National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for growth high oil

  1. High capacity oil burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedrosa, O.A. Jr.; Couto, N.C.; Fanqueiro, R.C.C.

    1983-11-01

    The present invention relates to a high capacity oil burner comprising a cylindrical atomizer completely surrounded by a protective cylindrical housing having a diameter from 2 to 3 times greater than the diameter of said atomizer; liquid fuels being injected under pressure into said atomizer and accumulating within said atomizer in a chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels, and compressed air being injected into a chamber for the accumulation of air; cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels with the outside and cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of air with said cylindrical holes communicating the chamber for the accumulation of liquids with the outside so that the injection of compressed air into said liquid fuel discharge holes atomizes said fuel which is expelled to the outside through the end portions of said discharge holes which are circumferentially positioned to be burnt by a pilot flame; said protecting cylindrical housing having at its ends perforated circular rings into which water is injected under pressure to form a protecting fan-like water curtain at the rear end of the housing and a fan-like water curtain at the flame to reduce the formation of soot; the burning efficiency of said burner being superior to 30 barrels of liquid fuel per day/kg of the apparatus.

  2. Microsoft Word - high-oil-price.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Short Term Energy Outlook 1 STEO Supplement: Why are oil prices so high? During most of the 1990s, the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price averaged close to $20 per barrel, before plunging to almost $10 per barrel in late 1998 as a result of the Asian financial crisis slowing demand growth while extra supply from Iraq was entering the market for the first time since the Gulf War. Subsequently, as Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) producers more closely adhered to a

  3. EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow April 1, 2009 - 11:35am Addthis The growth of...

  4. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  5. Rising U.S. oil output leads world oil supply growth

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rising U.S. oil output leads world oil supply growth U.S. crude oil production reached 7 million barrels per day at the end of 2012 for the first time in two decades and is well on its way to topping 8 million barrels per day by 2014. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects daily oil output will average 7.3 million barrels this year and then increase to 8.1 million barrels next year. The increase in U.S. and other North American oil production will account

  6. Fact #742: August 27, 2012 Oil Price and Economic Growth | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: August 27, 2012 Oil Price and Economic Growth Fact 742: August 27, 2012 Oil Price and Economic Growth Major oil price shocks have disrupted world energy markets five times in ...

  7. High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports High U.S. crude oil production will help further reduce America's reliance on oil imports during the next two years. In its ...

  8. Controlling vanadium from high metals crude oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golden, S.W.; Martin, G.R.

    1995-09-01

    Processing heavier high metals crude oils continues to be an objective of many refiners. Refiners manage the vanadium and other contaminants with hydroprocessing and FCC catalysts that are more tolerant to metals. Although hydroprocessing and FCC catalyst formulations are critical and will be required for the bulk of the metals removal, many times primary distillation impacts on vanadium are ignored. Distillation system designs can significantly impact the metals content of the gas oil pool or the total gas yields for a targeted metals level. Commercial experience shows that total gas oil metals to the hydroprocessing unit can be reduced by 20 to 40% for a given gas yield or the total gas oil yield can be increased for a given metals target by optimizing primary distillation system performance. Total gas oil vanadium content has varied from 5 to 2 weight ppm depending on crude oil metals level, unit process design, distillation unit operation, and equipment design. An actual example using a 22.0 API Bochequero Field blend will be used to illustrate the points covered. The source of the vanadium in the various gas oil pool components will be evaluated and show potential gas oil quality improvements based on primary distillation system design and operation modifications. In the example, the refiner processes 145,000 bpd of crude oil through a conventional integrated atmospheric/vacuum unit and processes the vacuum residue in a delayed coker. The gas oil blend streams consists of atmospheric gas oil, light vacuum gas oil, and heavy vacuum gas oil from the crude unit and heavy coker gas oil from the delayed coker. All the modifications which will be discussed have been operating successfully for several years.

  9. EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The growth of renewable energy and renewable fuels in the United States will be significantly greater under scenarios involving high oil prices and stricter controls on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, according to DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  10. Fact #579: July 13, 2009 Oil Price and Economic Growth, 1970-2008 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 9: July 13, 2009 Oil Price and Economic Growth, 1970-2008 Fact #579: July 13, 2009 Oil Price and Economic Growth, 1970-2008 Major oil price shocks have disrupted world energy markets five times in the past 30 years - 1973-74, 1979-80, 1990-1991, 1999-2000 and again in 2008. Most of the oil price shocks were followed by an economic recession in the U.S. Oil Price and Economic Growth, 1970-2008 Graph showing the five times that major oil price shocks disrupted world energy

  11. Oil Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High School Oil Study Guide - High School Oil Study Guide - High School (602.29 KB) More Documents & Publications EIS-0165: DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT 2009 SPR Report to Congress Fossil Energy Today - First Quarter, 2012

  12. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  13. Growth in global oil inventories slows, drawdown in stocks expected in late 2017

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Growth in global oil inventories slows, drawdown in stocks expected in late 2017 The growth in global oil inventories is expected to slow in response to stronger growth in world oil demand, with inventories now expected to be drawn down during the second half of next year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said oil inventories will grow by just under 1 million barrels per day this year. Inventories will continue to grow during the first half of 2017 though

  14. Economic Effects of High Oil Prices (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections of future energy market conditions reflect the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables that affect oil demand, in particular, and energy demand in general. The variables include real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, inflation, employment, exports and imports, and interest rates.

  15. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO{sub 2}emissions through 2050.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Huo, H.; Johnson, L.; He, D.

    2006-12-20

    As the vehicle population in China increases, oil consumption and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions associated with on-road transportation are rising dramatically. During this study, we developed a methodology to project trends in the growth of the vehicle population, oil demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions associated with on-road transportation in China. By using this methodology, we projected--separately--the number of highway vehicles, motorcycles, and rural vehicles in China through 2050. We used three scenarios of highway vehicle growth (high-, mid-, and low-growth) to reflect patterns of motor vehicle growth that have occurred in different parts of the world (i.e., Europe and Asia). All are essentially business-as-usual scenarios in that almost none of the countries we examined has made concerted efforts to manage vehicle growth or to offer serious alternative transportation means to satisfy people's mobility needs. With this caveat, our projections showed that by 2030, China could have more highway vehicles than the United States has today, and by 2035, it could have the largest number of highway vehicles in the world. By 2050, China could have 486-662 million highway vehicles, 44 million motorcycles, and 28 million rural vehicles. These numbers, which assume essentially unmanaged vehicle growth, would result in potentially disastrous effects on the urban infrastructure, resources, and other social and ecological aspects of life in China. We designed three fuel economy scenarios, from conservative to aggressive, on the basis of current policy efforts and expectations of near-future policies in China and in developed countries. It should be noted that these current and near-future policies have not taken into consideration the significant potential for further fuel economy improvements offered by advanced technologies such as electric drive technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles). By using vehicle growth projections and potential

  16. Appendix B: High Economic Growth case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    B High Economic Growth case projections This page inTenTionally lefT blank 43 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 High Economic Growth case projections Table B1. World total primary energy consumption by region, High Economic Growth case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 120.6 118.1 128.2 132.3 137.0 142.4 150.1 0.9 United States a 96.8 94.4

  17. Intricate Puzzle of Oil and Gas Reserves Growth

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    This article begins with a background discussion of the methods used to estimate proved oil and gas reserves and ultimate recovery, which is followed by a discussion of the factors that affect the ultimate recovery estimates of a field or reservoir.

  18. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  19. Olive oil compounds inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamy, Sylvie Ouanouki, Amira; Béliveau, Richard; Desrosiers, Richard R.

    2014-03-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) triggers crucial signaling processes that regulate tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, represents an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. Several epidemiological studies have confirmed that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers. In the Mediterranean basin, the consumption of extra virgin olive oil is an important constituent of the diet. Compared to other vegetable oils, the presence of several phenolic antioxidants in olive oil is believed to prevent the occurrence of a variety of pathological processes, such as cancer. While the strong antioxidant potential of these molecules is well characterized, their antiangiogenic activities remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (HT), taxifolin (Tax), oleuropein (OL) and oleic acid (OA), five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can affect in vitro angiogenesis. We found that HT, Tax and OA were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on specific autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR-2 (Tyr951, Tyr1059, Tyr1175 and Tyr1214) leading to the inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) signaling. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 by these olive oil compounds significantly reduced VEGF-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as their morphogenic differentiation into capillary-like tubular structures in Matrigel. Our study demonstrates that HT, Tax and OA are novel and potent inhibitors of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. These findings emphasize the chemopreventive properties of olive oil and highlight the importance of nutrition in cancer prevention. - Highlights: • We investigated five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil on angiogenesis. • Hydroxytyrosol, taxifolin and oleic acid are the best angiogenesis inhibitors. • Olive oil compounds affect endothelial cell functions essential for

  20. Appendix B: High Economic Growth case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 High Economic Growth case projections Table B1. World total primary energy consumption by region, High Economic Growth case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 120.6 118.1 128.2 132.3 137.0 142.4 150.1 0.9 United States a 96.8 94.4 103.1 105.9 108.5 111.4 116.2 0.7 Canada 14.5 14.5 15.1 15.8 16.6 17.6 18.8 0.9

  1. Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department works to ensure domestic and global oil supplies are environmentally sustainable and invests in research and technology to make oil drilling cleaner and more efficient.

  2. Appendix B: High Economic Growth case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Appendix B Table B2. World gross domestic product (GDP) by region expressed in purchasing power parity, High Economic Growth case, 2011-40 (billion 2010 dollars) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 18,616 19,080 24,230 28,258 32,427 36,956 42,539 2.9 United States a 15,021 15,369 19,590 22,852 26,146 29,678 34,146 2.9 Canada 1,396 1,422 1,717 1,921 2,143 2,398 2,680 2.3 Mexico and Chile 2,200 2,288 2,923 3,485

  3. High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quantum paraelectric BaFe12O19 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties of ferrimagnetic quantum ...

  4. High-Performance Renewable Base Oils for Industrial Lubricants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    When used in industrial lubricants of all types, Biosynthetic's oils achieved superior performance in many critical performance areas, including pour point, viscosity index, flash ...

  5. Outlook for Non-OPEC Oil Supply Growth in 2008-2009 (Released in the STEO February 2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    In 2008-2009, the Energy Information Administration expects that non-OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) petroleum supply growth will surpass that in recent years because of the large number of new oil projects scheduled to come online during the forecast period.

  6. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  7. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  8. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1996-02-20

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70.degree. C. to 90.degree. C., at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%.

  9. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1996-02-20

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70 C to 90 C, at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%. 68 figs.

  10. INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

    2011-05-01

    This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

  11. Oil inventories in industrialized countries to reach record high at end of 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil inventories in industrialized countries to reach record high at end of 2015 The amount of year-end oil inventories held in industrialized countries is expected to be the highest on record in 2015. In its monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said it expects commercial oil inventories in the United States and other industrialized countries to total 2.83 billion barrels at the end of this year almost 90 million barrels more than at the end of 2014. Global oil production

  12. Improved Growth of High-Temperature Superconductors with HF Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control - Energy Innovation Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Growth of High-Temperature Superconductors with HF Pressure Control Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication A new method of HF control for synthesizing YBCO using the BaF2 ex situ process (83 KB) Graphical representation of the removal of hydrogen fluoride gas by the absorber during growth of

  13. Effects of oil-contaminated prey on the feeding, growth, and related energetics on pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry were exposed to oil contaminated prey (OCP) in a series of experiments to determine the effect of oil exposure via the diet on the ability of pink fry to survive. Brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii were contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil and fed to the fish. Feeding rates were measured for 10 days using OCP and for 5 days using uncontaminated prey (post-exposure period). In a separate experiment, fry growth was measured over a 50 day period. In another experiment, fry oxygen consumption, food absorption and utilization, and ammonia excretion was measured to determine the effects of OCP on fry metabolic activity. Results indicate that exposure to OCP can reduce fry growth primarily by reducing food intake, but additional nutrition is lost from the non-absorption of ingested food. Reductions in growth could decrease fry survival, and thereby reduce the number of returning adult pink salmon.

  14. Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

  15. High-quality and high-purity homoepitaxial diamond (100) film growth under high oxygen concentration condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teraji, Tokuyuki

    2015-09-21

    Defect formation during diamond homoepitaxial growth was sufficiently inhibited by adding oxygen simultaneously in the growth ambient with high concentration of 2%. A 30-μm thick diamond films with surface roughness of <2 nm were homoepitaxially deposited on the (100) diamond single crystal substrates with reasonable growth rate of approximately 3 μm h{sup −1} under the conditions of higher methane concentration of 10%, higher substrate temperature of ∼1000 °C, and higher microwave power density condition of >100 W cm{sup −3}. Surface characteristic patterns moved to an identical direction with growth thickness, indicating that lateral growth was dominant growth mode. High chemical purity represented by low nitrogen concentration of less than 1 ppb and the highest {sup 12}C isotopic ratio of 99.998% of the obtained homoepitaxial diamond (100) films suggest that the proposed growth condition has high ability of impurity control.

  16. Screening of industrial wastewaters as feedstock for the microbial production of oils for biodiesel production and high-quality pigments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schneider, Teresa; Graeff-Honninger, Simone; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Holmes, William E.; Merkt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The production of biodiesel has notably increased over the past decade. Currently, plant oil is the main feedstock for biodiesel production, but, due to concerns related to the competition with food production, alternative oil feedstocks have to be found. Oleaginous yeasts are known to produce high amounts of lipids, but no integrated process from microbial fermentation to final biodiesel production has reached commercial realization yet due to economic constraints. Therefore, growth and lipid production of red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was tested on low-cost substrates, namely, wastewaters from potato, fruit juice, and lettuce processing. Additionally, the production of carotenoids as high-valuemore » by-products was examined. All evaluated wastewaters met the general criteria for microbial lipid production. However, no significant increase in lipid content was observed, probably due to lack of available carbon in wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing, and excess of available nitrogen in potato processing wastewater, respectively. During growth on wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing the carotenoid content increased significantly in the first 48 hours. The relations between carbon content, nitrogen content, and carotenoid production need to be further assessed. For economic viability, lipid and carotenoid production needs to be increased significantly. Lastly, the screening of feedstocks should be extended to other wastewaters.« less

  17. Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

    1998-06-01

    The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

  18. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  19. High pressure pair distribution function studies of Green River oil shale.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Locke, D. R.; Winans, R. E.; Pugmire, R. J.; Univ. of Utah

    2008-01-01

    The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances ({approx}6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R {approx} 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond {approx} {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component. The factors influencing the observed compression behavior are discussed.

  20. South America: Growth in E and P opportunities keeps accelerating. [Oil and gas exploration and development in South America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes the oil and gas developments in Columbia, Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and other South American oil and gas producing countries during 1992 through 1993 and forecasts the future developments. The expanding exploration in these areas has resulted from the major new oil finds and the need for local countries to help stabilize their currency. The paper discusses exploration and drilling activity, production, and financial expenditures made on developing this regions reserves.

  1. Ultralight carbon aerogel from nanocellulose as a highly selective oil absorption material

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meng, Yujie; Yang, Timothy M.; Liu, Peizhi; Contescu, Cristian I.; Huang, Biao; Wang, Siqun

    2014-12-04

    The synthesis of a sponge-like carbon aerogel from microfibril cellulose (MFC), with high porosity (99%), ultra-low density (0.01 g/cm3), hydrophobic properties (149° static contact angle) and reusability is reported in this paper. The physical properties, internal morphology, thermal properties, and chemical properties of carbon aerogels heat-treated at 700 and 900 °C (Samples C-700 and C-900) were examined. Stabilization and carbonization parameters were optimized in terms of residual carbon yield. The BET surface area of Sample C-700 (521 m2 /g) was significantly higher than of Sample C-950 (149 m2 /g). Graphitic-like domains were observed in C-950. The highest normalized sorption capacitymore » (86 g/g) for paraffin oil was observed in sample C-700. The removal of hydrophilic function groups during carbonization causes carbon aerogel to present highly hydrophobic properties. Lastly, carbon aerogel's ability to absorb oil is enhanced by its highly porous 3D network structure with interconnected cellulose nanofibrils.« less

  2. Ultralight carbon aerogel from nanocellulose as a highly selective oil absorption material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Yujie; Yang, Timothy M.; Liu, Peizhi; Contescu, Cristian I.; Huang, Biao; Wang, Siqun

    2014-12-04

    The synthesis of a sponge-like carbon aerogel from microfibril cellulose (MFC), with high porosity (99%), ultra-low density (0.01 g/cm3), hydrophobic properties (149° static contact angle) and reusability is reported in this paper. The physical properties, internal morphology, thermal properties, and chemical properties of carbon aerogels heat-treated at 700 and 900 °C (Samples C-700 and C-900) were examined. Stabilization and carbonization parameters were optimized in terms of residual carbon yield. The BET surface area of Sample C-700 (521 m2 /g) was significantly higher than of Sample C-950 (149 m2 /g). Graphitic-like domains were observed in C-950. The highest normalized sorption capacity (86 g/g) for paraffin oil was observed in sample C-700. The removal of hydrophilic function groups during carbonization causes carbon aerogel to present highly hydrophobic properties. Lastly, carbon aerogel's ability to absorb oil is enhanced by its highly porous 3D network structure with interconnected cellulose nanofibrils.

  3. Ultralight carbon aerogel from nanocellulose as a highly selective oil absorption material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Yujie; Yang, Timothy M; Peizhi, Liu; Contescu, Cristian I; Biao, Huang; Siqun, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of a sponge-like carbon aerogel from microfibril cellulose (MFC), with high porosity (99%), ultra-low density (0.01 g/cm3), hydrophobic properties (149 static contact angle) and reusability is reported in this paper. The physical properties, internal morphology, thermal properties, and chemical properties of carbon aerogels heat-treated at 700 and 900 oC (Samples C-700 and C-900) were examined. Stabilization and carbonization parameters were optimized in terms of residual carbon yield. The BET surface area of Sample C-700 (521 m2 /g) was significantly higher than of Sample C-950 (149 m2 /g). Graphitic-like domains were observed in C-950. The highest normalized sorption capacity (86 g/g) for paraffin oil was observed in sample C-700. The removal of hydrophilic function groups during carbonization causes carbon aerogel to present highly hydrophobic properties. Carbon aerogel s ability to absorb oil is enhanced by its highly porous 3D network structure with interconnected cellulose nanofibrils.

  4. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  5. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  6. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  7. Epitaxial growth of high quality WO3 thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leng, X.; Pereiro, J.; Strle, J.; Bollinger, A. T.; Bozovic, I.

    2015-09-09

    We have grown epitaxial WO3 films on various single-crystal substrates using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. While pronounced surface roughness is observed in films grown on LaSrAlO4 substrates, films grown on YAlO3 substrates show atomically flat surfaces, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The crystalline structure has been confirmed to be monoclinic by symmetric and skew-symmetric XRD. Furthermore, the dependence of the growth modes and the surface morphology on the lattice mismatch is discussed.

  8. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  9. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  10. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Colloidal Nanocrystal Growth Mechanisms using Graphene Liquid Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuk, Jong Min; Park, Jungwon; Ercius, Peter; Kim, Kwanpyo; Hellebusch, Danny J.; Crommie, Michael F.; Lee, Jeong Yong; Zettl, A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2011-12-12

    We introduce a new type of liquid cell for in-situ electron microscopy based upon entrapment of a liquid film between layers of graphene. We employ this cell to achieve high-resolution imaging of colloidal platinum nanocrystal growth. The ability to directly image and resolve critical steps at atomic resolution provides new insights into nanocrystal coalescence and reshaping during growth.

  11. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  12. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  13. Effect of the water/oil ratio on the SSCC susceptibility of high strength OCTG carbon steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rincon, H.; Hernandez, S.; Salazar, J.; Case, R.; Vera, J.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper a correlation is established between the values of SSC threshold stress (K{sub ISSC}) and hydrogen permeation fluxes obtained using an electrochemical technique. The susceptibility of a high-strength steel to sulfide stress cracking (SSC) in the presence of crude oil was studied utilizing different crude oil/NACE solution ratios, and saturating the test solutions with H{sub 2}S according to the standard NACE TM-0177 method D. Results showed that oil confer protective properties against uniform corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen permeation. The hydrogen permeation technique was found useful to estimate the susceptibility of a given OCTG steel to SSC in sour environments, but the correlation between hydrogen flux and K{sub ISSC} is highly dependant on testing conditions.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS STRAIN JF-2 FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. McInerney; M. Folmsbee; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Our work focuses on the use of microorganisms to recover petroleum hydrocarbons that remain entrapped after current recovery technologies reach their economic limit. Capillary forces between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are largely responsible for trapping the hydrocarbons in the pores of the rock and large reductions in the interfacial tension between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (1-3, 10, 11). Microorganisms produce a variety of biosurfactants (4), several of which generate the ultra low interfacial tensions needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (4, 5, 8). In particular, the lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 reduces the interfacial tension between hydrocarbon and aqueous phases to very low levels (<0.016 mN/m) (8) (9). B. mojavensis JF-2 grows under the environmental conditions found in many oil reservoirs, i. e., anaerobic, NaCl concentrations up to 80 g l{sup -1}, and temperatures up to 45 C (6, 7), making it ideally suited for in situ applications. However, anaerobic growth of B. mojavensis JF-2 was inconsistent and difficult to replicate, which limited its use for in situ applications. Our initial studies revealed that enzymatic digests, such as Proteose Peptone, were required for anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2. Subsequent purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose Peptone resulted in the identification of the growth-enhancing factor as DNA or deoxyribonucleosides. The addition of salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, E. coli DNA or synthetic DNA (single or double stranded) to Medium E all supported anaerobic growth of JF-2. Further, we found that JF-2 required all four deoxyribonucleosides (deoxyadeonosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine) for growth under strict anaerobic conditions. The requirement for the deoxyribonucleosides did not occur under aerobic growth conditions. DNA was not used as a sole energy source; sucrose was required

  15. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  16. Predicting growth of graphene nanostructures using high-fidelity atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, Keven F.; Zhou, Xiaowang; Ward, Donald K.; Schultz, Peter A.; Foster, Michael E.; Bartelt, Norman Charles

    2015-09-01

    In this project we developed t he atomistic models needed to predict how graphene grows when carbon is deposited on metal and semiconductor surfaces. We first calculated energies of many carbon configurations using first principles electronic structure calculations and then used these energies to construct an empirical bond order potentials that enable s comprehensive molecular dynamics simulation of growth. We validated our approach by comparing our predictions to experiments of graphene growth on Ir, Cu and Ge. The robustness of ou r understanding of graphene growth will enable high quality graphene to be grown on novel substrates which will expand the number of potential types of graphene electronic devices.

  17. Investigating the Effects of Anisotropic Mass Transport on Dendrite Growth in High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Jinwang; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Ferris, Kim F.; Ryan, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendrite formation on the electrode surface of high energy density lithium (Li) batteries causes safety problems and limits their applications. Suppressing dendrite growth could significantly improve Li battery performance. Dendrite growth and morphology is a function of the mixing in the electrolyte near the anode interface. Most research into dendrites in batteries focuses on dendrite formation in isotropic electrolytes (i.e., electrolytes with isotropic diffusion coefficient). In this work, an anisotropic diffusion reaction model is developed to study the anisotropic mixing effect on dendrite growth in Li batteries. The model uses a Lagrangian particle-based method to model dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte solution. The model is verified by comparing the numerical simulation results with analytical solutions, and its accuracy is shown to be better than previous particle-based anisotropic diffusion models. Several parametric studies of dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte are performed and the results demonstrate the effects of anisotropic transport on dendrite growth and morphology, and show the possible advantages of anisotropic electrolytes for dendrite suppression.

  18. Oil and economic performance in industrial countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries have experienced slower economic growth and periods of discontinuity in the energy market since the 1973-74 oil embargo. A review of this phenomenon examines changes in the market during the 1960s and 70s, linkages between oil prices and economic performance, and appropriate policy responses. When price elasticities are calculated over time, recent US economic behavior appears to have both historical and cross-sountry consistency. Little flexibility is seen in the available energy-using technologies for producing goods and services, while energy-using capital has been sluggish. Dr. Nordhaus advocates high oil price and high tax policies as the best way to limit demand without slowing economic growth. (DCK)

  19. Theoretical Study of High-Valent Vanadium Oxo-Porphyrins as a Dopant of Crude Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salcedo, Roberto; Martinez, LMR; Martinez-Magadan, Jose M.

    2001-06-15

    The role played by the vanadyl porphyrinate as a dopant for zeolites in the refinement process of crude oil is analyzed using DFT calculations. The pair formed by the vanadium atom and its bonded oxygen atoms seems to be the responsible items in the dopant reaction. However, the present paper shows the participation of the vanadium atom as being the most important.

  20. Growth of highly oriented carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Z.P.; Xu, J.W.; Ren, Z.F.; Wang, J.H.; Siegal, M.P.; Provencio, P.N.

    1998-12-01

    Highly oriented, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were grown on polished polycrystalline and single crystal nickel substrates by plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition at temperatures below 666 {degree}C. The carbon nanotubes range from 10 to 500 nm in diameter and 0.1 to 50 {mu}m in length depending on growth conditions. Acetylene is used as the carbon source for the growth of the carbon nanotubes and ammonia is used for dilution gas and catalysis. The plasma intensity, acetylene to ammonia gas ratio, and their flow rates, etc. affect the diameters and uniformity of the carbon nanotubes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Tao; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Szymanski, Craig J.; Liu, Bingwen; Baker, Scott E.; Orr, Galya; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2015-11-04

    Interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. Here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. The system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of science applications requiring precisely controlled environments. Using the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, this microfluidic system enabled direct visualization and analysis of cellular heterogeneity in a clonal fungal cell population, nuclear distribution and dynamics at the subhyphal level, and quantitative dynamics of gene expression with single hyphal compartment resolution in response to carbon source starvation and exchange experiments. Although the microfluidic device is demonstrated on filamentous fungi, our technology is immediately extensible to a wide array of other biosystems that exhibit similar polarized cell growth with applications ranging from bioenergy production to human health.

  2. Compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geng, Tao; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Szymanski, Craig J.; Liu, Bingwen; Baker, Scott E.; Orr, Galya; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2015-11-04

    Here, interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. Here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. The system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of science applications requiring precisely controlled environments. Using the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, this microfluidic system enabled direct visualization and analysis of cellular heterogeneity in a clonal fungal cell population, nuclear distribution and dynamics at the subhyphal level, and quantitative dynamics of gene expression withmore » single hyphal compartment resolution in response to carbon source starvation and exchange experiments. Although the microfluidic device is demonstrated on filamentous fungi, our technology is immediately extensible to a wide array of other biosystems that exhibit similar polarized cell growth with applications ranging from bioenergy production to human health.« less

  3. Compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Tao; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Szymanski, Craig J.; Liu, Bingwen; Baker, Scott E.; Orr, Galya; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2015-11-04

    Here, interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. Here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. The system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of science applications requiring precisely controlled environments. Using the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, this microfluidic system enabled direct visualization and analysis of cellular heterogeneity in a clonal fungal cell population, nuclear distribution and dynamics at the subhyphal level, and quantitative dynamics of gene expression with single hyphal compartment resolution in response to carbon source starvation and exchange experiments. Although the microfluidic device is demonstrated on filamentous fungi, our technology is immediately extensible to a wide array of other biosystems that exhibit similar polarized cell growth with applications ranging from bioenergy production to human health.

  4. Basic criteria for formation of growth twins in high stacking fault energy metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, K. Y.; Zhang, X.; Bufford, D.; Chen, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2013-10-28

    Nanotwinned metals received significant interest lately as twin boundaries may enable simultaneous enhancement of strength, ductility, thermal stability, and radiation tolerance. However, nanotwins have been the privilege of metals with low-to-intermediate stacking fault energy (SFE). Recent scattered studies show that nanotwins could be introduced into high SFE metals, such as Al. In this paper, we examine several sputter-deposited, (111) textured Ag/Al, Cu/Ni, and Cu/Fe multilayers, wherein growth twins were observed in Al, Ni, and face-centered cubic (fcc) Fe. The comparisons lead to two important design criteria that dictate the introduction of growth twins in high SFE metals. The validity of these criteria was then examined in Ag/Ni multilayers. Furthermore, another twin formation mechanism in high SFE metals was discovered in Ag/Ni system.

  5. Tuning calcite morphology and growth acceleration by a rational design of highly stable protein-mimetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chunlong; Qi, Jiahui; Tao, Jinhui; Zuckermann, Ronald; De Yoreo, James J.

    2014-09-05

    In nature, proteins play a significant role in biomineral formation. One of the ultimate goals of bioinspired materials science is to develop highly stable synthetic molecules that mimic the function of these natural proteins by controlling crystal formation. Here, we demonstrate that both the morphology and the degree of acceleration or inhibition observed during growth of calcite in the presence of peptoids can be rationally tuned by balancing the electrostatic interactions (EI) and hydrophobic interactions (HI), with HI playing the dominant role. While either strong EI or HI inhibit growth and suppress (104) face expression, correlations between peptoid-crystal binding energies and observed changes in calcite growth indicate moderate EI allow peptoids to weakly adsorb while moderate HI cause disruption of surface-adsorbed water layers, leading to growth acceleration with retained expression of (104) faces. This study provides fundamental principles for designing peptoids as crystallization promoters, and offers a straightforward screening method based on macroscopic crystal morphology. Because peptoids are sequence-specific, highly stable, and easily synthesized, peptoid-enhanced crystallization offers a broad range of potential applications.

  6. An ultra-compact, high-throughput molecular beam epitaxy growth system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, A. A.; Hesjedal, T.; Braun, W. E-mail: fischer@createc.de; Rembold, S.; Fischer, A. E-mail: fischer@createc.de; Gassler, G.

    2015-04-15

    We present a miniaturized molecular beam epitaxy (miniMBE) system with an outer diameter of 206 mm, optimized for flexible and high-throughput operation. The three-chamber system, used here for oxide growth, consists of a sample loading chamber, a storage chamber, and a growth chamber. The growth chamber is equipped with eight identical effusion cell ports with linear shutters, one larger port for either a multi-pocket electron beam evaporator or an oxygen plasma source, an integrated cryoshroud, retractable beam-flux monitor or quartz-crystal microbalance, reflection high energy electron diffraction, substrate manipulator, main shutter, and quadrupole mass spectrometer. The system can be combined with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) end stations on synchrotron and neutron beamlines, or equivalently with other complex surface analysis systems, including low-temperature scanning probe microscopy systems. Substrate handling is compatible with most UHV surface characterization systems, as the miniMBE can accommodate standard surface science sample holders. We introduce the design of the system, and its specific capabilities and operational parameters, and we demonstrate the epitaxial thin film growth of magnetoelectric Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on c-plane sapphire and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} on MgO (001)

  7. Cronifer 1925 hMo: A promising high-alloy steel for shelf oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockel, M.; Jasner, M.

    1995-02-01

    The Cronifer 1925 hMo steel, which is known as a superaustenitic steel, possesses a high resistance toward pitting corrosion (PC), crevice corrosion (CC), and toward corrosion cracking (CoC) in media with a high chloride content and in hydrogen-sulfide-containing gases and condensates. The nominal chemical composition of Cronifer 1925 hMo is (%): < 0.02 C, 24.5-25.5 Ni, 20.0-21.0 Cr, < 1.0 Mn, < 0.5 Si, 0.8-1.0 Cu, 6.0-6.8 Mo, 0.18-0.20 N, < 0.005 S, and < 0.03 P. As a result of the high chromium and molybdenum content, the pitting resistance equivalent (PRE) is equal, according to the PRE equation to PRE = % Cr + 3.3% Mo - 30% N = 74%. A stainless steel is considered as corrosion-resisting in sea water at PRE {ge} 35%. The increased nickel content makes Cronifer 1925 hMo also resistant toward CoC under stress in sea water and in other media with high chloride contents, a well as in gas condensates which contain hydrogen sulfide. All this makes the steel effective for use in marine conditions and in media encountered in the shelf production of oil and gas. The addition of nickel preserves the austenitic structure and improves the passivation properties. Copper improves the resistance of the steel toward general corrosion in reducing media; however, too high a copper content is harmful when the steel is used in neutral chloride-containing solutions and must be limited (not higher than 1%). Cronifer 1925 hMo can be used in hydrocarbon production on the shelf in the following equipment: in fire-extinguishing systems which use fresh and sea water; in pipe systems which return the separated water and gases (with high chloride contents at high pressures and elevated temperatures) to the well in order to fill cavities or to maintain pressure; in separating and cooling equipment of gas and oil production platforms and in oil and gas refineries; and in underwater installations, collectors, and pipe systems, operating under pressure.

  8. Growth of Highly-Oriented Carbon Nanotubes by Plasma-Enhanced Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Z.P.; Provencio, P.N.; Ren, Z.F.; Siegal, M.P.; Wang, J.H.; Xu, J.W.

    1998-10-11

    Highly-oriented, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were grown on polished polycrystalline and single crystal nickel substrates by plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition at temperatures below 666"C. The carbon nanotubes range from 10 to 500 nm in diameter and 0.1 to 50 pm in length depending on growth conditions. Acetylene is used as the carbon source for the growth of the carbon nanotubes and ammonia is used for dilution gas and catalysis. The plasma intensity, acetylene to ammonia gas ratio and their flow rates, etc. affect the diameters and uniformity of the carbon nanotubes. In summary, we synthesized large-area highly-oriented carbon nanotubes at temperatures below 666C by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Acetylene gas is used to provide carbon for nanotube growth and ammonia gas is used for dilution and catalysis. Plasma intensity is critical in determining the nanotube aspect ratios (diameter and length), and range of both site and height distributions within a given film.

  9. An Improved Reaction Rate Equation for Simulating the Ignition and Growth of Reaction in High Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M J

    2010-03-08

    We describe an improved reaction rate equation for simulating ignition and growth of reaction in high explosives. It has been implemented into CALE and ALE3D as an alternate to the baseline the Lee-Tarver reactive flow model. The reactive flow model treats the explosive in two phases (unreacted/reactants and reacted/products) with a reaction rate equation to determine the fraction reacted, F. The improved rate equation has fewer parameters, is continuous with continuous derivative, results in a unique set of reaction rate parameters for each explosive while providing the same functionality as the baseline rate equation. The improved rate equation uses a cosine function in the ignition term and a sine function in the growth and completion terms. The improved rate equation is simpler with fewer parameters.

  10. High-temperature batteries for geothermal and oil/gas borehole applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.

    2000-05-25

    A literature survey and technical evaluation was carried out of past and present battery technologies with the goal of identifying appropriate candidates for use in geothermal borehole and, to a lesser extent, oil/gas boreholes. The various constraints that are posed by such an environment are discussed. The promise as well as the limitations of various candidate technologies are presented. Data for limited testing of a number of candidate systems are presented and the areas for additional future work are detailed. The use of low-temperature molten salts shows the most promise for such applications and includes those that are liquid at room temperature. The greatest challenges are to develop an appropriate electrochemical couple that is kinetically stable with the most promising electrolytes--both organic as well as inorganic--over the wide operating window that spans both borehole environments.

  11. Analysis of crack initiation and growth in the high level vibration test at Tadotsu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassir, M.K.; Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Shteyngart, S.

    1993-08-01

    The High Level Vibration Test data are used to assess the accuracy and usefulness of current engineering methodologies for predicting crack initiation and growth in a cast stainless steel pipe elbow under complex, large amplitude loading. The data were obtained by testing at room temperature a large scale modified model of one loop of a PWR primary coolant system at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory in Japan. Fatigue crack initiation time is reasonably predicted by applying a modified local strain approach (Coffin-Mason-Goodman equation) in conjunction with Miner`s rule of cumulative damage. Three fracture mechanics methodologies are applied to investigate the crack growth behavior observed in the hot leg of the model. These are: the {Delta}K methodology (Paris law), {Delta}J concepts and a recently developed limit load stress-range criterion. The report includes a discussion on the pros and cons of the analysis involved in each of the methods, the role played by the key parameters influencing the formulation and a comparison of the results with the actual crack growth behavior observed in the vibration test program. Some conclusions and recommendations for improvement of the methodologies are also provided.

  12. World oil inventories forecast to grow significantly in 2016...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    World oil inventories forecast to grow significantly in 2016 and 2017 Global oil inventories are expected to continue strong growth over the next two years which should keep oil ...

  13. UbiQD Named Top High-Growth Company and Job Creator in Northern New Mexico,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Closes Round of Financing UbiQD Named Top High-Growth Company UbiQD Honored with a Northern New Mexico 20/20 Award Honored with a Northern New Mexico 20/20 Award November 17, 2015 Dr. Matt Bergren, UbiQD Director of Applied Physics, left, and UbiQD Founder and President Dr. Hunter McDaniel Dr. Matt Bergren, UbiQD Director of Applied Physics, left, and UbiQD Founder and President Dr. Hunter McDaniel hold jars of quantum dots illuminated by blue LED flashlights. The low-toxicity, low-cost

  14. U.S. oil production forecast update reflects lower rig count

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. oil production forecast update reflects lower rig count Lower oil prices and fewer rigs drilling for crude oil are expected to slow U.S. oil production growth this year and in ...

  15. HIGH-QUALITY, LOW-COST BULK GALLIUM NITRIDE SUBSTRATES GROWN BY THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOLUTION GROWTH METHOD

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To develop ESG into a viable bulk growth process for GaN that is more scalable to large-area wafer manufacturing and able to produce cost-effective, high-quality bulk GaN substrates.

  16. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Deng-Liang; Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan; Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie; Yao, Pei-Sen; Pan, Ru-Jun; Yang, Chaoyong James; Kang, De-Zhi

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.

  17. Vapor-transport growth of high optical quality WSe{sub 2} monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Genevieve [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Wu, Sanfeng; Rivera, Pasqual; Finney, Joseph; Nguyen, Paul; Cobden, David H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Xu, Xiaodong, E-mail: xuxd@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are atomically thin direct-gap semiconductors that show a variety of novel electronic and optical properties with an optically accessible valley degree of freedom. While they are ideal materials for developing optical-driven valleytronics, the restrictions of exfoliated samples have limited exploration of their potential. Here, we present a physical vapor transport growth method for triangular WSe{sub 2} sheets of up to 30 ?m in edge length on insulating SiO{sub 2} substrates. Characterization using atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy reveals that they are uniform, monolayer crystals. Low temperature photoluminescence shows well resolved and electrically tunable excitonic features similar to those in exfoliated samples, with substantial valley polarization and valley coherence. The monolayers grown using this method are therefore of high enough optical quality for routine use in the investigation of optoelectronics and valleytronics.

  18. Catalytic deoxygenation of microalgae oil to green hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chen; Bruck, Thomas; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2013-05-14

    Microalgae are high potential raw biomass material for triglyceride feedstock, due to their high oil content and rapid growth rate, and because algae cultivation does not compete with edible food on arable land. This review addresses first the microalgae cultivation with an overview of the productivity and growth of microalgae, the recovery of lipids from the microalgae, and chemical compositions of microalgae biomass and microalgal oil. Second, three basic approaches are discussed to downstream processing for the production of green gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons from microalgae oil, including cracking with zeolite, hydrotreating with supported sulfided catalysts and hydrodeoxygenation with non-sulfide metal catalysts. For the triglyceride derived bio-fuels, only “drop-in” gasoline and diesel range components are discussed in this review.

  19. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  20. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  1. Illinois: High-Energy, Concentration-Gradient Cathode Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a high-energy, concentration-gradient cathode material for plug-in hybrid and all-electric vehicles. ... market growth, leading to reductions in carbon pollution and imported oil. ...

  2. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-30

    The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  3. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  4. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  5. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic fractures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-08-31

    The long radius, near-horizontal well has been drilled and completion operations are in progress. Upon initial review of log data, two hydraulic fracture treatments were planned. However, the probability of the lower frac growing into thick sands previously swept by waterflood has called for additional information to be obtained prior to proceeding with hydraulic fracture treatments. Should permeabilities prove to be as favorable as some data indicate, produced water volumes could be excessively high. Prior to pumping the first frac, the well will be perforated and produced from lower pay intervals. These perfs will not impact future frac work. Rate data and pressure transient analysis will dictate the need for the lower frac.

  6. Hydrogen assisted growth of high quality epitaxial graphene on the C-face of 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Tuocheng; Jia, Zhenzhao; Yan, Baoming; Yu, Dapeng; Wu, Xiaosong

    2015-01-05

    We demonstrate hydrogen assisted growth of high quality epitaxial graphene on the C-face of 4H-SiC. Compared with the conventional thermal decomposition technique, the size of the growth domain by this method is substantially increased and the thickness variation is reduced. Based on the morphology of epitaxial graphene, the role of hydrogen is revealed. It is found that hydrogen acts as a carbon etchant. It suppresses the defect formation and nucleation of graphene. It also improves the kinetics of carbon atoms via hydrocarbon species. These effects lead to increase of the domain size and the structure quality. The consequent capping effect results in smooth surface morphology and suppression of multilayer growth. Our method provides a viable route to fine tune the growth kinetics of epitaxial graphene on SiC.

  7. World oil trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A. )

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the world oil industry topics include; oil consumption; oils share of energy consumption; crude oil production; natural gas production; oil reserves; prices of oil; world refining capacity; and oil tankers.

  8. Mechanisms of microbial oil recovery by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Core displacement experiments at elevated pressures were conducted to determine whether microbial processes are effective under conditions that simulate those found in an actual oil reservoir. The in-situ growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2 resulted in the recovery of residual oil. About 21 and 23% of the residual oil was recovered by C. acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2, respectively. Flooding cores with cell-free culture fluids of C. acetobutylicum with and without the addition of 50 mM acetone and 100 mM butanol did not result in the recovery of residual oil. Mathematical simulations showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not sufficient to recover residual oil. Oil recovery by Bacillus strain JF-2 was highly correlated to surfactant production. A biosurfactant-deficient mutant of strain JF-2 was not capable of recovering residual oil. These data show that surfactant production is an important mechanism for microbially enhanced oil recovery. The mechanism for oil recovery by C. acetobutylicum is not understood at this time, but the production of acids, solvents, or gases alone cannot explain the observed increases in oil recovery by this organism.

  9. heavy_oil | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Oil Heavy oil is a vast U.S. oil resource that is underexploited because its highly viscous nature renders it difficult to produce and to refine. As higher-gravity crudes (lighter oil) become increasingly scarce in the U.S., American operators are looking more and more to low-gravity crudes (heavy oil) to prop up the Nation's declining oil output. Heavy oil generally is defined as having an API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity of 10-20 degrees. Oil sources with even lower gravities,

  10. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-15

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  11. High density growth of T7 expression strains with auto-induction option

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F. William

    2010-07-20

    A bacterial growth medium for promoting auto-induction of transcription of cloned DNA in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise is disclosed. The transcription is under the control of a lac repressor. Also disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for improving the production of a selenomethionine-containing protein or polypeptide in a bacterial cell, the protein or polypeptide being produced by recombinant DNA techniques from a lac or T7lac promoter, the bacterial cell encoding a vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine methylase. Finally, disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for suppressing auto-induction of expression in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise, said transcription being under the control of lac repressor.

  12. Effects of Removing Restrictions on U.S. Crude Oil Exports -...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Full report Baseline and scenario data Reference Low Oil Price High Oil and Gas Resource High Oil and Gas Resource with Low Oil Price Effects of ...

  13. High active nitrogen flux growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McSkimming, Brian M. Speck, James S.; Chaix, Catherine

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, the authors report on a modified Riber radio frequency (RF) nitrogen plasma source that provides active nitrogen fluxes more than 30 times higher than those commonly used for plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and thus a significantly higher growth rate than has been previously reported. GaN films were grown using N{sub 2} gas flow rates between 5 and 25 sccm while varying the plasma source's RF forward power from 200 to 600 W. The highest growth rate, and therefore the highest active nitrogen flux, achieved was ∼7.6 μm/h. For optimized growth conditions, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 × 3 μm) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy impurity analysis demonstrates oxygen and hydrogen incorporation of 1 × 10{sup 16} and ∼5 × 10{sup 17}, respectively. In addition, the authors have achieved PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ∼100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. This growth temperature corresponds to GaN decomposition in vacuum of more than 20 nm/min; a regime previously unattainable with conventional nitrogen plasma sources. Arrhenius analysis of the decomposition rate shows that samples with a flux ratio below stoichiometry have an activation energy greater than decomposition of GaN in vacuum while samples grown at or above stoichiometry have decreased activation energy. The activation energy of decomposition for GaN in vacuum was previously determined to be ∼3.1 eV. For a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼1.5, this activation energy was found to be ∼2.8 eV, while for a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼0.5, it was found to be ∼7.9 eV.

  14. Annual Energy Outlook 2014 projects reduced need for U.S. oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual Energy Outlook 2014 projects reduced need for U.S. oil imports due to tight oil production growth U.S. production of tight crude oil is expected to make up a larger share ...

  15. Structural characterization of Green River oil-shale at high-pressure using pair distribution function analysis and small angle x-ray scattering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locke, D. R.; Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Pugmire, R. J.; Winans, R. E.; Univ. of Utah

    2008-01-01

    The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances (6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond 6 {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component.

  16. The Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Rate of Alloy 600 Heat Affected Zones Exposed to High Purity Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George A. Young; Nathan Lewis

    2003-04-05

    Grain boundary chromium carbides improve the resistance of nickel based alloys to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). However, in weld heat affected zones (HAZ's), thermal cycles from fusion welding can solutionize beneficial grain boundary carbides, produce locally high residual stresses and strains, and promote PWSCC. The present research investigates the crack growth rate of an A600 HAZ as a function of test temperature. The A600 HAZ was fabricated by building up a gas-tungsten-arc-weld deposit of EN82H filler metal onto a mill-annealed A600 plate. Fracture mechanics based, stress corrosion crack growth rate testing was performed in high purity water between 600 F and 680 F at an initial stress intensity factor of 40 ksi {radical}in and at a constant electrochemical potential. The HAZ samples exhibited significant SCC, entirely within the HAZ at all temperatures tested. While the HAZ samples showed the same temperature dependence for SCC as the base material (HAZ: 29.8 {+-} 11.2{sub 95%} kcal/mol vs A600 Base: 35.3 {+-} 2.58{sub 95%} kcal/mol), the crack growth rates were {approx} 30X faster than the A600 base material tested at the same conditions. The increased crack growth rates of the HAZ is attributed to fewer intergranular chromium rich carbides and to increased plastic strain in the HAZ as compared to the unaffected base material.

  17. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  18. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

  19. Venezuelan oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Oil reserves have been known to exist in Venezuela since early historical records, however, it was not until the 20th century that the extensive search for new reserves began. The 1950's marked the height of oil exploration when 200 new oil fields were discovered, as well as over 60{percent} of proven reserves. Venezuela now produces one tone in seven of crude oil consumption and the country's abundant reserves such as the Bolivar Coastal field in the West of the country and the Orinoco Belt field in the East, will ensure it's continuing importance as an oil producer well into the 21st century. This book charts the historical development of Venezuela oil and provides a chronology of all the significant events which have shaped the oil industry of today. It covers all the technical, legal, economic and political factors which have contributed to the evolution of the industry and also gives information on current oil resources and production. Those events significant to the development of the industry, those which were influential in shaping future policy and those which precipitated further action are included. The book provides a source of reference to oil companies, oil economists and petroleum geologists.

  20. High density growth of T7 expression strains with auto-induction option

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F. William

    2009-07-14

    Disclosed is a method for promoting auto-induction of transcription of cloned DNA in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise, the transcription being under the control of a promoter whose activity can be induced by an exogenous inducer whose ability to induce said promoter is dependent on the metabolic state of said bacterial cells. Initially, a culture media is provided which includes: i) an inducer that causes induction of transcription from said promoter in said bacterial cells; and ii) a metabolite that prevents induction by said inducer, the concentration of said metabolite being adjusted so as to substantially preclude induction by said inducer in the early stages of growth of the bacterial culture, but such that said metabolite is depleted to a level that allows induction by said inducer at a later stage of growth. The culture medium is inoculated with a bacterial inoculum, the inoculum comprising bacterial cells containing cloned DNA, the transcription of which is induced by said inducer. The culture is then incubated under conditions appropriate for growth of the bacterial cells.

  1. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  2. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  3. Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Product: Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Still Gas Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Other Petroleum Products Natural Gas Coal Purchased Electricity Purchased Steam Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1986-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 0 0 0 0

  4. Epitaxial growth of high quality WO3 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, X.; Pereiro, J.; Strle, J.; Bollinger, A. T.; Bozovic, I.

    2015-09-09

    We have grown epitaxial WO3 films on various single-crystal substrates using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. While pronounced surface roughness is observed in films grown on LaSrAlO4 substrates, films grown on YAlO3 substrates show atomically flat surfaces, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The crystalline structure has been confirmed to be monoclinic by symmetric and skew-symmetric XRD. Furthermore, the dependence of the growth modes and the surface morphology on the lattice mismatch is discussed.

  5. Material requirements for the adoption of unconventional silicon crystal and wafer growth techniques for high-efficiency solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hofstetter, Jasmin; del Cañizo, Carlos; Wagner, Hannes; Castellanos, Sergio; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-10-15

    Silicon wafers comprise approximately 40% of crystalline silicon module cost and represent an area of great technological innovation potential. Paradoxically, unconventional wafer-growth techniques have thus far failed to displace multicrystalline and Czochralski silicon, despite four decades of innovation. One of the shortcomings of most unconventional materials has been a persistent carrier lifetime deficit in comparison to established wafer technologies, which limits the device efficiency potential. In this perspective article, we review a defect-management framework that has proven successful in enabling millisecond lifetimes in kerfless and cast materials. Control of dislocations and slowly diffusing metal point defects during growth, coupled tomore » effective control of fast-diffusing species during cell processing, is critical to enable high cell efficiencies. As a result, to accelerate the pace of novel wafer development, we discuss approaches to rapidly evaluate the device efficiency potential of unconventional wafers from injection-dependent lifetime measurements.« less

  6. Seeded Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Nano-Heterostructures with Rod and Tetrapod Morphologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talapin, Dmitri; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Nelson, James H.; Shevchenko, Elena V.; Aloni, Shaul; Sadtler, Bryce; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2007-08-09

    We have demonstrated that seeded growth of nanocrystals offers a convenient way to design nanoheterostructures with complex shapes and morphologies by changing the crystalline structure of the seed. By using Use nanocrystals with wurtzite and zinc blende structure as seeds for growth of US nanorods, we synthesized CdSe/CdS heterostructure nanorods and nanotetrapods, respectively. Both of these structures showed excellent luminescentproperties, combining high photoluminescence efficiency (similar to 80 and similar to 50percent for nanorods and nanotetrapods, correspondingly), giant extinction coefficients (similar to 2 x 10(7) and similar to 1.5 x 10(8) M-1 cm (-1) at 350 nm for nanorods and nanotetrapods, correspondingly), and efficient energy transfer from the US arms into the emitting CdSe Core.

  7. Material requirements for the adoption of unconventional silicon crystal and wafer growth techniques for high-efficiency solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofstetter, Jasmin; del Cañizo, Carlos; Wagner, Hannes; Castellanos, Sergio; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-10-15

    Silicon wafers comprise approximately 40% of crystalline silicon module cost and represent an area of great technological innovation potential. Paradoxically, unconventional wafer-growth techniques have thus far failed to displace multicrystalline and Czochralski silicon, despite four decades of innovation. One of the shortcomings of most unconventional materials has been a persistent carrier lifetime deficit in comparison to established wafer technologies, which limits the device efficiency potential. In this perspective article, we review a defect-management framework that has proven successful in enabling millisecond lifetimes in kerfless and cast materials. Control of dislocations and slowly diffusing metal point defects during growth, coupled to effective control of fast-diffusing species during cell processing, is critical to enable high cell efficiencies. As a result, to accelerate the pace of novel wafer development, we discuss approaches to rapidly evaluate the device efficiency potential of unconventional wafers from injection-dependent lifetime measurements.

  8. Heavy oil expansions gather momentum worldwide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritis, G.

    1995-08-14

    Cold production, wormholes, foamy oil mechanism, improvements in thermal methods, and horizontal wells are some of the processes and technologies enabling expansion of the world`s heavy oil/bitumen production. Such processes were the focus of the International Heavy Oil Symposium in Calgary, June 19--21. Unlike conventional oil production, heavy oil/bitumen extraction is more a manufacturing process where technology enables the business and does not just add value. The current low price spreads between heavy oil/light oil indicate that demand for heavy oil is high. The paper first discusses the price difference between heavy and light oils, then describes heavy oil production activities in Canada at Cold Lake, in Venezuela in the Orinoco belt, and at Kern River in California.

  9. HIGH-MODE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR GROWTH IN NIF IGNITION CAPSULES (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: Second International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED2009), Austin, TX, United States, May 19 - May 22, 2009 Research ...

  10. Investigation of new approaches for InGaN growth with high indium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    issues of phase separation and high dislocation density in InGaN-based PIN solar cells. ... Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; ...

  11. Studies and calculations of transverse emittance growth in high-energy proton storage rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mane, S.R.; Jackson, G.

    1989-03-01

    In the operation of proton-antiproton colliders, an important goal is to maximize the integrated luminosity. During such operations in the Fermilab Tevatron, the transverse beam emittances were observed to grow unexpectedly quickly, thus causing a serious reduction of the luminosity. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. A formula for the emittance growth rate, due to random dipole kicks, is derived. In the experiment, RF phase noise of known amplitude was deliberately injected into the Tevatron to kick the beam randomly, via dispersion at the RF cavities. Theory and experiment are found to agree reasonably well. We also briefly discuss the problem of quadrupole kicks. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. High performance CaS solar-blind ultraviolet photodiodes fabricated by seed-layer-assisted growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Qing Lin; Lai, Ying Hoi; Sou, Iam Keong; Liu, Yi; Beltjens, Emeline; Qi, Jie

    2015-11-02

    CaS, with a direct bandgap of 5.38 eV, is expected to be a strong candidate as the active-layer of high performance solar-blind UV photodiodes that have important applications in both civilian and military sectors. Here, we report that a seed-layer-assisted growth approach via molecular beam epitaxy can result in high crystalline quality rocksalt CaS thin films on zincblende GaAs substrates. The Au/CaS/GaAs solar-blind photodiodes demonstrated , more than five orders in its visible rejection power, a photoresponse of 36.8 mA/w at zero bias and a corresponding quantum efficiency as high as 19% at 235 nm.

  13. Oil-shale utilization at Morgantown, WV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Y.; Notestein, J.E.; Mei, J.S.; Romanosky, R.R.; King, J.A.; Zeng, L.W.

    1982-01-01

    Fully aware of the nation's need to develop high-risk and long-term research in eastern oil-shale and low-grade oil-shale utilization in general, the US DOE/METC initiated an eastern oil-shale characterization program. In less than 3 months, METC produced shale oil from a selected eastern-US oil shale with a Fischer assay of 8.0 gallons/ton. In view of the relatively low oil yield from this particular oil shale, efforts were directed to determine the process conditions which give the highest oil yield. A 2-inch-diameter electrically heated fluidized-bed retort was constructed, and Celina oil shale from Tennessee was selected to be used as a representative eastern oil shale. After more than 50 runs, the retorting data were analyzed and reviewed and the best oil-yield operating condition was determined. In addition, while conducting the oil-shale retorting experiments, a number of technical problems were identified, addressed, and overcome. Owing to the inherent high rates of heat and mass transfers inside the fluidized bed, the fluidized-bed combustor and retorting appear to be a desirable process technology for an effective and efficient means for oil-shale utilization. The fluidized-bed operation is a time-tested, process-proven, high-throughput, solid-processing operation which may contribute to the efficient utilization of oil-shale energy.

  14. Non-wetting surface-driven high-aspect-ratio crystalline grain growth for efficient hybrid perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, Cheng; Wang, Qi; Shao, Yuchuan; Yuan, Yongbo; Xiao, Zhengguo; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-07-20

    Large-aspect-ratio grains are needed in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells for reduced charge recombination at grain boundaries; however, the grain size in organolead trihalide perovskite (OTP) films is generally limited by the film thickness. Here we report the growth of OTP grains with high average aspect ratio of 2.3–7.9 on a wide range of non-wetting hole transport layers (HTLs), which increase nucleus spacing by suppressing heterogeneous nucleation and facilitate grain boundary migration in grain growth by imposing less drag force. The reduced grain boundary area and improved crystallinity dramatically reduce the charge recombination in OTP thin films to the level in OTP single crystals. Combining the high work function of several HTLs, a high stabilized device efficiency of 18.3% in low-temperature-processed planar-heterojunction OTP devices under 1 sun illumination is achieved. As a result, this simple method in enhancing OTP morphology paves the way for its application in other optoelectronic devices for enhanced performance.

  15. Non-wetting surface-driven high-aspect-ratio crystalline grain growth for efficient hybrid perovskite solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bi, Cheng; Wang, Qi; Shao, Yuchuan; Yuan, Yongbo; Xiao, Zhengguo; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-07-20

    Large-aspect-ratio grains are needed in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells for reduced charge recombination at grain boundaries; however, the grain size in organolead trihalide perovskite (OTP) films is generally limited by the film thickness. Here we report the growth of OTP grains with high average aspect ratio of 2.3–7.9 on a wide range of non-wetting hole transport layers (HTLs), which increase nucleus spacing by suppressing heterogeneous nucleation and facilitate grain boundary migration in grain growth by imposing less drag force. The reduced grain boundary area and improved crystallinity dramatically reduce the charge recombination in OTP thin films to the level inmore » OTP single crystals. Combining the high work function of several HTLs, a high stabilized device efficiency of 18.3% in low-temperature-processed planar-heterojunction OTP devices under 1 sun illumination is achieved. As a result, this simple method in enhancing OTP morphology paves the way for its application in other optoelectronic devices for enhanced performance.« less

  16. OPEC's maximum oil revenue will be $80 billion per year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steffes, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    OPEC's income from oil is less than $80 billion this year, only one fourth its 1981 revenue. The optimum revenue OPEC can expect is 15 MBB/D at $15/barrel. Energy conservation will continue despite falling prices because consumers no longer feel secure that OPEC can deliver needed supplies. Eleven concepts which affect the future world economic outlook include dependence upon petroleum and petroleum products, the condition of capital markets, low energy and commodity prices, the growth in money supply without a corresponding growth in investment, and the high debt level of the US and the developing countries.

  17. Winners and losers from cheaper oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, E.

    1984-11-26

    Oil prices are slipping despite OPEC's efforts to prop them up by cutting production. Abundant oil and slack demand will press prices into a substantial drop. That portends more growth, less inflation, and good news for industries, especially the airline and automobile industries. Banks and some oil companies could be hurt, but chemical and steel companies will benefit. Concerns that the country will drop conservation efforts overlook the efficiency improvements already embedded in new machinery and automobiles and the insulation installed in buildings.

  18. Oil market outlook and drivers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Oil inventories in industrialized countries to reach record high at end of 2015 The amount of year-end oil inventories held in industrialized countries is expected to be the highest on record in 2015. In its monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said it expects commercial oil inventories in the United States and other industrialized countries to total 2.83 billion barrels at the end of this year almost 90 million barrels more than at the end of 2014. Global oil production

  19. Oil privatization growing: Peru poised for comeback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-18

    Economic reform in Peru is transforming the oil and gas sector. Free market rationale is replacing the state monopoly mind-set. Foreign investment in oil, once discouraged by former administrations, is the response to new terms established by current government in its search for capital inflows to boost economic growth.

  20. Heteroepitaxial growth of highly conductive metal oxide RuO{sub 2} thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Wu, X.D.; Foltyn, S.R.; Findikoglu, A.T.; Tiwari, P.; Zheng, J.P.; Jow, T.R.

    1995-09-18

    Highly conductive ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) has been epitaxially grown on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The RuO{sub 2} film is ({ital h}00) oriented normal to the substrate surface. The heteroepitaxial growth of RuO{sub 2} on LaAlO{sub 3} is demonstrated by the strong in-plane orientation of thin films with respect to the major axes of the substrate. High crystallinity of RuO{sub 2} thin films is also determined from Rutherford backscattering channeling measurements. Electrical measurements on the RuO{sub 2} thin films demonstrate a quite low room-temperature resistivity of 35{plus_minus}2 {mu}{Omega} cm at deposition temperatures of above 500 {degree}C. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  1. STEO January 2013 - oil production increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    since 1988. Most of America's oil production growth over the next two years will come from more drilling activity in tight shale rock formations located in North Dakota and Texas

  2. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  3. Ecotoxicological study of used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, P.K.; Chan, W.L.; Wang, J.; Wong, C.K.

    1995-12-31

    Used lubricating oil is more toxic than crude oil and fuel oil since it contains comparatively high levels of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). No detail toxicological study has been conducted to evaluate the hazards of used lubricating oil to the environment. This study reports a battery of bioassays using bacteria (Microtox test and Mutatox test), algae, amphipod and shrimp larvae to determine the toxicity of water soluble fraction of used lubricating oil. The results will be used to formulate a complete and extensive ecotoxicological assessment of the impacts of used lubricating oil on aquatic environment.

  4. Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films by pulsed laser epitaxy in high vacuum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Ambrose Seo, Sung S.; Choi, Woo Seok; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    2016-01-29

    In many transition metal oxides, oxygen stoichiometry is one of the most critical parameters that plays a key role in determining the structural, physical, optical, and electrochemical properties of the material. However, controlling the growth to obtain high quality single crystal films having the right oxygen stoichiometry, especially in a high vacuum environment, has been viewed as a challenge. In this work, we show that, through proper control of the plume kinetic energy, stoichiometric crystalline films can be synthesized without generating oxygen defects even in high vacuum. We use a model homoepitaxial system of SrTiO3 (STO) thin films on singlemore » crystal STO substrates. Physical property measurements indicate that oxygen vacancy generation in high vacuum is strongly influenced by the energetics of the laser plume, and it can be controlled by proper laser beam delivery. Thus, our finding not only provides essential insight into oxygen stoichiometry control in high vacuum for understanding the fundamental properties of STO-based thin films and heterostructures, but it expands the utility of pulsed laser epitaxy of other materials as well.₃« less

  5. Epitaxial growth of highly conductive RuO{sub 2} thin films on (100) Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Song, S.G.; Wu, X.D.; Cho, J.H.; Foltyn, S.R.; Findikoglu, A.T.; Smith, J.L.

    1996-02-01

    Conductive RuO{sub 2} thin films have been heteroepitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si substrates with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer layers. The RuO{sub 2} thin films deposited under optimized processing conditions are {ital a}-axis oriented normal to the Si substrate surface with a high degree of in-plane alignment with the major axes of the (100) Si substrate. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analysis on the RuO{sub 2}/YSZ/Si multilayer shows an atomically sharp interface between the RuO{sub 2} and the YSZ. Electrical measurements show that the crystalline RuO{sub 2} thin films are metallic over a temperature range from 4.2 to 300 K and are highly conductive with a room-temperature resistivity of 37{plus_minus}2 {mu}{Omega}cm. The residual resistance ratio ({ital R}{sub 300K}/{ital R}{sub 4.2K}) above 5 for our RuO{sub 2} thin films is the highest ever reported for such films on Si substrates. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  7. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  8. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  9. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  10. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  11. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sustarsic, Elahu G.; Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH ; Junnila, Riia K.; Kopchick, John J.

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institutes NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on this data

  12. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking initiation and growth in mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing in high-temperature caustic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisson, B.W.; Ballinger, R.G.; McIlree, A.R.

    1998-07-01

    Historically, pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator (SG) reliability has been dominated by degradation of alloy 600 (UNS N06600) tubing material. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) crack initiation and crack growth rates (CGR) were measured in mill-annealed alloy 600 (UNS N06600) tubing as a function of the stress intensity factor (K) in 10% caustic at 315 C. Tests were conducted using internally pressurized smooth and precracked tubing. Samples were polarized to 150 mV (precracked tube test) or 225 mV (initiation test) with respect to a nickel electrode. Crack initiation and growth from the external tube surface were monitored using a multifrequency alternating current (AC) potential drop system. The AC potential drop system allowed detection of initiation from a smooth surface as well as the monitoring of crack extension in real time. In the case of precracked sample tests, the sample was precracked in fatigue from a sharp v-notch. CGR were obtained over the K range between 4 MPa{radical}m and 18 MPa{radical}m. Values for K were estimated based upon fractographic analysis of samples after testing and an estimate of the K-solution for a thin-walled tube. Average CGR ranged from 2 mm/y to 14 mm/y. CGR determined in this investigation represent the first SCC CGR data obtained in high-temperature caustic using actual steam generator tubing. Growth rates obtained fell within the overall range of the existing database for CGR (da/dt) in alloy 600. The data and analysis suggested a threshold value of K for K-driven crack growth of {approx} 4 MPa{radical}m. However, since the scatter in existing data is very large and the conditions for most of the data are poorly known or not known at all, this was surprising. More importantly, from the standpoint of life prediction, it was observed that da/dt responded to and was a function of K for cracks as small as 0.2 mm in depth, and probably smaller.

  13. Substrate Structures For Growth Of Highly Oriented And/Or Epitaxial Layers Thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N.; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Groves, James R.; Jia, Quanxi

    2005-07-26

    A composite substrate structure including a substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer is provided together with additional layers such as one or more layers of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer. Jc's of 2.3×106 A/cm2 have been demonstrated with projected Ic's of 320 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide for a superconducting article including a flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, an inert oxide material layer upon the surface of the flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the layer of the inert oxide material, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer, a layer of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer, and, a top-layer of a high temperature superconducting material upon the layer of a buffer material.

  14. Substrate Structures For Growth Of Highly Oriented And/Or Epitaxial Layers Thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Groves, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-07-26

    A composite substrate structure including a substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer is provided together with additional layers such as one or more layers of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer. Jc's of 2.3106 A/cm2 have been demonstrated with projected Ic's of 320 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide for a superconducting article including a flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, an inert oxide material layer upon the surface of the flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the layer of the inert oxide material, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer, a layer of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer, and, a top-layer of a high temperature superconducting material upon the layer of a buffer material.

  15. World Oil Transit Chokepoints

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01

    Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.

  16. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-08-11

    Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 l) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called `fixed-target' sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (1015 m) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 ) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. In addition, the features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs.

  17. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-08-11

    Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 µl) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called `fixed-target' sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessarymore » to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 Å) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. In addition, the features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs.« less

  18. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  19. high

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Highlights International Oil Markets Prices. We have raised our world oil price projection by about 2 per barrel for this month because of assumed greater compliance by OPEC to ...

  20. International oil companies in the Far East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mlotok, P.

    1984-10-01

    All of the major international oil companies have extensive operations in the Far East, and in most cases, these operations account for a significant part of their worldwide earnings. In the refining and marketing end of the business, near-term profitability could be hampered by problems in the Singapore refining center. An expansion of Indonesian refining capacity has reduced profits from processing arrangements, and new Saudi product exports will enter Singapore starting this year. Longer term, however, the strong economic growth in the region renders it a highly attractive area in which to operate. On the producing end, rising output will boost profits for the international oil companies in Indonesia and Malaysia. Caltex (a 50/50 joint venture between Chevron and Texaco) is one of the largest marketers in the Far East. It will not initially be affected greatly by the Singapore refinery problem, as its production from this area goes directly into its own marketing system rather than into the open market. Exxon is a medium-size marketer with especially strong positions in Japan, Malaysia and Thailand. However, the company could be vulnerable to near-term problems in Singapore. Mobil, another medium-size marketer, has a very strong position in Japan but problems in Australia. As those problems are corrected, earnings should grow over time. The Royal Dutch Shell Group is one of the largest marketers in the Far East, with good positions in Singapore, Malaysia and Australia. Shell will have difficulty adjusting to the changing conditions in Singapore, but once this is complete, downstream earnings growth should resume. British Petroleum (BP) has a smaller upstream and downstream presence than the other international oils. Estimated 1983 Far East earnings are tabulated for these five companies. 5 figures.

  1. Geological model for oil gravity variations in Oriente Basin, Ecuador

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dashwood, M.F.; Abbotts, I.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Oriente basin is one of the major productive Subandean basins. Most of the fields produce 29/sup 0/-33/sup 0/ API paraffinic oils, but oils have been discovered with gravities ranging from 10/sup 0/to 35/sup 0/ API. All the oils have been recovered from multiple middle to Late Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs (Hollin and Napo Formations). Wells display a variety of oil gravities by reservoir. The origin of the Oriente oils is problematical and controversial, but structural, geochemical, and well evidence suggest a vast oil kitchen west of the present Andean foothills that was mature for oil generation by at least early Tertiary. Oil analyses indicate a single family of oils is present. Oil gravity variations can be explained systematically in terms of the various alteration processes suffered by the oil in each reservoir. Intermittent early Andean uplift (latest Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene) resulted in biodegradation and water-washing of oils, particularly in the uppermost Napo reservoirs. The main Andean orogeny (Pliocene) uplifted the Hollin reservoir to outcrop in the west, and tilted the basin down to the south. This movement resulted in water washing or flushing of the Hollin aquifer and a phase of northward remigration of oil. Late Andean structures postdated primary oil migration. Almost all structures displaying growth during the Late Cretaceous to early Eocene have been oil bearing, but some, particularly those located on the present-day basin flanks, were later severely biodegraded or breached.

  2. Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammons, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

  3. First AEO2015 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    GAS MARKETS TEAMS SUBJECT: First AEO2015 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary ... The shorter AEO2015 will have 6 cases - Reference case, HighLow Oil Price cases, HighLow ...

  4. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) (3.31 MB) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical ...

  5. FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil Feeds FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil Feeds Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons ...

  6. Driving Down HB-LED Costs. Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods of High Yield MOCVD Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, William

    2012-04-30

    . Programmatically, improvements made in Phase I are applied to developments of Phase II when applicable. Phase three is the culmination of the individual tasks from both phases one and two applied to proposed production platforms. We selectively combine previously demonstrated tasks and other options to develop a high-volume production-worthy MOCVD system demonstrating >3x throughput, 1.3x capital efficiency, and 0.7x cost of ownership. In a parallel demonstration we validate the concept of an improved, larger deposition system which utilizes the predictive modeling of chemistry-based flow analysis and extensions of the improvements demonstrated on the current platforms. This validation includes the build and testing of a prototype version of the hardware and demonstration of 69% reduction in the cost of ownership. Also, in this phase we present a stand-alone project to develop a high-temperature system which improves source efficiency by 30% while concurrently increasing growth rate by 1.3x. The material quality is held to the same material quality specifications of our existing baseline processes. The merits of other line item tasks in phase three are discussed for inclusion on next-generation platforms.

  7. Oil shale combustion/retorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted a number of feasibility studies on the combustion and retorting of five oil shales: Celina (Tennessee), Colorado, Israeli, Moroccan, and Sunbury (Kentucky). These studies generated technical data primarily on (1) the effects of retorting conditions, (2) the combustion characteristics applicable to developing an optimum process design technology, and (3) establishing a data base applicable to oil shales worldwide. During the research program, METC applied the versatile fluidized-bed process to combustion and retorting of various low-grade oil shales. Based on METC's research findings and other published information, fluidized-bed processes were found to offer highly attractive methods to maximize the heat recovery and yield of quality oil from oil shale. The principal reasons are the fluidized-bed's capacity for (1) high in-bed heat transfer rates, (2) large solid throughput, and (3) selectivity in aromatic-hydrocarbon formation. The METC research program showed that shale-oil yields were affected by the process parameters of retorting temperature, residence time, shale particle size, fluidization gas velocity, and gas composition. (Preferred values of yields, of course, may differ among major oil shales.) 12 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  8. Upgrading Orinoco Belt heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliantara, J.; Castillo, O.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), in an effort to develop new oil resources, has undertaken a program to evaluate and develop the Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt, in the eastern part of Venezuela. Lagoven, S.A., a subsidiary of PDVSA, has been assigned the responsibility for developing and upgrading part of the Orinoco belt. This paper describes the most relevant aspects of Lagoven's first upgrading module, a facility that will convert Orinoco oil into a premium crude with a very high yield of products of great market demand.

  9. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to account for 91% of the growth in world oil production in 2015 The United States is expected to provide nine out of every 10 barrels of new global oil supplies in 2015. In its ...

  10. Bridgman Growth of Large SrI2:Eu2+ Single Crystals: A High-performance Scintillator for Radiation Detection Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Kolopus, James A; Hawrami, Rastgo; Higgins, William; Van Loef, Edgar; Glodo, J.; Shah, Kanai; Bhattacharya, P.; Tupitsyn, E; Groza, Michael; Burger, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Single-crystal strontium iodide (SrI2) doped with relatively high levels (e.g., 3 - 6 %) of Eu2+ exhibits characteristics that make this material superior, in a number of respects, to other scintillators that are currently used for radiation detection. Specifically, SrI2:Eu2+ has a light yield that is significantly higher than LaBr3:Ce3+ -a currently employed commercial high-performance scintillator. Additionally, SrI2:Eu2+ is characterized by an energy resolution as high as 2.6% at the 137Cs gamma-ray energy of 662 keV, and there is no radioactive component in SrI2:Eu2+ - unlike LaBr3:Ce3+ that contains 138La. The Ce3+-doped LaBr3 decay time is, however, faster (30 nsec) than the 1.2 sec decay time of SrI2:Eu2+. Due to the relatively low melting point of strontium iodide (~515 oC), crystal growth can be carried out in quartz crucibles by the vertical Bridgman technique. Materials-processing and crystal-growth techniques that are specific to the Bridgman growth of europium-doped strontium iodide scintillators are described here. These techniques include the use of a porous quartz frit to physically filter the molten salt from a quartz antechamber into the Bridgman growth crucible and the use of a bent or bulb grain selector design to suppress multiple grain growth. Single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+ scintillators with good optical quality and scintillation characteristics have been grown in sizes up to 5.0 cm in diameter by applying these techniques. Other aspects of the SrI2:Eu2+ crystal-growth methods and of the still unresolved crystal-growth issues are described here.

  11. Method for recovering oil from an underground formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesselink, F.T.; Saidi, A.M.

    1982-12-21

    Method for recovering oil from an underground formation consisting of blocks of relatively low permeability with an oilwet pore space containing oil surrounded by a fracture network of relatively high permeability by supplying to the fracture network an aqueous solution of a surfactant adapted for decreasing the surface tension between water and oil and displacing the oil from the oil-wet pore space of the blocks.

  12. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  13. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  14. Retrofitting heavy oil processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, G.L.; Fitzgerald, M.; D'Amico, V.

    1986-01-01

    Refiners, faced with the need to process the bottom end of the heavy high sulfur crude oil barrel in today's uncertain economic environment, are reluctant to commit large amounts of money to expensive upgrading processes. In order to conserve scarce capital while improving operating margins, additional valuable products can be produced by retrofits such as conversion of an idle crude unit to visbreaking, delayed coking or deasphalting service, or conversion of hydrodesulfurizers to mild hydrocracking.

  15. Corona processing of insulating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1996-07-01

    It is well known that sustained corona discharge in insulating oil lowers its dielectric strength and simultaneously reduces its corona resistance. Therefore, for operating stresses in the corona regime, activity typically increases with time and, if allowed to continue, eventually leads to breakdown of the oil and failure of the component or system. It is, therefore, common practice to periodically replace oil in devices such as large power transformers and switch gear before breakdown occurs. Sealed components such as capacitors are typically replaced. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the dielectric properties of corona weakened oil can not only be restored, but actually improved by a simple regeneration process. These experiments were carried out on high voltage pulse transformer windings which were operated at high rep rates until partial discharges formed. Reprocessing the oil after each operating cycle resulted in successively longer operational periods before partial discharges appeared. In a separate experiment, a process was developed to precondition transformer oil to raise its corona inception voltage before using it to insulate a high voltage component, thus giving it a longer initial service life for a given operating stress or permitting higher stress operation for limited operating times.

  16. high

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... percent changes in model inputs. b Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System. c Refiner acquisitions cost of imported crude oil. d Average unit value of marketed natural gas ...

  17. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  18. Heading off the permanent oil crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKenzie, J.J.

    1996-11-01

    The 1996 spike in gasoline prices was not a signal of any fundamental worldwide shortage of crude oil. But based on a review of many studies of recoverable crude oil that have been published since the 1950s, it looks as though such a shortfall is now within sight. With world demand for oil growing at 2 percent per year, global production is likely to peak between the years 2007 and 2014. As this time approaches, we can expect prices to rise markedly and, most likely, permanently. Policy changes are needed now to ease the transition to high-priced oil. Oil production will continue, though at a declining rate, for many decades after its peak, and there are enormous amounts of coal, oil sands, heavy oil, and oil shales worldwide that could be used to produce liquid or gaseous substitutes for crude oil, albeit at higher prices. But the facilities for making such synthetic fuels are costly to build and environmentally damaging to operate, and their use would substantially increase carbon dioxide emissions (compared to emissions from products made from conventional crude oil). This paper examines ways of heading of the impending oil crisis. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Implications from a study of the timing of oil entrapment in Monterey siliceous shales, Lost Hills, San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julander, D.R. )

    1992-01-01

    The oil and gas-rich upper Miocene siliceous shales of the Monterey Group are the primary development target in the Lost Hills Oil Field, San Joaquin Valley, California. As a result of diagenesis, the siliceous shales can be subdivided by opal phase into three sections (from shallow to deep): the Opal-A diatomites which are rich in oil saturation; the Opal-CT porcellanites which are predominantly wet but include pockets of moderate oil saturation; and the Quartz cherts and porcellanites which in some places are highly oil saturated immediately below the Opal CT section. Productivity trends in each of the three sections have been established through drilling and production testing, but a predictive model was not available until a study of the timing of oil entrapment at Lost Hills was recently completed. The study included an analysis of the depositional history of the siliceous shales and timing of: (1) structural growth of the Lost Hills fold, (2) source-rock maturation, and (3) development of the opal-phase segregation of the Monterey shales. The study led to enhanced understanding of the known oil saturation and production trends in the three opal-phase sections and yielded a predictive model that is being used to identify areas in the field with remedial or delineation potential. The study also produced evidence of fold axis rotation during the Pliocene and Pleistocene that helps explain differences in fracture orientations within the Monterey shales.

  20. Turkmenistan test encouraging oil strike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper reports that another former Soviet central Asian republic has reported a highly encouraging oil strike that provides hope for halting or even reversing a long decline in its oil production. Turkmenistan reported it completed a well flowing more than 1,300 b/d in the central part of the Kara-Kum desert. Saparmurad Niyazov, the republic's president, recently predicted black gold will become one of our nation's main riches. The Turkmenistan discovery follows a huge oil strike in neighboring Uzbekistan's sector of the Fergana Valley. A blowout last march near the Uzbek town of Mingbulak reportedly flowed 62,000 b/d to as much as 146,000 b/d from about 17,000 ft with a pressure of 10,300 psi. Uzbekistan is counting on that discovery to improve its oil production prospects immensely.

  1. Oil and Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil and Gas Oil and Gas R&D focus on the use of conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, including associated environmental challenges Contact thumbnail of Business ...

  2. Oil Security Metrics Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Leiby, Paul N.

    2005-03-06

    A presentation to the IWG GPRA USDOE, March 6, 2005, Washington, DC. OSMM estimates oil security benefits of changes in the U.S. oil market.

  3. Oil & Gas Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas Research Unconventional Resources NETL's onsite research in unconventional ... quantify potential risks associated with oil and gas resources in shale reservoirs that ...

  4. PNNL Breakthrough Leads to Less Foreign Oil, More American Jobs...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PNNL Breakthrough Leads to Less Foreign Oil, More American Jobs PNNL Breakthrough Leads to Less Foreign Oil, More American Jobs October 17, 2011 - 2:50pm Addthis A highly efficient ...

  5. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  6. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the

  7. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  8. World Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    World Crude Oil Prices (Dollars per Barrel) The data on this page are no longer available.

  9. Strategies of Asian oil-importing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.

    1997-04-01

    Various strategies are used by oil-importing countries to reduce their economic dependence on imported oil: national oil production, energy conservation, and the change of economic structures from high energy intensity sectors to low ones. In this article, the roles of these different strategies have been identified for 10 selected oil-importing countries in Asia: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Hong Kong, R.O Korea, and Taiwan. The results show that most of the selected countries (although Hong Kong and Taiwan are independent economic entities, for simplicity, the author refers to them as countries) have succeeded in reducing their national economy dependence on imported oil since 1973. Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and India are among the most successful countries, with more than 40% reduction in their economic dependence on imported oil.

  10. Microbial desulfurization of Eastern oil shale: Bioreactor studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maka, A.; Akin, C.; Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    The removal of sulfur from Eastern oil shale (40 microns particle size) slurries in bioreactors by mixed microbial cultures was examined. A mixed culture that is able to remove the organic sulfur from model sulfur compounds presenting coal as well as a mixed culture isolated from oil shale enrichments were evaluated. The cultures were grown in aerobic fed-batch bioreactors where the oil shale served as the source of all nutrients except organic carbon. Glucose was added as an auxiliary carbon source. Microbial growth was monitored by plate counts, the pH was checked periodically, and oil shale samples were analyzed for sulfur content. Results show a 24% reduction in the sulfur content of the oil shale after 14 days. The settling characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined in the presence of the microbes. Also, the mixing characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H.

    1997-08-01

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  12. Commercialization of oil shale with the Petrosix process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batista, A.R.D.; Ivo, S.C.; Piper, E.M.

    1985-02-01

    Brazil, because of domestic crude oil shortage, took an interest in oil shale between 1940 and 1950. Petrobras, created in 1954, included in its charter the responsibility to develop a modern oil shale industry. An outgrowth has been the Petrosix process incorporated in a commercial unit in the State of Parana that has operated successfully more than 65,000 hours. Because of the maturity of the Petrosix process in this plant and the similarity of the Brazilian Irati oil shale to many other shales, interest has developed to apply the Petrosix process to producing shale oil and high BTU gas from these oil shales. A comparison of the characteristics has been developed between Irati and other oil shales. An evaluation of a commercial plant design has been completed for Irati, Kentucky, and Indiana oil shale projects. The technological and commercial aspects of producing shale oil using the Petrosix technology are discussed.

  13. Design of heavy oil upgrading units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, W.D.; Phodes, R.P.; Zeno, D.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy oil upgrading has become an increasingly important aspect of ER and E's research. Due to high costs of experimental catalysts, small catalyst charges are used (20-150cc). Tubular design and tree-stage stirred design are discussed with emphasis on the techniques and equipment used to handle heavy oil. Mechanical design and fluid mechanics are discussed.

  14. Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Li, Jia

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of "running out" of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources.

  15. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  16. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14

    which unconventional oil production can be expanded, and the rate of growth of reserves and enhanced recovery. Analysis based on data produced by Campbell indicates that the peak of non-Middle East production will occur before 2010. For total world conventional oil production, the results indicate a peak somewhere between 2020 and 2050. Key determinants of the peak in world oil production are the rate at which the Middle East region expands its output and the minimum reserves-to-production ratios producers will tolerate. Once world conventional oil production peaks, first oil sands and heavy oil from Canada, Venezuela and Russia, and later some other source such as shale oil from the United States must expand if total world oil consumption is to continue to increase. Alternative sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as coal or natural gas are also possible resources but not considered in this analysis nor is the possibility of transition to a hydrogen economy. These limitations were adopted to simplify the transition analysis. Inspection of the paths of conventional oil production indicates that even if world oil production does not peak before 2020, output of conventional oil is likely to increase at a substantially slower rate after that date. The implication is that there will have to be increased production of unconventional oil after that date if world petroleum consumption is to grow.

  17. A laboratory approach for determining the effect of oils and dispersants on mangroves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baca, B.J.

    1982-10-01

    An experimental approach was developed and applied to testing the effects of oil and dispersant combinations on the growth of mangrove seedlings (trees of the intertidal tropics). A controlled growth chamber was employed to test the effects of different oils and dispersed oils in an array of dosages applied to different parts of the plants. Preliminary test results are reported for two species of mangroves collected from five localities, including both oiled and unoiled estuaries. Differences occurred between species, substances, dosages, the part of the plant dosed, and the presence of chronic oil pollution at localities from which the stocks were collected. Avicennia germinans (L.) L. (black mangrove) was more sensitive than Rhizophora mangle L. (red mangrove) when exposed to almost all substances tested. Light Arabian crude oil (LA) and light Arabian crude oil dispersed (LAD) were the most toxic substances tested. No. 2 fuel oil (N2) and No. 2 fuel oil dispersed (N2D) were as toxic as LA and LAD, except for an increase (an enhancement effect) in foliage and stem growth in Avicennia at lower dosages. Bunker C oil (BC) was the least toxic of the oils tested, resulting in the reduction of foliage and stem growth only at the highest dosage tested in Avicennia. Bunker C oil dispersed (BCD) failed to show effects in either species at any dosage tested. The leaves of Rhizophora were the most sensitive part of the plant tested.

  18. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Leaping out of North America and onto the World Stage JULY 2014 GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Jamie Webster, Senior Director Global Oil ...

  19. Factors that will influence oil and gas supply and demand in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holditch, S.A.; Chianelli, R.R.

    2008-04-15

    A recent report published by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) in the United States predicted a 50-60% growth in total global demand for energy by 2030. Because oil, gas, and coal will continue to be the primary energy sources during this time, the energy industry will have to continue increasing the supply of these fuels to meet this increasing demand. Achieving this goal will require the exploitation of both conventional and unconventional reservoirs of oil and gas in (including coalbed methane) an environmentally acceptable manner. Such efforts will, in turn, require advancements in materials science, particularly in the development of materials that can withstand high-pressure, high-temperature, and high-stress conditions.

  20. Oil Study Guide - Middle School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Middle School Oil Study Guide - Middle School Oil Study Guide - Middle School (271.4 KB) More Documents & Publications Oil Study Guide - High School evaluation_egs_tech_2008.pdf A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Reservoir Engineering 1976-2006

  1. Crude Oil Characteristics Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SAE Plan June 29, 2015 Page 1 Crude Oil Characteristics Research Sampling, Analysis and Experiment (SAE) Plan The U.S. is experiencing a renaissance in oil and gas production. The Energy Information Administration projects that U.S. oil production will reach 9.3 million barrels per day in 2015 - the highest annual average level of oil production since 1972. This domestic energy boom is due primarily to new unconventional production of light sweet crude oil from tight-oil formations like the

  2. Oil field management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  3. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  4. Fuel quality issues in the oil heat industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzke, Wai-Lin

    1992-12-01

    The quality of fuel oil plays an essential role in combustion performance and efficient operation of residential heating equipment. With the present concerns by the oil-heat industry of declining fuel-oil quality, a study was initiated to identify the factors that have brought about changes in the quality of distillate fuel. A background of information will be provided to the industry, which is necessary to deal with the problems relating to the fuel. The high needs for servicing heating equipment are usually the result of the poor handling characteristics of the fuel during cold weather, the buildup of dirt and water in storage tanks, and microbial growth. A discussion of how to deal with these problems is presented in this paper. The effectiveness of fuel additives to control these problems of quality is also covered to help users better understand the functions and limitations of chemical treatment. Test data have been collected which measure and compare changes in the properties of fuel using selected additives.

  5. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowland, P.J. Associates )

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 ( OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  6. Advances in heavy oil hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendizabal, O.B. )

    1988-06-01

    The world increase in heavy crudes has forced refiners to develop different processes that upgrade the yields and product properties recovered from these crudes. However, some of the optimized and new processes are not able to handle whole heavy crude oils, due to the high viscosity and corrosion of their long and short residues. The different processes for heavy crudes can be classified in two areas: physical (vg. Liquid Extraction) and chemical processes. The catalytic hydrotreating process, which belongs to this last classification, has demonstrated to be an economical upgrading process for heavy crude oil. This paper describes the development by the Mexican Petroleum Institute of the process to hydrotreat maya heavy crude. The effect of the operating conditions, the catalyst ---- development and the technical - economical analysis are presented. The product properties and yields are compared with the results obtained with light crude oil like isthmus.

  7. Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    logo Return to: Manufacturing Home Page Fuel Oil Facts Oil Price Effect Fuel Switching Actual Fuel Switching Storage Capacity Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing Why Look at Fuel Oil?...

  8. Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Oil Recovery As much as two-thirds of conventional crude oil discovered in U.S. fields remains unproduced, left behind due to the physics of fluid flow. In addition, ...

  9. US Crude oil exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2014 EIA Energy Conference U.S. Crude Oil Exports July 14, 2014 By Lynn D. Westfall U.S. Energy Information Administration U.S. crude oil production has grown by almost 50% since ...

  10. Crude Oil Characteristics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SAE Plan June 29, 2015 Page 1 Crude Oil Characteristics Research Sampling, Analysis and Experiment (SAE) Plan The U.S. is experiencing a renaissance in oil and gas production. The ...

  11. Sound Oil Company

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Ward Oil Co., 24 DOE 81,002 (1994); see also Belcher Oil Co., 15 DOE 81,018 (1987) ... months relief because of flood); Utilities Bd. of Citronelle-Gas, 4 DOE 81,205 (1979) ...

  12. South American oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  13. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore Mohanty

    2012-03-31

    The North Slope of Alaska has large (about 20 billion barrels) deposits of viscous oil in Ugnu, West Sak and Shraeder Bluff reservoirs. These shallow reservoirs overlie existing productive reservoirs such as Kuparuk and Milne Point. The viscosity of the Ugnu reservoir on top of Milne Point varies from 200 cp to 10,000 cp and the depth is about 3300 ft. The same reservoir extends to the west on the top of the Kuparuk River Unit and onto the Beaufort Sea. The depth of the reservoir decreases and the viscosity increases towards the west. Currently, the operators are testing cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) in Ugnu, but oil recovery is expected to be low (< 10%). Improved oil recovery techniques must be developed for these reservoirs. The proximity to the permafrost is an issue for thermal methods; thus nonthermal methods must be considered. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methods for the Ugnu reservoir on the top of Milne Point. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) formulation was developed for a viscous oil (330 cp) where as an alkaline-surfactant formulation was developed for a heavy oil (10,000 cp). These formulations were tested in one-dimensional and quarter five-spot Ugnu sand packs. Micromodel studies were conducted to determine the mechanisms of high viscosity ratio displacements. Laboratory displacements were modeled and transport parameters (such as relative permeability) were determined that can be used in reservoir simulations. Ugnu oil is suitable for chemical flooding because it is biodegraded and contains some organic acids. The acids react with injected alkali to produce soap. This soap helps in lowering interfacial tension between water and oil which in turn helps in the formation of macro and micro emulsions. A lower amount of synthetic surfactant is needed because of the presence of organic acids in the oil. Tertiary ASP flooding is very effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. This chemical formulation

  14. Comparison of growth texture in round Bi2212 and flat Bi2223 wires and its relation to high critical current density development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kametani, F.; Jiang, J.; Matras, M.; Abraimov, D.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2015-02-10

    Why Bi₂Sr₂CaCu₂Ox (Bi2212) allows high critical current density Jc in round wires rather than only in the anisotropic tape form demanded by all other high temperature superconductors is important for future magnet applications. Here we compare the local texture of state-of-the-art Bi2212 and Bi2223 ((Bi,Pb)₂Sr₂Ca₂Cu₃O₁₀), finding that round wire Bi2212 generates a dominant a-axis growth texture that also enforces a local biaxial texture (FWHM <15°) while simultaneously allowing the c-axes of its polycrystals to rotate azimuthally along and about the filament axis so as to generate macroscopically isotropic behavior. By contrast Bi2223 shows only a uniaxial (FWHM <15°) c-axis texture perpendicular to the tape plane without any in-plane texture. Consistent with these observations, a marked, field-increasing, field-decreasing Jc(H) hysteresis characteristic of weak-linked systems appears in Bi2223 but is absent in Bi2212 round wire. Growth-induced texture on cooling from the melt step of the Bi2212 Jc optimization process appears to be the key step in generating this highly desirable microstructure.

  15. Comparison of growth texture in round Bi2212 and flat Bi2223 wires and its relation to high critical current density development

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kametani, F.; Jiang, J.; Matras, M.; Abraimov, D.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2015-02-10

    Why Bi₂Sr₂CaCu₂Ox (Bi2212) allows high critical current density Jc in round wires rather than only in the anisotropic tape form demanded by all other high temperature superconductors is important for future magnet applications. Here we compare the local texture of state-of-the-art Bi2212 and Bi2223 ((Bi,Pb)₂Sr₂Ca₂Cu₃O₁₀), finding that round wire Bi2212 generates a dominant a-axis growth texture that also enforces a local biaxial texture (FWHM <15°) while simultaneously allowing the c-axes of its polycrystals to rotate azimuthally along and about the filament axis so as to generate macroscopically isotropic behavior. By contrast Bi2223 shows only a uniaxial (FWHM <15°) c-axis texturemore » perpendicular to the tape plane without any in-plane texture. Consistent with these observations, a marked, field-increasing, field-decreasing Jc(H) hysteresis characteristic of weak-linked systems appears in Bi2223 but is absent in Bi2212 round wire. Growth-induced texture on cooling from the melt step of the Bi2212 Jc optimization process appears to be the key step in generating this highly desirable microstructure.« less

  16. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  17. Oil-futures markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prast, W.G.; Lax, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    This book on oil futures trading takes a look at a market and its various hedging strategies. Growing interest in trading of commodity futures has spread to petroleum, including crude oil, and key refined products such as gasoline and heating oil. This book describes how the international petroleum trade is structured, examines the working of oil futures markets in the United States and the United Kingdom, and assesses the possible courses of further developments.

  18. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  19. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  20. Sustainable Oils Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    producer and marketer of renewable, environmentally clean, and high-value Camelina-based biodiesel fuel. References: Sustainable Oils Inc.1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  1. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  2. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore » around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  3. Microbial influenced corrosion in cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, R.T.; McFarland, B.L.; Hodgman, R.Z.

    1997-09-01

    Excessive pitting corrosion in the uncoated bottom platings of cargo oil tanks was detected in newbuilt crude oil tankers only 2 to 5 years old, and was diagnosed as microbial influenced corrosion (MIC). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) concentrations reached as high as 100,000 to 10,000,000 per milliliter in the settled water at the bottom of the cargo oil tanks. Biocide treatment to control MIC was studied in the laboratory using microbial consortia isolated from cargo oil tank bottoms. Biocide treatment to control MIC was attempted experimentally, but was found to be impractical onboard tankers. A MIC mitigation strategy, employing an enhanced pitting inspection and repair program combined with the coating of the bottom platings, was developed and implemented for existing crude oil tankers. Considerations for improvement of future newbuild crude oil tankers are also presented.

  4. A technical and economic assessment of petroleum, heavy oil, shale oil and coal liquid refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikonia, J.G.; Shah, B.R.; Ulowetz, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Decreasing availability of conventional crude oil will result in the utilization of alternative raw materials for the production of transportation fuels. Based on currently available processes and as a result of detailed pilot plant studies, the differences in the technical and economic aspects of refining alternative feedstocks of heavy oil, coal liquids and shale oil have indicated that heavy, hydrogen-deficient materials require more complex and costly upgrading techniques. Compared to the base case of Arabian Light crude oil, the Mexican Maya heavy oil is worth about $4.35/B less, the coal liquid about $2.38/B less and the shale oil about $5.98/B less. All of these alternative fuels can be upgraded into high quality transportation fuels.

  5. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  6. Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.; Nilsson, D.; Danielsson, Ö.; Pedersen, H.; Janzén, E.; Forsberg, U.; Bergsten, J.; Rorsman, N.

    2015-12-28

    The creation of a semi insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this investigation, we evaluate the use of a gaseous carbon gas precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer in a HEMT structure. The carbon doped profile, using propane gas, is a two stepped profile with a high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) epitaxial layer closest to the substrate and a lower doped layer (3 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3}) closest to the 2DEG channel. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurement shows a uniform incorporation versus depth, and no memory effect from carbon doping can be seen. The high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) does not influence the surface morphology, and a roughness root-mean-square value of 0.43 nm is obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements show very sharp peaks and no structural degradation can be seen related to the heavy carbon doped layer. HEMTs are fabricated and show an extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V, demonstrating an excellent buffer isolation. The carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane gas is compared to samples using carbon from the trimethylgallium molecule, showing equally low leakage currents, demonstrating the capability of growing highly resistive buffer layers using a gaseous carbon source.

  7. Is there oil after OPEC : Ecuador's Pasaje

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-14

    Since 1973 when Ecuador joined the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, crude oil production increased by nearly half and domestic petroleum consumption has more than tripled. Oil's percent of Gross Domestic Product was just 3% in 1972, peaked at 17.3% in 1974, and has since declined to 11.71% in 1991. In 1992 the national perspective changed and found that OPEC membership was working against, not in favor of, economic growth. This issue addresses Ecuador's status change and its plans for its petroleum and economic future.

  8. Four different shale oils processed into jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Crude shale oils produced by (a) Geokinetics, (b) Occidental, (c) Paraho, and (d) Tosco II processes have each been catalytically hydroprocessed to produce jet fuel fractions. The shale oil hydroprocessing was performed at low, medium and high hydroprocessing severities. Hydroprocessing severity was changed mainly by varying the temperature. Full boiling range (121-300/sup 0/C) jet fuel was produced from the hydroprocessed product of the raw oil distillates boiling below 343/sup 0/C. This paper describes the shale oil properties and hydroprocessing, gives the results of sulfur removal and hydrogenated shale oil distillation, and lists the physical and chemical properties of the jet fuels. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Production of hydrogen from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schora, F. C.; Feldkirchner, H. L.; Janka, J. C.

    1985-12-24

    A process for production of hydrogen from oil shale fines by direct introduction of the oil shale fines into a fluidized bed at temperatures about 1200/sup 0/ to about 2000/sup 0/ F. to obtain rapid heating of the oil shale. The bed is fluidized by upward passage of steam and oxygen, the steam introduced in the weight ratio of about 0.1 to about 10 on the basis of the organic carbon content of the oil shale and the oxygen introduced in less than the stoichiometric quantity for complete combustion of the organic carbonaceous kerogen content of the oil shale. Embodiments are disclosed for heat recovery from the spent shale and heat recovery from the spent shale and product gas wherein the complete process and heat recovery is carried out in a single reaction vessel. The process of this invention provides high conversion of organic carbon component of oil shale and high production of hydrogen from shale fines which when used in combination with a conventional oil shale hydroconversion process results in increased overall process efficiency of greater than 15 percent.

  10. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  11. Combuston method of oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-08-16

    A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

  12. Crystal Growth And Characterization of the Model High-Temperature Superconductor HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xudong; Yu, Guichuan; Cho, Yong-Chan; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Barisic, Neven; Bourges, Philippe; Kaneko, Nobuhisa; Li, Yuan; Lu, Li; Motoyama, Eugene M.; Vajk, Owen P.; Greven, Martin; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL /Jilin U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Saclay /NIST, Wash., D.C.

    2007-03-16

    Since the discovery of high-transition-temperature (T{sub c}) superconductivity in La{sub 2-x}Ba{sub x}CuO{sub 4} in 1986, the study of the lamellar copper oxides has remained at the forefront of condensed matter physics. Apart from their unusually high values of T{sub c}, these materials also exhibit a variety of complex phenomena and phases. This rich behavior is a consequence of the lamellar crystal structures, formed of copper-oxygen sheets separated by charge reservoir layers, and of the strong electron-electron correlations in the copper-oxygen sheets. After two decades of intensive research, which has stimulated many valuable new insights into correlated electron systems in general, there remains a lack of consensus regarding the correct theory for high-T{sub c} superconductivity. The ultimate technological goal of room-temperature superconductivity might only be attained after the development of a deeper understanding of the mercury-based compounds HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}OI{sub 2n+2+{delta}}, which currently exhibit the highest T{sub c}values. One very important issue in this regard is the role of electronic versus chemical and structural inhomogeneities in these materials, and the associated need to separate material-specific properties from those that are essential to superconductivity. Unfortunately, there has been remarkably little scientific work on the mercury-based compounds because sizable crystals have not been available; quantitative measurements of any kind would be invaluable benchmarks for testing the theories of high-T{sub c} superconductivity. The compounds HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}OI{sub 2n+2+{delta}} can be viewed as model systems not only because of their record high-T{sub c} values, but also because of their high-symmetry crystal structures. Of particular interest is the simplest member of this materials family, HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} (Hg1201), which possesses only one copper-oxygen sheet per unit cell (n = 1), as

  13. Evaluating oil quality and monitoring production from heavy oil reservoirs using geochemical methods: Application to the Boscan Field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, R.L.; Noguera, V.H.; Bantz, D.M.; Rodriguez, R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields worldwide contain heavy oil in one or more reservoir units. The low gravity of these oils is most frequently due to biodegradation and/or low maturity. The challenge is to find ways to economically recover this oil. Methods which reduce the operating costs of producing heavy oil add significant value to such projects. Geochemical techniques which use the composition of the reservoir fluids as natural tracers offer cost effective methods to assist with reservoir management. The low viscosity and gravity of heavy oil, combined with frequent high water cuts, low flow rates, and the presence of downhole artificial lift equipment, make many conventional production logging methods difficult to apply. Therefore, monitoring production, especially if the produced oil is commingled from multiple reservoirs, can be difficult. Geochemical methods can be used to identify oil/water contacts, tubing string leaks and to allocate production to individual zones from commingled production. An example of a giant heavy oil field where geochemical methods may be applicable is the Boscan Field in Venezuela. Low maturity oil, averaging 10{degrees} API gravity, is produced from the Eocene Upper and Lower Boscan (Miosa) Sands. Geochemical, stratigraphic and engineering data have helped to better define the controls on oil quality within the field, identified new reservoir compartments and defined unique characteristics of the Upper and Lower Boscan oils. This information can be used to identify existing wells in need of workovers due to mechanical problems and to monitor production from new infill wells.

  14. Shale oil dearsenation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brickman, F.E.; Degnan, T.F.; Weiss, C.S.

    1984-10-29

    This invention relates to processing shale oil and in particular to processing shale oil to reduce the arsenic content. Specifically, the invention relates to treating shale oil by a combination of processes - coking and water washing. Many shale oils produced by conventional retorting processes contain inorganic materials, such as arsenic, which interfere with subsequent refining or catalytic hydroprocessing operations. Examples of these hydroprocessing operations are hydrogenation, denitrogenation, and desulfurization. From an environmental standpoint, removal of such contaminants may be desirable even if the shale oil is to be used directly as a fuel. Hence, it is desirable that contaminants such as arsenic be removed, or reduced to low levels, prior to further processing of the shale oil or prior to its use as a fuel.

  15. Hot Oiling Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-10-22

    One of the most common oil-field treatments is hot oiling to remove paraffin from wells. Even though the practice is common, the thermal effectiveness of the process is not commonly understood. In order for producers to easily understand the thermodynamics of hot oiling, a simple tool is needed for estimating downhole temperatures. Such a tool has been developed that can be distributed as a compiled spreadsheet.

  16. Vegetable oil fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, D.

    1981-04-01

    In this article, the future role of renewable agricultural resources in providing fuel is discussed. it was only during this century that U.S. farmers began to use petroleum as a fuel for tractors as opposed to forage crop as fuel for work animals. Now farmers may again turn to crops as fuel for agricultural production - the possible use of sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil as substitutes for diesel fuel is discussed.

  17. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to $2.97 per gallon. That's down $1.05 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.94 per gallon, down 6.7 cents from last week, and down $1.07

  18. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to $2.91 per gallon. That's down $1.10 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.88 per gallon, down 6.8 cents from last week, and down $1.13

  19. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to $2.84 per gallon. That's down $1.22 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.80 per gallon, down 7.4 cents from last week, and down $1.23

  20. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.1 cents from a week ago to $2.89 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.84 per gallon, down 5.4 cents from last week

  1. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to $3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.01 per gallon, down 3.6 cents from last week, and down $1.01

  2. The Prince William Sound herring fishery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hose, J.E.; Brown, E.; Marty, G.D.; McGurk, M.D.; Norcross, B.L.; Short, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Exxon Valdez oil (EVO) spill of 1989 occurred a few weeks before herring spawned in Prince William Sound (PWS), AK. An estimated 40% to 50% of the egg biomass sustained exposure during early development, and the majority of pelagic larvae were collected within the oil trajectory path. Sublethal effects observed at hatch (morphologic defects and genetic damage) were related to ambient EVO concentrations. Reduced survival rates, decreased growth, genetic damage and histopathological changes were measured in pelagic larvae from oiled areas. However, because the 1989 year class is one of the smallest cohorts now in PWS, population effects are difficult to assess. From 1990 to 1992, population abundance and reproductive potential remained high. When the 1989 year class was fully recruited (1993--1994), the spawning population decreased by 50% to 75% of the expected abundance. Many of the surviving fish were infected with viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) and failed to spawn. Proposed causes for the VHS epizootic include previous oil exposure, density-dependent effects following the 1989 fishery closure, and reduced food availability from 1990 to 1994.

  3. High-Dose Estrogen and Clinical Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Induce Growth Arrest, p21, and p53 in Primate Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Jay W.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2005-06-09

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer affecting women. Hormone-based therapies are variably successful in treating ovarian cancer, but the reasoning behind these therapies is paradoxical. Clinical reagents such as tamoxifen are considered to inhibit or reverse tumor growth by competitive inhibition of the estrogen receptor (ER); however high dose estrogen is as clinically effective as tamoxifen, and it is unlikely that estrogen is acting by blocking ER activity; however, it may be activating a unique function of the ER that is nonmitogenic. For poorly defined reasons, 90% of varian cancers derive from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). In vivo the ER-positive OSE is exposed to high estrogen levels, reaching micromolar concentrations in dominant ovarian follicles. Using cultured OSE cells in vitro, we show that these levels of estradiol (1 ug/ml; {approx}3um) block the actions of serum growth factors, activate the G1 phase retinoblastoma AQ:A checkpoint, and induce p21, an inhibitor of kinases that normally inactivate the retinoblastoma checkpoint. We also show that estradiol increases p53 levels, which may contribute to p21 induction. Supporting the hypothesis that clinical selective ER modulators activate this novel ER function, we find that micromolar doses of tamoxifen and the ''pure antiestrogen'' ICI 182,780 elicit the same effects as estradiol. We propose that, in the context of proliferation, these data clarify some paradoxical aspects of hormone-based therapy and suggest that fuller understanding of normal ER function is necessary to improve therapeutic strategies that target the ER. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 0000-0000, 2005)

  4. Reactive plasma upgrade of squalane - a heavy oil simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.; Detering, B.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-01

    U.S. light crude oil production has steadily declined over the last two decades. However, huge known heavy oil deposits in the North American continent remain largely untapped. In the past 10 years, the API gravity of crude oils has been decreasing by about 0.17% per year, and the sulfur content has been increasing by about 0.027% per year. As the API gravity of crude oil decreases, there will be an urgent need for economically viable new technologies to upgrade the heavy oil to a high API gravity feed stock for the refineries. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is investigating an innovative plasma process to upgrade heavy oil and refinery residuum. This paper will present some of the results and the implications of this technology for heavy oil upgrade and conversion.

  5. Reactive plasma upgrade of squalane - a heavy oil simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.; Detering, B.A.

    1995-07-01

    U.S. light crude oil production has steadily declined over the last two decades. However, huge known heavy oil deposits in the North American continent remain largely untapped. In the past 10 years, the API gravity of crude oils has been decreasing by about 0.17% per year, and the sulfur content has been increasing by about 0.027% per year. As the API gravity of crude oil decreases, there will be an urgent need for economically viable new technologies to ungrade the heavy oil to a high API gravity feed stock for the refineries. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is investigating an innovative plasma process to upgrade heavy oil and refinery residuum. This paper will present some of the results and the implications of this technology for heavy oil upgrade and conversion.

  6. Oil shale as an energy source in Israel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fainberg, V.; Hetsroni, G. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel)

    1996-01-01

    Reserves, characteristics, energetics, chemistry, and technology of Israeli oil shales are described. Oil shale is the only source of energy and the only organic natural resource in Israel. Its reserves of about 12 billion tons will be enough to meet Israel`s requirements for about 80 years. The heating value of the oil shale is 1,150 kcal/kg, oil yield is 6%, and sulfur content of the oil is 5--7%. A method of oil shale processing, providing exhaustive utilization of its energy and chemical potential, developed in the Technion, is described. The principal feature of the method is a two-stage pyrolysis of the oil shale. As a result, gas and aromatic liquids are obtained. The gas may be used for energy production in a high-efficiency power unit, or as a source for chemical synthesis. The liquid products can be an excellent source for production of chemicals.

  7. Investigations of the dynamics and growth of insulator films by high resolution helium atom scattering. Final report, May 1, 1985--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safron, S.A.; Skofronick, J.G.

    1997-07-01

    Over the twelve years of this grant from the U.S. Department of Energy, DE-FG05-85ER45208, the over-reaching aims of this work have been to explore and to attempt to understand the fundamental physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces. The instrument we have employed m in this work is high-resolution helium atom scattering (HAS) which we have become even more convinced is an exceptionally powerful and useful tool for surface science. One can follow the evolution of the development and progress of the experiments that we have carried out by the evolution of the proposal titles for each of the four three-year periods. At first, m in 1985-1988, the main objective of this grant was to construct the HAS instrument so that we could begin work on the surface vibrational dynamics of crystalline materials; the title was {open_quotes}Helium Atom-Surface Scattering Apparatus for Studies of Crystalline Surface Dynamics{close_quotes}. Then, as we became more interested m in the growth of films and interfaces the title m in 1988-1991 became {open_quotes}Helium Atom Surface Spectroscopy: Surface Lattice Dynamics of Insulators, Metal and Metal Overlayers{close_quotes}. In 1991-1994, we headed even more m in this direction, and also recognized that we should focus more on insulator materials as very few techniques other than helium atom scattering could be applied to insulators without causing surface damage. Thus, the proposal title became {open_quotes}Helium Atom-Surface Scattering: Surface Dynamics of Insulators, Overlayers and Crystal Growth{close_quotes}. M in the final period of this grant the title ended up {open_quotes}Investigations of the Dynamics and Growth of Insulator Films by High Resolution Helium Atom Scattering{close_quotes} m in 1994-1997. The list of accomplishments briefly discussed in this report are: tests of the shell model; multiphoton scattering; physisorbed monolayer films; other surface phase transitions; and surface magnetic effects.

  8. Running into an out of oil: Scenarios of global oil use and resource depletion to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2002-07-23

    Is a transition from conventional oil imminent? Is it likely to lock the world into a high-carbon energy future? This report attempts to shed some light on these questions.

  9. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    see even lower natural gas and heating oil bills this winter than previously expected ... said the average household heating with oil will experience a 41% drop in heating oil ...

  10. Wind Turbine Gearbox Oil Filtration and Condition Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-10-25

    This is an invited presentation for a pre-conference workshop, titled advances and opportunities in lubrication: wind turbine, at the 2015 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Tribology Frontiers Conference held in Denver, CO. It gives a brief overview of wind turbine gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring by highlighting typical industry practices and challenges. The presentation starts with an introduction by covering recent growth of global wind industry, reliability challenges, benefits of oil filtration and condition monitoring, and financial incentives to conduct wind operation and maintenance research, which includes gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring work presented herein. Then, the presentation moves on to oil filtration by stressing the benefits of filtration, discussing typical main- and offline-loop practices, highlighting important factors considered when specifying a filtration system, and illustrating real-world application challenges through a cold-start example. In the next section on oil condition monitoring, a discussion on oil sample analysis, oil debris monitoring, oil cleanliness measurements and filter analysis is given based on testing results mostly obtained by and at NREL, and by pointing out a few challenges with oil sample analysis. The presentation concludes with a brief touch on future research and development (R and D) opportunities. It is hoping that the information presented can inform the STLE community to start or redirect their R and D work to help the wind industry advance.

  11. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2001 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  12. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  13. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  14. Upgrading heavy gas oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, S.; Reese, D.D.

    1986-05-20

    A method is described of neutralizing the organic acidity in heavy gas oils to produce a neutralization number less than 1.0 whereby they are rendered suitable as lube oil feed stocks which consists essentially of treating the heavy gas oils with a neutralizing amount of monoethanolamine to form an amine salt with the organic acids and then heating the thus-neutralized heavy gas oil at a temperature at least about 25/sup 0/F greater than the boiling point of water and for a time sufficient to convert the amine salts to amides.

  15. Fire flood recovery process effects upon heavy oil properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichert, C.; Fuhr, B.; Sawatzky, H.; Lefleur, R.; Verkoczy, B.; Soveran, D.; Jha, K.

    1988-06-01

    The steady decline in proven conventional oil deposits world wide has increased the emphasis on the use of heavy oil and bitumen. Most of the heavy oil and oil sand deposits share the common problem of providing very little or no primary production. They require a reduction in viscosity of the oil to make it flow. The oil in place and the reservoir characteristics are generally studied carefully to determine the design of the recovery process most applicable to the deposit and to evaluate its potential. Many of these same characteristics are also used to evaluate the oil with respect to upgrading, refining and final usage in the form of products. A variety of processes have been developed most of which utilize heat either in the form of steam or combustion to mobolize the oil in the reservoir. These processes vary considerably from rather mild conditions for steam stimulation to quite severe for combustion recovery. Figure 1 shows a typical schematic of an insitu combustion process. Many variations of forward combustion are used in the field to produce oil. Depending upon the severity of the recovery process in the recovered oil may be similar to the oil in the deposit or may be highly modified (oxidized, polymerized or upgraded). A memorandum of Understanding was signed by the Governments of the United States of America, Canada and the Provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta to study different aspects of the problems related to the recovery of oil from heavy oil and sand deposits. One phase of the study is to determine the effects of different methods of in-situ recovery on the composition of recovered bitumen and heavy oils. This paper describes the findings from a study of fireflood process in a heavy oil deposit located in the Cummings formation of the Eyehill Field in Saskatchewan, Canada.

  16. Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah: Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana; Rebecca Holt 29 ENERGY...

  17. STEO September 2012 - oil production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA analyst Sam Gorgen explains: "Higher oil supplies, especially from North Dakota and Texas, boosted U.S. oil production. The number of on-shore drilling rigs targeting oil ...

  18. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  19. Influence of uplift on oil migration: Tulare heavy oil accumulations, west side San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, E.R.; Madrid, V.M.

    1986-07-01

    Shallow (2000 ft), heavy (11/sup 0/-14/sup 0/ API) oil accumulations within the Pleistocene, nonmarine, Tulare sands along the west side of the San Joaquin Valley represent major thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR) objectives. These low-pressure reservoirs display a variety of petrophysical characteristics indicating a complex history of oil migration resulting from uplift of the Tulare reservoirs above the regional ground-water table (RGT). In the Cymric-McKittrick area, it is possible to correlate Tulare outcrops with subsurface log data and determine the relationship between oil saturation, structural elevation, and proximity to the present RGT. The observed relationship is that economic oil saturations (S/sub 0/ = 30-75%) occur in structural lows and grade updip to reduced oil saturations (S/sub 0/ = 0-30%). The equivalent sands above the RGT exhibit formation density log-compensated neutron log (FDC/CNL) cross-over. Basinward, as the entire Tulare reservoir dips below the RGT, it exhibits characteristics of conventional reservoirs, such as high water saturations in structural lows, grading upward to increased oil saturations in structural highs. The authors present the following model to explain these observations. (1) Oil migrated into Tulare sands and originally filled all stratigraphic/structural traps below the paleo-RGT. (2) Subsequent uplift of the Tulare reservoirs above the paleo-RGT resulted in gravity drainage of original accumulations into structural lows. (3) Washing of the oils by repeated ground-water fluctuations along with biodegradation resulted in the essentially immobile Tulare heavy oil accumulations observed today.

  20. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  1. Hefty tests buoy Philippine oil sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-13

    This paper reports that Alcorn International Inc., Houston, has disclosed a test of another hefty oil flow off Philippines. Alcorn last month completed its third high flowing delineation well in the West Linapacan area off Palawan Island. Development of West Linapacan field will help boost lagging Philippines oil production, which fell 31% in 1991 from 1990 levels. Philippines Office of Energy Affairs (OEA) also outlined other aspects of the country's oil and gas activity in 1991. Recent drilling successes have redirected the country's focus north to the West Linapacan area from older Northwest Palawan oil fields. Meantime, two geophysical survey and exploration contracts (GSECs) were awarded in 1991, and two service contracts (SCs) were relinquished during the year. Several seismic program were completed last year, and in agreement between Australia and Philippines will yield added seismic data during the next 3 years.

  2. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  3. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-05-01

    This analysis is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the US. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, namely unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity are investigated for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian stock scarcity and Malthusian flow scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce during the 1980s than the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has take place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent that resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. To see whether this is a relevant concern, subsequent to the examination of changing trends in resource scarcity, an objective effort is made to identify a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy scarcity and economic growth. Relying on cointegration techniques, only for crude oil is there a suggestion that resource scarcity has affected economic growth in the US over the period 1889--1992. 56 refs.

  4. Oil and gas outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 non-OECD consumption growth non-OECD GDP growth* Prices and economic growth are important, but policy, preferences, and technology may have a bigger...

  5. Geochemistry and habitat of oils in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novelli, L.; Mattavelli, L.

    1988-02-01

    Most of the onshore and offshore oil occurrences found in Italy have been systematically analyzed by different techniques, i.e., capillary gas chromatography, biological markers, and stable isotopes composition. On the basis of the above analyses, ten different groups of oil have been identified and geographically located. Subsequently, the influence of the various geological settings on generation and migration of these different groups of oils was investigated and is discussed here. In a foredeep regime, the remarkably fast heating rates, due to the rapid burial during late Tertiary, caused a rapid generation of oil mainly in the Triassic carbonate source rocks. Such generation, combined with the high over-burden pressure and a contemporaneous development of an intense tectonic compression, resulted in the expulsion of immature, heavy oils. Examples of this are evident in the central Adriatic Sea, southern Italy, and southeastern Sicily. Due to its complex geological and tectonic history, the Alpine-Apennine chain behaved differently with regard to oil generation and migration in different areas. In fact, the high temperatures reached by the Mesozoic source rocks underneath a stack of allochthonous thrust sheets and the insulating thermal blanket effect exerted by the same sheets on other younger source rocks above gave rise to generally light oils. Furthermore, in this unique geological setting, the most external thrust sheets locally acted as reservoirs of the foredeep regime. Foreland sequences acted as both reservoirs of the foredeep oils and as generative kitchens of liquid hydrocarbons if suitable source rocks were present and adequate burial was reached.

  6. Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R; Bestor, Michael A; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

  7. Refinery Upgrading of Hydropyrolysis Oil From Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Michael; Marker, Terry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Wangerow, Jim; Swanson, Dan; McLeod, Celeste; Del Paggio, Alan; Urade, Vikrant; Rao, Madhusudhan; Narasimhan, Laxmi; Gephart, John; Starr, Jack; Hahn, John; Stover, Daniel; Parrish, Martin; Maxey, Carl; Shonnard, David; Handler, Robert; Fan, Jiquig

    2015-08-31

    hydropyrolysis oils had low acidity and caused almost no corrosion in comparison to pyrolysis oils, which had high acidity and caused significant levels of corrosion.

  8. Process for demetallizing and desulfurizing heavy crude oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.E.; Hogan, R.J.; Combs, D.M.; Kukes, S.G.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes a process for producing a synthetic crude oil of improved properties by desulfurizing, denitrogenating and demetallizing a heavy crude oil feed stock. The feed stock being a crude oil having an average boiling point at least as high as 500{degrees} F., an API gravity at 60{degrees} F. of less than 20, and containing at least about 1 weight percent sulfur.

  9. Spreading of crude petroleum in brash ice; Effects of oil`s physical properties and water current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayed, M.; Kotlyar, L.S.; Sparks, B.D.

    1994-12-31

    Experiments were conducted in a refrigerated, circulating current flume to examine crude oil spreading in brash ice. Amauligak, Hibernia and Norman Wells crudes were tested. Measurements of the physical properties of the oils were also conducted, including: surface and interfacial tensions as well as viscosities. Spreading coefficients were calculated from measured surface and interfacial tensions. Results were obtained for original and weathered oils. For the spreading tests, spill volumes up to 3 liters and water currents up to 0.55 m/s were used. Tests were done using both fresh water ice and saline ice. Slick dimensions were measured, and modes of oil spreading were observed. Slick dimensions depended on oil type, but were not influenced by water current. Oils of high spreading coefficient and low viscosity spread over larger areas than those with low spreading coefficient and high viscosity.

  10. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. crude oil production expected to hit four-decade high during 2015 U.S. crude oil production over the next two years is expected to grow to its highest level since the early ...

  11. Oil, gas tanker industry responding to demand, contract changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-03-02

    Steady if slower growth in demand for crude oil and natural gas, low levels of scrapping, and a moderate newbuilding pace bode well for the world`s petroleum and natural-gas shipping industries. At year-end 1997, several studies of worldwide demand patterns and shipping fleets expressed short and medium-term optimism for seaborne oil and gas trade and fleet growth. The paper discusses steady demand and shifting patterns, the aging fleet, the slowing products traffic, the world`s fleet, gas carriers, LPG demand, and LPG vessels.

  12. China shows increasing interest in heavy oil and oil sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    China and Canadian and US groups are cooperating in several areas to develop the heavy oil, asphalt, and oil sand deposits of China. The agreements dealing with exploration and upgrading are briefly described. The majority of the paper describes the occurrences of heavy oil, asphalt, and oil sands in China. 1 figure.

  13. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and wettability research program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.P.; Bala, G.A.; Duvall, M.L.

    1991-07-01

    This report covers research results for the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and wettability research program conducted by EG G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. The wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC), to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems. Eight facultatively anaerobic surfactant producing isolates able to function in the reservoir conditions of the Minnelusa A Sands of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming were isolated from naturally occurring oil-laden environments. Isolates were characterized according to morphology, thermostability, halotolerance, growth substrates, affinity to crude oil/brine interfaces, degradative effects on crude oils, and biochemical profiles. Research at the INEL has focused on the elucidation of microbial mechanisms by which crude oil may be recovered from a reservoir and the chemical and physical properties of the reservoir that may impact the effectiveness of MEOR. Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 (ATCC 39307) has been used as a benchmark organism to quantify MEOR of medium weight crude oils (17.5 to 38.1{degrees}API) the capacity for oil recovery of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 utilizing a sucrose-based nutrient has been elucidated using Berea sandstone cores. Spacial distribution of cells after microbial flooding has been analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Also the effect of microbial surfactants on the interfacial tensions (IFT) of aqueous/crude oil systems has been measured. 87 refs., 60 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merritt, E. C. Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-15

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varying two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. We also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.

  15. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Merritt, E. C.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-24

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varyingmore » two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. In addition, we also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.« less

  16. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowland, P.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA``) and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy`s Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry`s behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  17. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  18. Geochemistry and habitat of oils in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novelli, L.; Mattavelli, L.

    1988-01-01

    Most of the onshore and offshore oil occurrences found in Italy have been systematically analyzed by different techniques, i.e., capillary gas chromatography, biological markers, and stable isotopes composition. On the basis of the above analyses, ten different groups of oil have been identified and geographically located. Subsequently, the influence of the various geological settings on generation and migration of these different groups of oils was investigated and is discussed here. Due to its complex geological and tectonic history, the Alpine-Apennine chain behaved differently with regard to oil generation and migration in different areas. In fact, the high temperatures reached by the Mesozoic source rocks underneath a stack of allochthonous thrust sheets and the insulting thermal blanket effect exerted by the same sheets on other younger source rocks above gave rise to generally light oils. Furthermore, in this unique geological setting, the most external thrust sheets locally acted as reservoirs of the foredeep regime. Foreland sequences acted as both reservoirs of the foredeep oils and as generative kitchens of liquid hydrocarbons if suitable source rocks were present and adequate burial was reached.

  19. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1970. Almost all of the growth in U.S. crude oil production over the last few years has been from drilling in tight shale formations, particularly those in Texas and North Dakota

  20. Oil & Natural Gas Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IN SITU THERMAL PROCESSING OF OIL SHALESANDS Authors: Michal Hradisky and Philip J. Smith DOE Award No.: DE-FE0001243 Reporting Period: October 1, 2009 - September 30, 2011 ...

  1. oil1987.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Average Fuel OilKerosene Consumption Expenditures Below Poverty Line 100 Percent 2.0 1.4 ... for 1987. (3) Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  2. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20.86 20.67 20.47 20.24 20.32 19.57 See footnotes at end of table. 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  3. Oil Market Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    Based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) contacts and trade press reports, overall U.S. and global oil supplies appear to have been minimally impacted by yesterday's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

  4. Hydroprocessing hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, H.D.; Borgens, P.B.

    1990-07-10

    This patent describes a catalytic hydroprocess of a hydrocarbon oil containing nitrogen or sulfur. It comprises: contacting a catalytic composition with the hydrocarbon oil under hydroprocessing conditions so as to produce a product hydrocarbon oil containing less nitrogen or sulfur than the hydrocarbon oil, the catalytic composition prepared by the method comprising the steps of impregnating porous refractory support particles with an aqueous impregnating solution comprising one or more Group VIB metal components, one or more phosphorus components and citric acid, the citric acid in a mole ratio to the Group VIB metal components calculated as the Group VIB metal trioxide of less than 1 to 1. The solution has a pH less than 1.0 and calcining the impregnated support particles to produce a catalytic composition containing a Group VIB metal component and a phosphorous component on the porous refractory oxide support.

  5. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  6. Oil shale research in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianqiu, W.; Jialin, Q. (Beijing Graduate School, Petroleum Univ., Beijing (CN))

    1989-01-01

    There have been continued efforts and new emergence in oil shale research in Chine since 1980. In this paper, the studies carried out in universities, academic, research and industrial laboratories in recent years are summarized. The research areas cover the chemical structure of kerogen; thermal behavior of oil shale; drying, pyrolysis and combustion of oil shale; shale oil upgrading; chemical utilization of oil shale; retorting waste water treatment and economic assessment.

  7. Utilization of Estonian oil shale at power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ots, A. [Tallin Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Department

    1996-12-31

    Estonian oil shale belongs to the carbonate class and is characterized as a solid fuel with very high mineral matter content (60--70% in dry mass), moderate moisture content (9--12%) and low heating value (LHV 8--10 MJ/kg). Estonian oil shale deposits lie in layers interlacing mineral stratas. The main constituent in mineral stratas is limestone. Organic matter is joined with sandy-clay minerals in shale layers. Estonian oil shale at power plants with total capacity of 3060 MW{sub e} is utilized in pulverized form. Oil shale utilization as fuel, with high calcium oxide and alkali metal content, at power plants is connected with intensive fouling, high temperature corrosion and wear of steam boiler`s heat transfer surfaces. Utilization of Estonian oil shale is also associated with ash residue use in national economy and as absorbent for flue gas desulfurization system.

  8. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas Efficient recovery of our nation's fossil fuel resources in an environmentally safe manner requires the development and application of new technologies that address the unique nature and challenging locations of many of our remaining oil and natural gas accumulations. The National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) research projects are designed to help catalyze the development of these new technologies, provide objective data to help quantify the environmental and safety risks

  9. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Crude Oil Domestic Production Refinery Crude Oil Inputs Refinery Gross Inputs Refinery Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refinery Percent Operable Utilization Net Inputs of Motor Gasoline Blending Components Net Inputs of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of GTAB Blending Components Net Inputs of All Other Blending Components Net Inputs of Fuel Ethanol Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline (Excl.

  10. Numerical simulations of epitaxial growth process in MOVPE reactor as a tool for design of modern semiconductors for high power electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skibinski, Jakub; Wejrzanowski, Tomasz; Caban, Piotr; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J.

    2014-10-06

    In the present study numerical simulations of epitaxial growth of gallium nitride in Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy reactor AIX-200/4RF-S is addressed. Epitaxial growth means crystal growth that progresses while inheriting the laminar structure and the orientation of substrate crystals. One of the technological problems is to obtain homogeneous growth rate over the main deposit area. Since there are many agents influencing reaction on crystal area such as temperature, pressure, gas flow or reactor geometry, it is difficult to design optimal process. According to the fact that it's impossible to determine experimentally the exact distribution of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor during crystal growth, modeling is the only solution to understand the process precisely. Numerical simulations allow to understand the epitaxial process by calculation of heat and mass transfer distribution during growth of gallium nitride. Including chemical reactions in numerical model allows to calculate the growth rate of the substrate and estimate the optimal process conditions for obtaining the most homogeneous product.

  11. Fact #632: July 19, 2010 The Costs of Oil Dependence | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: July 19, 2010 The Costs of Oil Dependence Fact #632: July 19, 2010 The Costs of Oil Dependence The United States has long recognized the problem of oil dependence and the economic problems that arise from it. According to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers Greene and Hopson, oil dependence is a combination of four factors: (1) a noncompetitive world oil market strongly influenced by the OPEC cartel, (2) high levels of U.S. imports, (3) the importance of oil to the U.S. economy,

  12. Oil geochemistry study; Blocks III and IV Bachaquedro Field, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, B.A.; Villarroel, H.G. de; Rondon, L.

    1996-08-01

    Blocks III and IV Bachaquero, Field, located on the east side of Lake Maracaibo, comprise an area of 40 square kilometers. In 1956 the discovery well penetrated oil saturated sands in a south dipping homoclinal structure. In 1958 production reached a maximum of 245,000 barrels per day of moderate gravity oil from three Miocene age Lagunillas Formation sands, designated as L, M, and N. The Bachaquero Field has experienced production problems including high gas-oil ratios from M and N sands to the north, high water cuts in all three sands to the south, and low production rates in the southeast. In addition, the vertical and lateral continuity of the oil pools are unknown. High resolution gas chromatography and analysis of biological markers was employed in order to resolve the continuity of the oil pools, determine genetic origin of the oils, and shed light on erratic production. Oil in the L sands are vertically discontinuous from oil in the M+N sands. The two oil pools appear laterally continuous within the study area, indicating absence of fault barriers. Well VLD 311, open to both L and M sands, produces a mix of oils, but with a strong contribution from the M sand. Bachaquero Field reservoirs were charged with oil from two different facies of the Upper Cretaceous La Luna or perhaps from La Luna and Colon source rocks as the stratigraphically younger L sands contain less mature oil with a stronger terrigenous imprint than oil the M and N sands.

  13. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henning, Carl D.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  14. Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Annual report, September 28, 1995--September 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemeyer, B.L.

    1997-09-01

    The digital fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economic to develop using verticle wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional verticle wells while maintaining verticle communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three verticle wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  15. Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Quarterly report, Apr 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-08-31

    This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a prograding turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically-fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angle well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. A high-angle well will be drilled in the fan-margin portion of a slope-basin clastic reservoir and will be completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. Geologic modeling, reservoir characterization, and fine-grid reservoir simulation will be used to select the well location and orientation. Design parameters for the hydraulic-fracture treatments will be determined, in part, by fracturing an existing test well. Fracture azimuth will be predicted by passive seismic monitoring of a fracture-stimulation treatment in the test well using logging tools in an offset well. The long radius, near-horizontal well has been drilled and completion operations are in progress. Upon initial review of log data, two hydraulic fracture treatments were planned. However, the probability of the lower frac growing into thick sands previously swept by waterflood has called for additional information to be obtained prior to proceeding with hydraulic fracture treatments. Should permeabilities prove to be as favorable as some data indicate, produced water volumes could be excessively high. Prior to pumping the first frac, the well will be perforated and produced from lower pay intervals. These perfs will not impact future frac work. Rate data and pressure transient analysis will dictate the need for the lower frac.

  16. Application of oil gas-chromatography in reservoir compartmentalization in a mature Venezuelan oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munoz, N.G.; Mompart, L.; Talukdar, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Gas chromatographic oil {open_quotes}fingerprinting{close_quotes} was successfully applied in a multidisciplinary production geology project by Maraven, S.A. to define the extent of vertical and lateral continuity of Eocene and Miocene sandstone reservoirs in the highly faulted Bloque I field, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Seventy-five non-biodegraded oils (20{degrees}-37.4{degrees} API) were analyzed with gas chromatography. Fifty were produced from the Eocene Misoa C-4, C-5, C-6 or C-7 horizons, fifteen from the Miocene basal La Rosa and ten from multizone completions. Gas chromatographic and terpane and sterane biomarker data show that all of the oils are genetically related. They were expelled from a type II, Upper Cretaceous marine La Luna source rock at about 0.80-0.90% R{sub o} maturity. Alteration in the reservoir by gas stripping with or without subsequent light hydrocarbons mixing was observed in some oils. Detailed chromatographic comparisons among the oils shown by star plots and cluster analysis utilizing several naphthenic and aromatic peak height ratios, resulted in oil pool groupings. This led to finding previously unknown lateral and vertical reservoir communication and also helped in checking and updating the scaling character of faults. In the commingled oils, percentages of each contributing zone in the mixture were also determined giving Maraven engineers a proven, rapid and inexpensive tool for production allocation and reservoir management The oil pool compartmentalization defined by the geochemical fingerprinting is in very good agreement with the sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the reservoirs and helped evaluate the influence of structure in oil migration and trapping.

  17. Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources The United States has significant natural gas and oil reserves. But many of these resources are increasingly harder to ...

  18. Heating Oil Reserve History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Oil Reserve History Heating Oil Reserve History Creation of an emergency reserve of heating oil was directed by President Clinton on July 10, 2000, when he directed ...

  19. Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources The United States has significant natural gas and oil reserves. But many of these resources are increasingly harder to...

  20. Finding Hidden Oil and Gas Reserves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Finding Hidden Oil and Gas Reserves Finding Hidden Oil and Gas Reserves Key Challenges: Seismic imaging methods, vital in our continuing search for deep offshore oil and gas...

  1. United Oil Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Oil Company Place: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Product: Vegetable-Oil producer Biodiesel producer based in Pittsburgh, PA...

  2. Microsoft Word - Heating Oil Season.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4-2015 Heating Oil Season Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Trigger Mechanism (Cents per Gallon, Except Where Noted) Week Residential Heating Oil Price Average Brent Spot Price ...

  3. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  4. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  5. International Oil and Gas Board International Oil and Gas Board...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Petroleum Company Syrian Petroleum Company Damascus Syria Syria http www spc sy com en production activities1 en php Yemen Ministry of Oil and Minerals Yemen Ministry of Oil and...

  6. Enhanced Oil Recovery to Fuel Future Oil Demands | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Oil Recovery to Fuel Future Oil Demands Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) ...

  7. History of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The history of oil shale in the United States since the early 1900's is detailed. Research on western oil shale probably began with the work of Robert Catlin in 1915. During the next 15 years there was considerable interest in the oil shales, and oil shale claims were located, and a few recovery plants were erected in Colorado, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and Montana. Little shale soil was produced, however, and the major oil companies showed little interest in producing shale oil. The early boom in shale oil saw less than 15 plants produce a total of less than 15,000 barrels of shale oil, all but about 500 barrels of which was produced by the Catlin Operation in Nevada and by the US Bureau of Mines Rulison, Colorado operation. Between 1930 and 1944 plentiful petroleum supplies at reasonable prices prevent any significant interest in shale oil, but oil shortages during World War II caused a resurgence of interest in oil shale. Between 1940 and 1969, the first large-scale mining and retorting operations in soil shale, and the first attempts at true in situ recovery of shale oil began. Only 75,000 barrels of shale oil were produced, but major advancements were made in developing mine designs and technology, and in retort design and technology. The oil embargo of 1973 together with a new offering of oil shale leases by the Government in 1974 resulted in the most concentrated efforts for shale oil production to date. These efforts and the future prospects for shale oil as an energy source in the US are discussed.

  8. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  9. Innovative filter polishes oil refinery wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, J.; Finkler, M.

    1982-07-01

    Describes how, after extensive testing of 4 different treatment techniques, a Hydro Clear rapid sand filter was installed at the Sohio oil refinery in Toledo, Ohio. This filtration system has proven to be more cost-effective than conventional approaches. The system handles the refinery's wastewater flow of 10.3 mgd. With the aid of the polishing filter, readily meets the NPDES permit limitations. The Toledo refinery is a highly integrated petroleum processing complex. It processes 127,000 barrels per day of crude oil, including 40,000 barrels per day of sour crude. Tables give dissolved air flotation performance data; biological system performance data; filter performance data; and refinery waste treatment unit compared with NPDES-BPT limitations. Diagram shows the Sohio refinery wastewater treatment facility. Through a separate backwash treatment system complete control is brought to the suspended solids in the effluent which also tends to control chemical oxygen demand and oil/grease levels.

  10. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  11. Too early to tell on $100 oil

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Confidential Presentation to: April 7, 2008 Middle East oil demand and Lehman Brothers oil price outlook Adam Robinson Middle East oil demand u Three pillars of Middle East oil ...

  12. Oil and Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    RD&D Leases in the United States Oil Shale RD&D Leases in the United States This paper describes the original plans, progress and accomplishments, and future plans for nine oil shale research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects on six existing RD&D leases awarded in 2006 and 2007 by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to Shell, Chevron, EGL (now AMSO), and OSEC (now Enefit American, respectively); as well as three pending

  13. Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance Ramn Espinasa, Ph.D. Lead Specialist July 2014 ... non-commercial purposes. 4 United States Oil Products Balance 5 Energy Matrix - USA 6 ...

  14. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming R. Evans, S. Czernik, R. French, M. Ratcliff National ... GAS 7 BIOMASS BIO-OIL CHAR For reactor or export Gas recycle For fluidization or export ...

  15. Assessment of heavy oil conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleim, W.T.K.

    1983-08-01

    Removal of benzene insoluble asphaltene components greatly facilitates and improves the subsequent upgrading of residual oils, the desulfurization in particular. For the upgrading of Venezualean oils, the Aurobon process is still the only feasible solution.

  16. STEO December 2012 - oil production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rise in 2012 U.S. oil production largest since 1859, output in 2013 seen topping 7 million bpd U.S. crude oil production is now expected to rise by about 760,000 barrels per day in ...

  17. Research Portfolio Report Unconventional Oil & Gas Resources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unconventional Oil & Gas Resources: Subsurface Geology and Engineering DOENETL-20151691 ... Research Portfolio Report: Unconventional Oil & Gas Resources Executive Summary S ...

  18. Nineteenth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of maturation on hydrocarbon recoveries from Canadian oil shale deposits; Dust and pressure generated during commercial oil shale mine blasting: Part II; The petrosix project in Brazil - An update; Pathway of some trace elements during fluidized-bed combustion of Israeli Oil Shale; and Decommissioning of the U.S. Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility.

  19. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Maps of states participating in Winter Fuels Survey Residential propane PADD map Residential heating oil PADD map

  20. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Extensive chemical and physical characterization performed on emissions from normal and high emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles to evaluate relative contributions of fuel and lubricating oil on tailpipe emissions.

  1. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bickman, John W. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

    2010-09-01

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  2. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickman, John W.

    2010-08-04

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  3. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Residential heating oil prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices available The average retail price for home heating oil is $2.41 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region currently average $2.35 per gallon. This is Marcela Rourk with EIA, in Washington.

  5. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  6. Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip H. Henna

    2008-08-18

    Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric materials, which has caused a heightened awareness of renewable alternatives for polymeric feedstocks. Cellulose, starch, proteins and natural oils have all been examined as possible polymeric feedstocks. Natural oils are commercially available on a large scale and are relatively cheap. It is projected that the U.S. alone will produce 21 billion pounds of soybean oil in the period 2008/2009. Natural oils also have the advantages of inherent biodegradability, low toxicity, high purity and ready availability. Most natural oils possess a triglyceride structure as shown in Figure 1. Most natural oils have a unique distribution of fatty acid side chains, along with varying degrees of unsaturation per triglyceride. Common fatty acid side chains in naturally occurring oils are palmitic acid (C16:0), a 16 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; stearic acid (C18:0), an 18 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; oleic acid (C18:1), an 18 carbon fatty acid with one double bond; linoleic acid (C18:2), an 18 carbon fatty acid with two double bonds; and linolenic acid (C18:3), an 18 carbon fatty acid with three double bonds. Of course, there are other fatty acids with varying degrees of unsaturation, but their abundance is usually minimal. All of the unsaturated fatty acids mentioned have naturally occurring cis double bonds, which is common for most unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the afore mentioned fatty acids have the first double bond at the position of carbon 9 (C9), followed by carbon 12 (C12), if there are two degrees of unsaturation, then at carbon 15 (C15), if

  7. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  8. Dying for oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, A.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the fight and execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa, the Ogoni leader who defended his people`s land on the Niger delta against oil development encouraged by the government and persued by the Royal/Dutch Shell Co. Political reprocussions and heightened vigilance of environmental activists are discussed at length.

  9. Salinity, temperature, oil composition, and oil recovery by waterflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, G.Q.; Morrow, N.R.

    1997-11-01

    The effect of aging and displacement temperatures and brine and oil composition on wettability and the recovery of crude oil by spontaneous imbibition and waterflooding has been investigated. This study is based on displacement tests in Berea sandstone with three crude oils and three reservoir brines (RB`s). Salinity was varied by changing the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS`s) of the synthetic brine in proportion. Salinity of the connate and invading brines can have a major influence on wettability and oil recovery at reservoir temperature. Oil recovery increased over that for the RB with dilution of both the initial (connate) and invading brine or dilution of either. Aging and displacement temperatures were varied independently. For all crude oils, water wetness and oil recovery increased with increase in displacement temperature. Removal of light components from the crude oil resulted in increased water wetness. Addition of alkanes to the crude oil reduced the water wetness, and increased oil recovery. Relationships between waterflood recovery and rate and extent of oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition are summarized.

  10. Exsolution Enhanced Oil Recovery with Concurrent CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel EOR method using carbonated water injection followed by depressurization is introduced. Results from micromodel experiments are presented to demonstrate the fundamental principles of this oil recovery method. A depressurization process (1 MPa/hr) was applied to a micromodel following carbonated water injection (Ca ? 10-5). The exsolved CO2 in water-filled pores blocked water flow in swiped portions and displaced water into oil-filled pores. Trapped oil after the carbonated water injection was mobilized by sequentially invading water. This method's self-distributed mobility control and local clogging was tested in a sandstone sample under reservoir conditions. A 10% incremental oil recovery was achieved by lowering the pressure 2 MPa below the CO2 liberation pressure. Additionally, exsolved CO2 resides in the pores of a reservoir as an immobile phase with a high residual saturation after oil production, exhibiting a potential synergy opportunity between CO2 EOR and CO2 sequestration

  11. Heavy oil and tar sands recovery and upgrading. International technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    This work provides an in-depth assessment of international technology for the recovery and upgrading of heavy crude oil and tar sands. The technologies included are currently in use, under development, or planned; emphasis is placed on post-1978 activities. The heavy oil technologies and processes considered include methods relating to the exploitation of heavy oil reservoirs, such as production from underground workings, all types of improved or enhanced recovery, subsurface extraction, and well rate stimulation. The tar sands section includes sizing the resource base and reviewing and evaluating past, present, and planned research and field developments on processes for mining, producing, extracting, and upgrading very heavy oils recovered from tar sands, e.g., bitumen recovery from tar sands where primary production was impossible because of the oil's high viscosity. 616 references.

  12. Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M.

    2006-07-01

    Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

  13. Soil stabilization using oil-shale solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Archeological Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    Oil-shale solid wastes are evaluated for use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in durability and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern oil shale appears to be feasible for soil stabilization only if limestone is added during combustion. Testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented and the mechanisms of spent-shale cementation are discussed.

  14. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  15. Fuel Cell Growth Markets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growth Markets Fuel Cell Growth Markets Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held Nov. 16, 2009 htmwg_nov09_fuel_cell_growth.pdf (1.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Accelerated Testing Validation Minutes of the Fall 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop Summary Report

  16. Process for upgrading heavy oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePage, J.F.; Marlino, G.

    1983-07-05

    The viscosity of heavy oils is reduced in order to facilitate pipe line transportation thereof. A fraction of the heavy oil is deasphalted in the presence of C/sub 5/-C/sub 7/ hydrocarbons, a portion of the separated asphalt is converted to synthesis gas, at least a portion of said gas is used to manufacture an alcohol mixture including methanol and C/sub 2/ to C/sub 10/ alcohols, which mixture is admixed with the heavy oil before transportation thereof. This procedure is more beneficial to the transported heavy oil than the prior processes which do not comprise the conversion of the asphalt fraction of the heavy oil.

  17. Oil ash corrosion; A review of utility boiler experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, L.D. ); Seeley, R.R. )

    1991-02-01

    In this paper a review of experience with oil ash corrosion is presented along with current design practices used to avoid excessive tube wastage. Factors influencing oil ash corrosion include fuel chemistry, boiler operation, and boiler design. These factors are interdependent and determine the corrosion behavior in utility boilers. Oil ash corrosion occurs when vanadium-containing ash deposits on boiler tube surfaces become molten. These molten ash deposits dissolve protective oxides and scales causing accelerated tube wastage. Vanadium is the major fuel constituent responsible for oil ash corrosion. Vanadium reacts with sodium, sulfur, and chlorine during combustion to produce lower melting temperature ash compositions, which accelerate tube wastage. Limiting tube metal temperatures will prevent ash deposits from becoming molten, thereby avoiding the onset of oil ash corrosion. Tube metal temperatures are limited by the use of a parallel stream flow and by limiting steam outlet temperatures. Operating a boiler with low excess air has helped avoid oil ash corrosion by altering the corrosive combustion products. Air mixing and distribution are essential to the success of this palliative action. High chromium alloys and coatings form more stable protective scaled on tubing surfaces, which result in lower oil ash corrosion rates. However, there is not material totally resistant to oil ash corrosion.

  18. Chemically assisted in situ recovery of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramierz, W.F.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of the research project was to investigate the feasibility of the chemically assisted in situ retort method for recovering shale oil from Colorado oil shale. The chemically assisted in situ procedure uses hydrogen chloride (HCl), steam (H{sub 2}O), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at moderate pressure to recovery shale oil from Colorado oil shale at temperatures substantially lower than those required for the thermal decomposition of kerogen. The process had been previously examined under static, reaction-equilibrium conditions, and had been shown to achieve significant shale oil recoveries from powdered oil shale. The purpose of this research project was to determine if these results were applicable to a dynamic experiment, and achieve penetration into and recovery of shale oil from solid oil shale. Much was learned about how to perform these experiments. Corrosion, chemical stability, and temperature stability problems were discovered and overcome. Engineering and design problems were discovered and overcome. High recovery (90% of estimated Fischer Assay) was observed in one experiment. Significant recovery (30% of estimated Fischer Assay) was also observed in another experiment. Minor amounts of freed organics were observed in two more experiments. Penetration and breakthrough of solid cores was observed in six experiments.

  19. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1998 OIL HEAT TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCDONALD,R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference will be held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting will be held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference, will be the twelfth since 1984, is an important technology transfer activity and is supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology (Oilheat R and D) program at BNL. The reason for the conference is to provide a forum for the exchange of information and perspectives among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. They will provide a channel by which information and ideas can be exchanged to examine present technologies, as well as helping to develop the future course for oil heating advancement. These conferences also serve as a stage for unifying government representatives, researchers, fuel oil marketers, and other members of the oil-heat industry in addressing technology advancements in this important energy use sector. The specific objectives of the Conference are to: (1) Identify and evaluate the current state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely; and (2) Foster cooperative interactions among federal and industrial representatives for the common goal of sustained economic growth and energy security via energy conservation.

  20. FE Oil and Natural Gas News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil and Natural Gas News FE Oil and Natural Gas News RSS June 23, 2016 DOE Awards $10 Million to Small Businesses for Fossil Energy Research and Technology Transfer The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected 10 research projects to empower small businesses to develop technologies that allow for the nation to more wisely and efficiently use our vast fossil energy resources and sustain economic growth. June 3, 2016 U.S., Saudi Arabia Announce International Collaboration on Supercritical CO2

  1. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A.; Mast, Earl L.; Greaves, Melvin J.

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  2. Shale oil recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerga, Daniel P.

    1980-01-01

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  3. Enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    The principal enhanced recovery technique is waterflooding, because water generally is inexpensive to obtain and inject into the reservoir and it works. With the shortage of conventional oil in Canada there is greater emphasis being placed on other recovery schemes in addition to or in place of waterflooding. Tertiary recovery is applicable to many of the existing projects and engineers must recognize those fields that are candidates for tertiary recovery applications. The application of tertiary recovery techniques to a specific reservoir requires consideration of all methods developed to select the one most suitable. A thorough understanding of waterflooding and the factors that affect recovery is necessary before a tertiary process is considered. Factors that affect oil recovery under waterflooding are areal and vertical sweep efficiency, contact factor and displacement efficiency.

  4. Oil Price Volatility

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Speculation and Oil Price Volatility Robert J. Weiner Robert J. Weiner Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Public Administration, and International Affairs Public Administration, and International Affairs George Washington University; George Washington University; Membre Associ Membre Associ é é , GREEN, Universit , GREEN, Universit é é Laval Laval EIA Annual Conference Washington Washington 7 April 2009 7 April

  5. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  6. Geochemistry and habitat of the oils in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattavelli, L.; Novelli, L. )

    1990-10-01

    All varieties of liquid petroleum, ranging from condensates (> 50{degree}API) to immature sulfur-rich heavy oils (as low as 5{degree} API), have been found in Italy. However, nonbiodegraded heavy oils account for about 70% of the total original oil in place. Geochemical analyses indicate that 11 oil groups are present in the Italian basins and two main types of source rocks have been identified: Triassic carbonates and Tertiary shales. About 95% of the oils were originated from Middle and Upper Triassic carbonates containing type II kerogen (about 1% total organic carbon (TOC) and 500 mg hydrocarbon/g TOC). Only a relatively minor amount of oil was generated by Tertiary shales containing type III kerogen with TOC generally less than 1%. Timing of generation and migration and bulk properties of oils were controlled by geodynamic histories of the three main Italian geologic settings: (1) Apennine and Southern Alp thrust belts, (2) foredeep (depression bordering the thrust belts), and (3) foreland (nondeformed African continental margin). Within the Apennine thrust belts, deep burial during the Neogene resulted in the generation of substantially lighter oils, not only from deeply buried Triassic but sometimes also from Tertiary source rocks. In the late Neogene, foredeep depocenters located in the central Adriatic and southern Sicily, high subsidence (up to 1,000 m/m.y.), a low geothermal gradient (22C/km) and compressional tectonics caused the generation of immature heavy oils generally at depths below 5,000 m and temperatures greater than 100C. Rapid burial and higher geothermal gradients (32C/km), which occurred since the Jurassic, resulted in the generation of light oils from the Late Cretaceous to the Oligocene in the southern sector of Adriatic foreland.

  7. Canada's heavy oil, bitumen upgrading activity is growing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbett, R.A.

    1989-06-26

    Heavy oil and bitumen upgrading activity in Canada is surging with the recent start-up of two new upgraders and with plans to build others. These new upgraders make use of modern hydrocracking technology. Articles in this special report on upgrading focus on Canada's oil and bitumen reserves, the promising technologies that upgrade them, and present details of some of the current upgrader projects. This article covers the following areas: Canada's heavy oils; Upgrading expands; Upgrading technologies; Test results; Regional upgraders; High-quality light product.

  8. Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil and Less CO2 Emissions Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil ...

  9. Strategic Significance of Americas Oil Shale Resource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Early products de- rived from shale oil included kerosene and lamp oil, paraffin, fuel oil, lubricating oil and grease, naphtha, illuminating gas, and ammonium sulfate fertilizer. ...

  10. Louisiana - North Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Louisiana - North Crude Oil ... Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, as of Dec. 31 North Louisiana Crude Oil ...

  11. Oil production by entrained pyrolysis of biomass and processing of oil and char

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, James A.; Gorton, Charles W.

    1990-01-02

    Entrained pyrolysis of lignocellulosic material proceeds from a controlled pyrolysis-initiating temperature to completion of an oxygen free environment at atmospheric pressure and controlled residence time to provide a high yield recovery of pyrolysis oil together with char and non-condensable, combustible gases. The residence time is a function of gas flow rate and the initiating temperature is likewise a function of the gas flow rate, varying therewith. A controlled initiating temperature range of about 400.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. with corresponding gas flow rates to maximize oil yield is disclosed.

  12. Crude Oil Prices Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  13. DOE to Purchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Purchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE to Purchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve June 23, 2008 - 1:29pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC ...

  14. U.S. oil imports to decline with rising oil production through...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oil imports to decline with rising oil production through 2014 The United States will need fewer oil imports over the next two years because of rising U.S. oil production. The new ...

  15. U.S. crude oil production expected to exceed oil imports later...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crude oil production expected to exceed oil imports later this year U.S. crude oil production is expected to surpass U.S. crude oil imports by the fourth quarter of this year. That ...

  16. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  17. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  18. Characterization of DOE reference oil shales: Mahogany Zone, Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation Oil Shale, and Clegg Creek Member, New Albany Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miknis, F. P.; Robertson, R. E.

    1987-09-01

    Measurements have been made on the chemical and physical properties of two oil shales designated as reference oil shales by the Department of Energy. One oil shale is a Green River Formation, Parachute Creek Member, Mahogany Zone Colorado oil shale from the Exxon Colony mine and the other is a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany shale from Kentucky. Material balance Fischer assays, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shales. Kerogen concentrates were prepared from both shales. The measured properties of the reference shales are comparable to results obtained from previous studies on similar shales. The western reference shale has a low carbon aromaticity, high Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant carbonate mineralogy. The eastern reference shale has a high carbon aromaticity, low Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant silicate mineralogy. Chemical and physical properties, including ASTM distillations, have been determined for shale oils produced from the reference shales. The distillation data were used in conjunction with API correlations to calculate a large number of shale oil properties that are required for computer models such as ASPEN. There was poor agreement between measured and calculated molecular weights for the total shale oil produced from each shale. However, measured and calculated molecular weights agreed reasonably well for true boiling point distillate fractions in the temperature range of 204 to 399/sup 0/C (400 to 750/sup 0/F). Similarly, measured and calculated viscosities of the total shale oils were in disagreement, whereas good agreement was obtained on distillate fractions for a boiling range up to 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F). Thermal and dielectric properties were determined for the shales and shale oils. The dielectric properties of the reference shales and shale oils decreased with increasing frequency of the applied frequency. 42 refs., 34 figs., 24

  19. Method of operating an oil shale kiln

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-05-23

    Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

  20. The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

  1. The impact of corrosion on the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kermani, M.B.; Harrop, D.

    1996-08-01

    The impact of corrosion on the oil industry has been viewed in terms of its effect on both capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) and health, safety, and the environment (HSE). To fight against the high cost and the impact of corrosion within the oil industry, an overview of topical research and engineering activities is presented. This covers corrosion and metallurgy issues related to drilling, production, transportation, and refinery activities.

  2. The impact of corrosion on oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kermani, M.B.; Harrop, D.

    1995-11-01

    The impact of corrosion on the oil industry has been viewed in terms of its effect on both capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) and health, safety and the environment (HSE). To fight against the high cost and the impact of corrosion within the oil industry, an overview of topical research and engineering activities is presented. This covers corrosion and metallurgy issues related to drilling, production, transportation and refinery activities.

  3. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.18 per gallon. That's down 79 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.13 per gallon, unchanged from last week, and down 88

  4. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to $2.16 per gallon. That's down 75 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.11 per gallon, down 2.8 cents from last week, and down 77

  5. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5.1 cents from a week ago to $2.11 per gallon. That's down 72 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.05 per gallon, down 5.3 cents from last week, and down 75

  6. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5 cents from a week ago to $2.06 per gallon. That's down 75 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.01 per gallon, down 4.1 cents from last week, and down 78

  7. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.8 cents from a week ago to $2.82 per gallon. That's down $1.36 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.79 per gallon, down 1.5 cents from last week, and down $1.34

  8. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.8 cents from a week ago to $2.08 per gallon. That's down 72 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.02 per gallon, up 3-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 76

  9. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to $2.80 per gallon. That's down $1.44 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.78 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from last week, and down $1.40

  10. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1 cent from a week ago to $2.09 per gallon. That's down 82 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.02 per gallon, up 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 85

  11. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.1 cents from a week ago to $2.10 per gallon. That's down 94 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.04 per gallon, up 2.3 cents from last week, and down 95

  12. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 9-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.09 per gallon. That's down $1.09 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.04 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down $1.11

  13. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.09 per gallon. That's down $1.20 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.03 per gallon, down 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.22

  14. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.10 per gallon. That's down $1.11 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.04 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.14

  15. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.6 cents from a week ago to $2.12 per gallon. That's down 91 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.06 per gallon, up 2.1 cents from last week, and down 94

  16. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1 cent from a week ago to $2.13 per gallon. That's down 80 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.07 per gallon, up 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 83

  17. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 10.5 cents from a week ago to $2.93 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.90 per gallon, down 10.4 cents from last week. This is Marcela Rourk

  18. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2.3 cents from a week ago to $2.38 per gallon. That's down 99 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.32 per gallon, down 3.1 cents from last week, and down $1.00

  19. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.5 cents from a week ago to $2.36 per gallon. That's down 97 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.31 per gallon, down 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 96

  20. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3 cents from a week ago to $2.33 per gallon. That's down 89 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.28 per gallon, down 3.5 cents from last week, and down 9

  1. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to $2.26 per gallon. That's down 89 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.19 per gallon, down 8.9 cents from last week, and down 92

  2. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.5 cents from a week ago to $2.21 per gallon. That's down 87 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.15 per gallon, down 3.6 cents from last week, and down 89

  3. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.5 cents from a week ago to $2.18 per gallon. That's down 87 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.13 per gallon, down 2.2 cents from last week, and down 88

  4. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to $3.43 per gallon. That's down 39 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.38 per gallon, down 2.6 cents from last week, and down 38.7

  5. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.8 cents from a week ago to $3.14 per gallon. That's down 81.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.12 per gallon, down 6.5 cents from last week, and down 79.9

  6. Residential heating oil prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices available The average retail price for home heating oil is $3.52 per gallon. That's down 32.7 cents from a year ago, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel price survey. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $3.48 per gallon, down 29.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington

  7. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2 cents from a week ago to $3.36 per gallon. That's down 52.5 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.31 per gallon, down 1.3 cents from last week, and down 52.6

  8. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to $3.08 per gallon. That's down 90.3 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.05 per gallon, down 6.8 cents from last week, and down 91.6

  9. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2, 2014 Residential heating oil prices decline The average retail price for home heating oil is $3.48 per gallon. That's down 4.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $3.43 per gallon, down 5.7 cents from last week. This is Amerine Woodyard

  10. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices decrease The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.7 cents from a week ago to $4.02 per gallon. That's up 1.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to 4.01 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and up 5.8

  11. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2.9 cents from a week ago to $3.45 per gallon. That's down 36.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.41 per gallon, down 3 cents from last week, and down 35

  12. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 5.4 cents from a week ago to $4.04 per gallon. That's up 4.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.02 per gallon, up 5.6 cents from last week, and up 8

  13. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 4.4 cents from a week ago to $4.06 per gallon. That's up 4.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.03 per gallon, up 2.5 cents from last week, and up 6

  14. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 12 cents from a week ago to $4.18 per gallon. That's up 13 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.13 per gallon, up 9.8 cents from last week, and up 12.9 cents from a

  15. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 3.9 cents last week to $3.96 per gallon. That's down 2.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for heating oil in the New England region averaged 3.92 per gallon, up 5.2 cents from last week, and 1.7

  16. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.9 cents from a week ago to $3.98 per gallon. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 3.96 per gallon, up 4.1 cents from last week, and up 4.8

  17. Effects of pH and stress intensity on crack growth rate in Alloy 600 in lithiated + borated water at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R.B.; Szklarska-Smialowska, Z.; McIlree, A.R.

    1992-12-31

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking studies were performed on Alloy 600. Constant load tests were conducted at 330 and 350{degrees}C in solutions containing dissolved hydrogen, boric acid (0 < B < 1200 ppm) and lithium hydroxide (0 < Li < 10 ppm). In the PWR working conditions range, that is, 6.9 < pH < 7.4 (or 0.5 ppm < Li < 3.5), there is little effect of the solution pH on the intergranular crack growth rate (IGSCC). However, there is a strong influence of the stress intensity on the IGSCC. K{sub ISCC} {approx} 5-10 MPa{radical}m. Dissolution plays an important role in the IGSCC process.

  18. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A.; Young, Robert R.

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  19. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  20. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  1. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The Federal forms below are required for State Energy Officials participating in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) to execute their cooperative agreements with the ...

  2. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holiday Release Schedule The Heating Oil and Propane Update is produced during the winter heating season, which extends from October through March of each year. The standard ...

  3. Brushing up on oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, J.

    1995-12-01

    To be prepared for a range of oil spills, emergency response organizations must have an arsenal of powerful and adaptable equipment. Around the coastal United States, a network of oil spill cooperatives and emergency response organizations stand ready with the technology and the know-how to respond to the first sign of an oil spill. When the telephone rings, they may be required to mop up 200 gallons of oil that leaked off the deck of a ship or to contain and skim 2,000 gallons of oil from a broken hose at a loading terminal. In a few cases each year, they may find themselves responding to a major pollution incident, one that involves hundreds of people and tons of equipment. To clean an oil spill at a New Jersey marine terminal, the local cooperative used the Lundin Oil Recovery Inc. (LORI) skimming system to separate the oil and water and the lift the oil out of the river. The LORI skimming technology is based on sound principles of fluid management - using the natural movement of water instead of trying to fight against it. A natural feeding mechanism delivers oily water through the separation process, and a simple mechanical separation and recovery device - a brush conveyor - removes the pollutants from the water.

  4. CORROSIVITY AND COMPOSITION OF RAW AND TREATED PYROLYSIS OILS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, Jim; Howell, Michael; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Sam; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-10-14

    Fast pyrolysis offers a relatively low cost method of processing biomass to produce a liquid product that has the potential for conversion to several types of liquid fuels. The liquid product of fast pyrolysis, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, contains a high oxygen content primarily in the form of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. These oils are typically very acidic with a Total Acid Number that is often in the range of 50 to 100, and previous studies have shown this material to be quite corrosive to common structural materials. Removal of at least some of the oxygen and conversion of this oil to a more useful product that is considerably less corrosive can be accomplished through a hydrogenation process. The product of such a treatment is considered to have the potential for blending with crude oil for processing in petroleum refineries. Corrosion studies and chemical analyses have been conducted using as produced bio-oil samples as well as samples that have been subjected to different levels of oxygen removal. Chemical analyses show treatment affected the concentrations of carboxylic acids contained in the oil, and corrosion studies showed a positive benefit of the oxygen removal. Results of these studies will be presented in this paper.

  5. Recycled waste oil: A fuel for medium speed diesel engines?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, A.B.L.; Poynton, W.A.; Howard, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the exploratory engine trials that Mirrlees Blackstone has undertaken to investigate the effect of fueling an engine using waste oil derived from used lubricants. The effect on the engine`s mechanical components, and thermal performance are examined, and the steps taken to overcome problems are discussed. The proposed engine is sited within the Research and Development facilities, housed separately from the manufacturing plant. The unit is already capable of operating on two different types of fuel with single engine set up. It is a 3 cylinder, 4-stroke turbocharged direct injection engine mounted on an underbase and it operates at 600 rpm, 15.0 bar B.M.E.P. (Brake Mean Effective Pressure). It is a mature engine, built {approximately} 20 years previously, and used for emergency stand-by duties in the company`s powerhouse. The test engine is coupled to an alternator and the electricity generated is fed to the national grid. Initial samples of treated fuel oil, analyzed by an independent oil analysis consultant, indicated that the fuel oil does not correspond to a normal fuel oil. They contained high concentrations of trace elements (i.e. calcium, phosphorus, lead, aluminum and silicon) which was consistent with sourcing from waste lubricating oils. The fuel oil was considered to be too severe for use in an engine.

  6. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  7. Williston basin oil exploration: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.H.

    1991-06-01

    Past: In 1951, modern oil exploration came to the Williston basin with the discovery of Paleozoic oil on the large Nesson anticline. This was quickly followed by similar discoveries on Cedar Creek and Poplar anticlines. To the north, the Canadians, lacking large structures, concentrated on Paleozoic stratigraphic traps and were highly successful. US explorationists quickly followed, finding similar traps on the basin's northeastern flank and center. The 1960s saw multiple Devonian salt dissolution structures produce on the western flank. To the northwest, shallow Mississippian and deeper Ordovician pays were found on small structural closures. These later were combined with pays in the Devonian and Silurian to give multiple pay potential. In the basin center large buried structures, visible only to seismic, were located. The 1970s revealed an Ordovician subcrop trap on the southeast flank. Centrally, a Jurassic astrobleme with Mississippian oil caused a flurry of leasing and deep drilling. The 1982 collapse of oil prices essentially halted exploration. 1987 saw a revival when horizontal drilling for the Mississippian Bakken fractured shale promised viable economics. Present: Today, emphasis is on Bakken horizontal drilling in the deeper portion of the basin. Next in importance is shallow drilling such as on the northeastern flank. Future: An estimated on billion barrels of new oil awaits discovery in the Williston basin. Additional exploration in already established production trends will find some of this oil. Most of this oil, however, will almost certainly be found by following up the numerous geological leads hinted at by past drilling.

  8. Oil spill fingerprinting - the practical benefits for the operator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, J.W.; Grigson, S.J.W.

    1996-11-01

    The oil company operates North Sea Oil Production Platforms which have several subsea developments connected by subsea pipelines. A specialist research institute was contracted by the company to obtain reference crude oil fingerprints for each subsea oil pipeline and store this information in a specially constructed computer database and fingerprint matching system. Both crews from the platform`s stand-by vessels were then trained in the correct procedures for sampling small slicks at sea, with laboratory validation of samples collected during the training exercise. Subsequently, during two incidents of leaking subsea pipelines, oil spill samples were taken by stand-by vessel crews. Analysis of the samples onshore, followed by computer comparison of their fingerprints to those of the reference oils in the database, allowed early identification of the leaking pipeline prior to confirmation by ROV inspection. Oil spill fingerprinting proved a highly cost effective tool, ensuring optimum use of expensive DSV/ROV mobilization and use. It also permitted pipelines not implicated in the leak to be rapidly put back into operation.

  9. Oil supply increase due in 1996`s second half

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, R.J.

    1996-07-29

    The crucial oil-market issue for this year`s second half is new supply. Production will increase again outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. And Iraq has general approval to resume exports under limits set by the United Nations, although start of the exports has been delayed by at least 60 days. The big question is the market`s ability to absorb the supply gains. As usual, the market`s need for oil in the second half will depend on economies. So far in 1996, economic growth has pushed consumption to levels unexpected a year ago. Demand the rest of the year depends heavily on economic performances of the industrialized nations that make up the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the rapidly growing nations of the Asia-Pacific region. Growth in countries elsewhere in the developing world, especially Latin America, remains a wild card. The paper discusses the worldwide outlook, crude oil prices, US product prices, natural gas prices, US economy, US energy demand, natural gas in the US, US oil demand, gasoline prices, distillate gains, resid slumps, LPG, ethane, US supply, production patterns, rise in refinery capacity, imports, stocks, and stock coverage.

  10. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  11. Upgrading residual oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angevine, P.J.; Stein, T.R.

    1982-04-13

    Residual oil fractions are upgraded in that Conradson Carbon Residue (CCR) is selectively removed without undue hydrogen consumption by hydroprocessing with a catalyst comprising a single metal such as molybdenum, tungsten, nickel, iron or palladium or multimetallic combination of such metals, excluding, however, active desulfurization compositions such as nickel molybdenum and nickel-tungsten. Said catalyst is characterized as having greater than about 50% of its pore volume contribution in pores having diameters in the range of between about 100 and 200 angstroms. The product of such hydroprocessing is a particularly preferable feedstock for coking to give more liquid yield and less coke make.

  12. Financial Review of the Global Oil and Natural Gas Industry 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Financial Review of the Global Oil and Natural Gas Industry: First-quarter 2016 Markets and Financial Analysis Team July 2016 Key findings for first-quarter 2016 * Brent crude oil prices averaged at the lowest level since 2004, significantly reducing profits and cash flow for energy companies. * Production increased from year-ago levels, but growth is decelerating as companies reduced capital expenditure. * Many companies were able to balance their capital expenditure with cash from operations.

  13. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  14. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  15. heavy_oil | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Much of America's heavy oil is produced via a costly steam injection enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to produce a crude oil grade that is lower in quality and thus sells for ...

  16. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Imports from Oman of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Papua New Guinea of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Peru of Crude Oil ...

  17. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Imports from Oman of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Papua New Guinea of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Peru of Crude Oil (Thousand ...

  18. Oman Oil Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil Company (S.A.O.C.) Name: Oman Oil Company (S.A.O.C.) Place: Muscat, Oman Product: Oil exploration and production Year Founded: 1966 Phone Number: + 968 - 2457 3100 Website:...

  19. Iran Oil and Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Iran Oil and Gas Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Iran Oil and Gas Name: Iran Oil and Gas Address: Unit 16, 3rd Fl., Bldg. No. 2, 9th Narenjestan St., North Pasdaran Ave. Place:...

  20. This Week In Petroleum Crude Oil Section

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crude oil futures and estimated contract prices (dollars per barrel) Contract 1 Contract 2 Contract 3 Contract 4 Crude oil futures price contract 1 graph Crude oil futures price ...

  1. Compare All CBECS Activities: Fuel Oil Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fuel Oil Use Compare Activities by ... Fuel Oil Use Total Fuel Oil Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 1.3 billion gallons...

  2. Proceedings of the 1997 oil heat technology conference and workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Proceedings of the 1997 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, held on April 3--4 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and sponsored by the US Department of Energy--Office of Building Technologies, State and Community programs (DOE-BTS), in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). This Conference is a key technology transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology (Oil-Heat R and D) program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The objectives of the Conference were to: identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely: and foster cooperation among federal and industrial representatives with the common goal of sustained national economic growth and energy security via energy conservation. The 1997 Oil Technology Conference comprised: (a) five plenary sessions devoted to presentations and summations by public and private sector industry representatives from the US, and Canada, and (b) four workshops which focused on mainstream issues in oil-heating technology. This book contains 14 technical papers and four summaries from the workshops. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Dependence of waterflood remaining oil saturation on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters in mixed wet, turbidite sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    The dependence of waterflood oil recovery on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters was investigated by numerical simulation. The relative permeability and capillary pressure curves were based on laboratory measurements on unconsolidated sands and were evaluated for water-wet and mixed wet states. The reservoir model was a prototype turbidite sand with a range of thickness and permeability values. The economic oil recovery was based on an economic limit water cut of 50%. The remaining oil saturation in the swept region for the water-wet cases was close to the residual oil saturation. The remaining oil saturation of the mixed wet cases ranged from low values near the residual oil saturation to far above the residual oil saturation. It is dependent on the reservoir parameters that govern: (1) the vertical {open_quotes}film surface drainage{close_quotes} of oil by gravity, (2) accumulation of a high oil saturation and thus a high relative permeability under the cap rock, (3) updip migration of the oil that accumulated under the cap rock. The dependence on the reservoir parameters can be summarized by dimensionless groups. There is a dimensionless time for the vertical displacement of oil by gravity. The accumulation of a high oil saturation under the cap rock is dependent on the ratio of the capillary transition zone and the sand thickness. The updip migration is dependent on a combination of the gravity number and the end point mobility ratio.

  4. Mercury and tritium removal from DOE waste oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, E.T.

    1997-10-01

    This work covers the investigation of vacuum extraction as a means to remove tritiated contamination as well as the removal via sorption of dissolved mercury from contaminated oils. The radiation damage in oils from tritium causes production of hydrogen, methane, and low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. When tritium gas is present in the oil, the tritium atom is incorporated into the formed hydrocarbons. The transformer industry measures gas content/composition of transformer oils as a diagnostic tool for the transformers` condition. The analytical approach (ASTM D3612-90) used for these measurements is vacuum extraction of all gases (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, etc.) followed by analysis of the evolved gas mixture. This extraction method will be adapted to remove dissolved gases (including tritium) from the SRS vacuum pump oil. It may be necessary to heat (60{degrees}C to 70{degrees}C) the oil during vacuum extraction to remove tritiated water. A method described in the procedures is a stripper column extraction, in which a carrier gas (argon) is used to remove dissolved gases from oil that is dispersed on high surface area beads. This method appears promising for scale-up as a treatment process, and a modified process is also being used as a dewatering technique by SD Myers, Inc. (a transformer consulting company) for transformers in the field by a mobile unit. Although some mercury may be removed during the vacuum extraction, the most common technique for removing mercury from oil is by using sulfur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC). SIAC is currently being used by the petroleum industry to remove mercury from hydrocarbon mixtures, but the sorbent has not been previously tested on DOE vacuum oil waste. It is anticipated that a final process will be similar to technologies used by the petroleum industry and is comparable to ion exchange operations in large column-type reactors.

  5. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  6. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  7. Enhanced Oil Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Crude oil development and production in U.S. oil reservoirs can include up to three distinct phases: primary, secondary, and tertiary (or enhanced) recovery. During primary

  8. Conversion of heavy hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, N.Y.; Pelrine, B.P.; Yan, T.Y.

    1982-12-14

    This invention provides a process for upgrading a heavy hydrocarbon oil to motor fuel products. The heavy hydrocarbon oil is admixed with a metal halide catalyst and a solvent component under supercritical conditions to form (1) a dense-gas solvent phase which contains refined hydrocarbon crackate, and which is substantially free of metal halide catalyst content; and (2) a residual asphaltic phase.

  9. Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    U.S. dependence on imported oil can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil imports are defined as net imports (total imports minus exports) or as total imports. EIA introduces a revised table that expresses dependence on imports in terms of both measures.

  10. Oil Refund Decisions | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    During the period 1973 through 1981, the Federal government imposed price and allocation controls of crude oil and refined petroleum products, such as gasoline and heating oil. ...

  11. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate ...

  12. Enhanced Oil Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Thanks in part to innovations supported by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory over the past 30 years, ...

  13. U.S. Crude Oil Export Policy

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude Oil Export Policy EIA Energy Conference Jason Bordoff July 14, 2014 Washington, DC ... Cook Inlet. * Heavy California crude oil. * Exports connected to refining or ...

  14. Oil and Gas Research| GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas We're balancing the increasing demand for finite resources with technology that ensures access to energy for generations to come. Home > Innovation > Oil & Gas ...

  15. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  16. SciTech Connect: "oil shale"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oil shale" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "oil shale" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  17. Oil and Gas Gateway | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    States, oil and gas boards and commissions are the place for finding data related to oil and gas activities. These activities include well records, permitting, and production...

  18. ,"Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports" ...

  19. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate ...

  20. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average * ...

  1. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  2. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  3. Heavy oil transportation by pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerez, J.M.; Pick, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Worldwide there are a number of pipelines used to transport heavy crude oils. The operations are facilitated in a variety of ways. For example, the Alyeska pipeline is an insulated pipeline transporting warm oil over 800 miles. This 48-inch line experiences limited heat loss due to the insulation, volume of oil contained, and heat gain due to friction and pumping. Some European trunk lines periodically handle heavy and waxy crudes. This is achieved by proper sizing of batches, following waxy crudes with non-waxy crudes, and increased use of scrapers. In a former Soviet republic, the transportation of heavy crude oil by pipeline has been facilitated by blending with a lighter Siberian crude. The paper describes the pipeline transport of heavy crudes by Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. The paper describes enhancing heavy oil transportation by emulsion formation, droplet suspension, dilution, drag reducing agents, and heating.

  4. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic

  5. Fuel oil quality task force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V.

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  6. Oil Stop Valve : Oil Spill Containment Research and Development Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourn, Robert D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes the research and development project conducted by the Civil Engineering Section, Division of Substation and Control Engineering, to determine the effectiveness of the oil stop valve for use in the Bonneville Power Administration's Oil Spill Containment and Countermeasure Program. The most attractive alternative to lagoons and separator tanks was found in the oil stop valve manufactured by AFL/Clark Industries of Riviera Beach, Florida. This small, direct-acting and relatively inexpensive valve requires little maintenance and can either be employed independently, using existing drain lines for effluent storage, or in conjunction with oil separator tanks and lagoon systems. The AFL/Clark valve requires no power and has only one moving part, a ballasted float having a specific gravity between that of oil and water. In water, the float rides above the throat of the discharge pipe allowing water to flow out. When oil enters the water the float begins losing its relative bouyancy and sinks until it seats itself over the throat of the outlet, closing the valve. Usually installed in a manhole within a typical storm drainage system, the valve backs spilled oil into drainways and contains it for temporary storage within the switchyard.

  7. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  8. DOE - Fossil Energy: Squeezing Oil Out of Rock

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2-Squeezing Out Oil An Energy Lesson Looking Down an Oil Well Looking Down an Oil Well Squeezing Oil out of Rocks Imagine trying to force oil through a rock. Can't be done, you ...

  9. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economic method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.

  10. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economicmore » method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.« less

  11. Combustive management of oil spills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris.

  12. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  13. Nonaqueous sol-gel synthesis and growth mechanism of single crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanorods with high photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia Huimin; Zheng Zhi; Zhao Hongxiao; Zhang Lizhi; Zou Zhigang

    2009-06-03

    In this paper, we report on a nonaqueous synthesis of single crystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorods by reaction between TiCl{sub 4} and benzyl alcohol at a low temperature of 80 deg. C. The resulting samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We proposed that the TiO{sub 2} nanorods were formed through an oriented attachment mechanism. More importantly, these single crystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorods exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic activities than commercial photocatalyst P25. This study provides an environmentally friendly and economic approach to produce highly active TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst.

  14. Strategies of the major oil companies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, W.N.

    1982-01-01

    This study identifies, documents, and analyzes the strategies of the seven largest oil companies in the world, collectively called the Majors (Exxon, Shell, Gulf, Mobil, Socal, Texaco, and BP). The period covered for each company begins at its origin, generally near 1900, and concludes in 1976. This study documents and analyzes all the major components of the long-term strategies of these companies since their origins. The policy components of each company's strategy are classified into six categories where major changes have occurred in the growth of the large-scale firm. These policy categories are geographic exapansion, size/scale of operations, vertical integration, horizontal combination, product and industry diversification, and administrative structure. With each category, policies can be compared between firms and overtime to illustrate similarities, differences, and changes in strategy. The main results are discussed.

  15. Comparative dermotoxicity of shale oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, L.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Foreman, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    When shale oils are applied at higher dose levels the standard observation of tumor production and latency are often obscured by a severe inflammatory response leading to epidermal degeneration. The two experiments reported here are still in progress, however the interim results are useful in assessing both the phlogistic and tumorigenic properties of three shale oils. Three shale oils were tested in these experiments. The first crude oil (OCSO No. 6) was produced in a modified in situ report at Occidental Oil Company's Logan Wash site near Debeque, Colorado. The second crude oil (PCSO II) was produced in the above ground Paraho vertical-kiln retort located at Anvil Points near Rifle, Colorado and the third oil was the hydrotreated daughter product of the Paraho crude (PCSO-UP). Experiment I was designed to determine the highest dose level at which tumor latency could be measured without interference from epidermal degeneration. Experiment II was designed to determine the effect of application frequency on both tumor response and inflammatory phenomena. Complete epidermal degeneration was used as the only measure of severe inflammation. Relative tumorigenicity was based on the number of tumor bearing mice without regard to multiple tumors on individual animals. In both experiments, tumor occurrence was confirmed one week after initial appearance. The sex-related difference in inflammatory response is striking and certanly has significance for experimental design. An increased phlogistic sensitivity expressed in male mice could affect the meaning of an experiment where only one sex was used.

  16. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei; Gajjela, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01

    Bio-oil is a liquid product produced by fast pyrol-ysis of biomass. The fast pyrolysis is performed by heating the biomass rapidly (2 sec) at temperatures ranging from 350 to 650 oC. The vapors produced by this rapid heating are then condensed to produce a dark brown water-based emulsion composed of frag-ments of the original hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin molecules contained in the biomass. Yields range from 60 to 75% based on the feedstock type and the pyrolysis reactor employed. The bio-oil pro-duced by this process has a number of negative prop-erties that are produced mainly by the high oxygen content (40 to 50%) contributed by that contained in water (25 to 30% of total mass) and oxygenated compounds. Each bio-oil contains hundreds of chemi-cal compounds. The chemical composition of bio-oil renders it a very recalcitrant chemical compound. To date, the difficulties in utilizing bio-oil have limited its commercial development to the production of liq-uid smoke as food flavoring. Practitioners have at-tempted to utilize raw bio-oil as a fuel; they have also applied many techniques to upgrade bio-oil to a fuel. Attempts to utilize raw bio-oil as a combustion engine fuel have resulted in engine or turbine dam-age; however, Stirling engines have been shown to successfully combust raw bio-oil without damage. Utilization of raw bio-oil as a boiler fuel has met with more success and an ASTM standard has recently been released describing bio-oil characteristics in relation to assigned fuel grades. However, commercialization has been slow to follow and no reports of distribution of these bio-oil boiler fuels have been reported. Co-feeding raw bio-oil with coal has been successfully performed but no current power generation facilities are following this practice. Upgrading of bio-oils to hydrocarbons via hydroprocessing is being performed by several organizations. Currently, limited catalyst life is the obstacle to commercialization of this tech-nology. Researchers

  17. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, total fuel oil consumption in malls was not statistically significant. (*)Value rounds to zero...

  18. AEO Early Release 2013 - oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Growing U.S. oil output and rising vehicle fuel economy to cut U.S. reliance on foreign oil The United States is expected to continue cutting its dependence on petroleum and liquid fuels imports over the rest of this decade because of growing domestic crude oil production and more fuel-efficient vehicles on America's highways. The new long-term outlook from the U.S. Energy Information Administration shows America's dependence on imported petroleum and liquid fuels will decline from 45 percent of

  19. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  20. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  1. Upgrading Orinoco belt heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcantara, J.; Castillo, O.

    1982-09-01

    The Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt of Venezuela is a subsurface geological formation of petroleum-bearing sands that is approximately 700 km long and between 60 and 80 km wide. The results of recent explorations have shown the area to contain over one trillion barrels of oil in-place, ranging from 8/sup 0/ API to 14/sup 0/ APE gravity. In an effort to develop these resources, Petroleos de Venezuela has undertaken a program to evaluate and develop this heavy oil belt. The objectives of this program are discussed along with the process technology selection, pilot plants, and environmental protection measures. (JMT)

  2. Benin: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports Ashland discovered additional oil reserves deeper than current production in Seme, Benin's only oil field. The field is on a steep decline, producing as little as 2,500 bopd, down from 7,671 bopd in 1984. In an effort to restart offshore exploration, three offshore blocks have been designated. Hardy Oil and Gas (UK) Ltd. has since acquired 20% interest in Blocks 1 and 2 from International Petroleum Ltd. (IPL). IPL completed seismic work during 1990 that identified two large channel prospects similar to those that produce offshore elsewhere in West Africa. The first well is expected in 1991.

  3. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 8 cents from a week ago to $3.21 per gallon. That's down 98.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.18 per gallon, down 8.1 cents from last week, and down 96.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  4. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 17.7 cents from a week ago to $3.03 per gallon. That's down $1.09 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.99 per gallon, down 18.2 cents from last week, and down $1.08 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  5. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.8 cents from a week ago to $3.33 per gallon. That's down 59.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.28 per gallon, down 3.7 cents from last week, and down 58.8 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  6. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.6 cents from a week ago to $4.24 per gallon. That's up 8.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.16 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and up 3.9 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact

  7. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.6 cents from a week ago to $3.42 per gallon. That's down 39.5 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.37 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from last week, and down 39.7 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact Marcela

  8. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 10.5 cents from a week ago to $3.22 per gallon. That's down 73.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.19 per gallon, down 9 cents from last week, and down 73.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  9. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 11.2 cents from a week ago to $2.91 per gallon. That's down $1.33 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to $2.87 per gallon, up 9.8 cents from last week, and down $1.29 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk with EIA, in Washington.

  10. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2015 Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 11.7 cents from a week ago to $3.03 per gallon. That's down $1.20 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to $2.99 per gallon, up 12 cents from last week, and down $1.16 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  11. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2015 Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 14.7 cents from a week ago to $3.19 per gallon. That's down $1.06 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to $3.15 per gallon, up 15.9 cents from last week, and down $1.00 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  12. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 10.3 cents from a week ago to $3.29 per gallon. That's down 93.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to $3.26 per gallon, up 10.4 cents from last week, and down 89.3 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  13. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.3 cents from a week ago to $3.38 per gallon. That's down 43.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.33 per . gallon, down 3.5 cents from last week, and down 44.6 cents from a year ago

  14. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices decrease The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.8 cents from a week ago to $4.00 per gallon. That's down 2-tenths of a cent from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to 4.01 per gallon, down 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and up 4.4

  15. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6.5 cents from a week ago to $4.24 per gallon. That's up 14.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.17 per gallon, up 4.1 cents from last week, and up 13.4 cents from a year ago. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact Marcela

  16. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4, 2013 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.9 cents from last week to $3.92 per gallon. That's down 11 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for heating oil in the New England region averaged 3.87 per gallon, up 2.5 cents from last week, but down 7.1 cents from a year earlier. This is Marlana Anderson

  17. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Potas, Todd A.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Musich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  18. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  19. BIOMASS TO BIO-OIL BY LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-10

    Significant efforts have been devoted to develop processes for the conversion of biomass, an abundant and sustainable source of energy, to liquid fuels and chemicals, in order to replace diminishing fossil fuels and mitigate global warming. Thermochemical and biochemical methods have attracted the most attention. Among the thermochemical processes, pyrolysis and liquefaction are the two major technologies for the direct conversion of biomass to produce a liquid product, often called bio-oil. This chapter focuses on the liquefaction, a medium-temperature and high-pressure thermochemical process for the conversion of biomass to bio-oil. Water has been most commonly used as a solvent and the process is known as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Fundamentals of HTL process, key factors determining HTL behavior, role of catalyst in HTL, properties of produced bio-oil, and the current status of the technology are summarized. The liquefaction of biomass by using organic solvents, a process called solvolysis, is also discussed. A wide range of biomass feedstocks have been tested for liquefaction including wood, crop residues, algae, food processing waste, and animal manure.

  20. Electronic overfill protection for crude oil transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgore, D.R.; Miles, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    There are many considerations involved in the transfer of crude oil, but the most catastrophic consequences may come as the result of a spill during loading or unloading. The safety and well-being of personnel in the vicinity is of the utmost concern. Should one be fortunate enough that an explosion or fire is not the results of a spill, the one must contend with the dilemma of containment. Preserving environmental integrity is a subject that is high on everyone`s list. The phrase ``reportable spill`` can send chills up and down anyone`s back. The repercussions continue: Ground water contamination; Soil remediation; Regulatory fines and penalties; Litigation. And this is all topped off by the ``black eye`` that the company receives with the perception of the public. For these reasons, and more, the carriers of crude oil are choosing self imposed compliances to reduce the frequency of spills. Electronic Overfill Protection has been modified to meet the specific needs and requirements of the crude oil industry. Here, the authors will examine how this type of system evolved, how it functions, and where it may lead.

  1. International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

  2. For oil spills, no slick solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Oil spills from tankers and offshore wells are getting bigger and more numerous. Oil spill cleanup technology is hard-pressed to keep up with the problem. The use of skimming devices, sorbents and chemical agents, and microorganisms to control oil spills is described. The environmental effects of oil spills are briefly discussed.

  3. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  5. Heavy oil and tar sands recovery and upgrading: international technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth assessment of international technology for the recovery and upgrading of heavy crude oil and tar sands. The technologies included are currently in use, under development, or planned; emphasis is placed on post-1978 activities. The heavy oil technologies and processes considered in Part I include methods relating to the exploitation of heavy oil reservoirs, such as production from undergorun workings, all types of improved or enhanced recovery, subsurface extraction, and well rate stimulation. Furthermore, even though heavy crudes are understood to include only those liquid or semiliquid hydrocarbons with a gravity of 20/sup 0/API or less, technology applied to lighter crude oils with in situ viscosities of the same order of magnitude as some US heavy oils is also included. The scope of the tar sands section (Part II) includes sizing the resource base and reviewing and evaluatin past, present, and planned research and field developments on processes for mining, producing, extracting, and upgrading very heavy oils recovered from tar sands, e.g., bitumen recovery from tar sands where primary production was impossible because of the oil's high viscosity. On the production side, very heavy oil is defined as having a gravity less than 10/sup 0/ to 12/sup 0/API and greater than 100,000-centipoise viscosity at 50/sup 0/F. On the upgrading side, hydrocarbons whose characteristics dictated additional processing prior to conventional refining into salable products (1050+/sup 0/ material) were included, regardless of origin, in order to encompass all pertinent upgrading technologies.

  6. World oil price behavior during oil supply disruptions: what can we learn from the past

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdsall, T.H.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to: (1) examine how world oil prices have behaved during past oil supply disruptions, (2) attempt to understand why world oil prices have behaved during disruptions as they have, and (3) see what history foretells, if anything, for the behavior of world oil prices during future oil supply disruptions.

  7. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  8. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santa, T.; Jetter, S.

    1997-01-01

    As part of ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. The performance of this premium heating oil is discussed.

  9. Oil shale: The environmental challenges III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

  10. Enhanced removal of Exxon Valdez spilled oil Alaskan gravel by a microbial surfactant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, S.; Elashvili, I.; Valdes, J.J.; Kamely, D.; Chakrabarty, A.M. )

    1990-03-01

    Remediation efforts for the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker in Alaska have focused on the use of pressurized water at high temperature to remove oil from the beaches. We have tested a biological surfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa for its ability to remove oil from contaminated Alaskan gravel samples under various conditions, including concentration of the surfactant, time of contact, temperature of the wash, and presence or absence of xanthan gum. The results demonstrate the ability of the microbial surfactant to release oil to a significantly greater extent (2 to 3 times) than water alone, particularly at temperatures of 30{degree}C and above.

  11. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  12. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  13. Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

    2013-10-01

    Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

  14. Exposure standard for fog oil. Technical report, Dec 89-Nov 90

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, W.G.

    1990-11-15

    Effects of mineral oils in animals and humans are evaluated and serve as the basis for the development of an exposure standard for fog oil. Considered are health hazards associated with fog oil purchased before and after the Military Specification was amended in April 1986 to exclude carcinogens. While repeated exposure to conventionally-refined mineral oils may cause pulmonary disease as well as severe dermatoses and cancer of the skin and scrotum, lipoid pneumonia is the major health hazard associated with highly refined mineral oils such as fog oils purchased after April 1986. While the course of lipoid pneumonia can be asymptomatic in some individuals, in others its symptoms can range from occasional cough to severe, debilitating dyspnea and pulmonary illness, occasionally ending in death.

  15. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  16. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comberiati, Joseph R.; Locke, Charles D.; Kamath, Krishna I.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  17. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  18. oil and gas portfolio reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Gas Research Portfolio Reports Natural Gas & Oil Program Research Portfolio Reports The Office of Fossil Energy (FE)/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is releasing a series of nine Research Portfolio Reports to provide a snapshot of results and accomplishments completed to-date for active and completed projects under three focus areas: Unconventional Oil & Gas Resources; Ultra-Deepwater; and Small Producers. The reports capture research conducted over the last ten years

  19. Middle East oil and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The following subjects are covered in this publication: (1) position of preeminence of the Middle East; (2) history of area's oil operations for Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, neutral zone, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman and Egypt; (3) gas operations of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Iraq and United Arab Emirates; (4) changing relationships with producing countries; (5) a new oil pricing environment; (6) refining and other industrial activities; and (7) change and progress. 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steel. Part 2, Water flow rate effects in high sulfur plate steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, L.A; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R.; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high- sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/sec. or 4.7 m/sec. was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi- stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/sec. and 5.0 m/sec. parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity.

  1. Oil program implementation plan FY 1996--2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    This document reaffirms the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy commitment to implement the National Oil Research Program in a way to maximize assurance of energy security, economic growth, environmental protection, jobs, improved economic competitiveness, and improved US balance of trade. There are two sections and an appendix in this document. Section 1 is background information that guided its formulation and a summary of the Oil Program Implementation Plan. This summary includes mission statements, major program drivers, oil issues and trends, budget issues, customers/stakeholders, technology transfer, measures of program effectiveness, and benefits. Section 2 contains more detailed program descriptions for the eight technical areas and the NIPER infrastructure. The eight technical areas are reservoir characterization; extraction research; exploration, drilling, and risk-based decision management; analysis and planning; technology transfer; field demonstration projects; oil downstream operations; and environmental research. Each description contains an overview of the program, descriptions on main areas, a discussion of stakeholders, impacts, planned budget projections, projected schedules with Gantt charts, and measures of effectiveness. The appendix is a summary of comments from industry on an earlier draft of the plan. Although changes were made in response to the comments, many of the suggestions will be used as guidance for the FY 1997--2001 plan.

  2. Oil Mist Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  3. Oil and Gas Company Oil and Gas Company Address Place Zip Website

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil and Gas Company Address Place Zip Website Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Abu http www adnoc ae default aspx Al Furat Petroleum Company Al Furat...

  4. Higher U.S. oil production in 2013 and 2014 means lower oil imports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Higher U.S. oil production in 2013 and 2014 means lower oil imports U.S. crude oil production topped 7 million barrels per day in November and December for the first time in 20 ...

  5. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF SHALLOW VISCOUS OIL RESERVES IN NORTH SLOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    North Slope of Alaska has huge oil deposits in heavy oil reservoirs such as Ugnu, West Sak and Shrader Bluff etc. The viscosity of the last two reservoir oils vary from {approx}30 cp to {approx}3000 cp and the amount in the range of 10-20 billion barrels. High oil viscosity and low formation strength impose problems to high recovery and well productivity. Water-alternate-gas injection processes can be effective for the lower viscosity end of these deposits in West Sak and Shrader Bluff. Several gas streams are available in the North Slope containing NGL and CO{sub 2} (a greenhouse gas). The goal of this research is to develop tools to find optimum solvent, injection schedule and well-architecture for a WAG process in North Slope shallow sand viscous oil reservoirs. In the last quarter, we have developed streamline generation and convection subroutines for miscible gas injection. The WAG injection algorithms are being developed. We formulated a four-phase relative permeability model based on two-phase relative permeabilities. The new relative permeability formulations are being incorporated into the simulator. Wettabilities and relative permeabilities are being measured. Plans for the next quarter includes modeling of WAG injection in streamline based simulation, relative permeability studies with cores, incorporation of complex well-architecture.

  7. A novel process for upgrading heavy oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, F.T.T.; Rintjema, R.T.

    1994-12-31

    Canada has extensive reserves of high sulfur heavy oils. These heavy oils are recovered primarily by steam injection techniques. As a result, the heavy oils are obtained as emulsions at well-heads. The heavy oils, being high in sulfur and metals, and low in hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio, require upgrading such as desulfurization and hydrocracking before it can be used in conventional refineries. Conventional emulsion treatment and desulfurization technology require multistage processing. Thus, alternative technologies for processing heavy oil emulsions would be attractive. The authors have recently developed a novel single stage process for upgrading emulsions via activation of water to provide hydrogen in situ for catalytic desulfurization and hydrocracking. Current work is focused on the desulfurization aspect of upgrading, using benzothiophene as the model sulfur compound and molybdic acid as the catalyst. At 340 C and a CO loading pressure of 600 psi, up to 86% sulfur removal was obtained. As well, in situ generated H{sub 2} was found to be more active than externally supplied molecular H{sub 2}. A likely pathway for desulfurization of benzothiophene was via the initial hydrogenation of benzothiophene to dihydrobenzothiophene followed by hydrogenolysis to give ethylbenzene and H{sub 2}S.

  8. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California. Volume 2, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As a part of this larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to California`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole.

  9. Releases from the Heating Oil Reserve | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Releases from the Heating Oil Reserve Releases from the Heating Oil Reserve The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), a one million barrel supply of ultra low sulfur ...

  10. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    renewable heating oil substitution Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution Two-day agenda from the workshop: Technical ...

  11. Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Naval Reserves Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities The Fossil Energy program in oil shale focuses on ...

  12. Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale ...

  13. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Oil Upgrading Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading PNNL report-out at the CTAB webinar on Bio-Oil Upgrading. ctabwebinarbiooilsupgrading.pdf ...

  14. Diesel Engine Oil Technology Insights and Opportunities | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Technology Insights and Opportunities Diesel Engine Oil Technology Insights and Opportunities Perrformance of API CJ-4 diesel engine lubricating oil and emerging lubricant ...

  15. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) Guidelines for Release...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heating Oil Reserve Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) Guidelines for Release Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) Guidelines for Release The Energy Policy and ...

  16. HISTORICAL NORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL RESERVE (NEHHOR) TRIGGER...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HISTORICAL NORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL RESERVE (NEHHOR) TRIGGER REPORTS HISTORICAL NORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL RESERVE (NEHHOR) TRIGGER REPORTS Historical Northeast Home Heating Oil ...

  17. NORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL RESERVE TRIGGER MECHANISM | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL RESERVE TRIGGER MECHANISM NORTHEAST HOME HEATING OIL RESERVE TRIGGER MECHANISM Historical Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Trigger Mechanism Charts ...

  18. Growing Energy - How Biofuels Can Help End America's Oil Dependence...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growing Energy - How Biofuels Can Help End America's Oil Dependence Growing Energy - How Biofuels Can Help End America's Oil Dependence America's oil dependence threatens our ...

  19. Abu Dhabi National Oil Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    oil companies in the world. Abu Dhabi National Oil Company oversees many phases of oil and gas exploration and production, as well as other business activities. References...

  20. Oman Ministry of Oil and Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of oil and gas. Prepare legislation and regulations governing oil and gas. Oversee oil and gas exploration and production activities. Establish "Petroleum Agreements" with...