laboratory Methods 15 II.3 Laboratory of Total Metals Concentrations in Treated Wood and 84 Treated Wood Ash IV.2 Regulatory Implications of TCLP

  6. Pore space analysis of beech wood: the vessel network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philipp Hass; Falk K. Wittel; S. A. McDonald; F. Marone; M. Stampanoni; Hans J. Herrmann; Peter Niemz

    2015-09-10

    Water transport in wood is vital for the survival of trees. With synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), it becomes possible to characterize and quantify the 3D network formed by vessels that are responsible for longitudinal transport. In the present paper, the spatial size dependence of vessels and the organization inside single growth rings in terms of vessel induced porosity was studied by SRXTM. Network characteristics, such as connectivity, were deduced by digital image analysis from the processed tomographic data and related to known complex network topologies.

  7. Shear deflection of composite wood beams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skaggs, Thomas David

    1992-01-01

    properties (E and G) along the length of the beam. Biblis (1965) examined the deflection of small scale solid wood beams of varying span-to- depth (L/d) ratios. Several wood species were studied for the 0. 65" x 0. 65" test specimens. An equation was used...

  8. CEICEI--BoisBois European Confederation of Woodworking IndustriesEuropean Confederation of Woodworking Industries ValueValue--added wood productsadded wood products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Woodworking Industries ValueValue--added wood productsadded wood products markets: flooringmarkets: flooring of Woodworking Industries Wood flooring and woodWood flooring and wood--based flooringbased flooring · "Genuine" wood ­ Solid products (parquet, planks, ...) ­ Products with a "genuine" top layer · Multilayer parquet

  9. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  10. Limiting Abnormal Mold Growth in Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, C. W.

    2002-01-01

    in wood, or rusting and corrosion of metals. Abnormal mold or fungal growth, then, can create major problems for building owners. Moisture is the key factor that building designers and owners can manage in order to limit mold growth. This paper introduces...

  11. The effect of in-situ noble metal chemical addition on crack growth rate behavior of structural materials in 288 C water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andresen, P.L.; Angeliu, T.

    1996-10-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC), especially in existing boiling water reactor (BVM) components, is most effectively accomplished by reducing the corrosion potential. This was successfully demonstrated by adding hydrogen to BNM water, which reduced oxidant concentration and corrosion potential by recombining with the radiolytically formed oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. However, reduction in the corrosion potential for some vessel internals is difficult, and others require high hydrogen addition rates, which results in an increase in the main steam radiation level from volatile N{sup 16}. Noble metal electrocatalysis provides a unique opportunity to efficiently achieve a dramatic reduction in corrosion potential and SCC in BWRs, by catalytically reacting all oxidants that diffuse to a (catalytic) metal surface with hydrogen. There are many techniques for creating catalytic surfaces, including alloying with noble metals or applying noble metal alloy powders to existing BWR components by thermal spraying or weld cladding. A novel system-wide approach for producing catalytic surfaces on all wetted components has been developed which employs the reactor coolant water as the medium of transport. This approach is termed in-situ noble metal chemical addition (NMCA), and has been successfully used in extensive laboratory tests to coat a wide range of pre-oxidized structural materials. In turn, these specimens have maintained catalytic response in long term, cyclic exposures to extremes in dissolved gases, impurity levels, pH, flow rate, temperature, straining, etc. With stoichiometric excess H{sub 2}, the corrosion potential drops dramatically and crack initiation and growth are greatly reduced, even at high O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels. Without excess H{sub 2} (i.e., in normal BWR water chemistry), noble metals do not increase the corrosion potential or SCC.

  12. Mutiny on the Bounty or Bountiful Mutants? Diversity and Composition of Wood-Decaying Macrofungi on Hibiscus Tiliaceus Wood in French Polynesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheaton, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    B. G. Jonsson. 1995. Wood-inhabiting fungi and substratumand S. C. Watkinson. 1995. Wood decomposition, higher fungi,combative interaction between wood-decaying basidiomycetes.

  13. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-02-21

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  14. Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  15. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  16. Assessment methodology for the air quality impact of residential wood burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    Data from surveys of 1977-1979 indicate that firewood usage tends to vary inversely with population density, resulting in an implied limit to the density of usage. Tests of wood stoves indicate that emissions of particulates vary inversely with heat demand, such that nighttime emissions at low combustion rates may be worse than those during maximum heat demand conditions. Finally, atmospheric dispersion rates are coupled to the driving forces of space heating so that nighttime emissions tend to have a disproportionately large impact on ambient air quality. All of these factors must be considered jointly in order to perform a meaningful assessment of the air quality impacts of increased residential wood fuel use; the results indicate that in flat terrain primary ambient standards are not threatened by residential wood combustion.

  17. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  18. Emerging Markets for Wood Energy Richard Vlosky, Director

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · The Louisiana Forest Products Development Center · Wood-to-Energy · Wood Biomass · Energy Options · Current-based Biomass Energy #12;2/20/2014 5 Forest Landowner Opportunities and Challenges The U.S. South is the "wood2/20/2014 1 Emerging Markets for Wood Energy Richard Vlosky, Director Crosby Land & Resources

  19. Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities In Latin America: A Focus on Brazil Richard Vlosky, Ph.D. Professor-Forest Products Marketing Interim Director-Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory Industry Strategic Services & Publisher: WOOD Markets Monthly newsletter WOOD Markets 2002 - The Solid Wood

  20. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF TRANSVERSE COMPRESSION AND DENSIFICATION IN WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF TRANSVERSE COMPRESSION AND DENSIFICATION IN WOOD John A. Nairn1 Professor- terials is a useful tool for stress analysis and for failure modeling. Although FEA of wood as an anisotropic continuum is used, numerical modeling of realistic wood structures, including details of wood

  1. Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1 Douglas D. Piirto2 Abstract: Wood tree species. Wood properties such as specific gravity, various mechanical properties, extractive be considered for planting stock in managed production forests to increase future supplies of wood having

  2. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W Department of Entomology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-02-W Department of Entomology America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers CHINESE under the bark and in dry dead wood and complete their development in two or more years. Adults emerge campestris (Faldermann) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an Asian wood-boring beetle recorded in North America

  3. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W Department of Entomology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-04-W Department of Entomology America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers BLACK living trees. The wood- boring larvae cause structural damage that may make the trees susceptible). (Photo credit: Stanislaw Kinelski, Bugwood.org) #12;1-888-EXT-INFO · www.extension.purdue.edu 2Wood Borer

  4. Codes of constant Lee or Euclidean weight Jay A. Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Jay

    Codes of constant Lee or Euclidean weight Jay A. Wood Department of Mathematics, Computer Science & Statistics Purdue University Calumet Hammond, Indiana 46323--2094 USA wood@calumet.purdue.edu http://www.calumet.purdue.edu/public/math/wood Scholarly Research Awards. #12; JAY A. WOOD 1. Linear codes as modules Throughout this extended abstract

  5. Wood Sci. Technol (DOI 10.1007/s00226-014-0676-6) Simulation of transverse wood compression using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    Wood Sci. Technol (DOI 10.1007/s00226-014-0676-6) Simulation of transverse wood compression using and Richardson Chair, Wood Science & Engineering Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR 97330, USA Received: 23 January 2014 Abstract Transverse compression of wood is a process that induces large

  6. Wood and Fiber Science, 37(1), 2005, pp. 95111 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood and Fiber Science, 37(1), 2005, pp. 95­111 © 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology SURFACE AND INTERFACIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PVC COMPOSITE: IMAGING MORPHOLOGY AND WETTING wetting behavior of wood-PVC composites in this study. Two-dimensional and time-dependent profiles

  7. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

  8. Robusta Eucalyptus Wood: Its Properties and Uses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robusta Eucalyptus Wood: Its Properties and Uses Roger G. Skolmen U. S. FOREST SERVICE RESEARCH in forestry from the University of California, Berkeley. #12;R obusta eucalyptus (Eucalyptus robusta Sm

  9. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean energy can come from the sun. The energy in wind can make electricity. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use...

  10. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Homes in the San Geronimo Valley (Forest Knolls, Lagunitas, San Geronimo, and Woodacre) can receive a rebate of $1,500 for the removal and replacement of non-certified wood burning appliances with...

  11. A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    TURBINE PLANT Sam H. Powell, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee Joseph T. Hamrick, Aerospace Research Corporation, RBS Electric, Roanoke, VA Abstract This paper covers the research and development of a wood-fired gas turbine unit... of the walls. This wood?fired gas turbine unit could provide a low cost source of power for areas where conventional methods are now prohibitive and provide a means for recovering energy from a source that now poses disposal problems. When the Tennessee...

  12. The impact of monolayer coverage, barrier thickness and growth rate on the thermal stability of photoluminescence of coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dot hetero-structure with quaternary capping of InAlGaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandal, A.; Verma, U.; Halder, N.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2012-03-15

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupled InAs/GaAs MQDs with (In{sub 0.21}Al{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.58}As + GaAs) caps are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monolayer coverage, barrier thickness and growth rate of the dots are the factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL peaks for the samples are within 1.1-1.3 {mu}m; significant for IBSCs and lasers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NPTP (non-resonant multi-phonon assisted tunneling process) effect on FWHM of PL. -- Abstract: The self-assembled InAs/GaAs MQDs are widely investigated for their potential application in optoelectronic devices like lasers and photovoltaics. We have explored the effect of QD growth rate and structural parameters like capping layer thickness on the morphology and optical properties of the MQD heterostructures overgrown with a combination capping of InAlGaAs and GaAs. The growth rate of the seed layers in the MQD samples is also varied to investigate its effect in the vertical stacking of the islands. The change in the morphology and the optical properties of the samples due to variation in growth and structural parameters are explained by the presence of strain in the QD structures, which arises due to lattice mismatch.

  13. PATTERNS OF DIFFUSIBILITY OF LIGNIN AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADING SYSTEMS IN WOOD-ROTTING FUNGI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    selected Delignification of wood chips by mutant white-rotTemperature relations of wood-destroying fungi. Kaneshiro.phenoloxidases of selected wood-decaying basidiomycetes. J,

  14. How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid,In: Soltes, E.J. (Ed. ), Wood and Agriculture Residues –D. , Wegener, G. , 1984. Wood: Chemistry, Ultrastructure,

  15. Marketing wood Products on the Internet: IHLA, 1998 Marketing Wood Products on the Internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marketing wood Products on the Internet: IHLA, 1998 Marketing Wood Products on the Internet IHLA Fall Regional Meetings - 1998 Bob Smith "When history is written, the creation of the Internet may in the past few years than the Internet. Every major newspaper, magazine, and television station have covered

  16. Wood to Energy in Washington Page 1 of 5 Wood to Energy in Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    energy or when used as transportation fuels. Woody biomass is an attractive alternative energy sourceWood to Energy in Washington Page 1 of 5 Wood to Energy in Washington: Imperatives, Opportunities Washington State lacks a cohesive strategy to reduce green house gases and for renewable energy development

  17. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  18. Table 8. Summary list of tools exclusively for either wood or paper-based products Procurement Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOLID WOOD The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)® Green Building Rating System US The Green Building Initiative's Green GlobesTM Rating System US WWF Tissue Scoring Europe WWF Guide characterization Contact details Green Building Council Phone: +1 800 795 1747 or +1 202 828 5110; E-mail: info

  19. Name: Qinglin Wu Title: Roy O Martin Sr. Professor, Composites and Engineered Wood Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (ASTM), Philadelphia, PA · Forest Products Society, Madison, WI · Society of Wood and Science Technology. China. RESEARCH INTERESTS Wood and natural fiber polymer composites, engineered wood products, composite in wood fiber and polymer composites. Natural fiber reinforced composites from alloyed polymers

  20. Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New York Department of Taxation and Finance publishes a variety of sales tax reports detailing local tax rates and exemptions, including those for residential energy services. The residential...

  1. Nesting Ducks of Tennessee Wood Ducks, Mallards, Hooded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    a teal and a mallard · Weight ­ about 1.5 lbs · Length ­ about 20 inches · Wings - broad, tail squared swamps · Wooded wetlands · Ponds and lakes with wooded shorelines, aquatic vegetation, woody debris

  2. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  3. A study of the molecular mechanics of wood cell walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, David, S.M. (David C.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Wood is the original structural material, developed by nature to support tall plants. Every advantageous feature of wood as used in artificial structures is rooted in the plant's evolved capability to withstand the conditions ...

  4. Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process J. Z. Lu,1 Q. Wu,1 I. I parameters for the wood-fiber/high-density-polyethylene blends at 60 rpm were a temperature of 180°C

  5. Extraction of -cellulose from mummified wood for stable isotopic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gedalof, Ze'ev

    Extraction of -cellulose from mummified wood for stable isotopic analysis Benjamin A. Hook a cellulose can provide valuable paleocli- matic information at annual and subannual resolution, from time the trees grew. In the mummified wood, polysaccharides (hemicellulose, -cellulose) are frequently

  6. An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood Products Industry Working Paper #1 Louisiana Forest Director Louisiana Furnishings Industry Association Ponchatoula, LA Dr. O. Victor Harding Assistant secondary wood products industry is underway at the Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory, Louisiana State

  7. SYNTHESIS Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum Jerome Chave,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chave, Jérôme

    to intercept a large proportion of solar radiation and puts itself at strong selective advantage (Falster wood functional traits, including the largest wood density database to date (8412 taxa), mechanical

  8. Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to: navigation,Wood County Electric Coop, Inc JumpWood3

  9. Birth to slaughter growth and carcass composition of Simmental-sired calves as influenced by birth season, pre-weaning stock rate, and sex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Estefan, Antonio

    1996-01-01

    of the stocker phase, cattle were transported to TAES-Amarillo for feedlot and slaughter. Fallborn calves from low stocking rates weaned heaviest (305 kg), and winter-born calves grazed at high stocking rates weaned lightest (216 kg) (P<.05). Respective...

  10. Wood and Fiber Science, 35(3), 2003, pp. 381396 2003 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood and Fiber Science, 35(3), 2003, pp. 381­396 2003 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology 2003, V. 35(3) sults in relatively loosely packed mats. Although mat density increases during hot

  11. California Wood Energy Program1 Gary Brittner2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this natural and renewable energy resource for centuries. The timber industry in California has for many and environmental cost, benefits, and feasibility of utilizing wood for energy produc tion. We are also ableCalifornia Wood Energy Program1 Gary Brittner2 The California Department of Forestry Wood Energy

  12. Dead Wood: From Forester's Bane to Environmental Boon1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dead Wood: From Forester's Bane to Environmental Boon1 Jack Ward Thomas2 Abstract Forest managers is the first rule of intelligent tinkering." Dead wood, standing and down, is one of those "cogs and wheels wood in managed forests. Much of this new information will be discussed at this conference. What

  13. Deplump for Streaming Data Nicholas Bartlett Frank Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Frank

    Deplump for Streaming Data Nicholas Bartlett Frank Wood Department of Statistics, Columbia of discrete sequences called the sequence memoizer [Wood et al., 2009]. Gasthaus et al. showed that although was reposed on a sequence memo- izer [Wood et al., 2009] whose space complexity was linear in the length

  14. A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood (FINAL) Submitted June 23, 2006 Amy Omae-TREATED WOOD II.1 Applying Phosphate Stains to Arsenate Stains 7 II.2 A Potential Arsenic-Test Kit 14 II.3 Whole Wood Application of the Modified Stannous Chloride Stain 19 II.4 Other Attempted Stain

  15. Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood Products Using Batch Leaching Tests leaching tests. The wood preservatives included chromated copper arsenate (CCA), alkaline copper quaternary, copper boron azole, copper citrate, and copper dimeth- yldithiocarbamate. An unpreserved wood sample

  16. Strong RestrictedOrientation Convexity Eugene Fink # Derick Wood +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fink, Eugene

    Strong Restricted­Orientation Convexity Eugene Fink # Derick Wood + Abstract Strong restricted; Widmayer et al., 1987; Rawlins and Wood, 1987 ] , restricted­orientation convexity [ Rawlins, 1987; Rawlins and Wood, 1991; Schuierer, 1991 ] , NESW convexity [ Lipski and Papadimitriou, 1981; Soisalon

  17. HISTORICAL WOOD COLLECTION AT THE DENDROCHRONOLOGY LABORATORY, VYTAUTAS MAGNUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HISTORICAL WOOD COLLECTION AT THE DENDROCHRONOLOGY LABORATORY, VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY Rtil, Kaunas, LT-3018, Lithuania, rutile_pukiene@fc.vdu.lt Abstract Historical wood has been collected at Kaunas dendrochronology laboratory since the laboratory foundation in 1968. The wood is used

  18. HOW TO IMPROVE DENDROGEOMORPHIC SAMPLING: VARIOGRAM ANALYSES OF WOOD DENSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    HOW TO IMPROVE DENDROGEOMORPHIC SAMPLING: VARIOGRAM ANALYSES OF WOOD DENSITY USING X-RAY COMPUTED de Drize, CH-1227 Carouge-Geneva, Switzerland ABSTRACT Knowledge of the spatial heterogeneity of wood understanding of 3-D wood density structure in tree stems damaged by geomorphic processes. X-ray computed

  19. Density-dependent diversification in North American wood warblers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabosky, Daniel L.

    Density-dependent diversification in North American wood warblers Daniel L. Rabosky1,2,* and Irby J Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA Evidence from both diversification, and we demonstrate this approach using a new phylogeny of North American Dendroica wood warblers

  20. Wood in rivers: interactions with channel morphology and processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Editorial Wood in rivers: interactions with channel morphology and processes No doubt about it, wood complicates fluvial geo- morphology. It messes up nice tidy streams, compli- cates quantitative through the study of channels lacking a substantial load of wood debris (Leopold et al., 1964

  1. Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment OLIVIA SAUNDERS, Extension Field Specialist "Wood ash contains significant amounts of potassium and calcium, while providing smaller amounts.unh.edu Spring 2014 UNH EXTENSION AGRICULTURE FACT SHEET Food & Agriculture Introduction Wood ash has a long

  2. Long-term outlook for engineered wood products in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long-term outlook for engineered wood products in Europe Heikki Manninen Technical Report 91, 2014 #12;Long-term outlook for engineered wood products in Europe Heikki Manninen Publisher: European for future oriented market research of engineered wood products (EWP) in Europe. For example, the need for CO

  3. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  4. ERDCTR-14-3 Leonard Wood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ERDCTR-14-3 Leonard Wood Institute Anaerobic Digestion Assessment for Contingency Base Waste ERDC TR-14-3 May 2014 Anaerobic Digestion Assessment for Contingency Base Waste Victor F. Medina-1000 Under Work Unit 33143 #12;ERDC TR-14-3 ii Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate anaerobic digestion

  5. Wood Futures Conference 8 November 2007, London

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    markets III. Certified forest products IV. Wood energy V. Conclusions VI. Recommendations VII. Questions, demand, and effects of renewable energy policies, Oct. 2007 · UNECE/FAO Forest resources assessment sustainably meet rising demand? Ed Pepke Forest Products Marketing Specialist UNECE/FAO Timber Section, Geneva

  6. Updated 1-12 Bryan H. Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as an attorney with the Department of the Navy's Office of the General Counsel (OGC). Initially appointed as ONR Counsel in 2007, he was the first Navy OGC attorney to deploy to a combat zone in his civilian OGC Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) in Djibouti, Africa. Mr. Wood began his career with Navy OGC

  7. Presentation at the PIE & Woods Energy Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    .3% Wind 2% 0.5% Geothermal 0.6% 0.3% Solar 0.1% 0.02% Source: EIA 2009; IEA World Energy Outlook 2008 #121 Presentation at the PIE & Woods Energy Seminar May 5, 2010 Burton Richter Freeman Spogli to the least effective technologies. 2 #12;3 Total Primary Energy Supply by Fuel Energy Source Percentage

  8. Woods Safety SFRC UF 7/09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    Woods Safety SFRC UF 7/09 #12;Working alone #12;Poison Plants Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) Poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens) #12;Commonly Mistaken Plants Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) Blackberry (Rubus spp.) Three leaflets let it be! #12;Poison Ivy/Oak Prevention: · Wear long

  9. Wood Fired Steam Plants in Georgia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulpitt, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    . Shortly after that time, Georgia Tech and the Georgia Forestry Commission embarked on a number of projects directed toward providing the use of wood as an industrial energy source. This paper will present an overview of these programs with an emphasis...

  10. Global Markets for Verified Legal Wood Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wood products (FSC, PEFC) Retailers interested in corporate social responsibility (CSR) and protecting reputation, starting in 1990s. FSC and PEFC certification standards developed, which include independent 3rd, PEFC) Major international companies, such as WalMart or IKEA, now require suppliers to be able

  11. Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS -WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS - WOOD Gasification / Cogeneration ARMAGH United Kingdom Gasification is transferring the combustible matters in organic waste or biomass into gas and pure char by burning the fuel via it allows biomass in small-scaled engines and co-generation units ­ which with conventional technologies

  12. Journal of Materials Education Vol. 32 (3-4): 125 -138 (2010) WOOD AND WOOD DERIVED MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    2010-01-01

    Witold Brostow, Tea Datashvili and Harrison Miller Laboratory of Advanced Polymers and Optimized point out the role of wood in the development of 'green' technologies. To provide a perspective, we. Keywords: wood, green materials, cellulosics, paper, polymer composites, art material 1. INTRODUCTION Wood

  13. The Spinless Relativistic Woods-Saxon Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Lucha; Franz F. Schoberl

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the observation of a recent renewal of rather strong interest in the description of bound states by (semi-) relativistic equations of motion, we revisit, for the example of the Woods-Saxon interactions, the eigenvalue problem posed by the spinless Salpeter equation and recall various elementary knowledge, considerations, and techniques that practitioners seeking solutions to this specific reduction of the Bethe-Salpeter equation may find helpful.

  14. Syst. Biol. 50(2):215242, 2001 Analysis of Character Correlations Among Wood Decay Mechanisms,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hibbett, David S.

    Syst. Biol. 50(2):215­242, 2001 Analysis of Character Correlations Among Wood Decay Mechanisms of wood-decaying fungi. Two basic forms of wood decay are known in homobasidiomycetes: white rot, in which analyses; wood decay.] The vast majority of terrestrial biomass takes the form of wood and other plant tis

  15. Formation of wood grain: self-organization through alignment of elongated cells II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Gaans, Onno

    Formation of wood grain: self-organization through alignment of elongated cells II Roeland Merks-like textures of wood (see Figure 1). These textures, called wood grain, form as new, elongated cells that are deposited on top of the existing wood in the vascular cambium, and align with the existing wood grain

  16. Where Wood Works Harnessing the Energy of Woody Biomass in Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by wood pellet stoves, to large multi- building campuses heated by commercial wood chip boilers. SoonWhere Wood Works Harnessing the Energy of Woody Biomass in Colorado #12;Sun Wood Boiler Energy Energy CO2 CO2 Wood Fuel Nutrients AshNutrients Woody biomass is stored solar energy that is available 24

  17. The Very Long Run Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Lemin

    2013-01-01

    the stochastic growth of technology as the source of inter-2000. “Population, technology, and growth: From Malthusianhas constant growth rates of technology g A and g B , then g

  18. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  19. The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Eiergy ; Washington, DC 20585 -, (, > - .' c ' . FEB 1 7 1995 .; , -, The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue Linden, 'New Jersey 07036 d. Dear Mayor Gregorio: ,'...

  20. Wood-boring Insects of Trees and Shrubs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Jackman, John A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2008-06-17

    This publication explains how to identify and control wood-boring insects that invade shrubs and shade trees in Texas. 12 pages, 9 figures, 6 photographs, 1 table...

  1. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Existing Homes Building America Case Study Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: The...

  2. Implications for the Future of Treated Wood in Four U.S. Demand Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Implications for the Future of Treated Wood in Four U.S. Demand Sectors Todd F. Shupe Associate are a thousand times less than a lethal dose." Chromated Copper Arsenate-Treated Wood (Pressure Treated Wood

  3. Life in the woods : production and consumption of the urban forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volicer, Nadine (Nadine M.)

    2012-01-01

    The use of wood is fraught with paradox. Wood as a building material is embraced for its naturalness, while the cutting of trees is indicted as a destruction of nature. Wood is lauded for its structural properties and ...

  4. Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appl Polym Sci 118: 3594­3601, 2010 Key words: coextrusion; mechanical properties; recycling recycled polyethylene and wood-flour composites with core­shell structure were manufactured using a pilot to use recycled, low quality plastic-fiber blends in the core layer. VC 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J

  5. Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products exporters competing in the global market. This study was commissioned by the American Forest of illegally produced and traded wood products on the ability of U.S. producers to export into key overseas · Indonesia · Japan · Malaysia · Europe (EU-15) · West/Central Africa · Russia Collectively, these countries

  6. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steel. Part 2, Water flow rate effects in high sulfur plate steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, L.A; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R.; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high- sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/sec. or 4.7 m/sec. was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi- stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/sec. and 5.0 m/sec. parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity.

  7. Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia:Illinois:Wizard Power Pty Ltd Jump to:Texas: EnergyWood, Wisconsin:

  8. Beverly Woods | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura| National2.11DESERTWater SavingsBetterBeverly Woods

  9. Duffield Wood Pellets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of the National ClimateDongyingOpen Energy3)Duffield Wood

  10. Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex A S Jump to:AngolaEnergyAquaAratua CentralArbuthnott Wood

  11. Keeler-Pennwalt Wood Pole Removal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand Cubic Feet) Sold toKeeler-Pennwalt-Wood-Pole-Removal Sign

  12. The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements of wood chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    of a Permanent Magnet for Water Content Measurements of Wooda device that measures the water content of wood chips, pulpsystem. The results of water content measurements in wood

  13. UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS GENERAL WOOD, PLASTICS, & COMPOSITES REQUIREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS GENERAL WOOD, PLASTICS, & COMPOSITES REQUIREMENTS JANUARY 16, 2015 06 00 00-1 06 00 00 GENERAL WOOD, PLASTICS, & COMPOSITES

  14. Tension wood holds clues to higher fuel yields from biomass crops...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tension wood holds clues to higher fuel yields from biomass crops October 25, 2011 Poplar stems (left) respond to bending stress by producing tension wood, which has...

  15. Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities Richard Vlosky, Ph.D. Professor-Forest Products Marketing Interim Director-Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory School of Renewable Natural, R.E. Taylor & Associates Ltd. Forest Industry Strategic Services & Publisher: WOOD Markets Monthly

  16. Wood-based Energy Technologies Michigan offers some significant advantages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the United States has been increasing. Using wood to feed a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) station produces has a range of applica- tions, and these vary among the technologies. For instance, wind power generates electricity rather than heat or transportation fuel. Similarly, wood-based technologies have

  17. An Overview of the Louisiana Primary Solid Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    An Overview of the Louisiana Primary Solid Wood Products Industry Working Paper #2 Louisiana Forest Paper #1 that examined the Louisiana secondary wood products industry (Vlosky et al. 1994). The broad (including pulp and paper) and secondary manufacturing establishments (Jacob et al. 1987). The forest

  18. Wood Engineering Education Trends and Challenges Rakesh Gupta1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Wood Engineering Education ­ Trends and Challenges Rakesh Gupta1 and Vijaya Gopu2 1 Member ASCE, Associate Professor, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Professor and Chair, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA

  19. SECO - Dow Corning's Wood Fueled Industrial Cogeneration Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betts, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    In 1979, Dow Corning Corporation decided to build a wood fueled steam and electric cogeneration (SECO) power plant at Midland, Michigan. This decision was prompted by the high cost of oil and natural gas, an abundant supply of wood in mid Michigan...

  20. Fibre Based Modeling of Wood Dynamics and Fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridson, Robert

    Fibre Based Modeling of Wood Dynamics and Fracture by Sean Meiji Sutherland B.Sc., The University for the simulation of the dynamics and fracturing char- acteristics of wood, specifically its anisotropic behaviour bundles of fibres. Additionally, we describe the conditions under which fracture occurs in the material

  1. Wood for energy at Bedgebury Forest Bedgebury visitor centre's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood for energy at Bedgebury Forest Bedgebury visitor centre's woodfuel boiler provides a renewable, and a woodfuel boiler provides space heating and hot water. Wood for the boiler comes from Bedgebury Forest and chipped to provide fuel for a 40 kilowatt Austrian-made boiler, which has been installed to provide

  2. Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely reliant on wood chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely's biomass energy sector could be undermined unless businesses move to resolve the supply chain issues-scale biomass plants will leave generators largely reliant on biomass from overseas such as wood chips, elephant

  3. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  4. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  5. ARM - Lesson Plans: Rate of Coral Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Room News PublicationsClimatePast Sea LevelRainfall

  6. An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-08-01

    This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

  7. Dynamics of wood recruitment in streams of the northeastern US Dana R. Warren a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeton, William S.

    Dynamics of wood recruitment in streams of the northeastern US Dana R. Warren a, *, Clifford E of Ecosystem Studies, Box AB, Millbrook, NY 12545, United States 1. Introduction Large wood and accumulations of large wood (wood jams) are widely recognized as important features in forested stream ecosystems. Large

  8. The Effects of Large Wood on Stream Channel Morphology on Three Low-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effects of Large Wood on Stream Channel Morphology on Three Low- Gradient Stream Reaches that large wood has a prominent role in habitat quality, however there is little research on the role of wood large wood loadings (759 vs. 329 vs. 39 m3 /ha). This study devises a new classification methodology

  9. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Ecology and Management of Dead Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proceedings of the Symposium on the Ecology and Management of Dead Wood in Western Forests November .................................................ix Importance of Dead and Downed Wood....................................1 Dead Wood: From Forester's Bane to Environmental Boon...................3 Jack Ward Thomas Decaying Wood: An Overview of Its

  10. Copyright (to be inserted by Humphrey) Thermal and Dynamic-mechanical Properties of Wood-PVC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Citation & Copyright (to be inserted by Humphrey) Thermal and Dynamic-mechanical Properties of Wood properties, maleation, thermal analysis, wood veneer, wood-PVC composites ABSTRACT The influence of maleation on thermal and dynamic-mechanical properties of wood-PVC composites was investigated in this study

  11. Author's personal copy Evaluation of methods for sorting CCA-treated wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Author's personal copy Evaluation of methods for sorting CCA-treated wood Gary Jacobi a , Helena September 2006 Available online 2 January 2007 Abstract Construction and demolition (C&D) wood frequently contains treated wood including wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Many recycling options

  12. Society of Wood Science and Technology State-of-the-Art Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Society of Wood Science and Technology State-of-the-Art Review CHEMICAL COUPLING IN WOOD FIBER) ABSTRACT Coupling agents in wood fiber and polymer composites (WFPC) play a very important role in improving the compatibility and adhesion between polar wood fibers and non-polar polymeric matri- ces

  13. The Warm Local ISM: Structure, Properties, and Theory Jeffrey L. Linsky, Seth Redfield, & Brian Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    Wood JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309­0440 USA Abstract. Ultraviolet spectra), and the second by Wood, Linsky, & Zank (2000) and by Wood, M¨uller, & Zank (2000). In this talk, we al (1995) and Wood et al (1996). Early­type stars and hot white dwarfs also prove background

  14. The Impact of the Russian Tariff on Japanese Demand for Wood Products CINTRAFOR News is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    extent, residential housing has always been one of the major drivers of wood demand in JapanThe Impact of the Russian Tariff on Japanese Demand for Wood Products CINTRAFOR News is available will consider the potential impact on Chinese demand for wood products.) Japanese Market for Wood Products Japan

  15. Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Wood Ash Samples Used in This Study. Regulatory Levels Provided for Comparison. Table II.1 Alternative

  16. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  17. The role of water in the behavior of wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominique Derome; Ahmad Rafsanjani; Stefan Hering; Martin Dressler; Alessandra Patera; Christian Lanvermann; Marjan Sedighi-Gilani; Falk K. Wittel; Peter Niemz; Jan Carmeliet

    2015-09-17

    Wood, due to its biological origin, has the capacity to interact with water. Sorption/desorption of moisture is accompanied with swelling/shrinkage and softening/hardening of its stiffness. The correct prediction of the behavior of wood components undergoing environmental loading requires that the moisture behavior and mechanical behavior of wood are considered in a coupled manner. We propose a comprehensive framework using a fully coupled poromechanical approach, where its multiscale implementation provides the capacity to take into account, directly, the exact geometry of the wood cellular structure, using computational homogenization. A hierarchical model is used to take into account the subcellular composite-like organization of the material. Such advanced modeling requires high resolution experimental data for the appropriate determination of inputs and for its validation. High-resolution x-ray tomography, digital image correlation, and neutron imaging are presented as valuable methods to provide the required information.

  18. In-Depth Temperature Profiles in Pyrolyzing Wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reszka, Pedro

    The move towards performance-based design of the fire resistance of structures requires more accurate design methods. An important variable in the fire performance of timber structures is the in-depth temperature distribution, as wood is weakened...

  19. Kilowatts From Waste Wood In The Furniture Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nailen, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    recently, the Singer Furniture Co., Lenoir, N. Carolina, purchased a 450 kilowatt steam turbine/induction generator set to use extra steam - produced by 'free' waste wood fuel - in generating 15% of the plant's electrical energy demand. The turbine...

  20. Modelling Traceability in the Forestry Wood Supply Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelling Traceability in the Forestry Wood Supply Chain Antti Sirkka University of Tampere TietoEnator Forest & Energy Oy Kalevantie 4, 33014 Tampere, Finland Häkiläpolku 3 A, 33101 Tampere, Finland antti

  1. Test evaluation of a laminated wood wind turbine blade concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faddoul, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    Because of the high stiffness and fatigue strength of wood (as compared to density) along with the low cost manufacturing techniques available, a laminated wood wind turbine blade application has been studied. This report presents the results of the testing performed on elements of the wood blade-to-hub transition section which uses steel studs cast into a laminated wood spar with a filled epoxy. Individual stud samples were tested for both ultimate load carrying capability and fatigue strength. A one-time pull-out load of 78,000 lb was achieved for a 15 in. long stud with a diameter of 1 in. Tension-tension fatigue indicated that peak loads on the order of 40% of ultimate could be maintained as an endurance limit (mean load = 20,000 lb, cyclic load = +-15,000 lb). Following the individual stud testing, a full-scale inboard blade section (20 ft in length) was tested.

  2. Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ! · Powerful energy industry · Future? · Today´s discussion! #12;Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies Bengt Hillring SLU SWEDEN http is the main international energy source · Climate change ­ Energy production ­ CO2 · European Union different

  3. Photo by Helvetas Moambique Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Photo by Helvetas Moçambique Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering #12;IWRM in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without CAS consists of the following units: - Basic knowledge in order to follow the class

  4. Disentangling Biodiversity and Climatic Determinants of Wood Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    an important role in carbon sequestration. Methodology/Principal Findings: We tested whether tree wood incorporating the role of biodiversity in management and policy plans for forest carbon sequestration. Citation

  5. Terahertz birefringence and attenuation properties of wood and paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Matthew

    - plications in the wood industry for pulsed terahertz radiation.5,6 This is so primarily because pulsed tera is split into pump and probe beams. The pump is lightly focused on the pho- toconductive switch

  6. Stephen E. Wood Department of Earth & Space Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winglee, Robert M.

    .S. Physics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS for Phase A study; designed solar-powered thermal ice drill RESEARCH GRANTS-I's: Stephen Wood, Collab: Eric R. Parteli (FAU, Germany), Wind regime, sediment

  7. Making Steel Framing as Thermally Efficient as Wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosny, J.; Childs, P.

    2002-01-01

    In many world regions like North America and Scandinavia wood framing is dominant technology for residential buildings. During last two decades several companies around the world started to promote a low-gage steel framing for residential...

  8. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  9. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    period FY2015 through 2028. Customers have a diversification right to limit the amount of power they purchase at the Load Growth rate in future years with notice provided by...

  10. Home Page > Business > Industrial > Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009 As Pulpmills Reduce Production Worldwide, Reports Wood Resources International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Check Correct All Grammar Errors And Enhance Your Writing. Try Now! www.Grammarly.com Free TradingHome Page > Business > Industrial > Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009 As Pulpmills Reduce Production Worldwide, Reports Wood Resources International Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009

  11. Rate of reduction of ore-carbon composites: Part II. Modeling of reduction in extended composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortini, O.M.; Fruehan, R.J. [US Steel Research & Technological Center, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    A new process for ironmaking was proposed using a rotary hearth furnace and an iron bath smelter to produce iron employing wood charcoal as an energy source and reductant. This paper examines reactions in composite pellet samples with sizes close to sizes used in industrial practice (10 to 16 min in diameter). A model was constructed using the combined kinetic mechanism developed in Part I of this series of articles along with equations for the computation of pellet temperature and shrinkage during the reaction. The analysis of reaction rates measured for pellets with wood charcoal showed that heat transfer plays a significant role in their overall rate of reaction at elevated temperatures. The slower rates measured in pellets containing coal char show that the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation is more significant than heat transfer. Model calculations suggest that the rates are highly sensitive to the thermal conductivity of pellets containing wood charcoal and are less sensitive to the external conditions of heat transfer. It was seen that the changes in pellet surface area and diameter due to shrinkage introduce little change on reaction rates. The model developed provides an adequate description of pellets of wood charcoal up to circa 90% of reduction. Experimentally determined rates of reduction of iron oxide by wood charcoal were approximately 5 to 10 times faster than rates measured in pellets with coal char.

  12. Emission Rates of Formaldehyde from Materials and Consumer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    Emission Rates of Formaldehyde from Materials and Consumer Products Found in California Homes T H O pressed-wood materials and numerous consumer products. Formaldehyde emission data are needed for modeling of indoor personal exposures, health risks, and risk reduction measures. This study determined HCHO emission

  13. Demonstration Results From Greenhouse Heating with Liquified Wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Parish, Don; Cooper, Jerome

    2011-07-01

    A boiler fuel known as Lignocellulosic Boiler Fuel (LBF) was developed at the Department of Forest Products, Mississippi State University for potential application for heating agricultural buildings. LBF was field tested to heat green houses in cooperation with Natchez Trace Greenhouses (NTG) located in Kosciusko, Mississippi. MSU modified an idled natural gas boiler located at NTG to combust the LBF. Thirty gallons of bio-oil were produced at the MSU Bio-oil Research Laboratory. The bio-oil was produced from the fast-pyrolysis of southern pine (15 gal) and white oak (15 gal) feedstocks and subsequently upgraded by a proprietary process. Preliminary field testing was conducted at (NTG). The LBF was produced from each wood species was tested separately and co-fed with diesel fuel to yield three fuel formulations: (1) 100% diesel; (2) 87.5% LBF from southern pine bio-oil co-fed with 12.5% diesel and (3) 87.5% LBF from white oak co-fed with 12.5% diesel fuel formulations. Each fuel formulation was combusted in a retrofit NTG boiler. Fuel consumption and water temperature were measured periodically. Flue gas from the boiler was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The 100% diesel fuel increased water temperature at a rate of 4 ���°F per min. for 35 min. to achieve the target 140 ���°F water temperature increase. The 87.5% pine LBF fuel cofed with 12.5%) diesel attained the 140 ���°F water temperature increase in 62 min. at a rate of 2.3 ���°F per min. The 87.5% white oak LBF fuel co-fed with 12.5% diesel reached the 140 ���°F water temperature increase in 85 min. at a rate of 1.6 ���°F per min. Fuel that contained 87.5% pine LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 5.3 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 22.2. Fuel formulations that contained 87.5% white oak LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 4.9 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 16.4. Neither the pine LBF nor the white oak LBF fuel showed any measureable methane emissions from the NTG boiler flue gas. These results indicate a viable potential for mildly upgraded bio-oil to become an alternative fuel source for greenhouse operations.

  14. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  15. Human linear growth trajectory defined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    a child’s height in its 3rd year of age is greater than thatbut its growth rate in the 3rd year is slower than that in

  16. Linda Sargent Wood. A More Perfect Union: Holistic Worldviews and the Transformation of American Culture after World War II.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Promnitz, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    23 No. 1 Linda Sargent Wood. A More Perfect Union: HolisticCold War era, Linda Sargent Wood argues that the equallyWorld War II period. For Wood, this cultural perspective

  17. Understanding wood-pool dynamics using long-term monitoring data from the Gualala River Watershed: What can we learn?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    and D. R. Montgomery. 2003. Wood in river rehabilitation andPatterns and process of wood debris accumulation in theand S. V. Gregory. 2002. Large wood and fluvial processes.

  18. Drought effects on litterfall, wood production and belowground carbon cycling in an Amazon forest: Results of a throughfall reduction experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    effects on litterfall, wood production and belowground136, 68005-080 Santare´m, Para´, Brazil Woods Hole ResearchCenter, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02543, USA

  19. Polar Shear Lag Analysis of a Composite of Concentric Cylinders with Longitudinal Cracks: Application to Internal Checking in Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    : Application to Internal Checking in Wood J.A.Nairn Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University the existence of internal checks lowers the value of the wood when it is milled into lumber (due to detrimental

  20. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-08-13

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  1. Selected tools Table 9. Summary list of tools for both wood and paper-based products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3.4 Selected tools Table 9. Summary list of tools for both wood and paper-based products Focus Europe WOOD & PAPER- BASED PRODUCTS #12;3.5 Selected tools Forest conversion Social issues Pollution

  2. The morphological development of a wood burl shader 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moyer, Robert Simms

    2004-09-30

    THE MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A WOOD BURL SHADER A Thesis by ROBERT SIMMS MOYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2003 Major Subject...: Visualization Sciences THE MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A WOOD BURL SHADER A Thesis by ROBERT SIMMS MOYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

  3. Wood residuals find big uses in small pieces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn, J.

    1996-12-01

    With a history of finding economic uses for leftovers, the wood industry explores sustainable options for creating higher value products. Years ago, companies saw the use - any use - of residues as a sound, economic business practice. Today, many companies are looking to go beyond low value products such as mulch, animal bedding and fuel, and market to higher value end users. Additionally, with so much material from the primary industries already accounted for, consumers of wood residue are in need of additional supply from sources such as secondary mills (furniture manufacturers, etc.), as wells as the C&D and MSW streams. This paper discusses these products and markets.

  4. Wood County, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to: navigation,Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Jump to:Wood

  5. The Role of Allelopathy, Heat, and Charred Wood in the Germination of Chaparral Herbs1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the effect of heating, at temperatures similar to those found in fire, and tests with wood ash alone failed

  6. Management of Discarded Treated Wood Products: A Resource Guide for Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    /environmental concerns c. Special handling 4. Management options for treated wood a. Is treated wood a solid waste? b for homeowners, contractors, waste management professionals, and other parties needing information on managementManagement of Discarded Treated Wood Products: A Resource Guide for Generators Prepared by

  7. Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psaltis, Demetri

    Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding.pichelin@b .ch Context: Wood can be welded using linear vibration welding tech- niques similar to the ones in plastic and metal industry[1] . Wood welding allows bonding strength similar to glued joints. However, due

  8. Dynamics of wood in stream networks of the western Cascades Range, Oregon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Dynamics of wood in stream networks of the western Cascades Range, Oregon Nicole M. Czarnomski a conceptual model of wood dynamics in stream networks that considers legacies of forest management practices, floods, and debris flows. We combine an observational study of wood in 25 km of 2nd- through 5th

  9. A Method Countries Can Use to Estimate Changes in Carbon Stored in Harvested Wood Products and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Method Countries Can Use to Estimate Changes in Carbon Stored in Harvested Wood Products to carbon stored in harvested wood products (HWP) and for evaluating uncertainty. The method uses data suggest that uncertainty is most sensitive to uncertainty in production data for solid- wood products

  10. Current Research on Wood Decay in the USDA Forest Service1 Harold H. Burdsall, Jr.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Current Research on Wood Decay in the USDA Forest Service1 Harold H. Burdsall, Jr.2 Abstract, Biodeterioration Research, concentrates on studying the basic mechanism of wood decay. Most of the Forest Service's work on wood decay is being done in two work units in Forest Insect and Disease Research (FIDR) housed

  11. Fish use of turbulence around wood in winter: physical experiments on hydraulic variability and habitat selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Fish use of turbulence around wood in winter: physical experiments on hydraulic variability-introduction of large wood for expanding hydraulic variability is an increasingly common prac- tice, yet it is not yet on flow strength, depth, distance to wood, or based on temporal or spatial variability of the flow field

  12. Lauric Acid/Wood Fiber Blends for Shape Stable Phase Change Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Lauric Acid/Wood Fiber Blends for Shape Stable Phase Change Material Krista Stancombe, Fang Chen in preparing wood fiber (WF) composites. The goal in developing this material is to produce a shape stabilized (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). References Conclusion LA crystals LA crystals Wood Fiber

  13. World Wide Wood Network, Ltd. 2001-2002 Forest Products e-Commerce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Wide Wood Network, Ltd. © 2001-2002 Forest Products e-Commerce An Oxymoron or Wave of the Future Presented by: Thomas J. Westbrook, JD President & CEO World Wide Wood Network, Ltd. http Collapsing time and space Communication World Wide Wood Network, Ltd. © 2001-2002 The Promise of the Internet

  14. Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada Alexander P. Wolfe1 preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.360.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood

  15. Nanoindentation of wood cell walls: Continuous stiffness and hardness measurements q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    Nanoindentation of wood cell walls: Continuous stiffness and hardness measurements q W.T.Y. Tze a 37831-6116, USA d Department of Wood and Paper Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC The objective of this study was to measure the mechanical properties of individual, native wood fibers using

  16. AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH #12;AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences #12;AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN

  17. WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas Acacia community diversity and composition. Wood-boring insects in particular can cause considerable damage. In an effort to better understand the wood-boring community on Acacia, Drs Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas (from

  18. Wood Transportation Systems-A Spin-Off of a Computerized Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Transportation Systems-A Spin-Off of a Computerized Information and Mapping Technique William of the system to determine the allocation and association of wood sources and markets. INTRODUCTION In December strategies of wood origins and potential markets to be correlated very accurately and rapidly. Transportation

  19. On The Ten Point Wood-Desargues' Configuration Christopher J Bradley and Geoff C Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Geoff

    1 Article 6 On The Ten Point Wood-Desargues' Configuration Christopher J Bradley and Geoff C Smith Abstract The ten pairs of directly similar triangles in perspective in the Wood-Desargues' configuration are similar to the five cyclic quadrangles of the initial Wood-Desargues' configuration and that these five

  20. EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS Yang2hang1 Post February 2005) ABSTRACT Dimensional stability is an important property of wood composites. Both resin and wax are essential additives in the manufactureof composite panels such as OSB. Resin binds wood

  1. OPPORTUNITIES FOR HORIZONTAL DIVERSIFICATION IN MANUFACTURING VALUE-ADDED WOOD PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    OPPORTUNITIES FOR HORIZONTAL DIVERSIFICATION IN MANUFACTURING VALUE-ADDED WOOD PRODUCTS Working Post Doctoral Researcher Wood Products Processing Richard Vlosky Assistant Professor Forest Products Marketing February 7, 1996 #12;2 ABSTRACT A study of equipment usage in the Louisiana secondary wood

  2. EFFECT OF COMPOSITE REINFORCEMENT ON THE DURABILITY OF WOOD BASEBALL BATS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Lloyd V.

    EFFECT OF COMPOSITE REINFORCEMENT ON THE DURABILITY OF WOOD BASEBALL BATS John T. Axtell, Lloyd V Pullman, WA 99164-2920 ABSTRACT This study examines the durability of a laminated wood baseball bat. The measured and predicted results are in good agreement. Wood lamination was observed to decrease the scatter

  3. Patterns and processes of wood debris accumulation in the Queets river basin, Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Patterns and processes of wood debris accumulation in the Queets river basin, Washington Tim B Mountains in NW Washington reveal basin-wide patterns of distinctive wood debris (WD) accumulations development. The classification of wood debris accumulations in the Queets river basin is based on physical

  4. Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event ESTELLE. More- over, time series of wood anatomical features have only rarely been used to reconstruct former geomorphic events. This study was therefore undertaken to characterize the wood anatomical response

  5. Use of handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry units for identification of arsenic in treated wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Use of handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry units for identification of arsenic in treated wood within preservative-treated wood. Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of handheld XRF analyzers on wood that has been treated with a preservative containing arsenic. Experiments

  6. Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepcin, Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Global Trade of Wood and Paper Products By Ed Pepke Forest Products Marketing Specialist UNECE/FAO Timber #12;Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Subjects

  7. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    -treated wood Xinde Cao*, Lena Q. Ma Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk

  8. PROJECT SUMMARY Wood-decaying Agaricomycetes (Basidiomycota) include diverse polypores, gilled mushrooms,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hibbett, David S.

    PROJECT SUMMARY Wood-decaying Agaricomycetes (Basidiomycota) include diverse polypores, gilled production. Understanding of the higher-level relationships of wood-decaying Agaricomycetes has advanced. This project will perform monographic research and training in two major groups of wood-decaying Agaricomycetes

  9. International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA+Hannover, Germany, 17-18 May 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year Amount(inmillioncubicmetresWRME) Recovered paper Net pulp fossil fuel prices · Energy security · Policies to reduce climate change · Wood industries' wood needs consumption, e.g. China ­ Nuclear safety #12;International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA

  10. Illegal loggin and wood energy: UNECE Timber Committee discusses policy issues of the day SEARCH SITEMAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the production and use of wood energy, in the context of broader policy frameworks, for renewable energiesIllegal loggin and wood energy: UNECE Timber Committee discusses policy issues of the day SEARCH SITEMAP PRESS RELEASE [Index] Illegal logging and wood energy: UNECE Timber Committee discusses policy

  11. Modeling Sediment and Wood Storage and Dynamics in Small Mountainous Watersheds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    85 Modeling Sediment and Wood Storage and Dynamics in Small Mountainous Watersheds Stephen T controls on supply and transport of sediment and wood in a small (approximately two square kilometers) basin in the Oregon Coast Range, typical of streams at the interface between episodic sediment and wood

  12. Wood stove use in the end-use load and consumer assessment program residential base sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeBaron, B.A.

    1988-11-01

    This report examines wood heating in the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) Residential Base Sample during the 1985/1986 heating season. The goals of this study were to assess the frequency of wood burning in homes having wood burning equipment and to estimate the quantity of electrical space heat displaced by it use. 15 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Attention design: Eight issues to consider Sharon Wood *, Richard Cox, Peter Cheng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Peter

    Attention design: Eight issues to consider Sharon Wood *, Richard Cox, Peter Cheng Representation.12.007 * Corresponding author. E-mail address: S.Wood@sussex.ac.uk (S. Wood). Computers in Human Behavior 22 (2006) 588 an incremental extension of existing technologies. From stud- ies of other design oriented disciplines

  14. Field Document No.50 REGIONAL WOOD ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN ASIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wood energy data, leading to best estimates of future consumption. It also tries to estimate. The work continues, particularly in much- needed efforts to strengthen the available wood energy data-use Conversion 22 3.7 Quotes 23 4. Selected Wood Energy Data 27 4.1 Energy Balances in RWEDP Member-countries 27

  15. Final Independent External Peer Review Report Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Project Background and Purpose The purpose of the Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage Price Wood River LRR and the overall scope of the project, the final panel members were selectedFinal Independent External Peer Review Report Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage Limited

  16. Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    those found in municipal solid waste (MSW) (e.g., food waste). However, research has shown that C liners (11). When CCA-treated wood is managed in the C&D debris waste stream and is disposed in unlined C&D debris can impact leachate quality which, in turn could affect leachate management practices or aquifers

  17. Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings Final Report Prepared by: Robert Gerard and David Barber Arup North America Ltd San Francisco, CA Armin Wolski San Francisco, CA © December 2013 Fire Protection Research Foundation THE FIRE PROTECTION RESEARCH FOUNDATION ONE BATTERYMARCH PARK QUINCY

  18. Practical Approach to Designing Wood Roof Truss Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Practical Approach to Designing Wood Roof Truss Assemblies Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE1 ; and Pranueng to evaluate "system effects" in light-frame roof truss assemblies. The goal of this study was to develop an improved and practical design method for 3D roof truss assemblies used in residential construction. A truss

  19. Performance of bolted wood connections using supplemental confining devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stromatt, Rebecca Faye

    1996-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, extensive field investigations revealed damage in wood frame construction in the form of splitting the 2x4 or 2x6 dimension lumber sill plates along the line of anchor bolts which typically connect...

  20. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  1. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  2. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Fallon, Peter (East Moriches, NY)

    1984-07-31

    A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  3. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1983-06-01

    A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  4. MIGHTY BACTERIA IN A CIVILISED WORLD Prepared by Amy Wooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIGHTY BACTERIA IN A CIVILISED WORLD Prepared by Amy Wooding The 2013 FABI/ CTHB UPwith of antibacterial products being advertised. The aim was to explore the idea created by these products that bacteria this by testing whether all bacteria can survive in every environment; will bacteria isolated from the UP

  5. TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR PRESSURE WOOD PRESERVATION FACILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR PRESSURE WOOD PRESERVATION FACILITIES IN THE LOWER FRASER BASIN DOE FRAP 1997-14 Prepared for: Environment Canada Environmental Protection Fraser Pollution Action Plan through its Fraser Pollution Abatement Office. Environment Canada is not responsible

  6. Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to total energy self sufficiency of kraft mills appears to be the fossil fuel requirements of the lime kilns. If an economical technology can be developed which allows fossil fuel to be replaced in whole or in part by wood...

  7. Drying and burning wood waste using pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckkowski, A.G.; Eng, P.; Kitchen, J.A. [Novadyne Ltd., Ontario (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Development of an industrial dryer using pulse combustion as a heating source for drying wood waste has continued. Pulse combustion offers the advantage of high heat transfer, efficient combustion, low NOx emissions and a source of kinetic energy for providing a motive force for a drying system. In our experiments, the drying system consists of a pulse combustor and a vertical drying column. The wood waste is injected into the exhaust gases from the combustor where the turbulence created by the pulsations enhance the drying process by reducing the boundary layer thicknesses. The material is further dried in the vertical drying column, then separated from the conveying airstream using a cyclone. The paper discusses two aspects of the drying system. Firstly, the performance of the drying tests are reviewed. Tests with the 1,000,000 BTU/hr test rig have shown that a gas-fired pulse combustion dryer can dry materials such as sawdust and pulverized hog fuel from a moisture content of 50% down to a 30% in a single pass, or further with multiple passes, without scorching or burning. Preliminary figures show that the operating costs of the dryer are reduced due to the kinetic energy created by the pulse combustor which offsets the use of electricity. Secondly, it has been shown that a pulse combustor can be fired with wood waste and thereby providing the potential to displace natural gas or propane as a fuel. The development of the wood burning combustor is reviewed.

  8. Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamza, Iqbal

    Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III* Department of Animal, and American Fisheries Society (AFS) Fish Culture Section, was held February 26 through March 2, 2007, in San Antonio, Texas. At this meeting, the AFS Fish Culture and Fish Physiol- ogy Sections co

  9. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  10. Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted...

  11. Terahertz birefringence and attenuation properties of wood and paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Matthew

    ,4 1 #12;It has been recognized early on that there may be applications to the wood industry for pulsed power from an 80 MHz, 100 fs, Ti:Sapphire oscillator. The optical beam is split into pump and probe beams. The pump is lightly focused on the photoconductive switch, and the emitted terahertz radiation

  12. Taxonomic Lattice Structures for Situation Recognition William A. Woods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taxonomic Lattice Structures for Situation Recognition William A. Woods Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc there any special thing I should do about it?", etc. To support this kind of activity, a substantial part something. TO support the above uses of knowledge, an important characteristic required of an efficient

  13. RUTGERS ROBERT WOOD JOHNSON MEDICAL SCHOOL NEW BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    from experimental animals infected with HIV or HBV. (Bloodborne pathogens as they relate to the use of animal blood may also be covered by the policies of the University's research animal care facilities for University staff, students, faculty, and house staff. 1. Each RUTGERS Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

  14. Material Properties of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic/Wood Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Material Properties of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic/Wood Interfaces M.J. Benjamin, K Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) are man made inorganic solids that lie in between hydraulic cements and ceramics . Normally, ceramics are sintered at temperatures ranging from 700-2000C

  15. FIEA Advancing Wood Technology Forest Industry Engineering Scholarship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    FIEA ­ Advancing Wood Technology Forest Industry Engineering Scholarship Forest Industry, including any NZQA Unit Standards that you have completed. NOTES: 1. The Regulations for this award be received by the Dunedin office of Forest Industry Engineering Association by 1 March 2012

  16. The Wood-Based Biorefinery in a Petroleum Depleted World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Avik P.

    3 Year Old Willow #12;14 14 Woody Biomass Feedstocks Sustainably harvested low value wood from, Sustainable Bioproducts: Fuels, Chemicals, Materials Renewable Resources to "Green" Bio-Products Woody Biomass Feedstock #12;5 5 Spindletop at Beaumont, TX Circa late 1890's Birth of the Petroleum Industry in Texas

  17. Performance of Wood-Frame Structures during Hurricane Katrina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Performance of Wood-Frame Structures during Hurricane Katrina John W. van de Lindt, M.ASCE1 ; and Kenneth J. Fridley, M.ASCE6 Abstract: The costliest natural disaster in U.S. history was Hurricane Katrina; Hurricanes; Damage; Gulf of Mexico. Introduction The data reconnaissance consisted of 3 days of data

  18. Wood River Drainage and Levee District, Illinois Design Deficiency Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    to the design criterion of a safety factor of 1.6, as well as a lower factor of safety for the temporary USACE criteria require a minimum factor of safety of 1.6. b. Parametric study to understand#12;1 Wood River Drainage and Levee District, Illinois Design Deficiency Study Limited Reevaluation

  19. Provenance study and environments of deposition of the Pennslyvanian-Permian Wood River Formation, south-central Idaho, and the paleotectonic character of the Wood River basin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, Christopher William

    1982-01-01

    PROVENANCE STUDY AND ENVIRONMENTS OF DEPOSITION OF THE PENNSYLVANIAN-PERMIAN WOOD RIVER FORMATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL IDAHO, AND THE PALEOTECTONIC CHARACTER OF THE WOOD RIVER BASIN A 'Ihesis by CHRISTOPHER WILLIAM DEAN Submitted to the Graduate..., SOUTH-CENTRAL IDAHO, AND THE PALEOTECTONIC CHARACTER OF THE WOOD RIVER BASIN A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER WILLIAM DEAN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Co ittee) (Member) (Member) (H of Dep tment) December, 1982 ABSTRACT Provenance...

  20. Improved stud configurations for attaching laminated wood wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faddoul, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    In order to improve joint strength for bonded studs in laminated wood structures (wind turbine blades) a series of designs was developed and tested. Each design systematically varied a parameter which was expected to have a significant effect on performance. The structural capability of each design was established based on tension-tension fatigue tests, and it was found that a stud with a concave tapered carrot design, bonded in place with an epoxy thickened with chopped carbon fiber, was the most effective design. Further improvements in joint performance could be made by augmenting the laminated wood with thin plies of carbon cloth (10 percent thickness buildup) in the area of the stud. Two designs were selected for further testing, which demonstrated that joint strengths approaching the membrane wood strength could be achieved. For a 3- by 3-inch wood block, an ultimate load exceeding 100,000 lbs could be introduced through a single bonded stud. For the same type of specimen in cyclic tension at an R-ratio of 0.1, the bonded studs were projected to have a fatigue life of 4 x 10/sup 8/ cycles at maximum loads of 30,000 lbs. For reversed axial fatigue, a reduction of 25 percent from these numbers was shown to be appropriate. These values represent an improvement of 100 percent over the stud designs used previously for laminated wood wind turbine blades. However, temperatures of 100/sup 0/F with humidity at 100 percent in certain cases caused a loss of ultimate load capability approaching 35 percent and a loss of fatigue capacity approaching 50 percent. While this result may have been specimen-related, additional testing or a change in the epoxy resin system should be considered before using the bonded stud designs in hot, humid environments.

  1. New Developments in Wood-Destroying Organisms from the International Research Group on Wood Preservation (IRG)1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , decay mechanisms and product problems, new techniques, insect problems and control, and developments associated with new methods of termite control Insects in dry wood (excluding termites) 1Presented Disease Work Conference and Western Forest Insect Work Conference meeting. For more details and data on

  2. AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Jebediah Wilson for the Master of Science in Civil Engineering and Wood Science presented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    and Wood Science presented on September 26, 2008. Title: Behavior of a 1/6th Scale, Two-Story, Wood Framed was to develop an understanding of the nature of surge wave loading on wood framed residential structures forces on a 1/6th scale wood framed residential structure, (2) to evaluate qualitatively the structural

  3. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 527 DecAID: A Decaying Wood Advisory Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 527 DecAID: A Decaying Wood Advisory Model and decaying wood (dead and partially dead trees and down wood) necessary to maintain wildlife habitat in Washington and Oregon. Whereas the relationship of dead and decaying wood to wildlife habitat is a major

  4. IAWA Journal, Vol. 24 (4), 2003: 345353 THE AGE AND DENSITY OF ANCIENT AND MODERN OAK WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stambaugh, Michael C

    IAWA Journal, Vol. 24 (4), 2003: 345­353 THE AGE AND DENSITY OF ANCIENT AND MODERN OAK WOOD of Missouri, 203 ABNR Building, Columbia, MO 65211, USA [E-mail: guyetter@missouri.edu] SUMMARY Large wood thousands of years. This wood affords the opportunity to compare a chronosequence of differ- ences in wood

  5. Woodfuel Use Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2009 I Hudson Consulting I August 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1.3. Other Industry/Commercial Heat Only Wood Fuel Use 3.2. Pellet plants 3 in previous reports: Virgin wood fibre Imported fibre (in the form of wood pellets) Recycled fibre EnergyWoodfuel Use Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2009 I Hudson Consulting I August 2009 Woodfuel

  6. Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2011 I Hudson Consulting I September 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by 2012 and beyond. The use of recycled fibre is forecast to increase to 40% in 2012. 8. Four wood pellet in forecast demand for wood to be used for pellet production of 140k odt/yr in 2011. 9. The total of woodWoodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2011 I Hudson Consulting I September 2011

  7. Understanding trait interactions and their impacts on growth in Scots pine branches across Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    ­effect relationships between anatomical traits, hydraulic traits and branch growth, we measured for each branch Studies, Wageningen University, PO 47, NL­6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands; 2 CREAF / Ecology Unit: the tracheid hydraulic diame- ter, double cell wall thickness, cell lumen span area, wood density, cavitation

  8. Growth and Yield in Eucalyptus globulus1 James A. Rinehart and Richard B. Standiford2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -- -- Growth and Yield in Eucalyptus globulus1 James A. Rinehart and Richard B. Standiford2 Various species of Eucalyptus have been of in terest in California since their introduction in 1860 (Metcalf, 1924), with Eucalyptus globulus (Blue Gum) being the most widely planted. While its wood has limited

  9. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

  10. Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into wood substrate and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rector, Kirk D; Lucas, Marcel

    2015-11-04

    Metal nanoparticles were incorporated into wood. Ionic liquids were used to expand the wood cell wall structure for nanoparticle incorporation into the cell wall structure. Nanoparticles of elemental gold or silver were found to be effective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) imaging contrast or sensing agents. Nanoparticles of elemental iron were found to be efficient microwave absorbers and caused localized heating for disrupting the integrity of the lignocellulosic matrix. Controls suggest that the localized heating around the iron nanoparticles reduces losses of cellulose in the form of water, volatiles and CO.sub.2. The ionic liquid is needed during the incorporation process at room temperature. The use of small amounts of ionic liquid combined with the absence of an ionic liquid purification step and a lower energy and water use are expected to reduce costs in an up-scaled pretreatment process.

  11. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  12. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Oveisi, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  13. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  14. Kinetic Modeling and Assessment of Lime Pretreatment of Poplar Wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

    2012-02-14

    , industrial, and agricultural). 5. Appropriate selection of feedstock and conversion technology. 6. Improved efficiency of the production technology obtained through intensive research and development. 7. More efficient use of energy, including vehicle...-1 KINETIC MODELING AND ASSESSMENT OF LIME PRETREATMENT OF POPLAR WOOD A Dissertation by ROCIO SIERRA RAMIREZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  15. Genotoxicity profiles during KPEG dehalogenation of wood preserving waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Marjorie S

    1994-01-01

    treatment for hazardous wastes. However, as opposed to landfilling aud other nsethods. incineration provides an insmerliate and pernaanent solutiou. Hydroc&arbons in soils, sludges, liqu&ds, and fumes are mineralized to svater aud carbou dioxide (Long... time, PCP concentration, and waste water content were stud- ied to deterinine approximate optimal conditions for KPEG dehalogenation. KPEG was added to wood preserving waste sludge at temperatures ranging from 30-120 C. The mixture was then treated...

  16. Laguna Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: EnergyKulpsville,LEDSGP/activitiesPlata ElectricLackawanna,Oregon:Beach,Woods,

  17. Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma, Arizona: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Utah:Information Woods

  18. Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs SearchAMERICA'S FUTURE.ProjectsLeaders |3RadjaWendeWood and

  19. Internet growth: Myth and reality, use and abuse Andrew Odlyzko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odlyzko, Andrew M.

    Internet growth: Myth and reality, use and abuse Andrew Odlyzko AT&T Labs - Research amo@research.att.com http://www.research.att.com/ amo Abstract Actual Internet traffic growth rates of 100 percent per year to Internet growth claim astronomical rates of increase; the usual phrase is that "Internet traffic

  20. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  1. Ross Woods and Dr. Shane A. Brown Department of Civil Engineering Washington State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Ross Woods and Dr. Shane A. Brown Department of Civil Engineering · Washington State University al. 2007). Other Findings: · Increased Interest in careers in Science, Technology, Engineering

  2. Case-Based Support for Forestry Decisions: How to See the Wood from the Trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridge, Derek

    is to estimate what products can be produced from a tree, e.g. size and quality of planks, amount of wood-chip

  3. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on November 1, 2015 Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ;...

  4. Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia:Illinois:Wizard Power Pty Ltd Jump to:Texas: EnergyWood,

  5. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia:Illinois:Wizard Power Pty LtdWoodlawn Park,Woodridge,County,Woods

  6. Environmental characterization studies of a high-throughput wood gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.; Niemann, R.C.; Wilzbach, K.E.; Paisley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Potential environmental effects associated with thermochemical biomass gasification have been studied by Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL). A series of samples from the process research unit of an indirectly heated, high-throughput wood gasifier operated by BCL has been analyzed for potentially toxic organic compounds and trace elements. The results indicate that, under the test-run conditions, the gasification of both pine and hardwood is accompanied by the formation of some oil, the heavier fraction of which gives a positive response in the Ames assay for mutagenicity and contains numerous phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including some carcinogens. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  7. Wood Gasification: Where It's At, Where It's Going 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    the proven combustion system. With other applications such as the firing of lime kilns in the pul p and pape r indus try where the opti ons, other than fossil fuel s and gasification, are non existent and the economics for gasification are very similar... in biomass gasifi cation. As early as 1839, processes were in operation on coal, wood or other residues in which a combustible off-gas, or producer gas as it was aptly dubbed, was generated by the incomplete fuel oxidatior, \

  8. Meadow Woods, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy Resources Jump to:Electric Coop, IncSouth Dakota: Energy ResourcesWoods,

  9. Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005Minnehaha County,EnergyIIMotors Jump to:Woods, Kansas:

  10. International WoodFuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8, 13Renewable Power JumpForestWoodFuels LLC Jump to:

  11. Wood County Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to: navigation,Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Jump to:

  12. Wood County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to: navigation,Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Jump

  13. Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to: navigation,Wood County Electric Coop, IncCoopHole

  14. Lake of the Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWinds Jump to: navigation, search Name Lake WindsWoods,

  15. Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricNCubictheThe U.S.DecemberChinnConcernsStartingWood

  16. Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'S FUTURE.Energy Wind PowerRegina Rameika WomenWood and Pellet

  17. RATE OF STRAIN TENSOR STATISTICS IN COMPRESSIBLE HOMOGENEOUS G. Erlebacher 1 , S. Sarkar 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Gordon

    RATE OF STRAIN TENSOR STATISTICS IN COMPRESSIBLE HOMOGENEOUS TURBULENCE G. Erlebacher 1 , S. Sarkar examined to determine the effect of compressibility on the growth of kinetic energy and of dissipation Mach number) decrease the growth rate of the kinetic energy. This reduction in the growth rate

  18. Seismic design of a current woodframe structure and study of innovative products and damping systems in wood construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahjoub, Nina A. (Nina Azadeh)

    2007-01-01

    Wood structures have seen resurgence in popularity over the past several decades, especially in Western States of America, such as California. The industry keeps creating new structural wood products of exceptional strength, ...

  19. Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings Larry Hughes and Tylor Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/200702 Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings Larry Hughes and Tylor Wood Energy.hughes@dal.ca 26 March 2007 #12;Hughes and Wood: Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings 1 Summary This report considers the limitations on solar energy in new, multi-storey residential buildings. In a time

  20. Generation, Use, Disposal, and Management Options for CCA-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT 2207 NW 13 Street, Suite D Gainesville, FL 32609 Report #98-1 #12;i TABLE Waste 20 CHAPTER III, MANAGEMENT OPTIONS III.1 Waste Minimization 34 III.2 Reuse 38 III.3 Recycling 39 of Management Options for CCA-Treated Wood 43 Waste Table A-1 Wood Treatment Plants Located in Florida A-2 to A

  1. SECTION 45 Table of Contents 45 Lake Rufus Woods Subbasin Overview.......................................................2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and tributaries from Chief Joseph Dam to Grand Coulee Dam in north central Washington state. 45.2 Lake Rufus Woods impoundment located in north central Washington. Lake Rufus Woods is bounded by Chief Joseph Dam at river mile (RM) 545.1 at its lower end, and Grand Coulee Dam at RM 596.6 at its upper end. The Colville Indian

  2. INTRODUCTION Red wood ants play an important role in the ecology of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Len

    INTRODUCTION Red wood ants play an important role in the ecology of woodland ecosystems by virtue the ecological impor- tance of red wood ants (Gösswald, 1989) and the conser- vation concern for some species.borkin@clear.net.nz 2 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Etive House, Beechwood Park, Inverness, IV2 3BW, UK; e

  3. Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA Submitted to Dr. Bi By Bernard Chan Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas" By Bernard Chan, Brian Chan, and Christopher Young Abstract This report studies the feasibility of replacing natural gas with wood pellets for UBC boilers. A gasification

  4. European Institute for Wood Preservation Congress 4-6 September 2008, Lausanne, Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    European Institute for Wood Preservation Congress 4-6 September 2008, Lausanne, Switzerland, Geneva #12;European Institute for Wood Preservation Congress 4-6 September 2008, Lausanne, Switzerland 2008, Lausanne, Switzerland Main sources of information W W W W W W W W W W W W · UNECE/FAO Forest

  5. Research Summary The `Faith Woodland' project in Maulden Woods: an evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Summary The `Faith Woodland' project in Maulden Woods: an evaluation A pioneering `Faith Woodland' project at Maulden Wood in Bedfordshire was evaluated in 2007, nearly two years after woodlands in future. The Faith Woodlands leaflet produced through the project has the strapline `Different

  6. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION FOR:1 Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION FOR:1 Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning2 emissions 616263646566 67686970717273747576 7778798081828384858687888990 919293949596979899100 BBOA wood burning 1² = 0.77 C3H5O2 + vs BBOA r² = 0.93 5 4 3 2 1 0 HOA(µgm -3 ) 706050403020100 NOx (ppb) HOA vs NOx r² = 0

  7. Optical response of grating-coupler-induced intersubband resonances: The role of Wood's anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    Optical response of grating-coupler-induced intersubband resonances: The role of Wood's anomalies L of Wood's anomalies. S0163-1829 97 05403-9 I. INTRODUCTION The optical and electronic properties at, e.g., a modulation- doped semiconductor heterojunction have been widely stud- ied in the recent

  8. Research Article Fibre wall and lumen fractions drive wood density variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Ian

    with hydraulic strategies. Denser woods tend to operate at more negative water potentials (Ackerly 2004; Bucci et et al. 2011). Wood density has been studied in relation to hydraulic conductivity but the results.s.zieminska@gmail.com Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. This is an Open Access

  9. Wood products trade and foreign markets: Asian market profile issue, November 1993. Foreign agriculture circular

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Contents: trade summary; significant developments; status of usda/ccc export credit guarantees for wood products; US global export status; trends in US exports to the pacific rim; market profiles for wood products; pacific rim; europe; commodity/country trade tables; US exports, 1988 - 1st half 1993; US imports, 1988 - 1st half 1993.

  10. Presentation 2.6: Wood waste for energy: lessons learnt from tropical regions Paul Vantomme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the production chain MalaysiaResearch and development in energy alternative from biomass through briquetting and forest industries GhanaDevelopment of energy alternatives for the efficient utilization of woodPresentation 2.6: Wood waste for energy: lessons learnt from tropical regions Paul Vantomme

  11. Influences of Government Interventions on Increasing Value-Added Wood Product Exports from Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influences of Government Interventions on Increasing Value-Added Wood Product Exports from Ghana exporting raw materials such lumber to exporting processed or value-added wood products. In the mid-1990s on increasing value-added exports. These actions are: 1) the imposition of a levy on air-dried lumber exports, 2

  12. US, EU Consumption Driving Chinese Imports of Illegal Wood from Around the World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US, EU Consumption Driving Chinese Imports of Illegal Wood from Around the World Chinese Government the world's leading importer of wood from tropical, developing countries. China has captured one, and environmental destruction and poverty in forest areas around the world. It also presents a number

  13. ORIGINAL PAPER Wood ash effects on nutrient dynamics and soil properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Wood ash effects on nutrient dynamics and soil properties under Mediterranean aims to evaluate the effects of wood ash application on nutrient dynamics and soil properties of an acidic forest soil (Arenosol). & Methods Treatments were loose and pelleted ash application (11 Mg ha-1

  14. SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet burning equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overviews 1 SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet. The DemoEast programme objective in Estonia was to promote the pellets firing technology, equipment and Kiltsi light oil fired boilers have been converted to wood pellets burning. The supplier

  15. RETENTION OF Cd, Cu, Pb AND Zn BY WOOD ASH, LIME AND FUME DUST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    RETENTION OF Cd, Cu, Pb AND Zn BY WOOD ASH, LIME AND FUME DUST TAIT CHIRENJE1 , LENA Q. MA2 and ecosystem health. This study investigated the effectiveness of wood ash in immobilizing the heavy metals Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn from aqueous solutions. The effects of initial metal concentrations, solution pH, ash

  16. Use of Wood Waste in Rehabilitation of Landings Constructed on Fine-Textured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanborn, Paul

    Use of Wood Waste in Rehabilitation of Landings Constructed on Fine-Textured Soils, Central landings and roads constructed on fine-textured Alfisols must ameliorate poor soil structure, high bulk rehabilitated with three operationally feasible treatments: (1) incorpora- tion of waste wood chips (140 t

  17. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    Abstract—Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  18. Seismic Screening, Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Design Provisions for Wood-Framed Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Seismic Screening, Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Design Provisions for Wood-Framed Structures Preston Baxter, M.ASCE1 ; Thomas H. Miller, M.ASCE2 ; and Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE3 Abstract: Seismic Database subject headings: Seismic analysis; Seismic design; Wood structures; Shear walls; Diaphragms

  19. Opportunities for UPC Product and Service Suppliers: The Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    Opportunities for UPC Product and Service Suppliers: The Wood Products Industry Working Paper #4, profitability and competitiveness through point-of-sale scanning. Home center suppliers have been encouraged competitors. Accordingly, wood products suppliers have begun the process of adopting UPC capabilities to serve

  20. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Ti-1100 at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.C.; Nicholas, T.

    1995-12-31

    Effects of temperature, frequency, and cycles with superimposed hold times are evaluated in Ti-1100 in order to study the complex creep-fatigue-environment interactions in this material. Crack growth rate tests conducted at cyclic loading frequency of 1.0 Hz show that raising the temperature from 593 to 650 C has only a slightly detrimental effect on crack growth rate, although these temperatures produce growth rates significantly higher than at room temperature. From constant {Delta}K tests, the effects of temperature at constant frequency show a minimum crack growth rate at 250 C. From the minimum crack growth rate at 250 C, the crack growth rate increases linearly with temperature. Increases in frequency at constant temperatures of 593 and 650 C produce a continuous decrease in growth rate in going from 0.001 to 1.0 Hz, although the behavior is primarily cycle dependent in this region. Tests at 1.0 Hz with superimposed hold times from 1 to 1,000 s are used to evaluate creep-fatigue-environment interactions. Hold times at maximum load are found to initially decrease and then increase the cyclic crack growth rate with increasing duration. This is attributed to crack-tip blunting during short hold times and environmental degradation at long hold times. Hold times at minimum load show no change in growth rates, indicating that there is no net environmental degradation to the bulk material beyond that experienced during the baseline 1 Hz cycling.

  1. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earth’s atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values. Improved technology and/or knowledge of reforestation practices in these situations may provide opportunities to reduce the costs of converting many of these sites as research continues into these practices. It also appears that in many cases substantial payments, non-revenue values, or carbon values are required to reach “profitability” under the present circumstances. It is unclear when, or in what form, markets will develop to support any of these add-on values to supplement commercial forestry revenues. However, as these markets do develop, they will only enhance the viability of forestry on reclaimed mined lands, although as we demonstrate in our analysis of carbon payments, the form of the revenue source may itself influence management, potentially mitigating some of the benefits of reforestation. For a representative mined-land resource base, reforestation of mined lands with mixed pine-hardwood species would result in an average estimated C accumulation in forms that can be harvested for use as wood products or are likely to remain in the soil C pool at ~250 Mg C ha{sup -1} over a 60 year period following reforestation. The “additionality” of this potential C sequestration was estimated considering data in scientific literature that defines C accumulation in mined-land grasslands over the long term. Given assumptions detailed in the text, these lands have the potential to sequester ~180 Mg C ha{sup -1}, a total of 53.5 x 10{sup 6} Mg C, over 60 years, an average of ~900,000 Mg C / yr, an amount equivalent to about 0.04% of projected US C emissions at the midpoint of a 60-year period (circa 2040) following assumed reforestation. Although potential sequestration quantities are not great relative to potential national needs should an energy-related C emissions offset requirement be developed at some future date, these lands are available and unused for other economically valued purposes and many possess soil and site properties that are well-suited to reforestation. Should such reforestation occur, it would also produce ancillary benefits by providing env

  2. Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2012 I Hudson Consulting I November 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in progress 3.3. Wood fuel usage by fuel category 3.4. Pellet plants 3.5. Greenhouse gas emissions 4 to 1.073 million odt in 2014. 8. Four wood pellet manufacturing plants in Scotland used in total some 80k odt of wood in 2011. There is a major increase in forecast demand for wood to be used as pellet

  3. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; Thomas Stickle; Jun Wang; Hongming Li; William P. Barry

    2002-06-13

    During the third quarter, the experimental portion of the project was carried out. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NIOSH Boiler Plant (NBP). Blends using hammer-milled wood were operationally successful and can form the basis of Phase II. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and the mathematical modeling of mercury speciation reactions continued, yielding many interesting results. Material and energy balances for the test periods at the NBP, as well as at the Bellefield Boiler Plant, were prepared. Steps were taken to remove severe constraints from the Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Project and to organize the supplying of landfill gas to the Bruceton federal complex. Two presentations were made to meetings of the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  4. Sources of large wood in the main stem of a fourth-order watershed in coastal Oregon1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sources of large wood in the main stem of a fourth-order watershed in coastal Oregon1 Gordon H. Reeves, Kelly M. Burnett, and Edward V. McGarry Abstract: We compared the contribution of large wood from different sources and wood distributions among channel zones of influence in a relatively pristine fourth

  5. Dynamics of large wood in an eastern U.S. mountain stream Dana R. Warren *, Clifford E. Kraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    Dynamics of large wood in an eastern U.S. mountain stream Dana R. Warren *, Clifford E. Kraft recent studies have documented the importance of large woody debris (large wood) in streams of northeastern North America. Large wood retains sediment and organic matter (Thompson, 1995), promotes habitat

  6. AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Pranueng Limkatanyoo for the degree of Master of Science in Wood Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Pranueng Limkatanyoo for the degree of Master of Science in Wood Science presented on December 15, 2003. Title: System Behavior of Three-Dimensional Wood Truss Assemblies Limkatanyoo December 15, 2003 All Rights Reserved #12;System Behavior of Three-Dimensional Wood Truss

  7. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 71 Modeling the Delivery of Large Wood to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 71 Modeling the Delivery of Large Wood forest structure and predict the delivery of wood to over 55 stream kilometers in a 28-square kilometer = 0.45). The model predicted that 83 percent of wood delivered to streams originated within 20 meters

  8. On the origin of long secondary periods in semiregular variables E.A. Olivier and P.R. Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Peter

    On the origin of long secondary periods in semi­regular variables E.A. Olivier and P.R. Wood examples of light #12; -- 2 -- curves. Recently, Wood et al. (1999), henceforth W99, studied a group of red companions and episodic dust ejection (see W99 and Wood 2000a). There is some evidence in favour of each

  9. Effects of wood on debris flow runout in small mountain Stephen T. Lancaster and Shannon K. Hayes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of wood on debris flow runout in small mountain watersheds Stephen T. Lancaster and Shannon typically been viewed as two-phase mixtures of sediment and water, but in forested mountain landscapes, wood behavior are poorly understood. To evaluate whether wood can have a significant effect on debris flow

  10. Performance assessment of wood, metal and composite baseball bats Mahesh M. Shenoy, Lloyd V. Smith *, John T. Axtell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Lloyd V.

    Performance assessment of wood, metal and composite baseball bats Mahesh M. Shenoy, Lloyd V. Smith the durability of wood bats and is shown to have a minimal eect on its hitting performance. The utility of using is real, as rookie players often require numerous seasons to adjust to wood bats. This adjust- ment has

  11. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 535 Regional Patterns of Dead Wood in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 535 Regional Patterns of Dead Wood regional patterns of variation in dead wood across 20 million ha of upland forests of all ownerships in Oregon and Washington, based on an analysis of data on snags and down wood collected on over 16,000 field

  12. AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Michael C. Lewis for the degree of Master of Science in Wood Science and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    #12;AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Michael C. Lewis for the degree of Master of Science in Wood Science and Civil Engineering presented on June 12, 2008. Title: Performance of Wood Frame Wall with Thin Thomas H. Miller The overall goal of this study was to evaluate an alternative to traditional wood framed

  13. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into The Use of Glue Laminated Wood in Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Into The Use of Glue Laminated Wood in Construction Regina Lok Yun So James Wilkie Thai Nguyen Szymon Brykajlo Investigation Into The Use of Glue Laminated Wood in Construction by Regina Lok Yun So James Wilkie Thai Nguyen is a triple bottom line assessment off use of glued laminated wood (glulam) in construction. Its purpose

  14. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 649 Snags and Down Wood in the Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 649 Snags and Down Wood in the Interior and Rebecca A. Gravenmier5 Abstract Snags and down wood are major ecosystem and wildlife habitat components Advisory Group of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project modeled snag and down wood

  15. Metal Bioavailability and Speciation in a Wetland Tailings Repository Amended with Biosolids Compost, Wood Ash, and Sulfate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Compost, Wood Ash, and Sulfate Pam S. DeVolder, Sally L. Brown,* Dean Hesterberg, and Kumi Pandya ABSTRACT tundra swans surface amendments: (i) biosolids compost plus wood ash, (ii) and other animals found in the area have tested positive compost wood ash a low SO2 4 addition as K2SO4, and (iii) for Pb poisoning

  16. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. In addition, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbonmore »pollution from power plants.« less

  18. Fusion-fission reactions with modified Woods-Saxon potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning Wang; Kai Zhao; Werner Scheid; Xizhen Wu

    2007-12-15

    A modified Woods-Saxon potential model is proposed for a unified description of the entrance channel fusion barrier and the fission barrier of fusion-fission reactions based on the Skyrme energy-density functional approach. The fusion excitation functions of 120 reactions have been systematically studied. The fusion (capture) cross sections are well described with the calculated potential and an empirical barrier distribution. Incorporating a statistical model (HIVAP code) for describing the decay of the compound nucleus, the evaporation residue (and fission) cross sections of 51 fusion-fission reactions have been systematically investigated. Optimal values of some key parameters of the HIVAP code are obtained based on the experimental data of these reactions. The experimental data are reasonably well reproduced by the calculated results. The upper and lower confidence limits of the systematic errors of the calculated results are given.

  19. The genotoxic contribution of wood smoke to indoor respirable suspended particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, P.M. (John B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory, New Haven, CT (USA)); Rossman, T.G. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York (USA)); Daisey, J.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of wood burning stoves on the genotoxicity of indoor respirable organic matter was investigated for four homes during the winter and spring of 1986. Paired samples, one collected when the stove was not used and one when wood was burned, were extracted with dichloromethane and acetone. Aliquots of the dichloromethane extracts were analyzed with and without metabolic activation using the Microscreen bioassay. The Microscreen is a rapid, sensitive bioassay which measures a broad genotoxic endpoint, {lambda}-prophage induction. Per nanogram of organic material, wood smoke proved to be a major source of indirect (observed with metabolic activation) but not direct genotoxins in homes. The increase in indirect genotoxicity for extracts from aerosol containing wood smoke is probably due to higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the wood smoke aerosol as well as other unidentified classes. The direct genotoxicity observed for extracts of aerosol not containing wood smoke decreased with metabolic activation. This direct genotoxicity may be related to cooking activities in the homes. The trends in genotoxicity observed per nanogram of organic material are more pronounced when expressed per m{sup 3} of air due to the higher percentage of extractable material in aerosol containing wood smoke.

  20. Potential role of lignin in tomorrow's wood utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glasser, W.G.

    1981-03-01

    Low-grade timber supplies and wood processing residues are presently converted into paper products, used for fuel, or remain totally unused. Competition for this resource will continue to mount, particularly when manufacturers of chemicals and liquid fuels enter the market with new technologies now under development. The type of technology that concentrates on depolymerization of carbohydrates will generate large quantities of lignin-rich residues. The potential of these lignins to contribute to the economic feasibility of new chemical wood process technologies may involve degradative depolymerization to phenols and benzene, or polymer conversion into a wide variety of dispersants, binders, reinforcing and antioxidizing agents, etc. Where lignin's fuel value lies around 3 to 4 cents/lb. (fall of 1979), its raw material value for phenol is reported to be almost 5 cents/lb., and the value of the polymeric materials is estimated to be between 6 and 20 cents/lb. At the lower end of this range of raw material values are ligninsulfonates, which contribute nearly 98 percent to the approximately 1.5 billion lb./yr. U.S. market for lignin products. Kraft lignins are located at the opposite end of this range. Novel bioconversion-type lignins are expected to be more similar in structure and properties to kraft than to sulfite lignins. Whereas application of the dispersant properties of ligninsulfonates in tertiary oil recovery operations is expected to constitute the most significant use of lignin in terms of volume, adhesive and resin applications hold the greatest promise in terms of value. Both utilization schemes seem to require pretreatments in the form of either polymeric fractionation or chemical modification. Potential savings from the use of polymeric lignins in material systems are great.

  1. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  2. Effect of acetate and other cell wall components on enzymatic hydrolysis of aspen wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Fanran

    1990-01-01

    OH are much cheaper and safer. Furthermore, the procedure with dilute alkali is simpler and time of treatment is much shorter. Finally, the Klason lignin loss of aspen wood with 0. 1N KOH and with ratio of 12. 5 ml solution to I g wood is undetected...EFFECT OF ACETATE AND OTHER CELL WALL COMPONENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ASPEN WOOD A Thesis by FANRAN KONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  3. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  4. Logistic Growth Logistic growth is a simple model for predicting the size y(t) of a population as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Joel

    Logistic Growth Logistic growth is a simple model for predicting the size y(t) of a population the differential equation y (t) = by(t) Logistic growth adds one more wrinkle to this model. It assumes available to each member decreases. This in turn causes the net birth rate b to decrease. In the logistic

  5. The growth of business firms: Theoretical framework and empirical evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buldyrev, Sergey

    Pg(g) of business-firm growth rates. The model pre- dicts that Pg(g) is exponential in the central rate at all levels of aggregation studied. The Theoretical Framework We model business firms as classesThe growth of business firms: Theoretical framework and empirical evidence Dongfeng Fu* , Fabio

  6. FRN and Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  7. FRN & Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  8. Ground penetrating radar characterization of wood piles and the water table in Back Bay, Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LeFrançois, Suzanne O'Neil, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys are performed to determine the depth to the water table and the tops of wood piles beneath a residential structure at 122 Beacon Street in Back Bay, Boston. The area of Boston known ...

  9. POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES FILLED WITH STEAM-EXPLODED WOOD FIBERS FROM BEETLE-KILLED LOBLOLLY PINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    -soluble materials and were mainly composed of fiber fragments with lignin droplets on their surfaces. Composites serve local markets with value-added products (Forest Prod- ucts Laboratory 2000). Wood

  10. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Ohm, Robin A.; Riley, Robert...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Ohm, Robin A.; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Min, Byoungnam; Choi, In-Geol; Grigoriev, Igor V. Not Available Elsevier None USDOE United States...

  11. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The...

  12. Accuracy vs. Performance in Parallel Simulation of Interconnection Networks Douglas C. Burger and David A. Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, David A.

    and David A. Wood Computer Sciences Department University of Wisconsin-Madison 1210 West Dayton Street of stud- ies where the trade-off between simulation speed and accuracy is less clear: application

  13. Analytical Modeling of Wood Frame Shear Walls Subjected to Vertical Load 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyendinh, Hai

    2011-08-08

    A nonlinear automated parameter fitted analytical model that numerically predicts the load-displacement response of wood frame shear walls subjected to static monotonic loading with and without vertical load is presented. This analytical model...

  14. Thermal properties of structural details in wood frame homes : analysis and recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graybeal, Alexander Kung

    2010-01-01

    The wood platform frame home is the dominant design in the United States when it comes to single family housing. Introduced during the mid-nineteenth century, the scheme is a cheap, fast, and proven design that takes ...

  15. Multi-functional supramolecular polymer networks as next generation consolidants for archaeological wood conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Zarah; Jane?ek, Emma-Rose; Hodgkinson, James T.; Sedlmair, Julia; Koutsioubas, Alexandros; Spring, David R.; Welch, Martin; Hirschmugl, Carol J.; Toprakcioglu, Chris; Nitschke, Jonathan R.; Jones, Mark; Scherman, Oren A.

    2014-11-10

    CG, Nilsson T, Daniel G (1999) Microbial decay of waterlogged archaeological wood found in Sweden applicable to archaeology and conservation. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 43:63-73. 5. Almkvist G, Persson I (2008) Degradation of polyethylene glycol...

  16. Housing 2020: The future of wood in U.S. dwellings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presented at the International Panel and Engineered-Wood Technology Exposition examines the effect that reduced material resources, energy conservation, manufactured dwellings, and construction techniques have had on the use of wood in the housing industry. The topics of the paper include the impact of the energy crisis, financing and affordability crisis, lumber crisis, and a forecast of what the house of the year 2020 will look like, how it will be constructed and of what material will it be constructed.

  17. Utilization of artificial nesting cavities by wood ducks (Aix sponsa) in central Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labuda, Stephen Edward

    1977-01-01

    UTILIZATION OF ARTIFICIAL NESTING CAVITIES BY WOOD DUCKS (Aix ~sonsa) IN CENTRAL TEXAS A Thesis by STEPHEN EDWARD LABUDA, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences UTILIZATION OF ARTIFICIAL NESTING CAVITIES BY WOOD DUCKS (Aix ~sonsa) IN CENTRAL TEXAS A Thesis by STEPHEN EDWARD LABUDA, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Chairman...

  18. Effects of Framing on the Thermal Performance of Wood and Steel-Framed Walls 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosny, J.; Yarbrough, D. W.; Childs, P.; Mohiuddin, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    ON THE THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF WOOD AND STEEL-FRAMED WALLS JAN KOSNY, PhD DAVID W. YARBROUGH PhD, PE PHILLIP CHILDS Senior research engineer Senior research engineer Research engineer Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN SYED AZAM MOHIUDDIN...% framing factor for US homes. This paper reports, experimental work and numerical analysis of the thermal performance of various configurations of structural components in wood and steel-framed walls. In addition, the consequences of installation...

  19. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  20. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  1. Some factors influencing digestion and growth rates of beef steers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gossett, John Warren

    1955-01-01

    a 3 lb, JGfelfa 3 lb. Alfalfa 2 lb. Cottccs ' ~0 1 lb Salt 1 Ib Salt ~ ~ 3 lb tie~lao Xtsxs Trial ~ Esxdsar af etaora Uatriossta oosssmacl par trials Protein (lbe) Credo fiber (lb ) Ether extract (lbe) Eitrodan fros extract (1'b. ) Didcetian... ooafficden&s Credo protein, 5 Crads fibers g Ether extract, 5 Eitro~ free oxtraota $ 19e21 43. 49 6, 97 22e62 45. 49 3 e29 5, 31 24. 32 50e91 3e53 63e97 + lel4 60e27 + 1. 15 67. 74 + 0. 78 64. 51 + 2 33 77. 36 + 1 JA 73 IS + 0 74 74e30 e Oe59...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Effects of temperature on growth rate and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caron, David

    living biomass within these systems, serve as the major top­down control on bacterial assemblages, and are an important source of mortality for microalgae and other heterotrophic protists (Sanders et al., 1992; Sherr

  3. Slow growth rates of Amazonian trees: Consequences for carbon cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    m, and Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura?UniversidadIsoto´pica, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, P.O.

  4. Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2010 I Hudson Consulting I October 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1.3. Other Industry/Commercial Heat Only (using up to 1,000 odt/yr) 3.1.4. Total Wood Fuel Use 3.2. Pellet categories are used: Virgin wood fibre (chip and sawmill co-product) UK Pellet Recycled fibre Energy cropsWoodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2010 I Hudson Consulting I October 2010

  5. I N F O R M A T I O N N O T E Forests and Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ecosystem as they have a vital functional role through: · influencing the distribution, abundance wood ant nest mounds); · providing an important food source for predators such as capercaillie (Tetrao

  6. Get Your Quotation Home: Global Wood Industry News & Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    & Holland 01-15th March 2010 Report from Europe, the UK and Russia EU economies under stress Economic news://www.globalwood.org/market/timber_prices_2009/aaw20100301e.htm #12;Weak export growth is a particular problem in Germany where manufacturers tend to be more heavily dependent on export markets but at least Germany has stronger domestic

  7. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nautiyal, Sunil Kaechele, Harald

    2008-11-15

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  8. 2004 Rate Adjustments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Transmission and Ancillary Services Federal Register Notice -- Rate Order WAPA-141: Notice of Extension of Formula Rates for Transmission and Ancillary Services If you have any...

  9. Rate Schedule CPP-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    points established by contract, in accordance with approved policies and procedures. Formula Rate: The formula rate for CPP includes three components: Component 1: The customer...

  10. Coral Extension Rate Analysis Using Computed Axial Tomography 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yudelman, Eleanor Ann

    2014-01-10

    Biological and geological studies of coral reefs often rely on measured Scleractinian coral skeletal extension rates. Ideally, corallites are oriented parallel to a coral core’s longitudinal axis and perpendicular to its annual high-density growth...

  11. Technology Policy and Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrus, Michael; Stowsky, Jay

    1997-01-01

    economic growth) and the Pentagon’s Technology Reinvestment20 Tassey, Technology and Economic Growth: Implications forTechnology Policy and Economic Growth Michael Borrus Jay

  12. 1 NCGR 2003 Connecting metabolic rate and temperature to population growth rates in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , of the Department of Energy Genomes to Life project: Carbon Sequestration in Synechococcus sp.: From Molecular. A specific challenge for this project is to integrate the biotic molecular mechanism of carbon sequestration in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus to the abiotic process of carbon cycling and ecosystem dynamics

  13. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

  14. Precision wood particle feedstocks with retained moisture contents of greater than 30% dry basis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-10-28

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  15. Electric co-generation units equipped with wood gasifier and Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartolini, C.M.; Caresana, F.; Pelagalli, L.

    1998-07-01

    The disposal of industrial waste such as oil sludges, waste plastic, lubricant oils, paper and wood poses serious problems due to the ever increasing amount of material to be disposed of and to the difficulty in finding new dumping sites. The interest in energy recovery technologies is accordingly on the increase. In particular, large amounts of waste wood are simply burned or thrown away causing considerable environmental damage. In this context the co-generation technique represents one of the possible solutions for efficient energy conversion. The present paper proposes the employment of a Stirling engine as prime mover in a co-generation set equipped with a wood gasifier. A Stirling engine prototype previously developed in a joint project with Mase Generators, an Italian manufacturer of fixed and portable electrogenerators, is illustrated and its design is described.

  16. The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1990-02-01

    The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Fabrication of low-cost Mod-0A wood-composite wind-turbine blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lark, R.F.; Gougeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zuteck, M.

    1983-02-01

    A contract was awarded to Gougeon Brothers, Inc., by NASA Lewis Research Center, under Department of Energy sponsorship, for the development and fabrication of two 60-foot, low-cost wood composite blades for service on a 200-kW Mod-0A wind turbine machine. The contractural effort consisted of blade design and analysis and fabrication phases. This report provides a brief summary of the design and analysis phase, and an indepth review of the blade fabrication phase. The wood composite blades were fabricated by using epoxy resin-bonded laminates of Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge spar sections and honeycomb-cored birch plywood panels for the blade trailing edge or afterbody sections. The blade was joined to the wind turbine hub assembly by epoxy resin-bonded steel load takeoff studs. The wood composite blades were installed in the newest Mod-0A wind turbine test facility at Kukuku, Hawaii called Makini Huila (wind wheel) by the Hawaiians. The wood composite blades have successfully completed high power (average of 150 kW) operations for an 18-month period (nearly 8000 h) prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The original set of blades were taken out of service because of the failure of the shank on one stud. An inspection of the blades at NASA Lewis showed that the shank failure was caused by a high stress concentration at a corrosion pit on the shank fillet radius which resulted in fatigue stresses in excess of the endurance limit. The remainder of the blade, including the embedded portion of the fractured stud, and the entire wood structure was found to be in excellent condition. All of the remaining studs, with the exception of four studs that showed an onset of corrosion, were also in excellent condition. The failed stud, as well as four of the corroded studs were successfully replaced with new studs. The blade is currently in a service-ready condition.

  18. HOT BOTTOM BURNING IN INTERMEDIATE MASS STARS JOHN LATTANZIO 1;2 , CHERYL FROST 1;2 , ROBERT CANNON 2;3 , PETER WOOD 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lattanzio, John

    2;3 , PETER WOOD 4 1 Monash University, Melbourne, Australia 2 Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge in the Magellanic Clouds were observed by Wood, Bessell and Fox (1983) they were surprised to discover

  19. Minutes of the Chancellor's Cabinet Meeting of Monday, February 24, 2014 Present: Les Johnson, Barbara Keinath, Peter Phaiah, Tricia Sanders, Andrew Svec, Fred Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    , Barbara Keinath, Peter Phaiah, Tricia Sanders, Andrew Svec, Fred Wood Meeting began at 8:30. I. Minutes high awareness of and build support for UMC's Wellness Center, Fred Wood is meeting tonight

  20. Journal of Hazardous Materials A135 (2006) 2131 Leaching of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    2006-01-01

    , and chromium, is a concern to the solid waste management community. Landfills are often the final repository, but management as a solid wastebegins.DiscardedCCA-treatedwoodisexemptfromchar- acterization as a hazardous waste, mining waste, or wood. The feasibility of managing CCA-treated wood in monofills was examined using

  1. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolussi, Kurt

    Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation Thomas Pichler a,b,*, Kurt Nicolussi a , Gert Goldenberg c September 2012 Accepted 7 September 2012 Keywords: Dendrochronology Copper-mining Fire-setting Wood

  2. Evaluation of XRF and LIBS technologies for on-line sorting of CCA-treated wood waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    waste represents a large component of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste streamEvaluation of XRF and LIBS technologies for on-line sorting of CCA-treated wood waste Helena M Accepted 29 September 2003 Abstract Contamination of wood waste with chromated copper arsenate greatly

  3. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Product and supplier factors affecting the purchasing of U.S. wood products i...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    permission. Product and supplier factors affecting the purchasing of U.S. wood products i... John M Guerin

  4. Somatic growth functions are critical parameters for understanding the life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    181300 Corpus Christi, Texas 78480 Wendy G. Teas Wayne N. Witzell Southeast Fisheries Science Center growth rates was tested in a population of green turtles, Chelonia mydas, in the south- ern Bahamas

  5. Using buoyant mass to measure the growth of single cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godin, Michel

    We used a suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) combined with picoliter-scale microfluidic control to measure buoyant mass and determine the 'instantaneous' growth rates of individual cells. The SMR measures mass with ...

  6. Global investments for sustainable growth in the wireless telecommunication industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuda, Osamu, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1992, NTT DoCoMo had accomplished rapid growth by developing innovative strategies and meeting consumer demands. However, the population-based penetration rate of Japanese wireless phones now ...

  7. U.S. Metropolitan Spatial Structure and Employment Growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xiaoyan

    2014-08-13

    This study explores the influence of US metropolitan spatial structure evolution on regional employment growth rate. The first part of this study investigates the evolution of US metropolitan spatial structures from 2000 to 2010. At the macro level...

  8. Bolding, M.C., and B.L. Lanford. 2001. Forest fuel reduction through energy wood production using a CTL / small chipper harvesting system. In: Proc. 24th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    Reference: Bolding, M.C., and B.L. Lanford. 2001. Forest fuel reduction through energy wood Meeting; Snowshoe, WV. Forest Fuel Reduction Through Energy Wood Production Using a Small Chipper investigates the feasibility of harvesting to reduce forest fuel buildup and produce energy wood. Cut

  9. The floodplain large-wood cycle hypothesis: A mechanism for the physical and biotic structuring of temperate forested alluvial valleys in the North Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    The floodplain large-wood cycle hypothesis: A mechanism for the physical and biotic structuring Available online 1 December 2011 Keywords: Wood debris Riparian forest Fluvial geomorphology Foundation species Biogeomorphology River restoration A `floodplain large-wood cycle' is hypothesized as a mechanism

  10. THE SIREX WOOD-WASPS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE IN FORESTRY. By R. N. CHRYSTAL, Hon. M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc. (For.) (Edin.).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    219 THE SIREX WOOD-WASPS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE IN FORESTRY. By R. N. CHRYSTAL, Hon. M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc. (For.) (Edin.). (PLATES IX-XI.) CONTENTS. PAGE Introduction 219 Systematic Notes on British Wood in Britain ... ... ... ... 226 The Forest Relations of the SIRICIDAE 238 Field Studies in Tubney Wood, Oxford

  11. Fraunhofer Institute for Wood Research, Wilhelm-Klauditz-Institut WKI (http://www.wki.fraunhofer.de) announces a Research Fellowship in all

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psarrakos, Panayiotis

    Fraunhofer Institute for Wood Research, Wilhelm-Klauditz-Institut WKI (http://www.wki.fraunhofer.de) announces a Research Fellowship in all areas of wood science, technology and engineering and seeks of but not limited to wood composite materials, natural materials based high strength cellulose or carbon fibers

  12. A Comparison of Trace-Sampling Techniques for Multi-Megabyte Caches R. E. Kessler, Mark D. Hill, and David A. Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Mark D.

    . Hill, and David A. Wood University of Wisconsin Computer Sciences Department Madison, Wisconsin 53706 also find that cold-start bias in time samples is most effectively reduced by the technique of Wood et Corporation. David A. Wood is supported in part by the National Science Foundation (CCR-9157366

  13. Genomewide analysis of polysaccharides degrading enzymes in 11 white-and brown-rot Polyporales provides insight into mechanisms of wood decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hibbett, David S.

    provides insight into mechanisms of wood decay Chiaki Hori Department of Biomaterials Sciences, Graduate, Wisconsin 53726 Abstract: To degrade the polysaccharides, wood- decay fungi secrete a variety of glycoside brevispora. Furthermore, we conducted comparative secretome analysis of seven Polyporales grown on wood

  14. Appeared as: Cox GM, Gibbons JM, Wood ATA, Craigon J, Ramsden SJ, Crout NMJ (2006). Towards the systematic simplification of mechanistic models. Ecological Modelling 198:240-246.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crout, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Appeared as: Cox GM, Gibbons JM, Wood ATA, Craigon J, Ramsden SJ, Crout NMJ (2006). Towards simplification of mechanistic models1 2 1 G. M. Cox, 1 J. M. Gibbons, 2 A. T. A. Wood, 1 J. Craigon, 1 S. J GM, Gibbons JM, Wood ATA, Craigon J, Ramsden SJ, Crout NMJ (2006). Towards the systematic

  15. Wood density in forests of Brazil's `arc of deforestation': Implications for biomass and flux of carbon from land-use change in Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camara, Gilberto

    Wood density in forests of Brazil's `arc of deforestation': Implications for biomass and flux form 25 April 2007; accepted 29 April 2007 Abstract Wood density is an important variable in estimates of forest biomass and greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. The mean wood density used in estimates

  16. Taxonomy and phylogeny of new wood-and soil-inhabiting Sporothrix species in the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taxonomy and phylogeny of new wood- and soil-inhabiting Sporothrix species in the Ophiostoma pathogen S. schenckii and various fungi associated with insects and sap stain of wood. A survey of fungi from wood utility poles in South Africa yielded two distinct groups of Sporothrix isolates from

  17. AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Arijit Sinha for the degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering and Wood Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Engineering and Wood Science presented on February 23, 2007. Title: Strain Distribution in OSB and GWB in Wood and GWB in a wood frame shear wall assembly, (2) analyze the failure progression of GWB and OSB, (3) study-fir studs 610 mm on center. Two 1220x2440x11.1 mm OSB panels were installed and fastened vertically

  18. SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP Study investigates impacts of the material and energetic utilization of wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    prices rise. (Photo: R. Rosin / TUM) 27.04.2015, Research news Wood is becoming an increasingly popular time since World War Two, more wood was being used in Germany to produce energy such as heat and electricity than to create commodities such as construction materials, composite wood products or paper

  19. Internet traffic growth: Sources and implications Andrew M. Odlyzko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odlyzko, Andrew M.

    Internet traffic growth: Sources and implications Andrew M. Odlyzko University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA ABSTRACT The high tech bubble was inflated by myths of astronomical Internet traffic growth rates. Yet although these myths were false, Internet traffic was increasing very rapidly, close

  20. Lesson 22 Related Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-10-11

    Oct 11, 2013 ... A spherical weather balloon is being inflated with helium at a rate of 82 cubic meters per minute. Find the rate at which its radius is increasing.