Sample records for growth increased efficiency

  1. Increasing the Efficiency of Energy Scavengers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahram M. Shahruz

    2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a methodology for designing efficient energy scavengers is proposed. The scavenger consists of a cantilever beam on which piezoelectric films and a mass are mounted. The mass at the tip of the beam is known as the proof mass and the device is called either an energy scavenger or a beam-mass system. The proof mass is a permanent magnet, where in its vicinity attracting permanent magnets are placed. It is shown that when the magnets have appropriate strengths and are placed appropriately, the vibration of the beam-mass system can be amplified, thereby the scavenged energy is increased. Examples are given throughout the paper.

  2. Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation-Related Heat Transfer Losses Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation-Related Heat...

  3. Effective Fouling Minimization Increases the Efficiency and Productivi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effective Fouling Minimization Increases the Efficiency and Productivity of Refineries Effective Fouling Minimization Increases the Efficiency and Productivity of Refineries This...

  4. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs cfdblastfurnace.pdf More...

  5. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles; Fuller, Merrian C.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Peters, Jane S.; McRae, Marjorie; Albers, Nathaniel; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Spahic, Mersiha

    2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy efficiency services sector (EESS) is poised to become an increasingly important part of the U.S. economy. Climate change and energy supply concerns, volatile and increasing energy prices, and a desire for greater energy independence have led many state and national leaders to support an increasingly prominent role for energy efficiency in U.S. energy policy. The national economic recession has also helped to boost the visibility of energy efficiency, as part of a strategy to support economic recovery. We expect investment in energy efficiency to increase dramatically both in the near-term and through 2020 and beyond. This increase will come both from public support, such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and significant increases in utility ratepayer funds directed toward efficiency, and also from increased private spending due to codes and standards, increasing energy prices, and voluntary standards for industry. Given the growing attention on energy efficiency, there is a concern among policy makers, program administrators, and others that there is an insufficiently trained workforce in place to meet the energy efficiency goals being put in place by local, state, and federal policy. To understand the likelihood of a potential workforce gap and appropriate response strategies, one needs to understand the size, composition, and potential for growth of the EESS. We use a bottom-up approach based upon almost 300 interviews with program administrators, education and training providers, and a variety of EESS employers and trade associations; communications with over 50 sector experts; as well as an extensive literature review. We attempt to provide insight into key aspects of the EESS by describing the current job composition, the current workforce size, our projections for sector growth through 2020, and key issues that may limit this growth.

  6. Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Wigeland; K. Hamman

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Suggested for Track 7: Advances in Reactor Core Design and In-Core Management _____________________________________________________________________________________ Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency R. Wigeland and K. Hamman Idaho National Laboratory Given the ability of fast reactors to effectively transmute the transuranic elements as are present in spent nuclear fuel, fast reactors are being considered as one element of future nuclear power systems to enable continued use and growth of nuclear power by limiting high-level waste generation. However, a key issue for fast reactors is higher electricity cost relative to other forms of nuclear energy generation. The economics of the fast reactor are affected by the amount of electric power that can be produced from a reactor, i.e., the thermal efficiency for electricity generation. The present study is examining the potential for fast reactor subassembly design changes to improve the thermal efficiency by increasing the average coolant outlet temperature without increasing peak temperatures within the subassembly, i.e., to make better use of current technology. Sodium-cooled fast reactors operate at temperatures far below the coolant boiling point, so that the maximum coolant outlet temperature is limited by the acceptable peak temperatures for the reactor fuel and cladding. Fast reactor fuel subassemblies have historically been constructed using a large number of small diameter fuel pins contained within a tube of hexagonal cross-section, or hexcan. Due to this design, there is a larger coolant flow area next to the hexcan wall as compared to flow area in the interior of the subassembly. This results in a higher flow rate near the hexcan wall, overcooling the fuel pins next to the wall, and a non-uniform coolant temperature distribution. It has been recognized for many years that this difference in sodium coolant temperature was detrimental to achieving greater thermal efficiency, since it causes the fuel pins in the center of the subassembly to operate at higher temperatures than those near the hexcan walls, and it is the temperature limit(s) for those fuel pins that limits the average coolant outlet temperature. Fuel subassembly design changes are being investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to quantify the effect that the design changes have on reducing the intra-subassembly coolant flow and temperature distribution. Simulations have been performed for a 19-pin test subassembly geometry using typical fuel pin diameters and wire wrap spacers. The results have shown that it may be possible to increase the average coolant outlet temperature by 20 C or more without changing the peak temperatures within the subassembly. These design changes should also be effective for reactor designs using subassemblies with larger numbers of fuel pins. R. Wigeland, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Mail Stop 3860, Idaho Falls, ID, U.S.A., 83415-3860 email – roald.wigeland@inl.gov fax (U.S.) – 208-526-2930

  7. Upconversion as a Viable Route to Increased Efficiency Solar Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Upconversion as a Viable Route to Increased Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion Joshua Zide, Matt University of Delaware Energy Institute #12;Efficiency drives reduced $/W.... http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/! Shockley-Queisser Limit! *adopted from http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/MSD-full-spectrum-solar

  8. Increasing Creel Interview Efficiency Through Early Survey Termination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Increasing Creel Interview Efficiency Through Early Survey Termination HAL R. OSBURN and MIKE G were terminated early when no angler interviews were con ducted by a specified time. Using this method, terminating

  9. Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. I. Growth and feed efficiency responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. I. Growth and feed efficiency responses growth promoters of antibiotic type authorised in the Euro- pean Union as additives for pig and poultry) growth promoter / antibiotic / pig / poultry Résumé - Les promoteurs de croissance dans l

  10. Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continuedOber 2013 Catalystcts.umn.edu Nearly all corn-based ethanol produced in the United States is anhydrous processes required to remove the water from ethanol consume a great deal of energy. Researchers from

  11. Invertible Clipping for Increasing the Power Efficiency of OFDM Amplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Invertible Clipping for Increasing the Power Efficiency of OFDM Amplification Salvatore Ragusa amplification in mobile communication systems. In this paper, we propose a new Peak-to- Average Power Ratio.Louet@supelec.fr Abstract-- Large fluctuations of OFDM signal amplitude rep- resent an important problem for power

  12. Increase of unit efficiency by improved waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, G.; Lankes, F.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For coal-fired power plants with flue gas desulfurization by wet scrubbing and desulfurized exhaust gas discharge via cooling tower, a further improvement of new power plant efficiency is possible by exhaust gas heat recovery. The waste heat of exhaust gas is extracted in a flue gas cooler before the wet scrubber and recovered for combustion air and/or feedwater heating by either direct or indirect coupling of heat transfer. Different process configurations for heat recovery system are described and evaluated with regard to net unit improvement. For unite firing bituminous coal an increase of net unit efficiency of 0.25 to 0.7 percentage points and for lignite 0.7 to 1.6 percentage points can be realized depending on the process configurations of the heat recovery systems.

  13. Increased Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. deer10sisken.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency...

  14. Alcoa: C-Suite Participation in Energy Efficiency Increases Accountabi...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Staff Engagement Throughout the Organization (March 2011) More Documents & Publications Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementation Replicate Best...

  15. Energy, efficiency and economic growth: a coevolutionary perspective and implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy, efficiency and economic growth: a coevolutionary perspective and implications for a low Economics and Policy Working Paper No. 146 Sustainability Research Institute Paper No. 49 Sustainability Research Institute SCHOOL OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT #12;The Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy

  16. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

    2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

  17. Increasing transcurium production efficiency through direct resonance shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogle, Susan L [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Alexander, Charles W [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is the world s leader in production of 252Cf. This and other heavy actinides are produced by irradiation of mixed curium/americium targets in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. Due to the strong dependence of isotopic cross sections upon incoming neutron energy, the efficiency with which an isotope is transmuted is highly dependent upon the neutron flux energy spectrum and intensities. There are certain energy ranges in which the rate of fissions in feedstock materials can be minimized relative to the rate of (n, ) absorptions. It is shown that by perturbing the flux spectrum, it is possible to alter the net consumption of curium feedstock, as well as the yields of key isotopes for the heavy element research program, such as 249Bk and 252Cf. This flux spectrum perturbation is accomplished by means of focused resonance shielding through the use of filter materials. It is further shown that these perturbations can alter the target yields in a significant way, increasing the amount of 252Cf produced per unit curium consumption by over 40%.

  18. Increased efficiency of topping cycle PCFB power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D. [and others

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) power plants offer the power industry significantly increased efficiencies with reduced costs of electricity and lower emissions. When topping combustion is incorporated in the plant, these advantages are enhanced. In the plant, coal is fed to a pressurized carbonizer that produces a low-Btu fuel gas and char. After passing through a cyclone and ceramic barrier filter to remove gas-entrained particulates and a packed bed of emathelite pellets to remove alkali vapors. the fuel gas is burned in a topping combustor to produce the energy required to drive a gas turbine. The gas turbine drives a generator combustor, and a fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE). The carbonizer char is burned in the PCFB and the exhaust gas passes through its own cyclone, ceramic barrier filter, and alkali getter and supports combustion of the fuel gas in the topping combustor. Steam generated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) downstream of the gas turbine and in the FBHE associated with the PCFB drives the steam turbine generator that furnishes the balance of electric power delivered by the plant.

  19. Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.; Russel, A. M.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by an Ames-led project team under a 4-year DOE-ITP sponsored project titled, 'Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency.' The Report serves as the project deliverable for the CPS agreement number 15015. The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a family of lightweight, bulk composite materials that are highly resistant to degradation by erosive and abrasive wear. These materials, based on AlMgB{sub 14}, are projected to save over 30 TBtu of energy per year when fully implemented in industrial applications, with the associated environmental benefits of eliminating the burning of 1.5 M tons/yr of coal and averting the release of 4.2 M tons/yr of CO{sub 2} into the air. This program targeted applications in the mining, drilling, machining, and dry erosion applications as key platforms for initial commercialization, which includes some of the most severe wear conditions in industry. Production-scale manufacturing of this technology has begun through a start-up company, NewTech Ceramics (NTC). This project included providing technical support to NTC in order to facilitate cost-effective mass production of the wear-resistant boride components. Resolution of issues related to processing scale-up, reduction in energy intensity during processing, and improving the quality and performance of the composites, without adding to the cost of processing were among the primary technical focus areas of this program. Compositional refinements were also investigated in order to achieve the maximum wear resistance. In addition, synthesis of large-scale, single-phase AlMgB{sub 14} powder was conducted for use as PVD sputtering targets for nanocoating applications.

  20. Efficiency alone as a solution to increasing energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haidorfer, Luke

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A statistical analysis was performed to determine the effect of efficiency on the total US energy consumption of automobiles and refrigerators. Review of literature shows that there are many different opinions regarding ...

  1. Parabolic trough solar collectors : design for increasing efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueredo, Stacy L. (Stacy Lee), 1981-

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parabolic trough collectors are a low cost implementation of concentrated solar power technology that focuses incident sunlight onto a tube filled with a heat transfer fluid. The efficiency and cost of the parabolic trough ...

  2. Management of Trickle Irrigated Orchards for Increased Water Use Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Punthakey, J. F.; McFarland, M. J.; Rodrigue, P. B.; Worthington, J. W.

    Trickle irrigation is the most efficient method of irrigating peach orchards in Texas. With a trickle irrigation system, a producer may make full use of a limited or low-volume water supply to apply precise amounts of water to the root zones...

  3. High Efficiency Microturbine Leads to Increased Market Share...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to Increased Market Share April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Partnering with Capstone Turbine Corporation of Chatsworth, EERE supported microturbine research and development for a...

  4. Increased Efficiencies in the INEEL SAR/TSR/USQ Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, Norman Edward

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has implemented a number of efficiencies to reduce the time and cost of preparing safety basis documents. The INEEL is continuing to look at other aspects of the safety basis process to identify other efficiencies that can be implemented and remain in compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 830. A six-sigma approach is used to identify areas to improve efficiencies and develop the action plan for implementation of the new process, as applicable. Three improvement processes have been implemented: The first was the development of standardized Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirement (TSR) documents that all nuclear facilities use, by adding facility-specific details. The second is a material procurement process, which is based on safety systems specified in the individual safety basis documents. The third is a restructuring of the entire safety basis preparation and approval process. Significant savings in time to prepare safety basis document, cost of materials, and total cost of the documents are currently being realized.

  5. Increased Efficiencies in the INEEL SAR/TSR/USQ Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, N.E.

    2002-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has implemented a number of efficiencies to reduce the time and cost of preparing safety basis documents. The INEEL is continuing to look at other aspects of the safety basis process to identify other efficiencies that can be implemented and remain in compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 830. A six-sigma approach is used to identify areas to improve efficiencies and develop the action plan for implementation of the new process, as applicable. Three improvement processes have been implemented: The first was the development of standardized Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirement (TSR) documents that all nuclear facilities use, by adding facility-specific details. The second is a material procurement process, which is based on safety systems specified in the individual safety basis documents. The third is a restructuring of the entire safety basis preparation and approval process. Significant savings in time to prepare safety basis document, cost of materials, and total cost of the documents are currently being realized.

  6. Water Quality and Quantity Concerns Population growth, increasing water demands,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    systems, private water well screening, and soil nutrient management. Water conservation programs of Agri, efficient use, sustainable practices, watershed management and environmental stewardship. Through 660 and utilizing water-conservation practices will be essential to sustain the state's water supply

  7. Increased Efficiency with Model Based Calibration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S. Improving Fan SystemIna Shaw InaFederal ProjectEfficiency

  8. Using Plate Heat Exchangers to Increase Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, K.

    "In recent years, there has been an increasing awareness of Plate Heat Exchangers (PHE's) in industrial processes around the world. While PHE's have historically been classified as compact heat exchangers, compactness is often a secondary advantage...

  9. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:GreerHiCalifornia:ISIIrrigationDesert PeakIncubator JumpIncrease

  10. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

    2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various industries, and developing a multi-year program for standards and for optimizing the industrial motor systems in China. Past work has included a comprehensive study of China's oil refining sector. Cross-Cutting--analysis and research focused on multisector, policy, and long-term development issues. Current cross-cutting policy and analysis research includes work on government procurement programs; energy service companies; a national energy policy assessment including the National Energy Strategy released by the government in early 2005; energy efficiency policy; an analysis of past trends in energy consumption in China as well as of future scenarios; and our China Energy Databook accompanied by chapter summaries and analysis of recent trends.

  11. Increasing Federal Office Building Water Efficiency, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quick guide to increasing Federal office building water efficiency, water management planning, performing a water audit, calculating a water balance, and best management practices.

  12. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Massachusetts Energy Efficiency and Building ScienceSummer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. The UnitedStudy on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. American Council

  13. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Labor Statistics. Energy Efficiency Services Sector:Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: Economic Drivers forStatewide Long Term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan. ” San

  14. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commission (BDRC) Beijing Energy Efficiency Center (BECon)of Construction Energy Efficiency Bureau Ministry ofNational Building Energy Efficiency Commission National

  15. Increasing the efficiency of organic solar cells by photonic and electrostatic-field enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalwa, Kanwar

    2012-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology is an attractive solar-electric conversion paradigm due to the promise of low cost roll-to-roll production and amenability to flexible substrates. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 7% has recently been achieved. OPV cells suffer from low charge carrier mobilities of polymers, leading to recombination losses, higher series resistances and lower fill-factors. Thus, it is imperative to develop fabrication methodologies that can enable efficient optical absorption in films thinner than optical absorption length. Active layers conformally deposited on light-trapping, microscale textured, grating-type surfaces is one possible approach to achieve this objective. In this study, 40% theoretical increase in photonic absorption over flat OPVs is shown for devices with textured geometry by the simulation results. For verifying this theoretical result and improving the efficiency of OPVs by light trapping, OPVs were fabricated on grating-type textured substrates possessing t pitch and -coat PV active-layer on these textured substrates led to over filling of the valleys and shunts at the crest, which severely affected the performance of the resultant PV devices. Thus, it is established that although the optical design is important for OPV performance but the potential of light trapping can only be effectively tapped if the textures are amenable for realizing a conformal active layer. It is discovered that if the height of the underlying topographical features is reduced to sub-micron regime (e.g. 300 nm) and the pitch is increased to more than a micron (e.g. 2 ?m), the textured surface becomes amenable to coating a conformal PV active-layer. The resultant PV cells showed 100% increase in average light absorption near the band edge due to trapping of higher wavelength photons, and 20% improvement in power conversion efficiency as compared with the flat PV cell. Another factor that severely limits the performance of OPVs is recombination of charge carriers. Thus it becomes imperative to understand the effect of processing conditions such as spin coating speed and drying rate on defect density and hence induced carrier recombination mechanism. In this study, It is shown that slow growth (longer drying time) of the active-layer leads to reduction of sub-bandgap traps by an order of magnitude as compared to fast grown active-layer. By coupling the experimental results with simulations, it is demonstrated that at one sun condition, slow grown device has bimolecular recombination as the major loss mechanism while in the fast grown device with high trap density, the trap assisted recombination dominates. It has been estimated that non-radiative recombination accounts nearly 50% of efficiency loss in modern OPVs. Generally, an external bias (electric field) is required to collect all the photogenerated charges and thus prevent their recombination. The motivation is to induce additional electric field in otherwise low mobility conjugated polymer based active layer by incorporating ferroelectric dipoles. This is expected to facilitate singlet exciton dissociation in polymer matrix and impede charge transfer exciton (CTE) recombination at polymer:fullerene interface. For the first time, it is shown that the addition of ferroelectric dipoles to modern bulk heterojunction (BHJ) can significantly improve exciton dissociation, resulting in a ~50% enhancement of overall solar cell efficiency. The devices also exhibit the unique ferroelectric-photovoltaic effect with polarization-controlled power conversion efficiency.

  16. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Workforce data for 2008 provided by 23 interviewed program implementation contractors and 11 efficiency program planning

  17. METAL BLACKS AS SCATTERING CENTERS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    METAL BLACKS AS SCATTERING CENTERS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS by DEEP R surface of thin-film solar cells to improve efficiency. The principle is that scattering, which film solar cell. The particular types of particles investigated here are known as "metal-black", well

  18. "Working to increase the efficiency of jet engines while reducing their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    "Working to increase the efficiency of jet engines while reducing their environmental impact of renewable biofuels. A list of currently and recently funded research projects are described below. #12

  19. Efficiency of incentives to jointly increase carbon sequestration and species conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    Efficiency of incentives to jointly increase carbon sequestration and species conservation the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation across heterogeneous landscapes. Using data from the Willamette Basin, Oregon, we compare the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation under

  20. The potential for reducing carbon emissions from increased efficiency : a general equilibrium methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blitzer, Charles R.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a methodology for analyzing the potential for reduction in carbon emissions through increased fuel efficiency and provides an illustration of the method. The methodology employed is a multisectoral, ...

  1. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy efficiency is refracted across utilities, federal and state programs, manufacturing, construction, and other disparate job classifications. ”

  2. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2009a. “Green Jobs & Energy Market Trends Relevant Trends,Engineers 2009a. “Energy Independence and Market Trends: AEEFace of Energy Efficiency and Market Transformation. ”

  3. Green Growth and the Efficient Use of Natural Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, John

    2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The relatively new concept of "green growth" can be fruitfully connected to concepts and theories in neoclassical economics including market externalities, Ricardian and Hotelling rents, and policies that would correct ...

  4. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    replaced with heat pump water heaters (efficiency of 250%).electric storage water heaters and heat pumps as shown infor Electric Water Heaters and Heat Pumps End Use Elec WH HP

  5. Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Bavel, C. H. M.

    TR-42 1972 Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level C.H. M. van Bavel Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

  6. Increased Efficiency in SI Engine with Air Replaced by Oxygen in Argon Mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killingsworth, N J; Rapp, V H; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M; Chen, J; Dibble, R

    2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic engine thermodynamics predicts that spark ignited engine efficiency is a function of both the compression ratio of the engine and the specific heat ratio of the working fluid. In practice the compression ratio of the engine is often limited due to knock. Both higher specific heat ratio and higher compression ratio lead to higher end gas temperatures and increase the likelihood of knock. In actual engine cycles, heat transfer losses increase at higher compression ratios and limit efficiency even when the knock limit is not reached. In this paper we investigate the role of both the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio on engine efficiency by conducting experiments comparing operation of a single-cylinder variable-compression-ratio engine with both hydrogen-air and hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures. For low load operation it is found that the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures result in higher indicated thermal efficiencies. Peak efficiency for the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures is found at compression ratio 5.5 whereas for the hydrogen-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.24 the peak efficiency is found at compression ratio 13. We apply a three-zone model to help explain the effects of specific heat ratio and compression ratio on efficiency. Operation with hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures at low loads is more efficient because the lower compression ratio results in a substantially larger portion of the gas to reside in the adiabatic core rather than in the boundary layer and in the crevices, leading to less heat transfer and more complete combustion.

  7. Increasing efficiency of data mining systems by machine unification and double machine cache

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Norbert

    Increasing efficiency of data mining systems by machine unification and double machine cache and in general data mining systems, we need to search through huge spaces of machine learn- ing algorithms. Meta-learning and other complex data mining approaches need to train and test thousands of learning machines while

  8. BOSTON COLLEGE AND MIT RESEARCHERS ACHIEVE DRAMATIC INCREASE IN THERMOELECTRIC EFFICIENCY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    materials in a cost-effective manner." "These thermoelectric materials are already used in many applications antimony telluride is a material commonly used in thermoelectric products, and the researchers crushedBOSTON COLLEGE AND MIT RESEARCHERS ACHIEVE DRAMATIC INCREASE IN THERMOELECTRIC EFFICIENCY Nanotech

  9. Nonlinear harmonic modeling of phemt devices for increased power amplifier efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strassner, Bernd Herbert

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is a comprehensive study of how harmonic terminations can greatly increase a power amplifier's efficiency (PAE). To show this improvement, the PHEMT amplifier is biased in the low noise region of operation (L, = 20 mA, Vd, = 3 V...

  10. INFUSION OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR (NGF) INTO KITTEN VISUAL CORTEX INCREASES IMMUNOREACTIVITY FOR NGF, NGF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Issa, Naoum

    INFUSION OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR (NGF) INTO KITTEN VISUAL CORTEX INCREASES IMMUNOREACTIVITY FOR NGF of the critical period, we infused recombinant human NGF into the primary visual cortex of kittens using of immunohistochemically detectable NGF infusion, as measured using intrinsic signal optical imaging and single

  11. Root Growth and Yield of Differing Alfalfa Rooting Populations under Increasing Salinity and Zero Leaching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Steven E.

    Root Growth and Yield of Differing Alfalfa Rooting Populations under Increasing Salinity and Zero of alfalfa under irrigation extended to 2.5 m (Dud- ley et al., 1994). It may be advantageous for deep-rootedAccumulation of salinity in the root zone can be detrimental to crops such as alfalfa to exploit the lower average

  12. Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN yellow-green light-emitting diodes by growth interruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Chunhua; Ma, Ziguang; Zhou, Junming; Lu, Taiping; Jiang, Yang; Zuo, Peng; Jia, Haiqiang; Chen, Hong, E-mail: hchen@iphy.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condense Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the effect of multiple interruptions during the quantum well growth on emission-efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based yellow-green light emitting diodes on c-plane sapphire substrate. The output power and dominant wavelength at 20?mA are 0.24 mW and 556.3?nm. High resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence measurements demonstrate that efficiency enhancement could be partially attributed to crystal quality improvement of the active region resulted from reduced In clusters and relevant defects on the surface of InGaN layer by introducing interruptions. The less tilted energy band in the quantum well is also caused by the decrease of In-content gradient along c-axis resulted from In segregation during the interruptions, which increases spatial overlap of electron-hole wavefunction and thus the internal quantum efficiency. The latter also leads to smaller blueshift of dominant wavelength with current increasing.

  13. INCREASE

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interdisciplinary Consortium for Research and Educational Access in Science and Engineering (INCREASE), assists minority-serving institutions in gaining access to world-class research facilities.

  14. Advanced method for increasing the efficiency of white light quantum dot LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Bennett, Charlee J C [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Walker, Steven C [ORNL; Ott, Ronald D [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Covering a light-emitting diode (LED) with quantum dots (QDs) can produce a broad spectrum of white light. However, current techniques for applying QDs to LEDs suffer from a high density of defects and a non-uniform distribution of QDs, which, respectively, diminish the efficiency and quality of emitted light. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has the unique capability to thermally anneal QD structures at extremely high power densities for very short durations. This process, called pulse thermal processing (PTP), reduces the number of point defects while maintaining the size and shape of the original QD nanostructure. Therefore, the efficiency of the QD wavelength conversion layer is improved without altering the emission spectrum defined by the size distribution of theQD nanoparticles. The current research uses a thermal model to predict annealing temperatures during PTP and demonstrates up to a 300% increase in photoluminescence for QDs on passive substrates.

  15. Increased

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348 270 300AptamersstabilityIncreased confinement

  16. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance was analyzed and improvements implemented to the Veeco PVD-AlN prototype system to establish a specification and baseline PVD-AlN films on sapphire and in parallel the evaluation of PVD AlN on silicon substrates began. In Phase II of the project a Beta tool based on a scaled-up process module capable of depositing uniform films on batches of 4”or 6” diameter substrates in a production worthy operation was developed and qualified. In Phase III, the means to increase the throughput of the PVD-AlN system was evaluated and focused primarily on minimizing the impact of the substrate heating and cooling times that dominated the overall cycle time.

  17. Revolutionary Method for Increasing the Efficiency of White Light Quantum Dot LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Bennett, Charlee J C [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Walker, Steven C [ORNL; Ott, Ronald D [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Covering a light-emitting diode (LED) with quantum dots (QDs) can produce a broad spectrum of white light. However, current techniques for applying QDs to LEDs suffer from a high density of defects and a non-uniform distribution of QDs, which respec-tively diminish the efficiency and quality of emitted light. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has the unique capability to thermally anneal QD structures at extremely high power densities for very short durations. This process, called pulse thermal proc-essing (PTP), reduces the number of point defects while main-taining the size and shape of the original QD nanostructure. Therefore, the efficiency of the QD wavelength conversion layer is improved without altering the emission spectrum defined by the size distribution of the quantum dot nanoparticles. The cur-rent research uses a thermal model to predict annealing tempera-tures during PTP and demonstrates up to a 300% increase in pho-toluminescence for QDs on passive substrates

  18. Increasing the Conversion Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Photoelectrochemical Cells by Coupling to Photonic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The mechanism of enhancing the light harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells by coupling TiO2Increasing the Conversion Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Photoelectrochemical Cells by Coupling to conventional single-crystal solar cells. In this cell, an optically excited dye injects electrons

  19. Small Businesses Save Big: A Borrower's Guide To Increase the Bottom Line Using Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides a guide for small businesses to find the resources to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

  20. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  1. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  2. Conducting Successful Programs to Increase the Energy-Efficiency of Manufactured Housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, A. D.; Riewer, S. M.; Volke, S. M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . In this region, the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has instituted several programs designed to promote energy-efficiency improvements in buildings. One of the latest targets of these programs is manufactured housing. Since 1985, Bonneville has...

  3. Increasing the Efficiency of a Thermionic Engine Using a Negative Electron Affinity Collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshua Ryan Smith

    2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Most attention to improving vacuum thermionic energy conversion device (TEC) technology has been on improving electron emission with little attention to collector optimization. A model was developed to characterize the output characteristics of a TEC where the collector features negative electron affinity (NEA). According to the model, there are certain conditions for which the space charge limitation can be reduced or eliminated. The model is applied to devices comprised of materials reported in the literature, and predictions of output power and efficiency are made, targeting the sub-1000K hot-side regime. By slightly lowering the collector barrier height, an output power of around $1kW$, at $\\geq 20%$ efficiency for a reasonably sized device ($\\sim 0.1m^{2}$ emission area) can be achieved.

  4. INCREASED CELL EFFICIENCY IN InGaAs THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH DIELECTRIC AND METAL BACK REFLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    INCREASED CELL EFFICIENCY IN InGaAs THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH DIELECTRIC AND METAL BACK REFLECTORS solar cells using back reflectors. We studied absorption enhancement in InGaAs and InGaAsP thin film and metal, on InGaAs thin film solar cell performance by device modeling and nu- merical simulations. DEVICE

  5. DOI 10.1007/s00382-014-2277-3 The increasing efficiency of tornado days in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsner, James B.

    - tive available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhi- bition (CIN) within the near1 3 DOI 10.1007/s00382-014-2277-3 Clim Dyn The increasing efficiency of tornado days in the United large year-to-year variation in tornado fre- quency, but a consensus report on extreme storms and cli

  6. Developing a low-cost, systematic approach to increase an existing data center's Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Jeremy M. (Jeremy Matthew)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data centers consume approximately 1.5% of total US electricity and 0.8% of the total world electricity, and this percentage will increase with the integration of technology into daily lives. In typical data centers, valued ...

  7. Modified vector control algorithm for increasing partial-load efficiency of fractional-slot concentrated-winding surface PM machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Refaie, Ayman M [ORNL; Jahns, Thomas M [ORNL; Reddy, Patel [University of Wisconsin; McKeever, John W [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated-winding surface permanent magnet (SPM) machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. By increasing the amplitude of the negative d-axis current, the resulting increase in the stator copper losses can be more than offset by the reduction in the iron core losses achieved by lowering the stator d-axis flux amplitude. The effectiveness of this technique has been demonstrated using both analytical models and finite element analysis for a 55-kW (peak) SPM machine design developed for a demanding set of traction drive performance requirements. For this example, the modified control strategy increases the partial-load efficiency at 20% of rated torque by > 6% at 2000 r/min compared to the maximum torque/ampere algorithm, making the machine much more attractive for its intended application.

  8. Increased efficiency of ion acceleration by using femtosecond laser pulses at higher harmonic frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Psikal, J., E-mail: jan.psikal@fjfi.cvut.cz [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic); Klimo, O. [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic); ELI-Beamlines Project, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Weber, S.; Margarone, D. [ELI-Beamlines Project, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of laser frequency on laser-driven ion acceleration is investigated by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When ultrashort intense laser pulse at higher harmonic frequency irradiates a thin solid foil, the target may become re lativistically transparent for significantly lower laser pulse intensity compared with irradiation at fundamental laser frequency. The relativistically induced transparency results in an enhanced heating of hot electrons as well as increased maximum energies of accelerated ions and their numbers. Our simulation results have shown the increase in maximum proton energy and increase in the number of high-energy protons by a factor of 2 after the interaction of an ultrashort laser pulse of maximum intensity 7?Ś?10{sup 21?}W/cm{sup 2} with a fully ionized plastic foil of realistic density and of optimal thickness between 100?nm and 200?nm when switching from the fundamental frequency to the third harmonics.

  9. Joint System Prognostics For Increased Efficiency And Risk Mitigation In Advanced Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation and Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Tuan Q. Tran; Ronald L. Boring; Bruce P. Hallbert

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The science of prognostics is analogous to a doctor who, based on a set of symptoms and patient tests, assesses a probable cause, the risk to the patient, and a course of action for recovery. While traditional prognostics research has focused on the aspect of hydraulic and mechanical systems and associated failures, this project will take a joint view in focusing not only on the digital I&C aspect of reliability and risk, but also on the risks associated with the human element. Model development will not only include an approximation of the control system physical degradation but also on human performance degradation. Thus the goal of the prognostic system is to evaluate control room operation; to identify and potentially take action when performance degradation reduces plant efficiency, reliability or safety.

  10. Increasing Water Use Efficiency Through Improved Orifice Design and Operational Procedures for Subirrigation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, O. C.; Hiler, E. A.

    of emitters by particulate materials decreased as the cross-sectional area of the emitter opening was increased. Less than 0.06 atm (1 psig) vacuum had little effect on the flow of emitters tested. Higher vacuum amounts caused the reopening of plugged orifice...

  11. NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

  12. Improved Design of Motors for Increased Efficiency in Residential Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pragasen Pillay

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Research progress on understanding magnetic steel core losses is presented in this report. Three major aspects have been thoroughly investigated: 1, experimental characterization of core losses, 2, fundamental physical understanding of core losses and development of core loss formulas, and 3, design of more efficient machine based on the new formulations. Considerable progress has been achieved during the four years of research and the main achievements are summarized in the following: For the experimental characterization, a specially designed advanced commercial test bench was commissioned in addition to the development of a laboratory system with advanced capabilities. The measured properties are core losses at low and higher frequencies, with sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal excitations, at different temperatures, with different measurement apparatus (Toroids, Epstein etc). An engineering-based core loss formula has been developed which considers skin effect. The formula can predict core losses for both sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal flux densities and frequencies up to 4000 Hz. The formula is further tested in electric machines. The formula error range is 1.1% - 7.6% while the standard formulas can have % errors between -8.5% {-+} 44.7%. Two general core loss formulas, valid for different frequencies and thickness, have been developed by analytically and numerically solving Maxwell's equations based on a physical investigation of the dynamic hysteresis effects of magnetic materials. To our knowledge, they are the first models that can offer accurate core loss prediction over a wide range of operating frequencies and lamination thicknesses without a massive experimental database of core losses. The engineering core loss formula has been used with commercial software. The formula performs better than the modified Steinmetz and Bertotti's model used in Cedrat/Magsoft Flux 2D/3D. The new formula shows good correlation with measured results under both sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal excitations. A permanent magnet synchronous motor has been designed with the use of the engineering formula with Flux2D. There was acceptable agreement between predictions and measurements. This was further tested on an induction motor with toroid results.

  13. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  14. Summary We compared radiation-use efficiency of growth (), defined as rate of biomass accumulation per unit of ab-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    and ocean ecosystems. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400­700 nm) ab- sorbed by plant canopies canSummary We compared radiation-use efficiency of growth (), defined as rate of biomass accumulation per unit of ab- sorbed photosynthetically active radiation, of forest plots ex- posed to ambient (~360

  15. Location Efficiency as the Missing Piece of The Energy Puzzle: How Smart Growth Can Unlock Trillion Dollar Consumer Cost Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    of a comparable magnitude after ten years to other major building energy efficiency policies, such as construction in Section II. We discuss in Section III a methodology for applying these results towards the evaluation. We apply this methodology in Section IV to real world examples of smart growth that are being

  16. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transfer in boiler Boiler efficiency Heat used in boiler *hr. Assuming boiler heat recovery efficiency of 90%, totalEfficiency Improvement An analysis of the performance of the heat recovery components (boilers,

  17. An efficient method for visualization and growth of fluorescent Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in planta.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Sang-Wook; Park, Chang-Jin; Lee, Sang-Won; Ronald, Pamela C

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strains, plants and growth conditions Xanthomonas oryzae pv.Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Mol Plant Microbe InteractOryzae sativa L. ) plants. X. oryzae pv. oryzae infection

  18. Uniform Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings and Increasing Electric Utility Confidence in Reported Savings Now Available

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has published protocols for estimating energy savings for residential and commercial energy efficiency programs and measures through the recently released “The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures.”

  19. Examination of Changes in Hygroscopicity and CCN Activation Efficiency During Particle Growth Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, Crystal D.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth and evolution of newly formed atmospheric particles were examined using an array of instruments located at a rural site northwest of Houston, TX. The focused study described here was designed to evaluate the influence of nucleated...

  20. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: OpportunitiesStar Labeled room Air Conditioners. ” Ministry of Power (of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners,” Lawrence Berkeley

  1. Work demonstrates that smaller can be better: quantum confinement can lead to increased PV efficiency and could

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the first all-quantum-dot photovoltaic cell, which was based on lead sulfide and demonstrated reasonable% post consumer waste. NREL Certifies First All-Quantum-Dot Photovoltaic Cell; Demonstrates Stability efficiency and could lead to a doubling of third-generation solar cell efficiencies. Tiny quantum dots

  2. Effects of long-term water stress on net photosynthesis, growth and water-use efficiency of conifers in the field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of long-term water stress on net photosynthesis, growth and water-use efficiency the highest net photosynthesis PICEA and thus also 'the fastest growth. Douglas fir was superior to spruce into consideration. Thus, the reduction in net photosynthesis was always greater on long and sunny summer days

  3. Case Study: Georgia-Pacific Reduces Outside Fuel Costs and Increases Process Efficiency with Insulation Upgrade Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, D.

    A Georgia-Pacific plywood plant located in Madison, Georgia recently decided to insulate their steam lines for energy conservation, improved process efficiency and personnel protection. The goal of the project was to eliminate dependency...

  4. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EIA). 1999. Annual Energy Outlook 2000. DOE/EIA-0383 (2000).Energy-Efficient Economy Annual Energy Outlook annual fuelprices from EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2004; 4) a

  5. Logistical and transportation infrastructure in Asia : potential for growth and development to support increasing trade with Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deonás, Nikolaos, 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the implications of the rapid growth in demand for trade between Europe and Asia for the existing transportation network and logistical infrastructure. In general terms, technologies need to improve ...

  6. Voluntary Agreements for Increasing Energy-Efficiency in Industry: Case Study of a Pilot Project with the Steel Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes international experience with the use of Voluntary Agreements for increasing industrial sector energy-efficiency, drawing lessons learned regarding the essential elements of the more successful programs. The paper focuses on a pilot project for implementation of a Voluntary Agreement with two steel mills in Shandong Province that was developed through international collaboration with experts in China, the Netherlands, and the U.S. Designing the pilot project involved development of approaches for energy-efficiency potential assessments for the steel mills, target-setting to establish the Voluntary Agreement energy-efficiency goals, preparing energy-efficiency plans for implementation of energy-saving technologies and measures, and monitoring and evaluating the project's energy savings.

  7. Combined heat and power has the potential to significantly increase energy production efficiency and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions, however current market penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    1 Combined heat and power has the potential to significantly increase energy production efficiency that California will not reach the targets for combined heat and power set for it by the Air Resources Board (ARB of combined heat and power into the new ARB Emissions Cap and Trade scheme. This potential failure would

  8. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  9. Using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells in a hybrid surface ship propulsion plant to increase fuel efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An increasingly mobile US Navy surface fleet and oil price uncertainty contrast with the Navy's desire to lower the amount of money spent purchasing fuel. Operational restrictions limiting fuel use are temporary and cannot ...

  10. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  11. Genetically Enhanced Sorghum and Sugarcane: Engineering Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis and Storage together with Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency into the Saccharinae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    PETRO Project: UIUC is working to convert sugarcane and sorghum—already 2 of the most productive crops in the world—into dedicated bio-oil crop systems. Three components will be engineered to produce new crops that have a 50% higher yield, produce easily extractable oils, and have a wider growing range across the U.S. This will be achieved by modifying the crop canopy to better distribute sunlight and increase its cold tolerance. By directly producing oil in the shoots of these plants, these biofuels could be easily extracted with the conventional crushing techniques used today to extract sugar.

  12. Intermittent hypoxia induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell with the increases in epidermal growth factor family and erbB2 receptor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyotani, Yoji, E-mail: cd147@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Department of Pharmacy, Nara Medical University Hospital, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Ota, Hiroyo [Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Itaya-Hironaka, Asako; Yamauchi, Akiyo; Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Sumiyo [Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Zhao, Jing; Ozawa, Kentaro; Nagayama, Kosuke; Ito, Satoyasu [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Takasawa, Shin [Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Kimura, Hiroshi [Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Uno, Masayuki [Department of Pharmacy, Nara Medical University Hospital, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masanori [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH), and associated with cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke and heart failure. These cardiovascular diseases have a relation to atherosclerosis marked by the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the influence of IH on cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell (RASMC). The proliferation of RASMC was significantly increased by IH without changing the level of apoptosis. In order to see what induces RASMC proliferation, we investigated the influence of normoxia (N)-, IH- and sustained hypoxia (SH)-treated cell conditioned media on RASMC proliferation. IH-treated cell conditioned medium significantly increased RASMC proliferation compared with N-treated cell conditioned medium, but SH-treated cell conditioned medium did not. We next investigated the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family as autocrine growth factors. Among the EGF family, we found significant increases in mRNAs for epiregulin (ER), amphiregulin (AR) and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) in IH-treated cells and mature ER in IH-treated cell conditioned medium. We next investigated the changes in erbB family receptors that are receptors for ER, AR and NRG1, and found that erbB2 receptor mRNA and protein expressions were increased by IH, but not by SH. Phosphorylation of erbB2 receptor at Tyr-1248 that mediates intracellular signaling for several physiological effects including cell proliferation was increased by IH, but not by SH. In addition, inhibitor for erbB2 receptor suppressed IH-induced cell proliferation. These results provide the first demonstration that IH induces VSMC proliferation, and suggest that EGF family, such as ER, AR and NRG1, and erbB2 receptor could be involved in the IH-induced VSMC proliferation. - Highlights: ?In vitro system for intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH). ?IH, but not SH, induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell. ?Epiregulin mRNA and protein are up-regulated in IH, but not in SH. ?IH-induced erbB2 phosphorylation is attenuated by erbB2 inhibitor. ?EGF family and erbB2 receptor may be involved in IH-induced cell proliferation.

  13. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. 22nd NREL Industry Growth Forum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. 22nd NREL Industry Growth ForumNREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency;National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future The 22nd NREL Industry Growth Forum

  14. Weatherization Assistance Program: Spurring Innovation, Increasing...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Weatherization Assistance Program: Spurring Innovation, Increasing Home Energy Efficiency Weatherization Assistance Program: Spurring Innovation, Increasing Home Energy Efficiency...

  15. Development of an efficient off-grid pumping system and evaporation reduction strategies to increase access to irrigation for smallholder farmers in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorbaty, Emily

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the unavailability of electricity, about 85% of groundwater irrigation in eastern India employs fuel-powered surface pumps, which can have system efficiencies as low as 5%. As fuel prices continue to rise, impoverished ...

  16. Prospects for and problems of using light-water supercritical-pressure coolant in nuclear reactors in order to increase the efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekseev, P. N.; Semchenkov, Yu. M.; Sedov, A. A., E-mail: sedov@dhtp.kial.ru; Subbotin, S. A.; Chibinyaev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Trends in the development of the power sector of the Russian and world power industries both at present time and in the near future are analyzed. Trends in the rise of prices for reserves of fossil and nuclear fuels used for electricity production are compared. An analysis of the competitiveness of electricity production at nuclear power plants as compared to the competitiveness of electricity produced at coal-fired and natural-gas-fired thermal power plants is performed. The efficiency of the open nuclear fuel cycle and various versions of the closed nuclear fuel cycle is discussed. The requirements on light-water reactors under the scenario of dynamic development of the nuclear power industry in Russia are determined. Results of analyzing the efficiency of fuel utilization for various versions of vessel-type light-water reactors with supercritical coolant are given. Advantages and problems of reactors with supercritical-pressure water are listed.

  17. Voluntary agreements for increasing energy-efficiency in industry: Case study of a pilot project with the steel industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  18. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Education and Training Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Peters, Jane S.; Albers, Nathaniel; Stuart, Elizabeth; Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a baseline assessment of the current state of energy efficiency-related education and training programs and analyzes training and education needs to support expected growth in the energy efficiency services workforce. In the last year, there has been a significant increase in funding for 'green job' training and workforce development (including energy efficiency), through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Key segments of the energy efficiency services sector (EESS) have experienced significant growth during the past several years, and this growth is projected to continue and accelerate over the next decade. In a companion study (Goldman et al. 2009), our research team estimated that the EESS will increase two- to four-fold by 2020, to 220,000 person-years of employment (PYE) (low-growth scenario) or up to 380,000 PYE (high-growth scenario), which may represent as many as 1.3 million individuals. In assessing energy efficiency workforce education and training needs, we focus on energy-efficiency services-related jobs that are required to improve the efficiency of residential and nonresidential buildings. Figure ES-1 shows the market value chain for the EESS, sub-sectors included in this study, as well as the types of market players and specific occupations. Our assessment does not include the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail distribution subsectors, or energy efficiency-focused operations and maintenance performed by facility managers.

  19. Energy Efficiency of LEDs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Efficiency of LEDs The energy efficiency of LEDs has increased substantially since the first general illumination products came to market, with currently available lamps and...

  20. Energy-Efficient Mortgages

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Homeowners can take advantage of energy efficient mortgages (EEM) to either finance energy efficiency improvements to existing homes, including renewable energy technologies, or to increase their...

  1. Applied Materials Develops an Advanced Epitaxial Growth System to Bring Down LED Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Applied Materials has developed an advanced epitaxial growth system for gallium nitride (GaN) LED devices that decreases operating costs, increases internal quantum efficiency, and improves binning yields.

  2. hollow fiber represent an enormous increase in the (active) aeration surface. Thus, oxygen is not limiting to cell growth, which results in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    - ditions oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse from the hollow-fiber membrane into the cell suspensionhollow fiber represent an enormous increase in the (active) aeration surface. Thus, oxygen In controlled cultivation systems, such as common stirred tank bioreactors, an optimal oxygen supply is state

  3. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

  4. Increase the efficiency of the University's operations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dasgupta, Dipankar

    culture in all units. · Be responsible stewards of our resources -- physical, financial and technological. Goal: Sense of Place Develop an inviting, sustainable campus setting. Strategies: · Create a welcoming and identifiable campus. · Provide a safe and secure campus environment for all faculty, staff, students

  5. Procurement revisions save money, increase efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morehead, R.D.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Entergy Corp.-the New Orleans-based utility holding company-is applying lessons learned in procurement reorganization to streamline other areas of the company. Utilities willing to retool their procurement organizations and try new approaches to management can also reap benefits. Entergy Operations Inc. saved approximately $10 million in 1991 in personnel, system-wide contracts and combined purchasing. For 1992, EOI expects to show savings of $20 million, significantly better than original projections. EOI estimates that it has been able to avoid an additional $10 million in inventory expenditures. Entergy Corp. has put what its learned to work in other areas. Functional restructuring that formed Entergy Operations was expanded in 1991 with formation of three other company teams: Distribution and Customer Services, Generation and Transmission and Entergy Business Support. Each of these has also already begun to show significant benefits. A utility need not be a large multistate holding company with multiple nuclear plants in order to profit from Entergy's experiences. The key is to recognize the potential benefits of functional reorganization, and to approach the process in a timely, disciplined manner, while ensuring total buy-in from local/site management. Above all, utilities must be willing to try new approaches. Many utilities still independently organize procurement and materials management functions around individual plants and business units. Further, utilities may still approach procurement and materials management as two separate processes. Significant benefits can be gained by implementing a consolidated, information-driven approach to procurement and materials management. Overcoming turf issues and managing the change in thinking can be a real challenge. The chances for success are greatly improved by carefully organizing the redesign with an information-driven approach and shared performance measures.

  6. Holographic technology could increase solar efficiency | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cost. Redirect the light And that's just part of what holographic technology offers to solar energy generation. Because of its light-bending properties, holographic thin film...

  7. New Sensor Network Technology Increases Manufacturing Efficiency...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of the United States. Addthis Related Articles A combination solid-state laser turret cutter and stamping machine cuts a thin steel plate that will be formed into...

  8. New Sensor Network Technology Increases Manufacturing Efficiency |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAXBalanced Scorecard Federal2Energy SecondWellsWinsRules Help Pocahontas

  9. Increasing Solar Efficiency through Luminescent Solar Concentrators -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348 270Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: increase power system efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbine blade manufacturing the viability offuel

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: increased photovoltaic efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbine blade manufacturing the viability offuelincreased photovoltaic

  12. Oncor Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betts, C.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oncor Energy Efficiency Programs November 19, 2014 For Oncor Internal Use Only ESL-KT-14-11-04 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Oncor Energy Efficiency Programs A Comparison of Trends For Oncor... Internal Use Only 2 ESL-KT-14-11-04 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 2012 – 2015 Energy Efficiency Goals Year Demand Goal MW Energy Goal MWh Basis 2012 53.1 93,031 25% of Average Load Growth 2013 54.6 95...

  13. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the linkage between energy efficiency and productivity.and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper andand Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 1997.

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program BWR High-Fluence Material Project: Assessment of the Role of High-Fluence on the Efficiency of HWC Mitigation on SCC Crack Growth Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebastien Teysseyre

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As nuclear power plants age, the increasing neutron fluence experienced by stainless steels components affects the materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking and fracture toughness. The purpose of this report is to identify any new issues that are expected to rise as boiling water reactor power plants reach the end of their initial life and to propose a path forward to study such issues. It has been identified that the efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry mitigation technology may decrease as fluence increases for high-stress intensity factors. This report summarizes the data available to support this hypothesis and describes a program plan to determine the efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry as a function of the stress intensity factor applied and fluence. This program plan includes acquisition of irradiated materials, generation of material via irradiation in a test reactor, and description of the test plan. This plan offers three approaches, each with an estimated timetable and budget.

  15. Human CD34+ CD133+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells Cultured with Growth Factors Including Angptl5 Efficiently Engraft Adult NOD-SCID Il2r??/? (NSG) Mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drake, Adam

    Increasing demand for human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in clinical and research applications necessitates expansion of HSCs in vitro. Before these cells can be used they must be carefully evaluated to assess their ...

  16. Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in...

  17. Efficiency Maine Multifamily Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Maine's Multifamily Efficiency Program offers incentives to multifamily residency building owners for improving energy efficiency. Residencies must have 5 to 20 apartment units to...

  18. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption. Improving boiler efficiency and capturingrule of thumb is that boiler efficiency can be increased byrecovery. Generally, boiler efficiency can be increased by

  19. Sustainable manufacturing has emerged as the leading paradigm to address the dilemma of maintaining a progressive economic growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische UniversitÀt

    role especially for controlling greenhouse gas emissions and the efficient use of energy. As announced development policies due to the pressure created by rapid population growth and industrialization on natural. This vision will let the energy efficiency become widespread and increase the use of clean and renewable

  20. UV photoemission efficiency of polycrystalline CVD diamond films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, OHW

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency of a polycrystalline diamond planar reflectivequantum efficiency of polycrystalline diamond films grown onallowed the growth of polycrystalline diamond thin films on

  1. Growth and development of GaInAsP for use in high-efficiency solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 July 1991--30 December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharps, P.R. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes accomplishments during Phase 3 of this subcontract. The overall goals of the subcontract were (1) to develop the necessary technology to grow high-efficiency GaInAsP layers that are lattice-matched to GaAs and Ge; (2) to demonstrate highefficiency GaInAsP single-junction solar cells; and (3) to demonstrate GaInAsP/Ge cascade solar cells suitable for operation under concentrated (500X) sunlight. The major accomplishments during Phase 3 include (1) demonstrating a GaInAsP tunnel diode for use as an interconnect in the GaInAsP/Ge cascade cell, and (2) demonstrating a GaInAsP/Ge cascade cell. The development of the GaInAsP tunnel diode is a major accomplishment because it allows for the GaInAsP and Ge cells to be connected without optical losses for the bottom Ge cell, such as a Ge tunnel diode would cause. The GaInAsP/Ge cascade cell development is significant because of the demonstration of a cascade cell with a new materials system.

  2. The synthesis of copper-based aerogels and xerogels via the epoxide addition method using various Supports and templates to improve surface area and increase efficiency in preparation techniques.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Sarah

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Aerogels and xerogels have desirable properties for heterogeneous catalysis. The epoxide addition sol-gel route has proven to be the most efficient and cost-effective method to… (more)

  3. Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs: Development and Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N.; Elliot, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As more states establish Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS), goals for energy efficiency savings are increasing across the country. Increasingly, states are relying on their industrial energy efficiency programs to find and help implement...

  4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY RESEARCH POWERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 ENERGY EFFICIENCY RESEARCH POWERS THE FUTUREPIER CONTRIBUTES TO JOB GROWTH AND PRIVATE INVESTMENT.Partofthecreditforthese achievementsgoestoCalifornia'suniquePublicInterest EnergyResearch(PIER)Program. Overthepast40years,Californiansincreasedthesizeof their homes and added scores of new energy-using de- vices,fromlargerefrigerators,dishwashers,audioequip- ment

  5. Access to affordable and reliable energy has been a cornerstone of the world's increasing prosperity and economic growth since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Our use of energy in the twenty-first century must also be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    prosperity and economic growth since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Our use of energy to create the foundation for this new industrial revolution. The talk will also discuss policies public. F E A T U R I N G A New Industrial Revolution for a Sustainable Energy Future SCOB 228 · Friday

  6. Optimization of Water Use Efficiency Through Trickle Irrigation and the Stress Day Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, O.C.; Hiler, E. A.

    by water deficits occurring during the boot-to-bloom growth period. Water use efficiency was increased when water deficits were carefully managed by applying small, frequent applications of water and avoiding large deficits during the boot-to-bloom period...

  7. Energy Policy, Volume 38: Issue 11. November 2010 Overview of Current Energy Efficiency Policies in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the period 2002-2005 saw energy use per unit of GDP increase an average of 3.8% per year. To stem this out to significantly limit energy demand growth through aggressive energy efficiency programs. Energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) declined by approximately 5% per year during this period. However

  8. Roseville Electric- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Roseville Electric offers incentives for its commercial customers to increase the efficiency of existing facilities. Rebates are offered for energy efficient lighting equipment, HVAC system...

  9. Mississippi Public Service Commission Adopts Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (PSC) approved new energy efficiency rules for electric and natural gas utility companies to offer customers several pathways to increase energy efficiency. According to the...

  10. Randolph EMC- Energy Efficient Home Discount Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Randolph Electric Membership Corporation offers a special electric bill discount to members who increase the energy efficiency of homes through the Energy Efficient Home Discount Program. Members...

  11. Energy efficiency improvements in Chinese compressed air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee; Li, Li; Li, Yuqi; Taranto, T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Systems, Paper #071 Energy efficiency improvements into increase industrial energy efficiency. As a result, morein use. Over time, energy efficiency decreases and the cost

  12. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  13. A Survey of Methods for Analyzing and Improving GPU Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittal, Sparsh [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent years have witnessed a phenomenal growth in the computational capabilities and applications of GPUs. However, this trend has also led to dramatic increase in their power consumption. This paper surveys research works on analyzing and improving energy efficiency of GPUs. It also provides a classification of these techniques on the basis of their main research idea. Further, it attempts to synthesize research works which compare energy efficiency of GPUs with other computing systems, e.g. FPGAs and CPUs. The aim of this survey is to provide researchers with knowledge of state-of-the-art in GPU power management and motivate them to architect highly energy-efficient GPUs of tomorrow.

  14. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  15. Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards"Top-Runner Approach"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As one of the measures to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions agreed to in the"Kyoto Protocol," an institutional scheme for determining energy efficiency standards for energy-consuming appliances, called the"Top-Runner Approach," was developed by the Japanese government. Its goal is to strengthen the legal underpinnings of various energy conservation measures. Particularly in Japan's residential sector, where energy demand has grown vigorously so far, this efficiency standard is expected to play a key role in mitigating both energy demand growth and the associated CO2 emissions. This paper presents an outlook of Japan's residential energy demand, developed by a stochastic econometric model for the purpose of analyzing the impacts of the Japan's energy efficiency standards, as well as the future stochastic behavior of income growth, demography, energy prices, and climate on the future energy demand growth to 2030. In this analysis, we attempt to explicitly take into consideration more than 30 kinds of electricity uses, heating, cooling and hot water appliances in order to comprehensively capture the progress of energy efficiency in residential energy end-use equipment. Since electricity demand, is projected to exhibit astonishing growth in Japan's residential sector due to universal increasing ownership of electric and other appliances, it is important to implement an elaborate efficiency standards policy for these appliances.

  16. Efficiency Vermont

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June 1999, Vermont enacted legislation authorizing the Vermont Public Service Board (PSB) to establish a volumetric charge on all electric customers' bills to support energy-efficiency programs....

  17. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. 22nd NREL Industry Growth Forum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Storage Geothermal Grid Hydrogen/ Fuel Cell Lighting Nuclear Other Solar Wave/ Ocean Wind $56 Efficiency Energy Storage Geothermal Grid Hydrogen/ Fuel Cell Lighting Nuclear Other Solar Wave/ Ocean WindNREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency

  18. Energy-Efficiency-Related Conference Papers and Workshop Summarys

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Home > Households, Buildings & Industry > Energy Efficiency > Conference Papers Conference Papers Page Last Modified: September 2007 The Growth in Electricity Demand in U.S....

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - allogeneic growth plate Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: increasing during the early stages of colonial growth after larval settlement. Parents repressed the growth... may engage in competitive over- growth (Jackson 1977) or...

  20. Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in which they operate. This energy growth requires high efficiency improvements for machine design and operation to minimize life cycle cost. This paper will focus on the mechanical drive steam turbines which power the main process equipment in the heart...

  1. Energy Efficiency and Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claridge, D.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Efficiency and Energy Policy David E. Claridge, Director Energy Systems Laboratory November 19, 2014 ESL-KT-14-11-17 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 50 Years of Automobile Improvements ? 1960s...: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Impact of Auto/Truck Efficiency Increases ? Autos/light trucks used energy = Energy Imports in 2012 ? AUTO/TRUCK EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS have CUT U.S. ENERGY IMPORTS IN HALF ESL...

  2. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  3. Rule to Support Increased Energy Measurement and Efficient Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for new and retrofitted federal buildings that are certified by private sector green building certification systems. The use of green building rating systems advances...

  4. New Weld Process Increases Efficiency of Automotive Manufacturing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies Office (VTO) researchers at ORNL developed a non-destructive, infrared thermography-based system for evaluating weld quality. The new process enables automotive...

  5. Pulse combustion: an assessment of opportunities for increased efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a literature review on pulse combustion are discussed. Current, near-future, and potential opportunities for pulse combustion applications are summarized, and the barriers to developing and using pulse combustion technology are discussed, along with research and development needs. Also provided are the proceedings of a pulse combustion workshop held in May, 1984 in Seattle, Washington. (LEW)

  6. California: Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    by decreasing glares and helping to control internal temperatures. View is also creating green jobs-employing 100 people at its headquarters in Milpitas, California, and another...

  7. EFFICIENCY MAINE DIRECT INSTALLS INCREASE UPGRADE PACE | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    insurance coverage concordant with program terms and conditions; and submit a signed Registered Vendor Agreement form. Homeowners could use the "Advisor locator" tool on...

  8. Gas Turbines Increase the Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banchik, I. N.; Bohannan, W. R.; Stork, K.; McGovern, L. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    clean fuel gas for the gas turbine is produced by gasification of coal, are presented. Waste heat from the gasifier and the gas turbine exhaust is converted to high pressure steam for steam turbines. Gas turbines may find application in other industrial...

  9. Fume Hood Sash Stickers Increases Laboratory Safety and Efficiency at

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAX POLICIES7.pdfFuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell VehicleFull ServiceMinimal Cost |

  10. EFFICIENCY MAINE DIRECT INSTALLS INCREASE UPGRADE PACE | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergy DOEDealingVehicle1 ClosingAInnovations inFinalJune 2015 <

  11. DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces &

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomenthe HouseStudents2.2at Multipleorder supplies orMilestone |Energy DC -Boilers

  12. High Efficiency Microturbine Leads to Increased Market Share | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietip sheetK-4In 2013 many| Department of EnergyJohnof

  13. Alcoa: C-Suite Participation in Energy Efficiency Increases Accountability

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe OfficeUtility Fed. GovernmentFed.DepartmentSeptember 22,Btuand Staff

  14. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F SSales LLCDiesel Enginesthe U.S. -- An2008 | Department

  15. Waste Shipment Tracking Technology Lowers Costs, Increases Efficiency |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOf The 2012NuclearBradley Nickell02-03 AUDITMotionWhenStatusin 2013

  16. Rule to Support Increased Energy Measurement and Efficient Building Design

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September 15,2015DepartmentDepartment ofSoft Costs » RooftopDOE Energy|

  17. DOE Announces 12 Projects To Increase Vehicle Efficiency | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power Systems EngineeringDepartmentSmart GridThird QuarterintoCurrentDepartmentState2.4MEnergy

  18. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartment ofOil's Impact on Our National- 2013EnergyOptimizeDepartment

  19. Decentralizing police detectives: Increasing efficiency of property crime investigations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeh, Jon M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Beginning in November, 2007, the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department implemented organizational changes to the Financial/Property Crimes Bureau by decentralizing all property crime detectives. Although… (more)

  20. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany:Information IDSDloomis's picture SubmittedHome

  1. Energy Department Invests $6 Million to Increase Energy Efficiency of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA5 & 6, 2012Low-Income Families |CascadedEnergyCleanSchools,

  2. Retro-Commissioning Increases Data Center Efficiency at Low Cost |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartmentEnergyHydrokineticClothes7, 2014 -ReportingFunds |Department of

  3. California: Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases Personal

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy Cooperation |South42.2 (AprilBiden2 Categorical ExclusionOrderEconomy HigherComfort |

  4. Effective Fouling Minimization Increases the Efficiency and Productivity of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE: ECM Summary ECMWear | DepartmentDepartment of

  5. "Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNG IHDR€ÍSolar Energy SystemsFebruary 7-8,MarchKnyszek,A. Jaworski

  6. New Weld Process Increases Efficiency of Automotive Manufacturing |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeEnvironment, SafetyWaterMary LandrieuNEETEnergyofEnergy|Version of FAST

  7. Department of Energy Finalizes Regulations to Increase Energy Efficiency in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergy DOEDealing WithDevelopment of New Hampshire'sGranite ReliableNew

  8. Using Transportation Technology to Increase Efficiencies in Shipping: Real

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy Cooperation | Department of Energy SofDelaware EnergyPotomac31,DepartmentLife Experience

  9. Retro-Commissioning Increases Data Center Efficiency at Low Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l LPROJECTS IN RENEWABLEOperated in Steady-State Achieved at SRS Basic

  10. Role of Thermoelectrics in Vehicle Efficiency Increase | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l LPROJECTS IN7 Roadmap for Bioenergy and Biobasedof Energy

  11. Increased Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S. Improving Fan SystemIna Shaw InaFederal

  12. Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation-Related

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S. Improving Fan SystemIna ShawHeat Transfer Losses |

  13. Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.eps More Documents &Small2011 DOETheNationalWeMessage fromin Process

  14. Public Finance Mechanisms to Increase Investment in Energy Efficiency |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity Jump to:USGSMeanReservoirTemp JumpProterraIntegralesEnergyOpen Energy

  15. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:PhotonHolyNameInformationsourceenhancedIncognito- Q &

  16. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:PhotonHolyNameInformationsourceenhancedIncognito- Q

  17. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:PhotonHolyNameInformationsourceenhancedIncognito- Q

  18. Optimizing Production of Hydroquinone Achieves Increased Yield and Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, S.

    definition ? Risk assessment ? In order to move past the cultural barriers, a detailed risk assessment was essential for stakeholder buy-in. ? The Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) tool was used to document and evaluate potential risks.... ? Reliable supply at high level of p-DIPB ? Peroxides degradation at higher temperatures ? Inventory management ? Labor ? operations and packaging (contractors) ? FMEA promoted understanding of the risks. Project definition ? Risk management ? Performed...

  19. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  20. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency & Industrial Boiler Efficiency: An Industryapproach to increase boiler efficiency focused on the flue‘Super Boiler' achieves higher efficiency through the

  1. Energy Efficiency Upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roby Williams

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

  2. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Shi, Qing

    2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China’s policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The first chapter of this report introduces the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type and energy service. The second chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, and they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to LEED), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings. In the third chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components. This chapter examines insulation in walls and roofs; efficient windows and doors; heating, air conditioning and controls; and lighting. These markets have seen significant growth because of the strength of the construction sector but also the specific policies that require and promote efficient building components. At the same time, as requirements have become more stringent, there has been fierce competition, and quality has at time suffered, which in turn has created additional challenges. Next we examine existing buildings in chapter four. China has many Soviet-style, inefficient buildings built before stringent requirements for efficiency were more widely enforced. As a result, there are several specific market opportunities related to retrofits. These fall into two or three categories. First, China now has a code for retrofitting residential buildings in the north. Local governments have targets of the number of buildings they must retrofit each year, and they help finance the changes. The requirements focus on insulation, windows, and heat distribution. Second, the Chinese government recently decided to increase the scale of its retrofits of government and state-owned buildings. It hopes to achieve large scale changes through energy service contracts, which creates an opportunity for energy service companies. Third, there is also a small but growing trend to apply energy service contracts to large commercial and residential buildings. This report assesses the impacts of China’s policies on building energy efficiency. By examining the existing literature and interviewing stakeholders from the public, academic, and private sectors, the report seeks to offer an in-depth insights of the opportunities and barriers for major market segments related to building energy efficiency. The report also discusses trends in building energy use, policies promoting building energy efficiency, and energy performance contracting for public building retrofits.

  3. Efficiency Exchange Conference Highlights Energy Efficiency Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA), Bonneville Power Administration and electric utilities throughout the Northwest, are hosting the second annual Efficiency Exchange...

  4. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    report analyzed the potential for increasing energy efficiencyreport analyzed the potential for increasing energy efficiency

  5. The Role of Emerging Technologies in Improving Energy Efficiency: Examples from the Food Processing Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lung, R. B.; Masanet, E.; McKane, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technologies Conventional ammonia-based refrigeration systems Production growth through 2020 1%/year Specific energy consumption of base technologies (delivered) 0.008 kWh/lb. (electricity) Regional weighted average fossil fuel intensity of electricity... consumption and improve productivity by increasing the energy efficiency of industrial processes and systems. Therefore, the adoption of such technologies is important because they enable manufacturing plants to become both more competitive and productive...

  6. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IUEP

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2002. At the request of the DOE, we have also included in this report additional activities during the reporting period January, 1999 through January, 2001. This additional information had been reported earlier in the Final Technical Reports that summarized activities undertaken in those earlier periods.

  7. Coast Electric Power Association- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coast Electric Power Association provides incentives for commercial customers to increase the energy efficiency of their facilities. Rebates are provided for new or replacement energy efficient...

  8. Energy Efficiency Fund (Electric and Gas)- Residential New Construction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Efficiency Fund offers a program designed to encourage the construction of energy efficient homes. The Residential New Construction Program offers incentives targeted at increasing...

  9. City Utilities of Springfield- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City Utilities of Springfield offers incentives for commercial customers to increase the efficiency of eligible facilities. Rebates are available for efficient lighting upgrades, controls and for...

  10. Richland Energy Services- Energy Efficient Commercial Lighting Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Richland (COR) provides rebates to encourage commercial utility customers to increase the energy efficiency of facilities by replacing existing lighting systems with more efficient...

  11. Duke Energy- Small Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Duke Energy encourages its business customers to increase the energy efficiency of eligible facilities through the Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program. The equipment rebates...

  12. Maximizing Photosynthetic Efficiencies and Hydrogen Production in Microalga Cultures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polle, Jürgen

    1 Maximizing Photosynthetic Efficiencies and Hydrogen Production in Microalga Cultures Juergen) is expected to increase the photon use efficiency of microalgae in mass culture as it would minimize

  13. Central Georgia EMC- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Central Georgia Electric Member Corporation (CGEMC) offers rebates for residential customers to increase the energy efficiency of existing homes or to build new energy efficient homes. This year,...

  14. Long Island Power Authority- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Long Island Power Authority offers a variety of incentives for its non-residential customers to increase the energy efficiency of facilities through the Commercial Efficiency Program. Major...

  15. Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series toESnet4: Networking for37 East andCommissionEfficiency | Department

  16. Advanced properties of extended plasmas for efficient high-order harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganeev, R. A. [Ophthalmology and Advanced Laser Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan) [Ophthalmology and Advanced Laser Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Physics Department, Voronezh State University, Voronezh 394006 (Russian Federation); Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H. [Ophthalmology and Advanced Laser Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)] [Ophthalmology and Advanced Laser Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the advanced properties of extended plasma plumes (5?mm) for efficient harmonic generation of laser radiation compared with the short lengths of plasmas (?0.3–0.5?mm) used in previous studies. The harmonic conversion efficiency quadratically increased with the growth of plasma length. The studies of this process along the whole extreme ultraviolet range using the long plasma jets produced on various metal surfaces, particularly including the resonance-enhanced laser frequency conversion and two-color pump, are presented. Such plasmas could be used for the quasi-phase matching experiments by proper modulation of the spatial characteristics of extended ablating area and formation of separated plasma jets.

  17. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, Rick; Harris, Jeff; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and ultimately reverse) the growth in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. Instead, policy makers need to return to an earlier emphasis on"conservation," with energy efficiency seen as a means rather than an end in itself. We briefly review the concept of"intensive" versus"extensive" variables (i.e., energy efficiency versus energy consumption), and why attention to both consumption and efficiency is essential for effective policy in a carbon- and oil-constrained world with increasingly brittle energy markets. To start, energy indicators and policy evaluation metrics need to reflect energy consumption as well as efficiency. We introduce the concept of"progressive efficiency," with the expected or required level of efficiency varying as a function of house size, appliance capacity, or more generally, the scale of energy services. We propose introducing progressive efficiency criteria first in consumer information programs (including appliance labeling categories) and then in voluntary rating and recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR. As acceptance grows, the concept could be extended to utility rebates, tax incentives, and ultimately to mandatory codes and standards. For these and other programs, incorporating criteria for consumption as well as efficiency offers a path for energy experts, policy-makers, and the public to begin building consensus on energy policies that recognize the limits of resources and global carrying-capacity. Ultimately, it is both necessary and, we believe, possible to manage energy consumption, not just efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift expectations away from perpetual growth and toward satisfaction with sufficiency.

  18. INCREASING RENDERING PERFORMANCE OF GRAPHICS HARDWARE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitton, Mary C.

    a compute-on-demand paradigm for the design of high-speed and energy-efficient graphics components. The goalINCREASING RENDERING PERFORMANCE OF GRAPHICS HARDWARE Justin Hensley A dissertation submitted RIGHTS RESERVED ii #12;ABSTRACT JUSTIN HENSLEY: Increasing Rendering Performance of Graphics Hardware

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brush, Adrian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in flue gas oxygen, boiler efficiency is increased by 2.5% (40 Boiler Energy EfficiencyChapter 13. 7.1 Boiler Energy Efficiency Measures The boiler

  20. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to between 2.5-3%, boiler efficiency improvements would saveand hog fuel, the efficiencies of boilers that combust theserecovery boiler, which can increase the efficiency of steam

  1. A Perspective on the Future of High Efficiency Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New fuel economy standards and emissions regulations are accelerating the development of new engine technologies, sensors, and on-board computing. These developments will enable unprecedented engine control, which will in turn enable real-world implementations of low temperature combustion, high-speed controls, and other high efficiency engine technologies. With this expanded flexibility in engine design and control, the challenge will now be the exponential increase in the design and calibration space and the need for the development of new simulations, optimization methods, and self-learning control methodologies. This manuscript provides historical and future perspectives on the opportunities and challenges of this unparalleled technology growth on the next generation of high efficiency engines.

  2. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  3. PSNH- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Public Service of New Hampshire, in collaboration with [http://www.nhsaves.com/ nhsaves], provides incentives for residential customers to increase the energy efficiency of participating homes....

  4. Business Energy Efficiency Rebate for Existing Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Trust of Oregon offers incentives for commercial, agricultural and institutional customers of any of the state's investor owned utilities to increase the energy efficiency of their existing...

  5. Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners John Shugars, Consultant ofcommercialpackaged air conditioners, explore the reasons behindthis efficiency gap, and assess opportunities). Although sales of rooftop air conditioners have steadily increased over the past decade, the efficiency

  6. Internal Behaviour Change Programs and Increasing Energy Effciency Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), addresses Internal Behaviour Change Programs and Increasing Energy Efficiency. Presented on August 25, 2011.

  7. Staging laser plasma accelerators for increased beam energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panasenko, Dmitriy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Staging Laser Plasma Accelerators for Increased Beam EnergyStaging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way ofcompact laser-plasma accelerators to generate particle

  8. Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    th , 2012 Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains DEER Conference 2012 D. Tomazic, H. Kleeberg, S. Bowyer, FEV Inc. J....

  9. Efficiency United (Gas)- Residential Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Efficiency United program is intended to provide assistance and incentives to customers who employ energy efficient measures. Programs offer rebates on natural gas water heaters, clothes...

  10. Optimizing Asset Utilization and Operating Efficiency Efficiently...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2008 Optimizing Asset Utilization and Operating Efficiency Efficiently, June 2008 Smart Grid Implementation Workshop Breakout Group Report, a discussion of metrics for smart grid...

  11. India's cement industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's cement sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the aluminum sector increased by 0.8% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's cement sector has been biased towards the use of energy and capital, while it has been material and labor saving. The increase in productivity was mainly driven by a period of progress between 1983 and 1991 following partial decontrol of the cement sector in 1982. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency in the sector. Their analysis shows that the Indian cement sector is moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use. However, substantial further energy savings and carbon reduction potentials still exist.

  12. Energy efficient data centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wit h energy efficiency Improving Best Practices Linkwit h energy efficiency Improving Best Practices Linkwit h energy efficiency Improving Best Practices Link

  13. Energy Efficiency Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Keystone HELP Energy Efficiency Loan Program is designed to help homeowners improve energy efficiency with special financing for high-efficiency heating, air conditioning, insulation, windows,...

  14. Equitable economic energy efficiency : creating good jobs in low-income efficiency programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarin, Amit

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficiency is an important consideration in energy policy-making. So, a federal program aimed at funding "energy efficiency retrofits" for low-income households could be an important step in increasing the overall ...

  15. Boiler Efficiency--Consider All the Angles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blakeley, C. P.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY (Assuming constant radiation and other unaccounted-for losses) As is Reading Corrected Reading From an To an increased combustion efficiency of: original efficiency of: 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 50% $9.10 16.70 23...

  16. Economic Growth Policies & Economic Growth Theory Influences.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallden, Sophie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? The aim of this thesis is to describe the presence of theories for economic growth in municipalities’ economic growth strategies, and to compare the… (more)

  17. SEPTEMBER 2009 ENERGY EFFICIENCY &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    SEPTEMBER 2009 GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY FINANCING DISTRICTS FOR LOCAL Assessment Districts) DEER Database for Energy Efficient Resources DSIRE Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency EECBG Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants EIM Energy Improvement Mortgage

  18. PDSF Job Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization Running Jobs Efficiently Running Jobs Efficiently Job Efficiency A job's efficiency is the ratio of its CPU time to the actual time it took to run, i.e., cputime ...

  19. Improving steam turbine efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cioffi, D.H.; Mitchell, D.R.; Whitecar, S.C. [Encotech, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the condition of a significant number of fossil steam turbines operating in the United States and the maintenance practices used to improve their performance. Through the use of steam path audits conducted by the authors` company and by several utilities, a large data base of information on turbine heat rate, casing efficiency, and maintenance practices is available to help the power generation industry understand how different maintenance practices and steam path damage impact turbine performance. The data base reveals that turbine cycle heat rate is typically 5.23% poorer than design just prior to major outages. The degraded condition of steam turbines presents an opportunity for utilities to improve heat rate and reduce emissions without increasing fuel costs. The paper describes what losses typically contribute to the 5.23% heat rate degradation and how utilities can recover steam turbine performance through maintenance actions aimed at improving steam path efficiency.

  20. Energy Efficient Retrofits and Green Building Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Moreover, the increase in demand is also causing rise in pollution levels. Therefore, the subject of energy efficient retrofits and green building practices is becoming increasingly important. Based on the latest walkthrough energy audit it is proven...

  1. The role of energy efficiency and renewable energies in the future world energy market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world population is rising rapidly, notably in the developing countries. Historical trends suggest that increased annual energy use per capita is a good surrogate for the standard of living factors which promote a decrease in population growth rate. If these trends continue, stabilization of the world`s population will require the increased use of all sources of energy as cheap oil and gas are depleted. Improved efficiency of energy use and renewable energy sources will be essential to stabilizing population,while providing a decent standard all over the world.

  2. Efficiencies of Quantum Optical Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Hogg; Dominic W. Berry; A. I. Lvovsky

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a definition for the efficiency that can be universally applied to all classes of quantum optical detectors. This definition is based on the maximum amount of optical loss that a physically plausible device can experience while still replicating the properties of a given detector. We prove that detector efficiency cannot be increased using linear optical processing. That is, given a set of detectors, as well as arbitrary linear optical elements and ancillary light sources, it is impossible to construct detection devices that would exhibit higher efficiencies than the initial set.

  3. Entergy Arkansas- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Entergy Arkansas has several programs to help commercial and industrial customers increase the energy efficiency of eligible facilities.

  4. Efficiency United (Gas)- Commercial Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Efficiency United Program, administered by CLEAResult Consulting, provides commercial gas incentives for the following Michigan utilities:

  5. Productivity increases in science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danko, J.E. [ed.; Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.; Dirks, J.A.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study quantifies the impact on the cost of experimentation of synergistic advancements in instrumentation, theory, and computation over the last two decades. The study finds that the productivity of experimental investigation (experimental results/$) is increasing as science is transformed from a linear, isolated approach to a hierarchical, multidisciplinary approach. Developments such as massively parallel processors coupled with instrumental systems with multiple probes and diverse data analysis capabilities will further this transformation and increase the productivity of scientific studies. The complexities and scale of today`s scientific challenges are much greater than in the past, however, so that the costs of research are increasing. Even though science is much more productive in terms of the experimental results, the challenges facing scientific investigators are increasing at an even faster pace. New approaches to infrastructure investments must capitalize on the changing dynamics of research and allow the scientific community to maximize gains in productivity so that complex problems can be attacked cost-effectively. Research strategies that include user facilities and coordinated experimental, computational, and theoretical research are needed.

  6. Productivity increases in science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danko, J.E. (ed.); Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.; Dirks, J.A.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study quantifies the impact on the cost of experimentation of synergistic advancements in instrumentation, theory, and computation over the last two decades. The study finds that the productivity of experimental investigation (experimental results/$) is increasing as science is transformed from a linear, isolated approach to a hierarchical, multidisciplinary approach. Developments such as massively parallel processors coupled with instrumental systems with multiple probes and diverse data analysis capabilities will further this transformation and increase the productivity of scientific studies. The complexities and scale of today's scientific challenges are much greater than in the past, however, so that the costs of research are increasing. Even though science is much more productive in terms of the experimental results, the challenges facing scientific investigators are increasing at an even faster pace. New approaches to infrastructure investments must capitalize on the changing dynamics of research and allow the scientific community to maximize gains in productivity so that complex problems can be attacked cost-effectively. Research strategies that include user facilities and coordinated experimental, computational, and theoretical research are needed.

  7. Efficiency Improvement of an IPMSM using Maximum Efficiency Operating Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, UniversitÀt

    synchronous machines PMSM. Both current components id and iq have to be chosen dependent upon the actual components. Reference [2] investigated the optimum efficiency operation of a PMSM, which shows that the performance can be increased by field weakening. A loss minimization control of PMSM was investigated in [3

  8. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhyankar, Nikit

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    India. Prayas. (2005). Demand-Side Management (DSM) in theEnergy Efficiency and Demand Side Management (DSM). PlanningDemand Growth Demand Side Management Delhi Transco Limited

  9. OPTIONS for ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIONS for ENERGY EFFICIENCY in EXISTING BUILDINGS December 2005 CEC-400-2005-039-CMF;OPTIONS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY in EXISTING BUILDINGS COMMISSION REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................iii California's Successful Energy Efficiency Programs

  10. Energy Efficient Radio Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    Energy Efficient Radio Resource Management in a Coordinated Multi-Cell Distributed Antenna System Omer HALILOGLU Introduction System Model Performance Evaluation Conclusion References Energy Efficient Hacettepe University 5 September 2014 Omer HALILOGLU (Hacettepe University) Energy Efficient Radio Resource

  11. Energy Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmeyer, W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency is only one aspect of motor performance. This paper discusses how efficiency is influenced by such factors as horsepower rating, poles, actual load, and starting requirements. It discusses some of the variables affecting efficiency...

  12. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanzisera, Steven

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007. Enabling an Energy-Efficient Future Internet ThroughIEEE 802.3az: The Road to Energy Efficient Ethernet. IEEEPHY Compliant With New Energy Efficient Ethernet Guidelines;

  13. Energy efficient data centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Varone. 2002a. Energy- and Eco-Efficiency of Data Centres. ANew Buildings S Energy- and Eco-Efficiency of Data Centres:FC Source: Energy- and Eco-Efficiency of Data Centres: A

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - algal growth rate Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    growth rate was limited by organic C or inorganic P. The algal density... growth rate was energy limited. However, above that light intensity. algal density increased... of...

  15. Transportation Efficiency Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation efficiency reduces travel demand as measured by vehicle miles traveled (VMT). While transportation efficiency policies are often implemented under local governments, national and...

  16. Data Center Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports data center efficiency initiatives by encouraging Federal agencies to adopt best practices and construct energy-efficient data centers.

  17. SM Energy-Efficient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamond, Richard

    SM 111 Energy Energy-Efficient Ventilation for Apartment Buildings #12. These Guides provide clear and practical information on issues related to energy-efficient building retrofits

  18. Definition of Energy Efficiency

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the energy efficiency effects. Most of what is defined as energy efficiency is actually energy intensity. Energy intensity is the ratio of energy consumption to some measure of...

  19. Water Efficiency Goal Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) issued water efficiency goal guidance in Federal Agency Implementation of Water Efficiency and Management Provisions of Executive Order 13514. This...

  20. Energy Efficiency -- Home Page

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home >Energy Users EEnergy Efficiency Page Energy-Efficiency Measurement MEASUREMENT DISCUSSION: Measures and Policy Issues...

  1. Residential propane prices increase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increase The average

  2. Residential propane prices increase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increase The

  3. Residential propane prices increase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increase Thepropane

  4. Residential propane prices increase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter Apropane prices increase

  5. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines...

  6. Florida Growth Fund (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Florida Growth Fund can provide investments in technology and growth-related companies through co-investments with other institutional investors. The Fund awards preference to companies...

  7. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, J.; Confer, K. (Delphi Automotive Systems)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

  8. Essays on Productivity Change, Growth, and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    : To replicate an industrial revolution: from exogenous to endogenous growth In the last quarter of the second millennium many countries experienced, simultane- ously, an industrial revolution (an exponential increase

  9. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Improvements in Manufacturing Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and increasing awareness of "green" customers have brought energy efficient manufacturing on top of the agendaEvaluating Energy Efficiency Improvements in Manufacturing Processes Katharina Bunse1 , Julia Sachs kbunse@ethz.ch, sachsj@student.ethz.ch, mvodicka@ethz.ch Abstract. Global warming, rising energy prices

  10. Mechanistic Understanding of Microbial Plugging for Improved Sweep Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Bryant; Larry Britton

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbial plugging has been proposed as an effective low cost method of permeability reduction. Yet there is a dearth of information on the fundamental processes of microbial growth in porous media, and there are no suitable data to model the process of microbial plugging as it relates to sweep efficiency. To optimize the field implementation, better mechanistic and volumetric understanding of biofilm growth within a porous medium is needed. In particular, the engineering design hinges upon a quantitative relationship between amount of nutrient consumption, amount of growth, and degree of permeability reduction. In this project experiments were conducted to obtain new data to elucidate this relationship. Experiments in heterogeneous (layered) beadpacks showed that microbes could grow preferentially in the high permeability layer. Ultimately this caused flow to be equally divided between high and low permeability layers, precisely the behavior needed for MEOR. Remarkably, classical models of microbial nutrient uptake in batch experiments do not explain the nutrient consumption by the same microbes in flow experiments. We propose a simple extension of classical kinetics to account for the self-limiting consumption of nutrient observed in our experiments, and we outline a modeling approach based on architecture and behavior of biofilms. Such a model would account for the changing trend of nutrient consumption by bacteria with the increasing biomass and the onset of biofilm formation. However no existing model can explain the microbial preference for growth in high permeability regions, nor is there any obvious extension of the model for this observation. An attractive conjecture is that quorum sensing is involved in the heterogeneous bead packs.

  11. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the world energy, industrial, trade, and economic scene.Development and Trade to China; led the Energy Policy Team,energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade

  12. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    problems; the China Sustainable Energy Program (funded byFoundation's China Sustainable Energy Program commissionedFoundation (China Sustainable Energy Program) became major

  13. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for 90% of household electricity consumption in China. Usinggives an annual electricity consumption of 12kWh assumingto look at is electricity consumption at the household

  14. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2000: Lighting Type Incandescent Fluorescent CFL Percentagescenario, we assume that incandescent bulbs are graduallyW 60W 15W Fluorescent Lamps Incandescent Lamps CFL We then

  15. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    full end-use model of China’s energy economy for 2020.Assessed ways for China to meet its goal of reducing energyCenter (BSDC) Beijing University China Academy of Building

  16. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Domestic Electric Storage Water Heater (DESWH) Test Methodsfans, washing machines, water heaters and space heaters.and Space Heating Water heater intensities and electric

  17. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry—Consumption Survey • Rural Household Energy • Commercial andrural residents and accounts for 5% of the national total. Public sector energy

  18. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Domestic Electric Storage Water Heater (DESWH) Test Methodsbuilt for electric storage water heaters and heat pumps asthat electric storage tank water heaters will be replaced

  19. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Programs 2008. “Weatherization Assistance Program PY 2007si.asp? id=1198. Weatherization Assistance Program Technicalid=1275 . Weatherization Assistance Program Technical

  20. Stronger Manufacturers' Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2006 - 11:09am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -- To increase the energy efficiency of residential air conditioners, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has issued new manufacturing...

  1. Tampa Electric- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tampa Electric offers a variety of incentives for commercial and industrial customers to increase the efficiency of eligible facilities. Tampa Electric also offers a free energy audit to non...

  2. PNM- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PNM provides a range of incentives for commercial customers to increase the efficiency of new and existing facilities. Buildings which exceed the current building code by 10% can get 8 cents per...

  3. Energy efficient operating systems and software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, Amit, 1976-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficient system design is becoming increasingly important with the proliferation of portable, battery-operated appliances such as laptops, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and cellular phones. Numerous dedicated ...

  4. Industrial energy efficiency policy in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese industrial sector energy-efficiency policy has gone through a number of distinct phases since the founding of the People s Republic in 1949. An initial period of energy supply growth in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s was followed by implementation of significant energy efficiency programs in the 1980s. Many of these programs were dismantled in the 1990s during the continuing move towards a market-based economy. In an effort to once again strengthen energy efficiency, the Chinese government passes the Energy Conservation Law in 1997 which provides broad guidance for the establishment of energy efficiency policies. Article 20 of the Energy Conservation Law requires substantial improvement in industrial energy efficiency in the key energy-consuming industrial facilities in China. This portion of the Law declares that ''the State will enhance energy conservation management in key energy consuming entities.'' In 1999, the industrial sector consumed nearly 30 EJ, or 76 percent of China's primary energy. Even though primary energy consumption has dropped dramatically in recent years, due mostly to a decline in coal consumption, the Chinese government is still actively developing an overall policy for energy efficiency in the industrial sector modeled after policies in a number of industrialized countries. This paper will describe recent Chinese government activities to develop industrial sector energy-efficiency targets as a ''market-based'' mechanism for improving the energy efficiency of key industrial facilities.

  5. Ashland Electric Utility- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Ashland Conservation District offers a wide variety of incentives for residential customers to increase the energy efficiency of homes, or build new homes that meet efficient design...

  6. If Cars Were More Efficient Would We Use Less Fuel?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Kenneth A.; Dender, Kurt Van

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient, Would We Use Less Fuel? B Y K E N N E T H A . S Mtask: just increase vehicle fuel efficiency, also known asexisting Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards.

  7. City Water Light and Power- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City Water Light and Power (CWLP) offers rebates to help commercial customers increase the energy efficiency of participating facilities. Energy efficient air-to-air, geothermal and water-loop...

  8. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dweikat, Ismail [University of Nebraska; Clemente, Thomas [University of Nebrask

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the completion of the proposed work, we will have: 1) identified novel alleles in wild sorghum germplasm that is useful to improve both cultivated grain and sweet sorghum; 2) been able to select individuals plants that exhibit high NUE within a breeding population on the basis of these markers; 3) acquired essential information necessary to examine the roles of GS and GOGAT, AlaT, along with impact of transcription factor Dof1, on N assimilation in sweet sorghum; and 4) The information learned will provide new opportunities for improving NUE in sorghum and other cereals.

  9. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2009-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Many state regulatory commissions and policymakers want utilities to aggressively pursue energy efficiency as a strategy to mitigate demand and energy growth, diversify the resource mix, and provide an alternative to building new, costly generation. However, as the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE 2007) points out, many utilities continue to shy away from aggressively expanding their energy efficiency efforts when their shareholder's fundamental financial interests are placed at risk by doing so. Thus, there is increased interest in developing effective ratemaking and policy approaches that address utility disincentives to pursue energy efficiency or lack of incentives for more aggressive energy efficiency efforts. New regulatory initiatives to promote increased utility energy efficiency efforts also affect the interests of consumers. Ratepayers and their advocates are concerned with issues of fairness, impacts on rates, and total consumer costs. From the perspective of energy efficiency advocates, the quid pro quo for utility shareholder incentives is the obligation to acquire all, or nearly all, achievable cost-effective energy efficiency. A key issue for state regulators and policymakers is how to maximize the cost-effective energy efficiency savings attained while achieving an equitable sharing of benefits, costs and risks among the various stakeholders. In this study, we modeled a prototypical vertically-integrated electric investor-owned utility in the southwestern US that is considering implementing several energy efficiency portfolios. We analyze the impact of these energy efficiency portfolios on utility shareholders and ratepayers as well as the incremental effect on each party when lost fixed cost recovery and/or utility shareholder incentive mechanisms are implemented. A primary goal of our quantitative modeling is to provide regulators and policymakers with an analytic framework and tools that assess the financial impacts of alternative incentive approaches on utility shareholders and customers if energy efficiency is implemented under various utility operating, cost, and supply conditions.We used and adapted a spreadsheet-based financial model (the Benefits Calculator) which was developed originally as a tool to support the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE). The major steps in our analysis are displayed graphically in Figure ES- 1. Two main inputs are required: (1) characterization of the utility which includes its initial financial and physical market position, a forecast of the utility?s future sales, peak demand, and resource strategy to meet projected growth; and (2) characterization of the Demand-Side Resource (DSR) portfolio ? projected electricity and demand savings, costs and economic lifetime of a portfolio of energy efficiency (and/or demand response) programs that the utility is planning or considering implementing during the analysis period. The Benefits Calculator also estimates total resource costs and benefits of the DSR portfolio using a forecast of avoided capacity and energy costs. The Benefits Calculator then uses inputs provided in the Utility Characterization to produce a ?business-as usual? base case as well as alternative scenarios that include energy efficiency resources, including the corresponding utility financial budgets required in each case. If a decoupling and/or a shareholder incentive mechanism are instituted, the Benefits Calculator model readjusts the utility?s revenue requirement and retail rates accordingly. Finally, for each scenario, the Benefits Calculator produces several metrics that provides insights on how energy efficiency resources, decoupling and/or a shareholder incentive mechanism impacts utility shareholders (e.g. overall earnings, return on equity), ratepayers (e.g., average customer bills and rates) and society (e.g. net resource benefits).

  10. Effects of ontogeny and soil nutrient supply on production, allocation, and leaf area efficiency in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    and soil nutrient supply on aboveground biomass accumulation, allocation, and stemwood growth efficiencyEffects of ontogeny and soil nutrient supply on production, allocation, and leaf area efficiency control). Aboveground biomass growth responses to the combined fertilizer and weed control treatments (FW

  11. Public Capital, Growth and Welfare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (t) + I(t) (0,1): depreciation rate. K(t+1) = (1 - )K(t) + I(t) (0,1): efficiency/governance services Private capital Rate of time preference Consumption saving decisions Investment in physical and sanitation--increase in enrolment rates (especially for girls, rural areas). 2. Electricity

  12. Enhanced Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines By Employing Spinning Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geyko, Vasily; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A gain in fuel efficiency of several percent is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in the efficiency.

  13. Energy Efficiency Fund

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: The 2013 Three Year Efficiency Plans have not yet been approved. The process is underway. For the latest draft plan, review the Massachusetts Energy Efficiency Advisory Council [http://www.ma...

  14. Energy efficient data centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Center 6.2 utilized fan coil units, rather than computerEfficiency kW/ton Fan Coil Unit Design Efficiency CFM/kWCenter 6.2 utilized fan coil units, rather than computer

  15. Energy Efficiency Goals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2009, Missouri enacted the Missouri Energy Efficiency Investment Act, creating energy efficiency sales and peak reduction goals to be met through investment in demand side management. The goals...

  16. High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Kruiswyk

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in on-engine testing. (2) A compressor technology that demonstrated 1.5% improvement in compressor efficiency on gas stand compared to production available compressors. (3) A power turbine with high efficiency bearing system that demonstrated excellent rotordynamic stability throughout the required speed range, up to 60,000 rpm. (4) A predicted improvement (using engine simulation) in engine thermal efficiency of 7% at the peak torque design point, when combining the technologies developed in this program.

  17. Energy Efficiency Program Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutiso,S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Efficiency Program Overview Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency CATEE Conference November 18-20, 2014 Dallas, TX ESL-KT-14-11-02 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 General Overview • State of Texas... enacted legislation requiring Transmission and Distribution utilities (TDUs) achieve annual goals for energy efficiency • Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) implemented rules and guidelines for consistency among the TDU programs • Texas TDUs...

  18. Energy Efficiency Financing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information and examples of state financing for energy efficiency programs, with descriptions on implementation methods and concerns.

  19. Managing Energy Efficiency Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almaguer, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency opportunities as well as promote the use of energy efficient methodologies and technologies. If, as program results suggest, 15% to 20% of the gas that is now consumed at by plant operations can be saved through efficiencies, it would save $500...

  20. ENTRY LOBBY ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    ENTRY LOBBY ENERGY EFFICIENCY Clerestory windows provide natural day-lighting.· Exterior roof SUSTAINABILITY FEATURES #12;ADMINISTRATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY High performance window glazing· minimizes heat gain ENERGY EFFICIENCY High performance window glazing· minimizes heat gain. Light-colored roofing reflects

  1. Energy-efficient water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

  2. Eucalyptus kraft black liquor enhances growth and productivity of Spirulina in outdoor cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chauhan, V.S.; Singh, G.; Ramamurthy, V. [Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala (India)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass cultivation of microalgae for commercial applications suffers from poor productivities when measured against laboratory results or theoretical projections. In an effort to reduce this gap it was discovered that addition of eucalyptus kraft black liquor (BL) enhanced biomass productivity in outdoor cultures of Spirulina by increasing growth rate by 38% and biomass yield by 43%. BL treatment resulted in elevation of nitrogen assimilating enzyme activities and efficiency of phosphate utilization. Analyses of forenoon and afternoon oxygen production rates (OPRs) indicated higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity in BL-treated cultures compared to untreated cultures. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rule of thumb is that boiler efficiency can be increased bytemperature, and boiler efficiency. They are a recommendedresult is improved boiler efficiency. Turbulator installers

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7.1 summarizes the boiler efficiency measures, while Tablerule of thumb is that boiler efficiency can be increased by2001). Boilers and Heaters, Improving Energy Efficiency.

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    often used is that boiler efficiency can be increased by 1%gas by 1% increases boiler efficiency by 2.5%, although this2001a). Boilers and Heaters, Improving Energy Efficiency.

  6. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    often used is that boiler efficiency can be increased by 1%gas by 1% increases boiler efficiency by 2.5% (CIPEC 2001).Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements. 22 nd

  7. Hercules Municipal Utility- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hercules Municipal Utility provides financial incentives for its residential members to increase the energy efficiency of participating homes. Rebates are offered for a variety of home appliances...

  8. Farmers Electric Cooperative- Residential/Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Farmers Electric Cooperative offers incentives for its residential and agricultural members to increase the energy efficiency of eligible homes and facilities. In order to receive rebates,...

  9. Cedarburg Light and Water Utility- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cedarburg Light and Water Utility provides incentives for commercial, industrial and agricultural customers to increase the energy efficiency of eligible facilities. Upon request, Cedarburg Light...

  10. ComEd- Smart Ideas for Your Home Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commonwealth Edison (ComEd) offers residential customers and building owners (or managers) incentives for certain energy efficiency upgrades and improvements. Increased incentives are available to...

  11. Uniform Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Uniform Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings and Increasing Electric Utility Confidence in Reported Savings Now Available Uniform Methods for Determining Energy...

  12. Avista Utilities (Electric)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentives Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Avista Utilities offers numerous incentives to commercial and industrial customers to increase the energy efficiency of customer facilities or equipment. Incentive options are available for heating...

  13. Thermal Efficiency Improvement While Meeting Emissions of 2007...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Efficiency Reaching 50% at 2010 Emissions Time Optimized Combustion; Increased FIS Flexibility; Premium EGR System; Turbocharger Matching; Diesel Particulate Filter NOx:...

  14. Dakota Electric Association- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dakota Electric Association provides financial incentives for commercial and industrial customers to increase the energy efficiency of eligible facilities. Examples of equipment and measures...

  15. Shakopee Public Utilities- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Shakopee Public Utilities (SPU) offers a wide array of rebates and incentives encouraging its commercial customers to increase the energy efficiency of their facilities. Broadly, rebates exist for...

  16. Lower Valley Energy- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lower Valley Energy offers numerous rebates for residential customers who wish to increase the energy efficiency of eligible homes. Rebates are available for weatherization measures, water heaters,...

  17. Grayson Rural Electric Cooperative- Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grayson Rural Electric Cooperative provides rebates to its customers for increasing their energy efficiency. Members who make improvements based on recommendations by the utility's energy advisor...

  18. Clark Public Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clark Public Utilities offers several energy incentives for residential customers to increase the energy efficiency of their homes. Rebates are offered for refrigerators, freezers, clothes washers,...

  19. SRP- PowerWise Business Solutions Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SRPBusiness Solutions is a program designed to help SRP business customers manage energy usage and increase the energy efficiency of participating facilities. Within this program there are several...

  20. EPUD- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Emerald People's Utility District (EPUD) offers financial incentives for commercial customers to increase the energy efficiency of their facilities. EPUD works with the Bonneville Power...

  1. City Water Light and Power- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City Water Light and Power (CWLP) offers rebates to Springfield residential customers for increasing the energy efficiency of participating homes. Rebates are available for geothermal heat pumps,...

  2. Energy Efficiency Opportunities within the Heat Treatment Industry.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Källen, Malin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Energy efficiency measures have become a top priority for large energy consuming companies because of the increasing energy prices and implemented energy policies. Many companies… (more)

  3. City Utilities of Springfield- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City Utilities of Springfield Missouri provides incentives for residential customers to increase the efficiency of eligible homes. Rebates are available for programmable thermostats, insulation...

  4. Supertruck - Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Attain 50% BTE Engine Demonstrate path towards 55% BTE Engine Barriers Assemble a cost effective, robust, reduced weight technologies for 50% freight efficiency Increase...

  5. assistance improve efficiency: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract. Global warming, rising energy prices and increasing awareness of "green" customers have brought energy efficient manufacturing on top of the agenda Boyer,...

  6. Efficiency Improvement of Nitride-Based Solid State Light Emitting Materials -- CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisielowski, Christian; Weber, Eicke

    2010-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x} N/GaN thin film growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy has opened a new route towards energy efficient solid-state lighting. Blue and green LED's became available that can be used to match the whole color spectrum of visible light with the potential to match the eye response curve. Moreover, the efficiency of such devices largely exceeds that of incandescent light sources (tungsten filaments) and even competes favorably with lighting by fluorescent lamps. It is, however, also seen in Figure 1 that it is essential to improve on the luminous performance of green LED's in order to mimic the eye response curve. This lack of sufficiently efficient green LED's relates to particularities of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N materials system. This ternary alloy system is polar and large strain is generated during a lattice mismatched thin film growth because of the significantly different lattice parameters between GaN and InN and common substrates such as sapphire. Moreover, it is challenging to incorporate indium into GaN at typical growth temperatures because a miscibility gap exists that can be modified by strain effects. As a result a large parameter space needs exploration to optimize the growth of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and to date it is unclear what the detailed physical processes are that affect device efficiencies. In particular, an inhomogeneous distribution indium in GaN modifies the device performance in an unpredictable manner. As a result technology is pushed forward on a trial and error basis in particular in Asian countries such as Japan and Korea, which dominate the market and it is desirable to strengthen the competitiveness of the US industry. This CRADA was initiated to help Lumileds Lighting/USA boosting the performance of their green LED's. The tasks address the distribution of the indium atoms in the active area of their blue and green LED's and its relation to internal and external quantum efficiencies. Procedures to measure the indium distribution with near atomic resolution were developed and applied to test samples and devices that were provided by Lumilids. Further, the optical performance of the device materials was probed by photoluminescence, electroluminescence and time resolved optical measurements. Overall, the programs objective is to provide a physical basis for the development of a simulation program that helps making predictions to improve the growth processes such that the device efficiency can be increased to about 20%. Our study addresses all proposed aspects successfully. Carrier localization, lifetime and recombination as well as the strain-induced generation of electric fields were characterized and modeled. Band gap parameters and their relation to the indium distribution were characterized and modeled. Electron microscopy was developed as a unique tool to measure the formation of indium clusters on a nanometer length scale and it was demonstrated that strain induced atom column displacements can reliably be determined in any materials system with a precision that approaches 2 pm. The relation between the local indium composition x and the strain induced lattice constant c(x) in fully strained In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N quantum wells was found to be: c(x) = 0.5185 + {alpha}x with {alpha} = 0.111 nm. It was concluded that the local indium concentration in the final product can be modulated by growth procedures in a predictable manner to favorably affect external quantum efficiencies that approached target values and that internal quantum efficiencies exceeded them.

  7. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    made in the energy efficiency of buildings. Better cost dataimproving energy efficiency of buildings is being addressedimprovement of energy efficiency in buildings are briefly

  8. Growth Versus Government Management Improvement During

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podobnik, Boris

    , we find that the growth rate of GDP per capita, g, decreases with p, and increases with DGCI. Further 33% of govern- ment employees has increased its GDP per capita by approximately 4% (corrected and Thermal Energy Science, School of Physical Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 200092, Shanghai

  9. Energy Efficiency: A Priority

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patenaude, R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Efficiency: A Priority October 9th 2013 2 Energy efficiency: a priority NBC profile (April 30th, 2013) 1st financial institution in Quebec 19 920 employees 451 branches in Canada 2,4 million individual clients 3 Energy efficiency: a... priority Energenia?s profile Consulting firm specializing exclusively in energy efficency Founded by Robert Patenaude in 2003 National Bank?s main partner for the development, implementation and supervision of the energy efficiciency program since...

  10. Plant growth is influenced by glutamine synthetase-catalyzed nitrogen metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langston-Unkefer, P.J.

    1991-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia assimilation has been implicated as participating in regulation of nitrogen fixation in free-living bacteria. In fact, these simple organisms utilize an integrated regulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism; we except to observe an integration of nitrogen and carbon fixation in plants; how could these complex systems grow efficiently and compete in the ecosystem without coordinating these two crucial activities We have been investigating the role of ammonia assimilation regulating the complex symbiotic nitrogen fixation of legumes. Just as is observed in the simple bacterial systems, perturbation of ammonia assimilation in legumes results in increased overall nitrogen fixation. The perturbed plants have increased growth and total nitrogen fixation capability. Because we have targeted the first enyzme in ammonia assimilation, glutamine synthetase, this provides a marker that could be used to assist selection or screening for increased biomass yield. 45 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Consortium for Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Consortium for Energy Efficiency at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting, held on November 18-19, 2009.

  12. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanzisera, Steven

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    introduced to the market, saving energy in California, thesupport EEE to save energy, so broad market adoption shouldaccelerate market transformation of energy efficient digital

  13. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Goals Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL....

  14. Bearwall Energy Efficient Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sovero,M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CATEE Conference November 20, 2014 ENERGY EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Brief History of Bearwall… Who We Are: ? Manuel Sovero ? Luis Osorio Energy Conservation... Experience: ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Energy Programs… ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Bearwall Methodology… Introduction...

  15. Energy Efficiency Fund

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Connecticut's original electric-industry restructuring legislation (Public Act 98-28), enacted in April 1998, created separate funds to support energy efficiency and renewable energy.* The...

  16. Energy Efficiency Product Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '' Note: The federal government has imposed and updated appliance efficiency standards through several legislative acts,* and now has standards in place or under development for 30 classes of...

  17. LEDs for Energy Efficient Greenhouse Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Devesh; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Roth, Bernhard

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light energy is an important factor for plant growth. In regions where the natural light source, i.e. solar radiation, is not sufficient for growth optimization, additional light sources are being used. Traditional light sources such as high pressure sodium lamps and other metal halide lamps are not very efficient and generate high radiant heat. Therefore, new sustainable solutions should be developed for energy efficient greenhouse lighting. Recent developments in the field of light source technologies have opened up new perspectives for sustainable and highly efficient light sources in the form of light-emitting diodes, i.e. LEDs, for greenhouse lighting. This review focuses on the potential of LEDs to replace traditional light sources in the greenhouse. In a comparative economic analysis of traditional vs. LED lighting, we show that the introduction of LEDs allows reduction of the production cost of vegetables in the long-run of several years, due to the high energy efficiency, low maintenance cost and lon...

  18. Evaluating Memory Energy Efficiency in Parallel I/O Workloads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yifeng

    Evaluating Memory Energy Efficiency in Parallel I/O Workloads Jianhui Yue,Yifeng Zhu , Zhao Cai the ever- widening gap between disk and processor speeds, memory energy efficiency becomes an increasingly management policies heavily influence the overall memory energy efficiency. In partic- ular, under the same

  19. Super-compound Engines Enable Multifuel Vehicles to Match Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Super-compound Engines Enable Multifuel Vehicles to Match Efficiency of Diesel-powered Vehicles in the last 25 years. Lightduty truck engines historically have poor efficiency, converting only 20 percent of gasoline into useful work. Multifuel compound engine technologies make it possible to increase efficiency

  20. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on Electricity Bill Savings From Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels onof Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Solar EnergyImpact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on

  1. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on Electricity Bill Savings From Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels onEfficiency and Renewable Energy (Solar Energy TechnologiesImpact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on

  2. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  3. ENERGY EFFICIENT INTERNET INFRASTRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasanna, Viktor K.

    . D R A F T October 27, 2010, 11:34pm D R A F T #12;2 ENERGY EFFICIENT INTERNET INFRASTRUCTURE FigureCHAPTER 1 ENERGY EFFICIENT INTERNET INFRASTRUCTURE Weirong Jiang, Ph.D.1 , and Viktor K. Prasanna]. In other words, an IP address may match multiple prefixes, but only the longest D R A F T October 27, 2010

  4. Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product Variety at Online Booksellers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brynjolfsson, Erik

    2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a framework and empirical estimates that quantify the economic impact of increased product variety made available through electronic markets. While efficiency ...

  5. Reserve growth important to U.S. gas supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmoker, J.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Attanasi, E.D. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1997-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The term reserve growth refers to the typical increases in estimated ultimate recovery that occur as oil or gas fields are developed and produced. An example for a particular field helps explain the nature of reserve growth. This gas field was discovered in the mid-1940s. In 1977, its ultimate recovery was estimated to be 2.1 tcf of gas. One might think that after some 30 years of development and production, the resource potential of a field would be well understood. However, by 1991 the estimated ultimate recovery of this field had increased to 3.1 tcf. Reserve growth over the 15 year period totaled 1 tcf, and it shows no sign of stopping. The paper discusses reserve growth trends, reserve growth roots, and future reserve growth. It is concluded that much work remains to be done on the phenomenon of reserve growth, which is arguably the most significant research problem in the field of hydrocarbon resource assessment.

  6. High efficiency quasi-monochromatic infrared emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brucoli, Giovanni; Besbes, Mondher; Benisty, Henri, E-mail: henri.benisty@institutoptique.fr; Greffet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad [Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Incandescent radiation sources are widely used as mid-infrared emitters owing to the lack of alternative for compact and low cost sources. A drawback of miniature hot systems such as membranes is their low efficiency, e.g., for battery powered systems. For targeted narrow-band applications such as gas spectroscopy, the efficiency is even lower. In this paper, we introduce design rules valid for very generic membranes demonstrating that their energy efficiency for use as incandescent infrared sources can be increased by two orders of magnitude.

  7. Studies of micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing chloride electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mc Vay, L.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a study of the micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing, acidic chloride solutions are reported. The effects of six variables were examined: flow rate, current density, zinc and hydrogen ion concentration, concentrations of nickel, iron and cadmium impurity ions, and the nature of the substrate. The development of micromorphology was studied in-situ by means of videomicrography and ex-situ by means of scanning electron microscopy. This investigation focused on the formation of grooved deposits, which are found under a wide range of deposition conditions. The major conclusions of this study are: the most important variable determining whether grooved deposits form is the interfacial concentration; large protrusions orient themselves parallel to the flow direction with the orientation starting upstream and progressing downstream; large protrusions become ridges due to growth of the highest current density portions of the electrode under mass transport control. The current efficiency was measured using EDTA titration and weight measurements. The fraction of the current taken by zinc deposition increased with zinc concentration, ranging up to 100%, and decreased with pH. The efficiency of zinc deposition was affected by the flow rate and the substrate employed. Impurities lowered the current efficiency.

  8. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sustainable energy system was begun, further supporting those goals of increased renewable energy sources and energy efficiency. Sweden

  9. Quantifying the potential impact of energy efficiency and low carbon policies for China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    district heating generation and distribution. Improvements considered are (1) increased plant efficiency (2) reduction of thermal losses

  10. Sorghum Growth and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerik, Tom; Bean, Brent W.; Vanderlip, Richard

    2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorghum is well adapted to Texas, and its ability to yield consistently makes it popular with growers. This publication discusses sorghum plant biology and growth....

  11. Strategic Growth Initiative (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A joint venture between Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the Strategic Growth Initiative Grant Program was...

  12. Ways to Increase Percent Calf Crop in Beef Cattle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverly, John R.

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Management of First Calf Heifers I A. Provide extra feed for growth. . - 705 35 40 702 29 34 B. Feedtoobtain?hto%pounddaily 750 34 24 gain during the breeding season. 22 14 C. Breed for 80 days, palpate for preg- i INCREASING REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE...

  13. Building Energy-Efficiency Best Practice Policies and Policy Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Can, Stephane de la Rue de; Zheng, Nina; Williams, Christopher; Amman, Jennifer; Staniaszek, Dan

    2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions and the greatest opportunity to reduce these emissions. The IPCC 4th Assessment Report estimates that globally 35% to 40% of all energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions (relative to a growing baseline) result from energy use in buildings. Emissions reductions from a combination of energy efficiency and conservation (using less energy) in buildings have the potential to cut emissions as much as all other energy-using sectors combined. This is especially the case for China, India and other developing countries that are expected to account for 80% or more of growth in building energy use worldwide over the coming decades. In short, buildings constitute the largest opportunity to mitigate climate change and special attention needs to be devoted to developing countries. At the same time, the buildings sector has been particularly resistant to achieving this potential. Technology in other sectors has advanced more rapidly than in buildings. In the recent past, automobile companies have made large investments in designing, engineering, and marketing energy efficient and alternative fuel vehicles that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, the buildings sector – dependent on millions and millions of decisions by consumers and homeowners – face a large variety of market barriers that cause very substantial underinvestment in energy efficiency. How can the trajectory of energy use in buildings be changed to reduce the associated CO{sub 2} emissions? Is it possible to greatly accelerate this change? The answer to these questions depends on policy, technology, and behavior. Can policies be crafted and implemented to drive the trajectory down? Can the use of existing energy efficiency technologies be increased greatly and new technologies developed and brought to market? And what is the role of behavior in reducing or increasing energy use in buildings? These are the three overarching issues. The information assembled in this study and the knowledge derived from it needs to be brought to bear on these three questions. And thus we turn to some of the insights from the study, presented in the form of findings and recommendation.

  14. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  15. Microcomputer-based information feedback system for improving tractor efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grogan, Joseph

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) used a gear oontrol system based on a customized version of the Motorola 6800 microprocessor. When used with heavy duty automatic transmissions in trucks and off highway equipment, improvements were seen in fuel efficiency, performanoe, reliability... in oil prices over the past deoade sparked more interest in determining tractor efficiency and in exploring ways to improve fuel economy. During the same time period, explosive growth in the eleotronics industry has made available very compact...

  16. Microstructured porous ZnO thin film for increased light scattering and improved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    for enhancing light scattering and efficiency in inverted organic photovoltaics. High degree of porosity. References and links 1. S. R. Forrest, "The limits to organic photovoltaic cell efficiency," MRS Bull. 30Microstructured porous ZnO thin film for increased light scattering and improved efficiency

  17. Heteroepitaxial growth of GaN/Si (111) junctions in ammonia-free atmosphere: Charge transport, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saron, K. M. A.; Hashim, M. R. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Allam, Nageh K. [Energy Materials Laboratory (EML), Department of Physics, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835 (Egypt)

    2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the catalyst-free growth of gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures on n-Si (111) substrates using physical vapor deposition via thermal evaporation of GaN powder at 1150 Degree-Sign C in the absence of NH{sub 3} gas. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis indicate that the growth rate of GaN nanostructures varies with deposition time. Photoluminescence spectra showed the suppression of the UV emission and the enhancement of the visible band emission with increasing the deposition time. The fabricated GaN nanostructures exhibited p-type behavior at the GaN/Si interface, which can be related to the diffusion of Ga into the Si substrate. The obtained lowest reflection and highest transmittance over a wide wavelength range (450-750 nm) indicate the high quality of the fabricated GaN films. Hall-effect measurements showed that all fabricated films have p-type behavior with decreasing electron concentration from 10{sup 21} to 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} and increasing the electron mobility from 50 to 225 cm{sup 2}/V s with increasing the growth time. The fabricated solar cell based on the 1 h-deposited GaN nanostructures on n-Si (111) substrate showed a well-defined rectifying behavior with a rectification ratio larger than 8.32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} in dark. Upon illumination (30 mW/cm{sup 2}), the 1 h-deposited heterojunction solar cell device showed a conversion efficiency of 5.78%. The growth of GaN in the absence of NH{sub 3} gas has strong effect on the morphological, optical, and electrical properties and consequently on the efficiency of the solar cell devices made of such layers.

  18. Energy Efficiency Goals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1980, Florida enacted the Florida Energy Efficiency and Conservation Act (FEECA), creating Florida Statutes Section 366.80-366.85 and Section 403.519. Section 366.82(6) requires the Florida...

  19. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    & Acceptance Hydrogen Supply & Delivery Infrastructure Hydrogen Cost Target*: $2 ­ 3 /gge, (dispensedEnergy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Overview of DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Dr. Sunita, domestic resources. Stationary Power (including CHP & backup power) Auxiliary & Portable Power

  20. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    & Delivery Infrastructure Hydrogen Cost Target: $2 ­ 3 /gge, delivered Key Challenges Technology ValidationEnergy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Dr. Sunita. Stationary Power (including CHP & backup power) Auxiliary & Portable Power Transportation Benefits

  1. Energy Efficiency Financing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or similar legal mechanism The Second U.S-China Energy Efficiency Forum Commercial PACE Benefits * No or Low Upfront Costs. Removes high first cost barrier to investment. * Very...

  2. Energy Efficiency Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June 2009, Maine enacted the ''Act Regarding Maine's Energy Future'', which established the Efficiency Maine Trust. As a part of this Act, the Trust is responsible for creating a plan to reach...

  3. Buildings Energy Efficiency Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Efficiency Wind Biomass Natural Gas Combined Cycle Nuclear Coal IGCC Photovoltaics Rangeof · Emphasized lighting · Insulation, HVAC, motors, windows also significant · Savings typically 1-10% per

  4. Premium Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moser, P. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Premium efficient motors are available which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with fewer losses than the more standard motors. The fewer losses in these motors are due to changes in the motor design and improved manufacturing methods...

  5. Energy Efficiency Resource Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The California Legislature emphasized the importance of energy efficiency and established broad goals with the enactment of [http://docs.cpuc.ca.gov/word_pdf/FINAL_DECISION/85995.pdf Assembly Bill...

  6. Building Energy Efficient Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for extremely inefficient buildings. To accomplish this, the school administrator must be an active participant in the design process. Energy efficient school design is a team effort involving the architect, engineer, and school administrator. This paper...

  7. Efficient distributed quantum computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beals, Robert

    We provide algorithms for efficiently moving and addressing quantum memory in parallel. These imply that the standard circuit model can be simulated with a low overhead by a more realistic model of a distributed quantum ...

  8. Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, D.

    DISTILLATION: THE EFFICIENT WORKHORSE Dan Steinmeyer Monsanto Company St. Louis, Missouri Distillation is inherently highly efficient: phase separation is clean it is relatively easy to build a mUltistage countercurrent device equilibrium... of separation to the work pmbedded in the reboiler and condenser thermal flows. The right application is one where the streams ? separated both exceed la' of the feed, relative volatility exceeds 1.2, and separation is complete - i.e. pure products...

  9. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability changes during CO{sub 2} flooding due to saturation changes, dissolution, and precipitation.

  10. Cavity growth patterns on the partial seam crip test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hommert, P.J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Partial Seam CRIP (PSC) test conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories was characterized by two distinctly different types of cavity growth. Portions of the thermal data from the test have been analyzed using conduction models to infer the dynamics of the cavity growth. Growth during the first phase of the test was characterized by rapid movement of the process to the top of the seam. The growth patterns during this time were remarkably similar to those observed on the Hoe Creek III test. Cavity growth observed later in the test, after the CRIP maneuver and when the horizontal production was in use, showed more lateral extent within the seam similar to patterns that were observed on the Hanna UCG tests. This type of growth resulted in improved process efficiency, at least for the early post-CRIP period. Calculations using a thermal-mechanical growth model are consistent with both types of growth observed. In particular, when stringers that were present in the seam are included in the model calculations, the more favorable growth patterns observed in the test are predicted. It is concluded that non-coal layers within the seam have the potential to significantly affect cavity growth and thus their presence should be accounted for when designing a process. 11 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    often used is that boiler efficiency can be increased by 1%flue gas by 1% increases boiler efficiency by 2.5%. Boiler -Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements. In:

  12. Energy Efficiency Fund (Electric)- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All Connecticut Utilities implement electric and gas efficiency rebate programs funded by Connecticut's public benefits charge through the Energy Efficiency Fund. The Connecticut Light and Power...

  13. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    428114 Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Daniel Flowers (PI), Salvador Aceves, Nicholas Killingsworth, Matthew McNenly, Thomas...

  14. Smart Cities - Smart Growth

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Senior Executives (equivalent to C-suite) from 20-25 U.S. Companies Industries Construction and Green Building * Design, Smart Urbanization, Better Cities Energy Efficiency *...

  15. Most efficient quantum thermoelectric at finite power output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert S. Whitney

    2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems; heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output, and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output, but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow.

  16. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2000 NRCAN, 2006. Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 toResources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency, Ottawa.NRCAN, 2009. Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 to

  17. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seven recent energy-efficient U.S. office buildings areSeven recent energy-efficient U.S. office buildings are18, 1983. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS Leonard W.

  18. Exploring MapReduce Efficiency with Highly-Distributed Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandra, Abhishek

    is also distributed, e.g. data is collected in separate data center loca- tions, the most efficient-performance computing over large data sets in large-scale platforms. Fueling this growth is the emergence of cloud several distributed data sources, i.e., large-scale data could be collected in separate data center

  19. ACHIEVING ALL COST-EFFECTIVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY FOR CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and to growth rates of forecasted natural gas consumption, electricity consumption, and peak electricity demand of the economic potential for electric consumption savings, 89 percent of the economic potential for peak demand, electricity consumption, natural gas consumption, electric peak demand reduction, energy efficiency potential

  20. Emerging energy-efficient technologies for industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael; Elliott, Neal; Shipley, Anna; Thorne, Jennifer

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, society is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology is essential in achieving these challenges. We report on a recent analysis of emerging energy-efficient technologies for industry, focusing on over 50 selected technologies. The technologies are characterized with respect to energy efficiency, economics and environmental performance. This paper provides an overview of the results, demonstrating that we are not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency, economic and environmental performance, and neither will we in the future. The study shows that many of the technologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reduced environmental impact to improved productivity, and reduced capital costs compared to current technologies.

  1. What's an ideal energy efficiency project?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dazeley, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What?s an ideal energy efficiency project? 1 The Supermarket Industry 2 Supermarket Industry ? The?Project ? The?Challenges ? The?Benefits 3 How it started 4 The Project ? Supermarkets?? built?to?waste ?No...?natural?lighting?or?poor?design ? Excessive?artificial?lighting ?Open?refrigerated?cabinets ?Massive?heat/cool?fighting 5 What does this cause? ?Very?large?lighting?loads ? Increased?glare ?Huge?refrigeration?loads ?Cold?customers ? Increased?space?heating ?Poor...

  2. Method of increasing biodegradation of sparingly soluble vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Robert S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for increasing biodegradation of sparingly soluble volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a bioreactor is disclosed. The method comprises dissolving in the aqueous phase of the bioreactor a water soluble, nontoxic, non-biodegradable polymer having a molecular weight of at least 500 and operable for decreasing the distribution coefficient of the VOCs. Polyoxyalkylene alkanols are preferred polymers. A method of increasing the growth rate of VOC-degrading microorganisms in the bioreactor and a method of increasing the solubility of sparingly soluble VOCs in aqueous solution are also disclosed.

  3. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white light fixture. During the third and final year of the project, the LRC team investigated alternate packaging methods for the white LED device to achieve at least 25 percent more luminous efficacy than traditional white LEDs; conducted optical ray-tracing analyses and human factors studies to determine the best form factor for the white light source under development, in terms of high luminous efficacy and greater acceptance by subjects; and developed a new die encapsulant using silicone-epoxy resins that showed less yellowing and slower degradation. At the conclusion of this project, the LRC demonstrated a new packaging method, called scattered photon extraction (SPE), that produced an average luminous flux and corresponding average efficacy of 90.7 lm and 36.3 lm/W, respectively, compared with 56.5 lm and 22.6 lm/W for a similar commercial white LED package. At low currents, the SPE package emitted white light with an efficacy of over 80 lm/W and had chromaticity values very close to the blackbody locus. The SPE package showed an overall improvement of 61% for this particular comparison, exceeding the LRC's third-year goal of 25% improvement.

  4. Total Economics of Energy Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nester, A. T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the large increases in cost of electrical energy in recent years, the energy savings attainable with the use of energy-efficient motors is very attractive to all motor users. But energy and electric demand charge savings tell only part...

  5. Energy Efficiency for the Nunamiut People

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, Dan

    2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to upgrade existing building facilities owned by Nunamiut Corporation in Anaktuvuk Pass, AK. The upgrades mentioned will include lighting, heating system, insulation and smart control units designed to increase the energy efficiency of Village Corporation owned buildings.

  6. Efficiency Maine Residential Lighting Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Maine's Residential Lighting Program works directly with retailers and manufacturers to encourage residential customers to purchase energy-efficient lighting. Rebate amounts average $1...

  7. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Best Practice Indicates technical potential Actual energy efficiencyenergy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices,best practices. Figure 4. Plant Benchmarking Energy Efficiency

  8. Staging Laser Plasma Accelerators for Increased Beam Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    Staging Laser Plasma Accelerators for Increased Beam Energy D. Panasenko, A. J. Shu, C. B., Berkeley, California 94720, USA Abstract. Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies

  9. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  10. Planar elliptic growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  11. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  12. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  13. Energy Efficiency of Future Networks Energy Efficient Transmission in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Energy Efficiency of Future Networks Part 1: Energy Efficient Transmission in Classical Wireless #12;Goals Energy Efficiency: What it meant last decade; what it means today From a communication network design perspective what should we care about for energy efficient design of cellular

  14. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  15. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Summary of Input to DOE Request for Information DE FOA, stationary, portable power, and early market applications. Comments on the existing DOE targets and justification for any proposed modifications. Topics to be included in the potential workshop / pre

  16. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview Dr. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program DOE/CESA/TTC Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Addressing Energy Challenges #12;4 Fuel Cells -- Where are we today? Fuel Cells for Transportation

  17. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    per kW, 5,000-hr durability Technology Validation: Techno Barrie Hydrogen Cost Target*: $2 ­ 3 /gge. Benefits · Efficiencies can be 60% (electrical) and 4 Source: US DOE 10/2010 ( ) 85% (with CHP) · > 90 challenges facing the widespread commercialization of fuel cells Fuel Cell Cost & Durability logy rs* Fuel

  18. Thermistor mount efficiency calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cable, J.W.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermistor mount efficiency calibration is accomplished by use of the power equation concept and by complex signal-ratio measurements. A comparison of thermistor mounts at microwave frequencies is made by mixing the reference and the reflected signals to produce a frequency at which the amplitude and phase difference may be readily measured.

  19. Energy Efficiency Revitalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, R. L.

    To set the tone for my remarks I will start by saying- today, energy efficiency is a tough sell. In General Motors, our plant engineering people, faced with headcount deductions, budget cuts, and capital spending constraints are up to their “you...

  20. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transportation Benefits · Efficiencies can be 60% (electrical) and 85% (with CHP) · > 90% reduction in criteria's portfolio of transportation technologies will reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and oil consumption. DOE levels--by 2050. Key Findings Include: Estimated Government Cost to Support a Transition to FCVs Systems

  1. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Harbor #12;U.S. Energy Consumption U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector 2 #12 · Efficiencies can be 60% (electrical) and 85% (with CHP) · > 90% reduction in criteria pollutants U.S. Department of Energy #12;7 Market Transformation Government acquisitions could significantly reduce the cost

  2. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Source: US DOE 10/2010 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies ­ Upcoming Workshops & Solicitations Source: US DOE 10/2010 2 #12; Double Renewable Energy Capacity by 2012 Update Dr. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Fuel

  3. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Richard Farmer Hydrogen Business Council September 14, 2010 #12; Double Renewable Energy Capacity by 2012 Invest $150 Deputy Program Manager Fuel Cell Technologies Program United States Department of Energy Mountain States

  4. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 2009 FUEL CELL MARKET REPORT NOVEMBER 2010 #12;Authors of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program for their support and guidance in the preparation of this report-Jerram of Fuel Cell Today Consulting, Rachel Gelman of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Jennifer Gangi

  5. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy AUGUST 2010 2009 WIND TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT EXECUTIVE (Berkeley Lab) Kevin Porter and Sari Fink (Exeter Associates) Suzanne Tegen (National Renewable Energy relatively high levels of wind energy penetration in their electricity grids: end-of-2009 wind power capacity

  6. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , domestic resources. Stationary Power (including CHP & backup power) Auxiliary & Portable Power) Benefits · Efficiencies can be 60% (electrical) and 85% (with CHP) · > 90% reduction in criteria pollutants Commercial CHP $4.9M $3.4M Portable Power Backup Power $20.4M Residential and Small Commercial CHP $4.9M $3

  7. Increasing Kolmogorov Complexity Harry Buhrman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortnow, Lance

    Increasing Kolmogorov Complexity Harry Buhrman Lance Fortnow Ilan Newman Nikolai Vereshchagin b(n, l) denote the binomial sum: b(n, l) = n 0 + n 1 + · · · + n l . Theorem 2 (Harper). Let J 2n . Take all the strings with less than l ones and take J - l first strings with l ones

  8. 3, 871894, 2006 FACE increased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 3, 871­894, 2006 FACE increased physical protection of soil C M. R. Hoosbeek et al. Title Page-friendly Version Interactive Discussion EGU Biogeosciences Discuss., 3, 871­894, 2006 www.biogeosciences-discuss.net/3/871/2006/ © Author(s) 2006. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Biogeosciences

  9. Increasing Thermoelectric Generation Water Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    rights reserved. Water Is a Critical Resource · Fast growing demand for clean, fresh water · Increased and energy planning · More watershed/regional planning · New science and technology to support planning. Solving the problem Requires Science and Technology Monitoring & Measurement Science &Technology

  10. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  11. The SEAD global efficiency medal competition: accelerating market transformation for efficient televisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi, Kavita [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)] [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bennich, Peter [Swedish Energy Agency (Sweden)] [Swedish Energy Agency (Sweden); Cockburn, John [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada)] [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Doi, Naoko [Institute of Energy Economics (Japan)] [Institute of Energy Economics (Japan); Garg, Sandeep [United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY (United States)] [United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY (United States); Garnaik, S.P. [ICF International (India)] [ICF International (India); Holt, Shane [Energy and Tourism, Canberra (Australia)] [Energy and Tourism, Canberra (Australia); Walker, Mike [Food and Rural Affairs (United Kingdom)] [Food and Rural Affairs (United Kingdom); Westbrook-Trenholm, Elizabeth [Natural Resources, Canada, Ottawa (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency] [Natural Resources, Canada, Ottawa (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency; Lising, Anna [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)] [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Pantano, Steve [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)] [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Khare, Amit [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)] [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Global Efficiency Medal competition, a cornerstone activity of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, is an awards program that encourages the production and sale of super-efficient products. SEAD is a voluntary multinational government collaboration of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM). This winner-takes-all competition recognizes products with the best energy efficiency, guides early adopter purchasers towards the most efficient product choices and demonstrates the levels of energy efficiency achievable by commercially available and emerging technologies. The first Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to the most energy-efficient flat panel televisions; an iconic consumer purchase. SEAD Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to televisions that have proven to be substantially more energy efficient than comparable models available at the time of the competition (applications closed in the end of May 2012). The award-winning TVs consume between 33 to 44 percent less energy per 2 unit of screen area than comparable LED-backlit LCD televisions sold in each regional market and 50 to 60 percent less energy than CCFL-backlit LCD TVs. Prior to the launch of this competition, SEAD conducted an unprecedented international round-robin test (RRT) to qualify TV test laboratories to support verification testing for SEAD awards. The RRT resulted in increased test laboratory capacity and expertise around the world and ensured that the test results from participating regional test laboratories could be compared in a fair and transparent fashion. This paper highlights a range of benefits resulting from this first SEAD awards competition and encourages further investigation of the awards concept as a means to promote energy efficiency in other equipment types.

  12. Energy Efficient Nanoelectronic System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    ://www.newairplane.com One 787 Battery: 12 Cells / 32 V DC 05/21/2013 6 #12;Why Energy Efficient Design ? Environmental energy-efficient designs. How to perform high-yield, energy efficient designs. How to perform effortless, high-yield, energy efficient designs. Gate Gate Gate Source D rain Graphene Layer 05/21/2013 14

  13. Quadrennial Technology Review Vehicle Efficiency and Electrification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Vehicle Efficiency and Electrification Workshop Documents Quadrennial Technology Review Vehicle Efficiency and Electrification Workshop Documents QTR Vehicle Efficiency and...

  14. Energy Efficiency Market Sustainable Business Planning | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Market Sustainable Business Planning Energy Efficiency Market Sustainable Business Planning Energy Efficiency Market Sustainable Business Planning, a presentation...

  15. Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites Water Efficiency...

  16. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    peak load, boiler efficiency (%), pumping efficiency (hp/to evaluate the efficiency of chiller and boiler systems

  17. Insulation products promote thermal efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalmers, R.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The judicious use of thermal insulation products in non-residential buildings can provide a number of advantages including increased energy efficiency, lower first costs (by avoiding overside HVAC systems), improved fire safety and better acoustics. Thermal insulation products are those products which retard the flow of heat energy. Materials include glass, plastics, and organic materials such as wood fibers, vermiculite and perlite. Forms range from the familiar batts and blankets of glass fibers to foamed plastic, rigid boards, losse fill and systems combining two or more products, such as polystyrene boards covered with insulating plaster. The R values of selected insulation materials with a cost/sq. ft. of each material at R 10 are given. Costs cover both the material and installation and may vary depending on local conditions.

  18. INTRACELLULAR COPPER ACCUMULATION ENHANCES THE GROWTH OF KINEOCOCCUS RADIOTOLERANS DURING CHRONIC IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagwell, C; Charles Milliken, C

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The actinobacteria Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress; though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of 6 different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased cell growth during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute irradiation induced DNA damage was similar between the copper-loaded culture as the age-synchronized no copper control culture, though low molecular weight DNA was more persistent during post-irradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 1 hr between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a radioactive environment; K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration, and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging affects ionizing radiation.

  19. Improving Energy and Process Efficiencies: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spriggs, H. D.; Smith, W. R.

    IMPROVING ENERGY AND PROCESS EFFICIENCIES A CASE STUDY H. D. Spriggs, Ph.D., President, Matrix 2000, Leesburg, VA 22075 ABSTRACT Industrial companies and their energy suppliers have an opportunity to work together in new ways... process and energy efficiency improvements. The payoff for industry is substantially reduced costs, improved process designs, increased energy efficiencies, and a reduction in emissions. The energy suppliers establish new relationship...

  20. Game theory analysis of aircraft manufacturer innovation strategies in the face of increasing airline fuel costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, James K. D. (James Kelley Douglas)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The air transportation system is a vital infrastructure that enables economic growth and provides significant social benefits. Future increases and volatility in crude oil prices, as well as environmental charges, are ...

  1. Water Efficiency Case Studies | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Efficiency Water Efficiency Case Studies Water Efficiency Case Studies These case studies feature examples of water-efficiency projects implemented by Federal agencies. They are...

  2. Energy Information Administration - Energy Efficiency, energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Energy Efficiency energy consumption savings households, buildings, industry & vehicles The Energy Efficiency Page reflects EIA's information on energy efficiency and...

  3. Efficient Quantum Ratchet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuan-Feng Li; Rong-Chun Ge; Guang-Can Guo

    2012-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum resonance is one of the main characteristics of the quantum kicked rotor, which has been used to induce accelerated ratchet current of the particles with a generalized asymmetry potential. Here we show that by desynchronizing the kicked potentials of the flashing ratchet [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 110603 (2005)], new quantum resonances are stimulated to conduct directed currents more efficiently. Most distinctly, the missed resonances $\\kappa=1.0\\pi$ and $\\kappa=3.0\\pi$ are created out to induce even larger currents. At the same time, with the help of semiclassical analysis, we prove that our result is exact rather than phenomenon induced by errors of the numerical simulation. Our discovery may be used to realize directed transport efficiently, and may also lead to a deeper understanding of symmetry breaking for the dynamical evolution.

  4. Towards a Policy of Progressive Efficiency Jeffrey Harris, Rick Diamond, Carl Blumstein, Chris Calwell, Maithili Iyer,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Energy Consumption 1.1 Energy Efficiency Is Not Enough For the past quarter century, the energy energy consumption ­ or at least slower growth in consumption. At present, there is ambiguity about Calwell, Maithili Iyer, Christopher Payne, and Hans-Paul Siderius 1. An Overview of Energy Efficiency

  5. Funding Opportunity Webinar- Advancing Solutions To Improve the Energy Efficiency of US Commercial Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar provides an overview of the DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA-0001168, "Advancing Solutions to Improve the Energy Efficiency of U.S. Commercial Buildings," which seeks to fund the scale-up of promising solutions to the market barriers that hinder the growth of energy efficiency in the commercial building sector.

  6. Growth of Germanium Nanowires on a Flexible Organic Substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    2000; Wu and Yang 2000; Hanrath and Korgel 2002; Hanrath and Korgel 2004) (Greytak 2004) The small size-efficient substrate for potential applications such as those of photovoltaics or display technologies, due in large be manufactured to enable the extension of our methods to other nanowire/nanotube growth systems such as silicon

  7. Calculating Fired Heater Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.; Ritter, E. L.

    bills. A review of the Heat Loss and Input/Output methods of efficiency analyses is presented, along with a discussion of their relative accuracy. Examples cited include refinery mixed fuel gas, coal, and chemical recovery fueled applications, using.... 75 percent excess 02 (dry basis) -- a respectable operation. Eva luate boi ler effieiency when burning mixed refinery gas (at an oil refinery), coa1 (at a central power station) and black liquor (at a paper mill). The practical definition of LHV...

  8. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  9. Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S.Indiana College Provides TrainingEnergy Efficiency

  10. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  11. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  12. CSEM WP 140 Ownership Change, Incentives and Plant Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    obstructions to innovation and market efficiencies in many industries. In many countries, the electric utility to concerns created by the Calfornia crisis as well as to major increases in the price of natural gas, whichCSEM WP 140 Ownership Change, Incentives and Plant Efficiency: The Divestiture of U.S. Electric

  13. A Holistic Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient Cluster Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Eun Jung "EJ"

    , new data centers in the Seattle area are forecast to increase the city's power demands by 25 percentA Holistic Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient Cluster Interconnects Eun Jung Kim, Member, IEEE--Designing energy-efficient clusters has recently become an important concern to make these systems economically

  14. Managing Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Processes Implementing Energy Performance in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Managing Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Processes ­ Implementing Energy Performance and unsecured energy supply are topics that become increasingly important in today's society. Although renewable energy technologies may be a long-term solution, more efficient energy use potentially makes a high

  15. Diesel prices continue to increase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOfficeNERSC HelpsDiesel prices continue to increase

  16. Research District Seeing Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald (May 2012) - excerpt follows: It’s been a while since I’ve updated you on the Tri-Cities Research District, most certainly not for lack of new activity over the past several months. In fact, much has happened, and there’s more to come. I think many of us see new land development and construction as indicative of current or impending economic growth. So those of you who have ventured into North Richland either via Stevens Drive or George Washington Way lately have probably begun sensing and anticipating that such growth is afoot.

  17. Process management principles for increasing the energy efficiency of manufacturing operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espindle, L. P. (Leo P.)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy usage is a significant operating cost for manufacturing facilities in the United States, and interest in energy management has been rising of late, 2, 3]. One approach, recommended by the Environmental Protection ...

  18. Retrofit Options for Increasing Energy Efficiency in Office Buildings- Methodology Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereira, N. C.

    Portuguese Buildings represent 35% of primary energy consumption in 2006, with non-residential sector representing almost half of this number globally and around 65% in Lisbon city. Expected to grow 5% yearly in this period, non...

  19. New Irrigation System Design for Maximizing Irrigation Efficiency and Increasing Rainfall Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyle, W. M.; Bordovsky, J. P.

    -precision application (LEPA) system, which rather than spraying water into the air at moderate to high pressures, distributes it directly to the furrow at very low pressure through drop tubes and orifice controlled emitters. This occurs as the system continuously moves...

  20. Increased network efficiency for variable rate video streams in an Integrated Services Packet Network environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Charles Grant

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with a way to reserve a fixed quantity of network resources for their exclusive use. Most video encoders, however, are variable rate. This research describes a mechanism by which variable bit-rate, real-time video streams can be sent over a fixed rate...

  1. Fume Hood Sash Stickers Increases Laboratory Safety and Efficiency at Minimal Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergyQualityAUGUST 2006 U.S. Department

  2. DOE Steps Lead to Significant Increase in Compliance with Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA - U.S. Department ofThe U.S. DepartmentContractMeeting

  3. Using Transportation Technology to Increase Efficiencies in Shipping: Real Life Experience in Oak Ridge

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOf The 2012Nuclear Guide Remote Access to VDI/Workplace Under theD

  4. Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwo New Energy Storage Safety Reports NowGasoline Powertrains

  5. Sustainable Carbon Sequestration: Increasing CO2-Storage Efficiency through a CO2-Brine Displacement Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akinnikawe, Oyewande

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 sequestration is one of the proposed methods for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and therefore mitigating global climate change. Few studies on storing CO2 in an aquifer have been conducted on a regional scale. This study...

  6. Alcoa: C-Suite Participation in Energy Efficiency Increases Accountability and Staff Engagement Throughout the Organization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment ofEnergy Natural Gas:Austin, T X S ummary o fBtu

  7. U.S. Department of Energy and SuperPower, Inc. Increase Energy Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of EnergyofProject is on Track |Weatherized By StateSupercomputing

  8. U.S. Department of Energy and SuperPower, Inc. Increase Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of EnergyTheDepartmentFeedContractorClean Energy Technologiesin

  9. U.S. and China Continue to Increase Cooperation on Vehicle Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of Dept. of Energy, Office ofNuclearProtocol at

  10. U.S. and China Sign Agreement to Increase Industrial Energy Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of Dept. of Energy, Office ofNuclearProtocol atChina

  11. U.S. Department of Energy and SuperPower, Inc. Increase Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwo New Energy AmericanOfficein the Nation's Electric Grid |in

  12. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency - Q & A | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:PhotonHolyNameInformationsourceenhancedIncognito- Q & A

  13. Sustainable approach to achieving energy efficiency in manufacturing operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenney, Kurtis G. (Kurtis Gifford), 1979-

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy management in industrial facilities is becoming increasingly popular as firms attempt to become more environmentally responsible and reduce cost by improving operational efficiency. Raytheon is a leader in their ...

  14. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    that is compatible with s-CO2 cycles and modern thermal storage subsystems. Supercritical CO2 Brayton-cycle engines have the potential to increase conversion efficiency to...

  15. Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meisegeier, D.; Howes, M.; King, D.; Hall, J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the distribution network can be improved; and added environmental pollution can be minimized. Energy efficiency improvements, especially through residential programs, are increasingly being used to mitigate this rise in peak demand. This paper examines...

  16. GREEN IPTV: a resource and energy efficient network for IPTV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, Fernando M. V.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    technique to increase the resource and energy efficiency of IPTV networks. This technique is based on a simple paradigm: avoiding waste. To reduce the inefficiencies of current static multicast distribution schemes, I propose a semi-dynamic scheme where only...

  17. Garland Power and Light- Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Garland Power and Light (GP&L) offers the incentives to its residential, small commercial and commercial customers to increase the energy efficiency of homes and facilities. Rebates for...

  18. SuperTruck Team Achieves 115% Freight Efficiency Improvement...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    per gallon (MPG). Increasing the efficiency of Class 8 trucks is essential because they haul 80 percent of the goods in the U.S. and use about 20 percent of the fuel consumed in...

  19. PG&E- Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) offers rebates and other incentives to businesses and non-residential customers to increase their energy efficiency. In addition to covering equipment...

  20. Measuring supply chain carbon efficiency : a carbon label framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Anthony (Anthony J.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the near term, efficiency improvements represent a key option for reducing the impacts of climate change. The growing awareness of climate change has increased the attention regarding the carbon emissions "embedded" in ...

  1. Solar Foundational Program to Advance Cell Efficiency Round 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The first round of the Foundational Program to Advance Cell Efficiency (F-PACE) program supported 18 projects working to create the technical foundation for significant increases in photovoltaic ...

  2. Austin Energy- Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Austin Energy offers a special incentive for its small-to-midsize and not-for-profit business customers to increase the energy efficiency of facilities through the Small Business Rebate Program....

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment demonstrates efficient Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can lead to increased PV... efficiency and could lead to a doubling of third-generation solar cell efficiencies. Tiny quantum dots... the first all-quantum-dot photovoltaic cell,...

  4. Georgia Champions Energy Efficiency Savings: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Georgia demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  5. Launching an Energy-Efficient Future in Alabama: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Alabama demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  6. A Living History of Energy Efficiency in Virginia: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Virginia demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  7. Oklahoma Orchestrates Energy Efficiency Solutions: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Oklahoma demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  8. Racing Towards Energy Efficiency in Indiana: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Indiana demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  9. Weatherization Spans the Efficiency Spectrum in Illinois: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Illinois demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  10. Weatherization: A Gateway to Energy Efficiency; Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Missouri demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  11. Nebraska Cultivates Energy Efficiency Savings: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Nebraska demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  12. Oregon Blazes the Trail to Energy Efficiency: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Oregon demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  13. Pennsylvania Sparks an Energy Efficiency Revolution: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Pennsylvania demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  14. Dazzling Minnesota with Energy Efficiency Savings: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Minnesota demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  15. West Virginia Advances Energy Efficiency: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    West Virginia demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  16. A Foundation of Energy Efficiency in South Carolina: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    South Carolina demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  17. Ameren Illinois (Electric)- Multi-Family Properties Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Multi-Family Properties Energy Efficiency Rebate Program aims to increase the energy efficiency of multi-family properties by implementing simple measures. There are two programs within this...

  18. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna

    2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards changing.

  19. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Data Centers

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Data centers provide mission-critical computing functions vital to the daily operation of top U.S. economic, scientific, and technological organizations. These data centers consume large amounts of energy to run and maintain their computer systems, servers, and associated high-performance components?up to 3% of all U.S. electricity powers data centers. And as more information comes online, data centers will consume even more energy. Data centers can become more energy efficient by incorporating features like power-saving "stand-by" modes, energy monitoring software, and efficient cooling systems instead of energy-intensive air conditioners. These and other efficiency improvements to data centers can produce significant energy savings, reduce the load on the electric grid, and help protect the nation by increasing the reliability of critical computer operations.

  20. Worker productivity rises with energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romm, J.J. (Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many American companies have found that saving energy and cutting pollution dramatically improves the bottom line. But beyond these gains, businesses that launch energy efficiency programs to save money are often astonished to discover unforeseen benefits: energy efficient lighting, heating, cooling, motors, and industrial processes can increase worker productivity, decrease absenteeism, and improve the quality of work performed. Profits created by the jump in worker productivity can exceed energy savings by a factor of ten. Energy efficiency and pollution prevention represent the next wave in manufacturing, following the quality revolution launched by the Japanese in the 1960s. Unless America leads the lean and clean revolution, economic health will be undermined as other countries develop clean processes and products and US companies suffer competitively. Also, developing countries will leapfrog their wasteful model and buy products and manufacturing processes from foreign firms already practicing lean and clean.

  1. Laser induced thermophoresis and particulate deposition efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipolla, J.; Morse, T.F.; Wang, C.Y.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of laser radiation and an absorbing aerosol in a tube flow has been considered. The aerosol is produced by external heating of reactants as in the MCVD (Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition) process to produce submicron size particles in the manufacture of optical fiber preforms. These are subsequently deposited by thermophoretic forces on the inner wall of the tube as they are convected by a Poiseuille velocity profile. Axial laser radiation in the tube interacts with the absorbing particles, and the laser heating of the gas induces additional thermophoretic forces that markedly increase the efficiency of particulate deposition. A particle concentration dependent absorption coefficient that appears in the energy equation couples the energy equation to the equation of particle conservation, so that a non-linear set of coupled partial integrodifferential equations must be solved. Numerical solutions for aerosol particle trajectories, and thus deposition efficiencies, have been obtained. It is shown that laser enhanced thermophoresis markedly improves the deposition efficiency.

  2. Eco-efficiency Indicators: Measuring Resource-use Efficiency...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ultimate goal of EEI is to provide governments with a practical tool for measuring their performance in the context of eco-efficiency and harness the concept of eco-efficiency for...

  3. High Efficiency Fans and High Efficiency Electrical Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breedlove, C. W.

    Replacing nominal efficient electrical motors with premium efficiency can save on electrical power costs in cotton gins. Connected horsepower load on industrial air fans is approximately 60% of the total horsepower in a typical cotton gin...

  4. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ace012aceves2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines...

  5. Making Efficiency a More Efficient Business | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    workforce development and incentive initiatives for energy efficiency professionals. The Business Models Guide helps professionals expand their services, establish business...

  6. Growth & Development / Parental Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Christopher J.

    participate; if one parents is lost, fledging rates usually drop #12;Winkler reduced clutch size from 5 to 3Growth & Development / Parental Care #12;Embryonic Development Although the sequence of 42 stages the egg The hatching muscle helps the chick break out of the egg Parents typically dispose of the egg

  7. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; T. Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After rapid growth in economic development and energy demand over the last three decades, China has undertaken energy efficiency improvement efforts to reduce its energy intensity under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP). Since becoming the world's largest annual CO{sub 2} emitter in 2007, China has set reduction targets for energy and carbon intensities and committed to meeting 15% of its total 2020 energy demand with non-fossil fuel. Despite having achieved important savings in 11th FYP efficiency programs, rising per capita income and the continued economic importance of trade will drive demand for transport activity and fuel use. At the same time, an increasingly 'electrified' economy will drive rapid power demand growth. Greater analysis is therefore needed to understand the underlying drivers, possible trajectories and mitigation potential in the growing industrial, transport and power sectors. This study uses scenario analysis to understand the likely trajectory of China's energy and carbon emissions to 2030 in light of the current and planned portfolio of programs, policies and technology development and ongoing urbanization and demographic trends. It evaluates the potential impacts of alternative transportation and power sector development using two key scenarios, Continued Improvement Scenario (CIS) and Accelerated Improvement Scenario (AIS). CIS represents the most likely path of growth based on continuation of current policies and meeting announced targets and goals, including meeting planned appliance efficiency standard revisions, fuel economy standards, and industrial targets and moderate phase-out of subcritical coal-fired generation with additional non-fossil generation. AIS represents a more aggressive trajectory of accelerated improvement in energy intensity and decarbonized power and transport sectors. A range of sensitivity analysis and power technology scenarios are tested to evaluate the impact of additional actions such as carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and integrated mine-mouth generation. The CIS and AIS results are also contextualized and compared to model scenarios in other published studies. The results of this study show that China's energy and CO{sub 2} emissions will not likely peak before 2030, although growth is expected to slow after 2020. Moreover, China will be able to meet its 2020 carbon intensity reduction target of 40 to 45% under both CIS and AIS, but only meet its 15% non-fossil fuel target by 2020 under AIS. Under both scenarios, efficiency remains a key resource and has the same, if not greater, mitigation potential as new technologies in transport and power sectors. In the transport sector, electrification will be closely linked the degree of decarbonization in the power sector and EV deployment has little or no impact on China's crude oil import demand. Rather, power generation improvements have the largest sector potential for overall emission mitigation while mine-mouth power generation and CCS have limited mitigation potential compared to fuel switching and efficiency improvements. Comparisons of this study's results with other published studies reveal that CIS and AIS are within the range of other national energy projections but alternative studies rely much more heavily on CCS for carbon reduction. The McKinsey study, in particular, has more optimistic assumptions for reductions in crude oil imports and coal demand in its abatement scenario and has much higher gasoline reduction potential for the same level of EV deployment. Despite these differences, this study's scenario analysis of both transport and power sectors illustrate the necessity for continued efficiency improvements and aggressive power sector decarbonization in flattening China's CO{sub 2} emissions.

  8. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in flue gas oxygen, boiler efficiency is increased by 2.5% (50 Boiler Energy Efficiencyin Chapter 13. Boiler Energy Efficiency Measures The boiler

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - asian economic growth Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are also world famous. In the 21st century, China's economic growth and increasing political clout... Asian coun- tries and regions. Western colonialism to rise ... Source:...

  10. Integrated Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heins, S.

    10 Off The Grid Sensor Integration Natural Daylight Base and Peak Energy Reduction 11 Lowest Cost Renewable Solar Integrated Lighting $1.0 million/MW $6 – 9 million/MW Wind $1.3 - 1.9 million/MW Biomass $1.5 – 2.5 million/MW Geothermal $1.6 million...Integrated Energy Efficiency Steve Heins VP Communications and Government Affairs Orion Energy Systems, Inc. 2 MegaTrend Convergence We need companies to commercialize technologies that use less energy without compromise to operations. Energy...

  11. Efficiency of stripping mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes

    2003-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    There are several physical processes to remove gas from galaxies in clusters, with subsequent starvation and star formation quenching: tidal interactions between galaxies, or tidal stripping from the cluster potential itself, interactions with the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) through ram pressure, turbulent or viscous stripping, or also outflows from star formation of nuclear activity, We review the observational evidence for all processes, and numerical simulations of galaxies in clusters which support the respective mechanisms. This allows to compare their relative efficiencies, all along cluster formation.

  12. Iron efficiency in sorghum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esty, James Craig

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) James Craig Esty, B, S. , Panhandle State College Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. Arthur B. Onken Dr. Lloyd R. Hossner R tt *ht ' d f * ' g * gh L~Sh bicolor (L. ) Moenchj parental lines and Fl hybrids indicate varying degrees of iron (Fe...) utilization. Visual ratings after seven days of Fe stress indicated only one hybrid, ATx 378 x RTx 2536, to be green or Fe efficient. Hybrids or parental lines rated partially chlorotic were: ATx 378 x RTx 415 and RTx 2536. Those sorghums rated chlorotic...

  13. Efficient Repeated Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, J; Sabourian, Hamid

    , outcome a˜i ? A used in the construction of Si above satisfies (4). Then, for any ? ? ??(R?), t, ?(t) and ?t, we have: (i) g?(t)(?,R?) = g?; (ii) m?(t),? t i (?,R ?) = (·, 0) for all i; (iii) a?(t),? t (?,R?) ? f(?). Proof. First we establish two claims... , for each i, outcome a˜i ? A used in the construction of Si above satisfies (4). Then, for any ? ? ??(R?), pi?(t)i (?,R ?) = vi(f) for any i, t > 1 and ?(t). Proof. Suppose not; then f is efficient in the range but there exist some ? ? ??(R?), t > 1 and ?...

  14. Energy efficient data centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed through extensive participation with data center professionals, examination of case study findings, and participation in data center industry meetings and workshops. Industry partners enthusiastically provided valuable insight into current practice, and helped to identify areas where additional public interest research could lead to significant efficiency improvement. This helped to define and prioritize the research agenda. The interaction involved industry representatives with expertise in all aspects of data center facilities, including specialized facility infrastructure systems and computing equipment. In addition to the input obtained through industry workshops, LBNL's participation in a three-day, comprehensive design ''charrette'' hosted by the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) yielded a number of innovative ideas for future research.

  15. Efficient Data Transfer Protocols

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series toESnet4: Networking for the FutureEdward Teller MedalsJunctionsEfficient

  16. Energy Efficiency Calendar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series toESnet4: Networking for37 East andCommissionEfficiency |

  17. Modelling energy efficiency for computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reams, Charles

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last decade, efficient use of energy has become a topic of global significance, touching almost every area of modern life, including computing. From mobile to desktop to server, energy efficiency concerns are now ubiquitous. However...

  18. Engineering Fundamentals of Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cullen, Jonathan M

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Using energy more efficiently is essential if carbon emissions are to be reduced. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), energy efficiency improvements represent the largest and least costly savings in carbon emissions, even when...

  19. Energy-Efficiency Lease Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mississippi's Energy-Efficiency Lease Program allows public institutions and private, non-profit hospitals to lease-purchase energy-efficient services and equipment for up to 15 years from the...

  20. Energy efficiency in office technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandridge, Cyane Bemiss

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis, directed toward a wide variety of persons interested in energy efficiency issues with office technology, explores several issues relating to reducing energy use and improving energy efficiency of office ...

  1. Water-Efficiency Program Prioritization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation outlines water-efficiency program requirements and priorities as presented to Federal agencies by the Federal Energy Management Program.

  2. Energy Efficiency Best Practice Guide©

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouse, S.

    ENERGY EFFICIENCY BEST PRACTICE GUIDE@ Scott Rouse Manager Energy Efficiency Department Ontario Power Generation Inc. Toronto, Ontario, Canada (416) 592-8044 srouse@ontariopowergeneration.com ABSTRACT 'Setting the bar above mere... mediocrity!' The goal of the Energy Efficiency (EE) Best Practice Guide is to help business units meet and exceed their energy efficiency targets through continuous improvement using seven key criteria. The objectives are threefold: - to provide an easy...

  3. Nanoparticle growth Controlled Growth of Platinum Nanoparticles on Strontium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    Nanoparticle growth Controlled Growth of Platinum Nanoparticles on Strontium Titanate Nanocubes nanoparticles platinum strontium titanate X-ray analysis 750 Ă? 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

  4. Invitation to Actively Participate in a Symposium on Hunger and Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Invitation to Actively Participate in a Symposium on Hunger and Economic Growth Swedish University September: 8:30 to 14:00 Location: Undervisninghus, SLU, Ultuna Economic growth does not necessarily lead-income countries as the next frontier for trade and economic growth. Leaders worldwide are increasing

  5. The Economics of Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    The Economics of Energy Efficiency Winter 2013 Why does Comcast give you set-top boxes that use the adoption of more energy- efficient technologies. This course will mostly not cover the "big picture landlord insulate the attic? What makes an investment in energy efficiency attractive? How does a company

  6. 2008 BUILDING ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008 BUILDING ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS C A L I F O R N I A E N E RGY CO M M I S S I O N Buildings and Appliances Office #12;Acknowledgments The Building Energy Efficiency Standards (Standards the adoption of the 2008 Building Energy Efficiency Standards to Jon Leber, PE, (November 13, 1947 - February

  7. Security enhanced with increased vehicle inspections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security enhanced with increased vehicle inspections Security measures increase as of March: vehicle inspections won't delay traffic New increased security procedures meet LANL's...

  8. Impact of increased electric vehicle use on battery recycling infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Hammel, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Jungst, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State and Federal regulations have been implemented that are intended to encourage more widespread use of low-emission vehicles. These regulations include requirements of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and regulations pursuant to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the Energy Policy Act. If the market share of electric vehicles increases in response to these initiatives, corresponding growth will occur in quantities of spent electric vehicle batteries for disposal. Electric vehicle battery recycling infrastructure must be adequate to support collection, transportation, recovery, and disposal stages of waste battery handling. For some battery types, such as lead-acid, a recycling infrastructure is well established; for others, little exists. This paper examines implications of increasing electric vehicle use for lead recovery infrastructure. Secondary lead recovery facilities can be expected to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead-acid electric vehicle battery recycling. However, they face stringent environmental constraints that may curtail capacity use or new capacity installation. Advanced technologies help address these environmental constraints. For example, this paper describes using backup power to avoid air emissions that could occur if electric utility power outages disable emissions control equipment. This approach has been implemented by GNB Technologies, a major manufacturer and recycler of lead-acid batteries. Secondary lead recovery facilities appear to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead waste from electric vehicles, but growth in that capacity could be constrained by environmental regulations. Advances in lead recovery technologies may alleviate possible environmental constraints on capacity growth.

  9. Increasing interest in the gas engine heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing primary-energy prices and the availability of untapped heat sources have sparked interest in using a high-efficiency natural gas-driven engine as the power source in a heatpump system. This approach is being studied using a 37-kW Waukesha gas engine; one recently completed installation at Schiedam, Netherlands, extracts heat from a nearby waterway and utilizes the gas engine's waste heat as well.

  10. Energy efficiency opportunities in China. Industrial equipment and small cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quick glance at comparative statistics on energy consumption per unit of industrial output reveals that China is one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. Energy waste not only impedes economic growth, but also creates pollution that threatens human health, regional ecosystems, and the global climate. China`s decision to pursue economic reform and encourage technology transfer from developed countries has created a window of opportunity for significant advances in energy efficiency. Policy changes, technical training, public education, and financing can help China realize its energy conservation potential.

  11. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRI

    2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

  12. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ? 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873K and 83 CRI. As such, the package’s performance exceeds DOE’s warm-white phosphor LED efficacy target for 2013. At the end of the program, we assembled an A19 sized demonstration bulb housing the integrated package which met Energy Star intensity variation requirements. With further development to reduce overall component cost, we anticipate that an integrated remote converter package such as developed during this program will find application in compact, high-efficacy LED-based lamps, particularly those requiring omnidirectional emission.

  13. Exocytosis Precedes and Predicts the Increase in Growth in Oscillating Pollen Tubes W

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    , our attention becomes fo- cused on the synthesis, delivery, and secretion of the new material, which apex of the cell, a process also observed in root hairs, fern, and moss protonemata, algal rhi- zoids of the secreted membrane is reclaimed by endocytosis (Pic

  14. Increased induction in FeCo-based nanocomposite materials with reduced early transition metal growth inhibitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael E.

    electrical power systems is motivated by a desire to replace transform- ers and other power electronic components with those that can operate at higher power densities, at higher frequencies and temperatures also exhibit power losses smaller than 10 W/kg at 0.2 T induction levels in 20 kHz fields. We discuss

  15. Active hypothermic growth : a novel means for increasing total recombinant protein production by CHO cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Stephen Richard

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recombinant human glycoproteins produced by Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are an important class of therapeutic molecules and investigating means of improving the production rate and product quality of these glycoproteins ...

  16. Increasing Biofuel Deployment through Renewable Super Premium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * High oil prices had little effect on the rate of RSPV adoption because high gasoline prices enabled CAF compliance through more efficient vehicles Total Vehicles Price...

  17. Journal of Crystal Growth ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide G. Montes-Hernandeza,Ă?, A. FernaÂŽ ndez-MartiÂŽneza,b , L. Charleta 2008 Communicated by S. Veesler Abstract The hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 to synthesize fine particles of calcite. This method allows a high carbonation efficiency (about 95% of Ca(OH)2

  18. Increase of the grating coupler bandwidth with a graphene overlay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Zhenzhou; Li, Zhen; Xu, Ke; Tsang, Hon Ki, E-mail: hktsang@ee.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Electronic Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong)

    2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present theoretical and experimental results that demonstrate an increase in the grating bandwidth by placing a graphene on the chip. A focusing subwavelength grating with coupling efficiency of ?4.3?dB and 1?dB bandwidth of ?60?nm was demonstrated. After a graphene sheet was transferred onto the chip, the maximum 1?dB bandwidth was increased to ?72?nm. Experimental results are consistent with the calculated graphene induced waveguide refractive index and dispersion changes, and the bandwidth improvement may be attributed to the reduction of grating dispersion. This study may be of interest for graphene-on-silicon photonic integrated circuit applications.

  19. The Shifting Landscape of Ratepayer-Funded Energy Efficiency in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen L; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last two decades, utility ratepayer funding for energy efficiency programs - and the associated energy savings - has seen both booms and busts. Currently, about 35 states implement ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs, with a total U.S. budget of $3.1 billion in 2008, approximately 80% of which is concentrated in just ten states (CEE 2008).2 However, a proliferation of new state-level policies enacted over the past several years suggests that the next decade may see a dramatic and sustained increase in overall funding levels, and a fundamental re-drawing of the energy efficiency map. These new state energy efficiency policies reflect a variety of concerns, including the increasing cost and siting challenges of building new generation and transmission, fuel cost and supply risks, and the potential cost of future carbon regulations. Within the past three years, for example, eleven states have adopted energy efficiency portfolio (or resource) standards (EEPS or EERS) that establish specific long-term savings targets that utilities are obligated to meet, and at least three other states are currently considering the same. A growing number of states have recently established laws requiring utilities to acquire all available cost-effective energy efficiency. Regulators in several Western states have also recently revised integrated resource planning (IRP) and demand-side management (DSM) planning rules to require more robust analysis of the resource potential and benefits of energy efficiency, which has resulted in increased savings targets for their energy efficiency portfolios (Hopper et al. 2008). Finally, regulators and utilities in many states are beginning to look more closely at regulatory incentive mechanisms to better align utility financial interests with improvements in customer energy efficiency. We examined energy efficiency policies on the books or in the pipeline in all 50 states, along with recent IRPs and DSM plans, and developed low, medium and high projections of future energy efficiency spending and savings. Depending on how aggressively and effectively states implement these policies, we estimate that spending on ratepayer-funded energy efficiency could increase from $3.1 billion in 2008 to more than $12 billion (nominal dollars) per year by 2020 in our high case, a growth rate in spending of about 12% per year. Annual electricity savings nationally could triple from an estimated 0.3% of retail electricity sales in 2008 to 0.9% of retail electricity sales in 2020. In the low and medium scenarios, ratepayer funding for electric and gas energy efficiency in the U.S. would increase to $5.4 and $7.5 billion, respectively, by 2020. What are the implications of such a scale-up of ratepayer-funded energy efficiency activity for national energy policy, such as a national EEPS or future carbon regulations? Can a ramp-up of this scale be achieved, and what practical constraints might slow these efforts? This paper addresses these questions by first providing an overview of recent trends in state policies pertaining to ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs in the U.S. The paper then presents our set of projections of future spending and savings from such programs, highlighting key themes. Projected energy savings are compared to what might be required under a future national EEPS (or broader clean energy standard that includes energy efficiency), in order to gauge the potential incremental impact of such policies. In addition, the carbon emission reductions associated with our projection of energy savings from ratepayer-funded programs is compared to the total emission reductions that might be required under the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (aka, the Waxman-Markey bill), which was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives in June 2009 and would establish a cap on total greenhouse gas emission for many sectors of the U.S. economy. Last, the paper discusses some of the major obstacles and challenges that states and program administrators may face over the coming decade, as they

  20. Energy efficient distillation apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melton, J.D.

    1982-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy efficient distillation method is provided which is particularly adapted for use on a dairy farm, and which comprises a distilland evaporating receptacle, a distillate condensing receptacle, and a conduit interconnecting the evaporating receptacle and the condensing receptacle. A vacuum pump is provided for drawing a partial vacuum within the evaporating receptacle, and a vapor compression refrigeration system is provided which includes condenser coils disposed to heat and vaporize the distilland while it is within the evaporating receptacle, and evaporator coils for cooling and condensing the vaporized distilland in the condensing receptacle. A cooling distribution system is also provided whereby a variable portion of the cooling potential of the refrigeration system may be selectively directed to each of the condensing receptacle, a distillate receiver tank, or to a bulk milk container as utilized on a dairy farm or the like.