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Sample records for growth country studies

  1. Poland-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Poland-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy Sector Management...

  2. Republic of Macedonia-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Republic of Macedonia-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy...

  3. Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Studies Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy Sector Management Assistance Program of the...

  4. Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies: Getting Started Experience...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as improved fiscal incentives in forestry, are also considered. Mexico's study provides a body of knowledge about prospective low carbon "wedges," specific low carbon projects, and...

  5. Catalyzing Low Carbon Growth in Developing Countries | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth in Developing Countries: Public Finance Mechanisms to scale up private sector investment in climate solutions AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Environment...

  6. Gas in developing countries: Volume 2, Country studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains detailed case-studies of the history and prospects for natural gas utilization in eight developing countries: Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia. All of these countries have been visited by members of the research team, with the exception of Pakistan. Running through all the case-histories is the importance of defining a clear market for the gas. In some cases this can prove remarkably difficult, especially when the oil price is relatively low. In other cases a market does exist, but is very limited in relation to the size of available reserves. The other theme which recurs over and over again is the importance of the relationship between the government and its agencies, and the foreign oil companies which are involved in exploration and development of gas reserves. These two issues are addressed in detail in each case study. But it is also the case that each country highlights specific aspects of the gas story.

  7. US Country Studies Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization United States Government Sector Energy, Land Website http:www.gcrio.orgCSP Program Start 1993 References US Country Studies...

  8. LBNL Developing Countries Studies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Climate, 1989 Organized and led studies of 12 developing countries on mitigation costs and emissions scenarios, 1991 and 1994 Special Issues of Energy Policy Technical...

  9. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country studies: Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia...

  10. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Econo References Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country...

  11. LBNL Developing Countries Studies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in a number of activities relating to energy use in developing countries and climate change. Developed international energy use data and emissions scenarios for the EPA report to...

  12. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  13. US country studies program: Support for climate change studies, national plans, and technology assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the objectives of the next phase of the U.S. Country Studies Program which was launched in support of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The next phases of this program aim to: assist countries in preparing Climate Change Action plans; support technology assessments and development of technology initiatives; enhance exchange of information and expertise in support of FCCC. The program offers support for these processes in the form of handbooks which have been published to aid in preparing action plans, and to provide information on methane, forestry, and energy technologies. In addition an array of training workshops have been and are scheduled to offer hands on instruction to participants, expert advice is available from trained personnel, and modeling tools are available to aid in development of action plans.

  14. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  15. Low Carbon Growth: a Potential Path for Mexico - GHG Abatement...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLowCarbonGrowth:aPotentialPathforMexico-GHGAbatementCostCurve&...

  16. Peru`s national greenhouse gas inventory, 1990. Peru climate change country study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study has been to determine the Inventory and to propose greenhouse gases mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting, improving in this way the Peruvian standard of life. The main objective of this executive summary is to show concisely the results of the National Inventory about greenhouse gases emitted by Peru in 1990.

  17. Econometric study of an oil-exporting country: the case of Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiat, A.

    1987-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to contribute toward an analytical and empirical work on the oil-based developing economy of Iran. It focuses on the aggregate behavior of the Iranian economy through a simple linear econometric model. After a survey of the literature on the theoretical framework of macroeconomic models for the developing countries in general, and for the oil-exporting developing countries in particular, a linear econometric model for the Iranian economy if formulated and its logical and economic aspects are explained. The proposed model consists of basic consumption, production, foreign trade, and employment relationship. Results obtained from the estimation of the consumption functions seem to indicate that the aggregate Iranian consumption behavior can be best explained by Fiedman's Permanent Income Hypothesis. In general, the results of this study demonstrate that the links between different sectors of the Iranian economy are very weak and the import-substitution strategy of the government during the period of study failed to establish a genuine domestic industrial base and to reduce its dependence on foreign resources.

  18. Philippines: Environment and natural resource management study. World Bank country study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This study addresses the most significant issues of natural-resource management in the Philippines. These include the disappearence or degradation of forests; erosion and changes in hydrological regimes; the conversion of mangrove swamps to fishponds; degradation of coral reefs; and depletion of nearshore fisheries through overfishing and destructive techniques. The issues addressed concern the extent and rate of degradation of these resource stocks, the impact thereof on the national economy, and the scope for ameliorative measures through policy responses, management changes, and investments. The Government is responsible for management of public resources, which include over half of the land area of the Philippines as well as the coastal waters. Historically, public management has been less than optimal, as evidenced by an unsustainable rate of deforestation and the recent stagnation or decline in extractive fisheries.

  19. GIS solutions for ecosystem management in developing countries: A case study of Sao Tome and Principe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, L.; Barrasso, T.; Pinto da Costa, H.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote awareness of the application of the Geographic information system (GIS) technology to the management of ecosystems in developing countries. The adoptation of systematic environmental research and management techniques by national and local conservation programs helps ensure the sustainability of important biological resources.

  20. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. . Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu . Research Inst. of Forestry)

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  1. Money windfalls and oil-exporting developing countries: a comparative study of Algeria, Ecuador, trinidad and Tobago, and Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avin, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis analyzes how the oil windfalls of the 1970s have affected the growth path and the sectoral composition of output and trade of the oil rich developing countries. The policy makers of the four subject countries have adopted different development strategies so that their economies can achieve sustained increases in per capita income and a higher level of economic development after the resource is depleted. The analysis is concerned with the consequences of these policies. The neoclassical models used in the literature to analyze the effects of a resource boom predict the following consequences among others: (1) increase in the prices of nontraded goods, which include construction and services; (2) appreciation of the real exchange rate, which is defined as the ratio of the price of nontraded goods to the price of traded goods, and (3) fall in the output and employment of the traditional traded goods sector, not including the resource or booming sector. The consequences are known as the Dutch Disease in reference to a decline in Dutch manufacturing in the 1960s brought about by natural gas discoveries. To test the hypotheses of the trade and development models, national accounts data are used in order to measure the changes in the composition of production and trade in the 1970s and early 1980s.

  2. Country Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country Total Percent of U.S. total Canada 61,078 1% China 3,323,297 57% Germany 154,800 3% Japan 12,593 0% India 47,192 1% South Korea 251,105 4% All Others 2,008,612 34% Total 5,858,677 100% Table 7 . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2014 (peak kilowatts) Note: All Others includes Cambodia, Czech Republic, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Turkey Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic

  3. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Fearnside, P.M. , Manaus, AM . Departmento de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  4. Differential impact of rising energy prices upon developed and developing countries: 1970-1977

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collier, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the impact of this era of restricted energy upon continued growth and development of poor, middle-income, and rich countries in the world society. The research objective is to ascertain if increased prices more adversely affected low-income countries (many of whom morally supported the behavior of th OPEC nations) than middle-income and rich countries. A 116-country sample is used and subdivided into five country groupings: poor, middle-income, industrialized, capital surplus oil-exporting, and centrally-planned countries. Data on the energy variables indicated that low-income countries continued to have access to energy during the post-embargo period in spite of higher prices. The average increase in energy consumption was greater for the poorer Lesser Developed Countries (LDC) in the post-1973 than in the pre-1973 years. In contrast, industrialized countries significantly reduced their mean rate of energy consumption. Thus, a slight redistribution of energy resources occurred from the industrialized countries to the rest of the world. Data analysis also revealed that while economic growth declined for all country groupings in the post-embargo years, industrialized countries experienced a greater percentage decrease in growth rates than did developing countries.

  5. Growth Mode Transition in Complex Oxide Heteroepitaxy: Atomically Resolved Studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tselev, Alexander; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Qiao, Liang; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Biegalski, Michael D.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-04-04

    Here we performed investigations of the atomic-scale surface structure of epitaxial La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 thin films as a model system dependent on growth conditions in pulsed laser deposition with emphasis on film growth kinetics. Postdeposition in situ scanning tunneling microscopy was combined with in operando reflective high-energy electron diffraction to monitor the film growth and ex situ X-ray diffraction for structural analysis. We find a correlation between the out-of-plane lattice parameter and both adspecies mobility and height of the Ehrlich–Schwoebel barrier, with mobility of adatoms greater over the cationically stoichiometric terminations. We find that the data suggest that the out-of-plane lattice parametermore » is dependent on the mechanism of epitaxial strain relaxation, which is controlled by the oxidative power of the deposition environment.« less

  6. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 3, India and China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M.; Deying, Xu

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  7. Country Analysis Briefs

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2028-01-01

    An ongoing compilation of country energy profiles. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries that are important to world energy markets, including members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers, major energy transit countries, major energy consumers, and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers.

  8. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

  9. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  10. Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Martinez, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Mark, J.

    1994-08-01

    Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in terms of their future carbon emissions reduction potential. This study outlines a methodology for identifying RETs that have the potential for achieving large carbon emissions reductions in the future, while also meeting key criteria for commercialization and acceptability in developing countries. In addition, this study evaluates the connection between technology identification and the selection of projects that are designed to demonstrate technologies with a propensity for carbon emission reductions (e.g., Global Environmental Facility projects). Although this report applies the methodology to Mexico in a case study format, the methodology is broad based and could be applied to any developing country, as well as to other technologies. The methodology used in this report is composed of four steps: technology screening, technology identification, technology deployment scenarios, and estimates of carbon emissions reductions. The four technologies with the highest ranking in the technology identification process for the on-grid category were geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind, and micro-/mini-hydro. Compressed natural gas (CNG) was the alternative that received the highest ranking for the transportation category.

  11. In Situ and Ex Situ Studies of Platinum Nanocrystals: Growth and Evolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Solution In Situ and Ex Situ Studies of Platinum Nanocrystals: Growth and Evolution in Solution figure 1 Figure 1. Time-resolved XRD results obtained for both low and high concentration reactions. (A) In situ XRD plots; the position of the (111) and (200) reflections for bulk fcc platinum is shown by the lines at bottom; (B) time evolution of area under the Pt(111) peak. I - IV denote the growth stages of the high concentration reaction; (C) evolution of X-ray correlation length (L)

  12. Low emittance growth funneling line: preliminary design and beam dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical design study has resulted in a conceptual funneling-line design that has a transverse emittance growth limited to only 15% based on beam-dynamics calculations. Two 2-MeV, 100-mA proton beams are funneled from a two-channel, 212.5-MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) to a single beam suitable for injection into a 425-MHz linac. The design uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles, dipoles, and combined-function elements. The low emittance growth is obtained by arranging the focusing strength, the periodic structure, and the bending elements so as to minimize abrupt changes in the beam environmental with consequent charge redistribution and space-charge-caused emittance growth.

  13. Fast Out of the Gate: How Developing Asian Countries can Prepare...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from Fast Out of the Gate: How Developing Asian Countries can Prepare to Access International Green Growth Financing)...

  14. Growth and micro structural studies on Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) buffer layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A.K.; Pinto, R.

    1994-12-31

    Microstructure of Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) of radio frequency magnetron sputtered buffer layers was studied at various sputtering conditions on Si<100>, Sapphire and LaAlO{sub 3} <100> substrates. The effect of substrate temperatures upto 800 C and sputtering gas pressures in the range of 50 mTorr. of growth conditions was studied. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed a strong tendency for columnar structure with variation growth conditions. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed orientation. The tendency for columnar growth was observed above 15 mTorr sputtering gas pressure and at high substrate temperatures. Post annealing of these films in oxygen atmosphere reduced the oxygen deficiency and strain generated during growth of the films. Strong c-axis oriented superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) thin films were obtained on these buffer layers using pulsed laser ablation technique. YBCO films deposited on multilayers of YSZ and STO were shown to have better superconducting properties.

  15. How Does Your Garden Grow? Study Identifies Instigators of Plant Growth |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) How Does Your Garden Grow? Study Identifies Instigators of Plant Growth Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000

  16. Growth process of microcrystalline silicon studied by combined photoluminescence and Raman investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klossek, A.; Mankovics, D.; Ratzke, M.; Arguirov, T.; Kittler, M.; Kirner, S.; Gabriel, O.; Stannowski, B.; Schlatmann, R.; Friedrich, F.

    2013-12-14

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon on glass substrates leads to formation of silicon amorphous films with partial crystallization of nano-grains in the amorphous matrix. We studied the transition of amorphous to microcrystalline silicon during such deposition. Formation of silicon nano-grains was detected by means of photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline fraction and the mean size of the nano-grains were estimated by the position and the intensity of the peaks in the Raman spectrum. We showed that the fraction of crystalline silicon in the layers and the size of the nano-grains are strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The photoluminescence spectra exhibit distinct features related to recombination in the amorphous and in the crystalline phases. A significant narrowing of the photoluminescence peak related to the amorphous phase with increasing crystalline fraction indicates a structural modification in the amorphous silicon. It suggests an ordering process occurring before the start of the actual crystallization. A peak at about 1.4 eV was associated with isolated nano-crystalline grains within the amorphous matrix. A correlation between the peak energy and grain size was found, indicating effects of carrier quantum confinement. The experimental results confirm the established theoretical models for growth of microcrystalline silicon films.

  17. Study of CNT growth using nanocatalyst Ag precursor by HWC-VHF-PECVD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliyana, Ajeng; Rosikin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto

    2015-04-16

    The study of CNT growth has been done by using silver (Ag) nanocatalyst as a guide precursor on corning glass 7059 substrate. The silver catalyst was prepared by the evaporation method by varying deposition time for 50, 25, and 14 seconds. The silver films were then annealed at temperature of 400C for 4 hours. From Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) results the grain sizes are 65?nm, 57?nm, and 33?nm, and also the atomic compositions are 6,06%, 4,52%, and 3,73% for 14, 25 and 50 seconds samples, respectively. The 33?nm samples were then used for CNT growth by using Hot Wire Cell (HWC) Very High Frequency (VHF) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) at 275 C deposition temperature and pressure of 300 mTorr. The rf power was varied from 8 to 20 watts, with deposition time for 60 minutes. The methane (CH4) 99.999% was used as Carbon sources. Hydrogen gas (H2) was used to etch the oxide layer formed during the pre-deposition process. The diameter and length for the CNT are 125?nm and 1.650 to 2.989?nm respectively.

  18. Studies and calculations of transverse emittance growth in high-energy proton storage rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mane, S.R.; Jackson, G.

    1989-03-01

    In the operation of proton-antiproton colliders, an important goal is to maximize the integrated luminosity. During such operations in the Fermilab Tevatron, the transverse beam emittances were observed to grow unexpectedly quickly, thus causing a serious reduction of the luminosity. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. A formula for the emittance growth rate, due to random dipole kicks, is derived. In the experiment, RF phase noise of known amplitude was deliberately injected into the Tevatron to kick the beam randomly, via dispersion at the RF cavities. Theory and experiment are found to agree reasonably well. We also briefly discuss the problem of quadrupole kicks. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Study of microstructure and electrical properties of bulk YBCO prepared by melt textured growth technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonal, M. R.; Krishnan, Madangopal; Tewari, R.; Tyagi, A. K.; Gyore, A.; Vajda, I.

    2015-06-24

    Bulk YBCO components were prepared using Melt Texture Growth (MTG) technique. Components were fabricated using MTG by addition of Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (Y211) and Ag to YBCO, which leads to improved grain size without affecting superconducting properties. Green compacts prepared by cold isostatic pressing were pre-sintered at 930°C before subjecting melt texturing. Cooling rates lower than 1 °C.h{sup −1} was used, in between (peritectic) temperature of about 995 and 1025°C, to obtain large grained components. Microstructure studies in details were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA), Orientation Imaging Microscope (OIM) and TEM correlated with electrical properties like Critical current density (J{sub c})

  20. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Rachael E.; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ? Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ? Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ? High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ? Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  1. Low Carbon Green Growth: Integrated Policy Approach to Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth: Integrated Policy Approach to Climate Change for Asia-Pacific Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low Carbon Green Growth:...

  2. A Study of Detonation Diffraction in the Ignition-and-Growth Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapila, A K; Schwendeman, D W; Bdzil, J B; Henshaw, W D

    2006-04-14

    Heterogeneous high-energy explosives are morphologically, mechanically and chemically complex. As such, their ab-initio modeling, in which well-characterized phenomena at the scale of the microstructure lead to a rationally homogenized description at the scale of observation, is a subject of active research but not yet a reality. An alternative approach is to construct phenomenological models, in which forms of constitutive behavior are postulated with an eye on the perceived picture of the micro-scale phenomena, and which are strongly linked to experimental calibration. Most prominent among these is the ignition-and-growth model conceived by Lee and Tarver. The model treats the explosive as a homogeneous mixture of two distinct constituents, the unreacted explosive and the products of reaction. To each constituent is assigned an equation of state, and a single reaction-rate law is prescribed for the conversion of the explosive to products. It is assumed that the two constituents are always in pressure and temperature equilibrium. The purpose of this paper is to investigate in detail the behavior of the model in situations where a detonation turns a corner and undergoes diffraction. A set of parameters appropriate for the explosive LX-17 is selected. The model is first examined analytically for steady, planar, 1-D solutions and the reaction-zone structure of Chapman-Jouguet detonations is determined. A computational study of two classes of problems is then undertaken. The first class corresponds to planar, 1-D initiation by an impact, and the second to corner turning and diffraction in planar and axisymmetric geometries. The 1-D initiation, although interesting in its own right, is utilized here as a means for interpretation of the 2-D results. It is found that there are two generic ways in which 1-D detonations are initiated in the model, and that these scenarios play a part in the post-diffraction evolution as well. For the parameter set under study the model

  3. Nepal-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  4. Kenya-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  5. Mali-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  6. Laboratory Studies of the Role of Amines in Particle Formation, Growth and Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2015-02-07

    Organosulfur compounds have a variety of sources, particularly biological processes in the oceans. Their oxidation in air forms sulfur dioxide, which is further oxidized to sulfuric acid, as well as methanesulfonic acid (MSA). While sulfuric acid is a well known precursor to particles in air, MSA had not been regarded as a source of new particle formation. Laboratory studies were carried out under this project that showed MSA forms new particles quite efficiently in the presence of amines and water vapor. The data could be reproduced with a relatively simple kinetics model representing cluster formation and growth, which is promising for representing this chemistry in global climate models. The initial steps in the kinetics scheme are based on quantum chemical calculations of likely clusters. The organosulfur chemistry was introduced into an atmospheric model for southern California and used to predict the impact of going to a fossil-fuel free world in which anthropogenic emissions of SO2 are removed, but the natural processes remain.

  7. * City, State, Country:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 2015 Information and/or Documents NEEDED to CREATE a NEW Event: Information needed: * Official Name of the Event * Name of Organizing Institution * Organizer Contact Name, email and phone number * Event's web site * Date(s) of event * Location the event will take place at * City, State, Country: * Per Diem amounts for lodging and M&IE (meals) * Three to four sentences on how this event is in support of SLAC/DOE and/or the Office of Science mission, therefore representation from SLAC

  8. Venezuela Country Analysis Brief

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of crude oil. The country has been one of the largest exporters of crude oil in the Americas. As a founding member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Venezuela is an important player in the global oil market. Although oil production has declined since its peak in the late 1990s, Venezuela has been among the top exporters of crude oil to the United States have been among the largest in the world. In recent years, through significant upfront investment, an increasing share of Venezuela’s exports has been delivered to China. While Venezuela is important to the global oil market, the government’s reinvestment of oil revenues into social programs instead of reinvestment into exploration, production, and refining has led to declines in output. In 2014, Venezuela consumed 3.3 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of total energy.1 Oil continues to represent most of the country’s total energy consumed, and natural gas consumption has increased in the past five years. Hydroelectric power meets less than 25% of total demand, and coal represents less than 1%.

  9. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S.; Nadel, S.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  10. An MBE growth facility for real-time in situ synchrotron x-ray topography studies of strained-layer III--V epitaxial materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, C.R.; Barnett, S.J.; Soley, D.E.J.; Quarrell, J.; Aldridge, S.J.; Cullis, A.G.; Emeny, M.T.; Johnson, A.D. , St. Andrews Road, Malvern, Worcs WR14 3PS ); Clarke, G.F.; Lamb, W. ); Tanner, B.K.; Cottrell, S. ); Lunn, B.; Hogg, C.; Hagston, W. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a unique combined UHV MBE growth x-ray topography facility designed to allow the first real-time synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study of strained-layer III--V growth processes. This system will enable unambiguous determination of dislocation nucleation and multiplication processes as a function of controlled variations in growth conditions, and also during post-growth thermal processing. The planned experiments have placed very stringent demands upon the engineering design of the system, and design details regarding the growth chamber; sample manipulator, x-ray optics, and real-time imaging systems are described. Results obtained during a feasibility study are also presented.

  11. Country profile: Hungary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  12. Country profile: Hungary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  13. Study of nitrogen incorporation into GaInNAs: The role of growth temperature in molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korpijaervi, V.-M.; Aho, A.; Tukiainen, A.; Laakso, A.; Guina, M.; Laukkanen, P.; Tuominen, M.

    2012-07-15

    GaInNAs has an important impact on developing GaAs-based optoelectronics and multijunction solar cells, but the complex nature of the nitrogen incorporation into GaInAs is still not fully understood. By combining x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, we show that nitrogen incorporation is enhanced with increasing growth temperature in the range of 300-450 Degree-Sign C. We study the growth front and show that the surface reconstruction is (1 Multiplication-Sign 3) regardless of growth temperature in this range. The enhanced nitrogen incorporation can be modeled as a thermally activated process with activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  14. Risk perception in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Rayner, S.F.

    1985-02-15

    The paper briefly reviews: (1) what risk perception means to most people in developing countries; (2) some of the modern-technology-related risks to which people in these countries are exposed; and (3) some research evidence about risk perception that gives hints about how such perceptions will evolve in developing countries. (ACR)

  15. Smart Cities - Smart Growth

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart Cities - Smart Growth The United States Secretaries of Commerce will co-lead a Business Development Mission to China from April 12-17, 2015. This mission will promote U.S. clean technology products and services in the areas of green building/construction, energy efficiency, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) and environmental technologies in support of the Smart Cities-Smart Growth theme. On November 12, President Obama and President Xi jointly announced the two countries'

  16. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, Keith L; Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Wolfe, Amy K; Perlack, Robert D; Dale, Virginia H

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of

  17. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64

  18. First-principles studies on molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAs1-xBix

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Luo, Guangfu; Yang, Shujiang; Li, Jincheng; Arjmand, Mehrdad; Szlufarska, Izabela; Brown, April S.; Kuech, Thomas F.; Morgan, Dane

    2015-07-14

    We investigate the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of GaAs1-xBix film using density functional theory with spin-orbit coupling to understand the growth of this film, especially the mechanisms of Bi incorporation. We study the stable adsorption structures and kinetics of the incident molecules (As₂ molecule, Ga atom, Bi atom, and Bi₂ molecule) on the (2 x 1)-Gasub||Bi surface and a proposed q(1 x 1)-Gasub||AsAs surface has a quasi-(1 x 1) As layer above the Ga-terminated GaAs substrate and a randomly oriented As dimer layer on top. We obtain the desorption and diffusion barriers of the adsorbed molecules and also themore » reaction barriers of three key processes related to Bi evolution, namely, Bi incorporation, As/Bi exchange, and Bi clustering. The results help explain the experimentally observed dependence of Bi incorporation on the As/Ga ratio and growth temperature. Furthermore, we find that As₂ exchange with Bi of the (2 x 1)-Gasub||Bi surface is a key step controlling the kinetics of the Bi incorporation. Finally, we explore two possible methods to enhance the Bi incorporation, namely, replacing the MBE growth mode from codeposition of all fluxes with a sequential deposition of fluxes and applying asymmetric in-plane strain to the substrate.« less

  19. Numerical study of nucleation and growth of bubbles in viscous magmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toramaru, A.

    1995-02-01

    The nucleation and growth processes of bubbles in viscous magmas with a constant decompression rate have been numerically investigated based on a formation which accounts for effects of viscosity, as well as diffusivity, interfacial tension, and decompression rate. The numerical solutions show two regimes in the nucleation and growth process, a diffusion-controlled regime and a viscosity-controlled regime, mainly depending on the decompression rate, initial saturation pressure and viscosity. The basic mechanism common to both regimes is that growth governs nucleation through depletion of degassing components. In basaltic eruptions the vesiculation is essentially controlled by diffusion, and the viscosity-controlled regime is limited to very high decompression rate and very small water content. When andesitic magma saturated by water at 10 MPa is decompressed through the propagation of rarefraction wave induced by a landslide, as took place in the Mount St. Helens 1980 eruption, the vesiculation is controlled by the viscosity up to 100 m depth. On the other hand, in a rhyolitic magma for the same situation, vesiculation is controlled by the viscosity over the whole depth of the magma column. In the viscosity-controlled regime, the vesicularity may be 90% or less as seen in silicic pumice, whereas in the diffusion-controlled regime the vesicularity equals or exceeds 98% such as in reticulite in Hawaiian basalt. An observed variation of the number density of bubbles by several orders of magnitude in plinian eruptions and the correlation with the SiO2 content can be attributed approximately to the dependence of diffusivity of viscosity on SiO2 content and temperature, assuming the apparent correlation between SiO2 content and temperature of magma.

  20. Catalytic Growth of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes: An {ital Ab Initio} Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.H.; Kim, S.G.; Tomanek, D.; Lee, Y.H.

    1997-03-01

    We propose a catalytic growth mechanism of single-wall carbon nanotubes based on density functional total energy calculations. Our results indicate nanotubes with an {open_quotes}armchair{close_quotes} edge to be energetically favored over {open_quotes}zigzag{close_quotes} nanotubes. We also suggest that highly mobile Ni catalyst atoms adsorb at the growing edge of the nanotube, where they catalyze the continuing assembly of hexagons from carbon feedstock diffusing along the nanotube wall. In a concerted exchange mechanism, Ni atoms anneal carbon pentagons that would initiate a dome closure of the nanotube. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Real-time x-ray studies of indium island growth kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demasi, Alexander; Rainville, Meliha G.; Ludwig, Karl F.

    2015-03-15

    The authors have investigated the early stages of indium island formation and growth by vapor phase deposition on room temperature sapphire using real-time grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS), followed by ex-situ atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results are consistent with the formation and coalescence of hemispherical islands, as described by Family and Meakin. Monte Carlo simulations of systems of coalescing islands were used to supplement and quantify the results of GISAXS, and a good agreement is seen between the data and the simulations.

  2. Oil and economic performance in industrial countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries have experienced slower economic growth and periods of discontinuity in the energy market since the 1973-74 oil embargo. A review of this phenomenon examines changes in the market during the 1960s and 70s, linkages between oil prices and economic performance, and appropriate policy responses. When price elasticities are calculated over time, recent US economic behavior appears to have both historical and cross-sountry consistency. Little flexibility is seen in the available energy-using technologies for producing goods and services, while energy-using capital has been sluggish. Dr. Nordhaus advocates high oil price and high tax policies as the best way to limit demand without slowing economic growth. (DCK)

  3. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Fearnside, P.M.

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  4. Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic Documents: ARCGIS Shape...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ARCGIS Shape File, all Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic Documents: ARCGIS Shape File, all Countries...

  5. Nucleation and growth of MgO atomic layer deposition: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Han; Fu, Kan

    2013-11-15

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of MgO thin films from bis(cyclopentadienyl) magnesium and H{sub 2}O was studied using in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), ex-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. It is found that the initial growth is not linear during the first ten cycles, and magnesium silicate forms spontaneously on the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates at 250 C. Submonolayer sensitivity of SE is demonstrated by the analysis of each half-cycle and self-limiting adsorption, revealing characteristic features of hetero- and homo-MgO ALD processes.

  6. Growth of polyphenyls via ion-molecule reactions: An experimental and theoretical mechanistic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aysina, Julia; Tosi, Paolo; Ascenzi, Daniela; Maranzana, Andrea; Tonachini, Glauco

    2013-05-28

    The reactivity of biphenylium cations C{sub 12}H{sub 9}{sup +} with benzene C{sub 6}H{sub 6} is investigated in a joint experimental and theoretical approach. Experiments are performed by using a triple quadruple mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ion source to generate C{sub 12}H{sub 9}{sup +} via dissociative ionization of various isomers of the neutral precursor hydroxybiphenyl (C{sub 12}H{sub 10}O). C-C coupling reactions leading to hydrocarbon growth are observed. The most abundant ionic products are C{sub 18}H{sub 15}{sup +}, C{sub 18}H{sub 13}{sup +}, C{sub 17}H{sub 12}{sup +}, and C{sub 8}H{sub 7}{sup +}. The dependence of product ion yields on the kinetic energy of reagent ions, as well as further experiments performed using partial isotopic labelling of reagents, support the idea that the reaction proceeds via a long lived association product, presumably the covalently bound protonated terphenyl C{sub 18}H{sub 15}{sup +}. Its formation is found to be exothermic and barrierless and, therefore, might occur under the low pressure and temperature conditions typical of planetary atmospheres and the interstellar medium. Theoretical calculations have focussed on the channel leading to C{sub 8}H{sub 7}{sup +} plus C{sub 10}H{sub 8}, identifying, as the most probable fragments, the phenylethen-1-ylium cation and naphthalene, thus suggesting that the pathway leading to them might be of particular interest for the synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Both experiments and theory agree in finding this channel exoergic but hampered by small barriers of 2.7 and 3.7 kcal mol{sup -1} on the singlet potential energy surface.

  7. Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Studies on initiation, growth and sintering in the formation of utility boiler deposits: Topical technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Austin, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    Three laboratory-scale devices were utilized to investigate the mechanisms of the initiation, growth and sintering process involved in the formation of boiler deposits. Sticking apparatus investigations were conducted to study deposit initiation by comparing the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on four types of steel-based heat exchanger materials under the conditions found in a utility boiler and an entrained slagging gasifier. In addition, the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on a reduced steel surface were investigated. All the ash drops studied in this investigation were produced from bituminous coals.

  8. In-situ energy dispersive x-ray diffraction study of the growth of CuO nanowires by annealing method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Himanshu; Ganguli, Tapas; Deb, S. K.; Sant, Tushar; Poswal, H. K.; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2013-10-14

    The in-situ growth of CuO nanowires was studied by Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD) to observe the mechanism of growth. The study was carried out for comparison at two temperaturesat 500 C, the optimum temperature of the nanowires growth, and at 300 C just below the temperature range of the growth. The in situ observation revealed the successive oxidation of Cu foil to Cu{sub 2}O layer and finally to CuO layer. Further analysis showed the presence of a compressive stress in CuO layer due to interface at CuO and Cu{sub 2}O layers. The compressive stress was found to increase with the growth of the nanowires at 500 C while it relaxed with the growth of CuO layer at 300 C. The present results do not support the existing model of stress relaxation induced growth of nanowires. Based on the detailed Transmission Electron Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, and EDXRD results, a microstructure based growth model has been suggested.

  9. CO{sub 2} emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term. Volume 4, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world`s share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  10. Using Economic Input/Output Tables to Predict a Countrys Nuclear Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Daly, Don S.; Wood, Thomas W.

    2010-07-15

    Both nuclear power and nuclear weapons programs should have (related) economic signatures which are detectible at some scale. We evaluated this premise in a series of studies using national economic input/output (IO) data. Statistical discrimination models using economic IO tables predict with a high probability whether a country with an unknown predilection for nuclear weapons proliferation is in fact engaged in nuclear power development or nuclear weapons proliferation. We analyzed 93 IO tables, spanning the years 1993 to 2005 for 37 countries that are either members or associates of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The 2009 OECD input/output tables featured 48 industrial sectors based on International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Revision 3, and described the respective economies in current country-of-origin valued currency. We converted and transformed these reported values to US 2005 dollars using appropriate exchange rates and implicit price deflators, and addressed discrepancies in reported industrial sectors across tables. We then classified countries with Random Forest using either the adjusted or industry-normalized values. Random Forest, a classification tree technique, separates and categorizes countries using a very small, select subset of the 2304 individual cells in the IO table. A nations efforts in nuclear power, be it for electricity or nuclear weapons, are an enterprise with a large economic footprint -- an effort so large that it should discernibly perturb coarse country-level economics data such as that found in yearly input-output economic tables. The neoclassical economic input-output model describes a countrys or regions economy in terms of the requirements of industries to produce the current level of economic output. An IO table row shows the distribution of an industrys output to the industrial sectors while a table column shows the input required of each industrial sector by a given

  11. Develop low emissions growth scenarios | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    low emissions growth scenarios Jump to: navigation, search Stage 3 LEDS Home Introduction to Framework Assess current country plans, policies, practices, and capacities...

  12. Stress evolution during growth in direct-current-sputtered zinc...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CRYSTAL GROWTH; DIRECT CURRENT; FLOW STRESS; OXYGEN; OXYGEN IONS; RADIOWAVE RADIATION; ...

  13. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  14. The chemical industry, by country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-03-01

    Beijing will be the site for the third ACHEMASIA, international petrochemical and chemical exhibition and conference, May 15--20, 1995. In preparation for this conference, Hydrocarbon Processing contacted executives of petrochemical/chemical industries and trade associations, seeking views on the state of the industry. The Asia-Pacific region is the center of new construction and expanded capacity and also a mixture of mature, developing and emerging petrochemical industries. Established countries must mold and grow with emerging economies as the newcomers access natural resources and develop their own petrochemical infrastructures. The following nation reports focus on product supply/demand trends, economic forecasts, new construction, etc. Space limitations prohibit publishing commentaries from all countries that have petrochemical/chemical capacity. Reports are published from the following countries: Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

  15. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, L. C.; Leousis, D. P.

    2014-03-15

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

  16. Crystal growth and annealing study of fragile, non-bulk superconductivity in YFe2Ge 2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, H.; Ran, S.; Mun, E. D.; Hodovanets, H.; Tanatar, M. A.; Prozorov, R.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-02-05

    In this study, we investigated the occurrence and nature of superconductivity in single crystals of YFe2Ge2 grown out of Sn flux by employing X-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity and specific heat measurements. We found that the residual resistivity ratio (RRR) of single crystals can be greatly improved, reaching as high as ~60, by decanting the crystals from the molten Sn at ~350°C and/or by annealing at temperatures between 550°C and 600°C. We found that the samples with RRR ≳ 34 showed resistive signatures of superconductivity with the onset of the superconducting transition Tc ≈ 1.4K. RRR values vary between 35 andmore » 65 with, on average, no systematic change in value Tc, indicating that the systematic changes in RRR do not lead to comparable changes in Tc. Specific heat measurements on samples that showed the clear resistive signatures of a superconducting transition did not show any signature of a superconducting phase transition, which suggests that the superconductivity observed in this compound is either some sort of filamentary, strain-stabilized superconductivity associated with small amounts of stressed YFe2Ge2 (perhaps at twin boundaries or dislocations) or is a second crystallographic phase that is present at level below detection capability of conventional powder X-ray techniques.« less

  17. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  18. Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development Conference Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development Conference April 4, 2016 8:00AM CDT to ...

  19. North Country Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: North Country Ethanol LLC Place: Rosholt, South Dakota Zip: 57260 Product: 20mmgy (75.7m litresy) ethanol producer....

  20. EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in

  1. Projections of water stress based on an ensemble of socioeconomic growth and climate change scenarios: A case study in Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C. Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2016-03-30

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios—internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population—to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify themore » primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region’s population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Lastly, tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers.« less

  2. Options for developing countries in mining development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walrond, G.W.; Kumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a study of the issues that developing countries face in planning and implementing mineral development, taking as case studies Botswana, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Tanzania, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the developed states of Quebec and Western Australia. The authors consider the major aspects of the matter including organization and administration; regulation; taxation and surplus distribution; the dynamics of such instruments as royalty, rent resource tax and capital allowances under various cost/price scenarios; and selected mining agreements and their key provisions. They stress throughout the need for foreign investment while maximizing the economic benefits reaped from exhaustible resources.

  3. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  4. International Experiences and Frameworks to Support Country-Driven Low-Emissions Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benioff, R.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.

    2012-08-01

    Countries can use low-emission development strategies (LEDS) to advance sustainable development, promote private-sector growth, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper proposes a framework -- or support infrastructure -- to enable the efficient exchange of LEDS-related knowledge and technical assistance. Under the proposed framework, countries share LEDS-related resources via coordinating forums, 'knowledge platforms,' and networks of experts and investors. The virtual 'knowledge platforms' foster learning by allowing countries to communicate with each other and share technical reports, data, and analysis tools in support of LEDS development. Investing in all elements of the framework in an integrated fashion increases the efficacy of support for country-driven LEDS.

  5. Photoluminescence study of the substitution of Cd by Zn during the growth by atomic layer epitaxy of alternate CdSe and ZnSe monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernndez-Caldern, I.; Salcedo-Reyes, J. C.

    2014-05-15

    We present a study of the substitution of Cd atoms by Zn atoms during the growth of alternate ZnSe and CdSe compound monolayers (ML) by atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) as a function of substrate temperature. Samples contained two quantum wells (QWs), each one made of alternate CdSe and ZnSe monolayers with total thickness of 12 ML but different growth parameters. The QWs were studied by low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. We show that the Cd content of underlying CdSe layers is affected by the exposure of the quantum well film to the Zn flux during the growth of ZnSe monolayers. The amount of Cd of the quantum well film decreases with higher exposures to the Zn flux. A brief discussion about the difficulties to grow the Zn{sub 0.5}Cd{sub 0.5}Se ordered alloy (CuAu-I type) by ALE is presented.

  6. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  7. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  8. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  9. A low energy electron microscopy study of the initial growth, structure, and thermal stability of 4,4{sup '}-biphenyldicarboxylic acid domains on Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khokhar, Fawad S.; Gastel, Raoul van; Schwarz, Daniel; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2011-09-28

    The growth of 4,4{sup '}-biphenyldicarboxylic acid (BDA) on Cu(001) has been studied using low energy electron microscopy and selective area low energy electron diffraction. The emergence of large islands and hydrogen bonding to perpendicularly oriented, adjacent molecules is confirmed. The two benzene rings of adsorbed BDA are twisted along the molecular axis. Unconventional growth of the domains, followed by a second nucleation stage, is observed at room temperature. This unanticipated feature is attributed to the accumulation of stress in the islands. Ostwald ripening in the films and the decay of BDA domains at 448 K exhibits features that are consistent with diffusion limited behavior.

  10. Study of radial growth rate and size control of silicon nanocrystals in square-wave-modulated silane plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen-Tran, Th.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Patriarche, G.

    2007-09-10

    The growth of silicon nanocrystals in high pressure and high dilution silane plasmas is investigated by using the temporal evolution of the self-bias on the radio frequency electrode and transmission electron microscopy. A square-wave-modulated plasma was used in order to control the growth of monodispersed nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 12 nm. To this end, the plasma on time was kept below 1 s. The radial growth rate of nanoparticles was varied in the range from 7.5 to 75 nm/s by changing silane partial pressure. Nanoparticles grown in silane-helium discharges have been found amorphous while they are crystalline in silane-hydrogen-argon discharges. Surprisingly, the crystallization in the gaseous phase does not depend on how slow or fast the particles grow but on the presence of atomic hydrogen.

  11. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of Energy in the long term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketoff, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. Of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist energy demand in developing will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. These individual studies were conducted fro Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela in Latin America.

  12. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry growth studies on the Al-doped ZnO films deposited by remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volintiru, I.; Creatore, M.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de

    2008-02-01

    In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was applied to study the pyramidlike and pillarlike growth of Al doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited by means of remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition for transparent conductive oxide applications. Real time SE studies in the visible region allowed discerning between the two growth modes by addressing the time evolution of the bulk and surface roughness layer thickness. While the pillarlike mode is characterized by a constant growth rate, a slower rate in the initial stage (up to 150-200 nm film thickness), compared to the bulk, is observed for the growth of pyramidlike AZO films. The two modes differ also in terms of surface roughness development: a saturation behavior is observed for film thickness above 150-200 nm in the case of the pyramidlike films, while a slow linear increase with film thickness characterizes the pillarlike mode. By extending the SE analysis of the AZO films to the near infrared region, valuable information about the in grain properties could be extracted: excellent in grain mobility values, i.e., larger than 100 and 50 cm{sup 2}/V s, are determined for the pyramidlike and pillarlike AZO layers, respectively. The comparison between the outcome of the in situ real time SE studies and the ex situ electrical and chemical characterization highlights the limitations in the electron transport occurring in both types of films and allows one to address routes toward further improvement in AZO conductivity.

  13. The impact of oil on a developing country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikein, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of the impact of the oil industry on a particular developing country, Nigeria over a period of 32 years. Arguing that previous studies on the oil industry in developing countries have tended to focus only on the economic significance of oil, ignoring its societal costs, the author uses a multidimensional approach that enables him to identify the linkage between the performance of the oil industry and the pattern of Nigeria's national and regional development.

  14. In situ study on the effect of thermomigration on intermetallic compounds growth in liquid-solid interfacial reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Lin; Zhao, Ning; Ma, Haitao, E-mail: htma@dlut.edu.cn; Zhao, Huijing; Huang, Mingliang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China)

    2014-05-28

    Synchrotron radiation real-time imaging technology was carried out in situ to observe and characterize the effect of thermomigration on the growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn/Cu solder joint during soldering. The thermomigration resulted in asymmetrical formation and growth of the interfacial IMCs. Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Cu{sub 3}Sn IMCs formed at the cold end and grew rapidly during the whole soldering process. However, only Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC formed at the hot end and remained relatively thin until solidification. The IMCs at the cold end were nearly seven times thicker than that at the hot end after solidification. The Cu dissolution at the cold end was significantly restrained, while that at the hot end was promoted, which supplied Cu atoms to diffuse toward the cold end under thermomigration to feed the rapid IMC growth. Moreover, the thermomigration also caused asymmetrical morphology of the interfacial IMCs at the cooling stage, i.e., the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC at the cold end transformed into facet structure, while that at the hot end remained scallop-type. The asymmetrical growth behavior of the interfacial IMCs was analyzed from the view point of kinetics.

  15. In situ study of the endotaxial growth of hexagonal CoSi{sub 2} nanoplatelets in Si(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva Costa, Daniel da; Kellermann, Guinther; Huck-Iriart, Cristián; Giovanetti, Lisandro J.; Requejo, Félix G.

    2015-11-30

    This investigation aims at studying–by in situ grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering–the process of growth of hexagonal CoSi{sub 2} nanoplatelets endotaxially buried in a Si(001) wafer. The early formation of spherical Co nanoparticles with bimodal size distribution in the deposited silica thin film during a pretreatment at 500 °C and their subsequent growth at 700 °C were also characterized. Isothermal annealing at 700 °C promotes a drastic reduction in the number of the smallest Co nanoparticles and a continuous decrease in their volume fraction in the silica thin film. At the same time, Co atoms diffuse across the SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) interface into the silicon wafer, react with Si, and build up thin hexagonal CoSi{sub 2} nanoplatelets, all of them with their main surfaces parallel to Si(111) crystallographic planes. The observed progressive growths in thickness and lateral size of the hexagonal CoSi{sub 2} nanoplatelets occur at the expense of the dissolution of the small Co nanoparticles that are formed during the pretreatment at 500 °C and become unstable at the annealing temperature (700 °C). The kinetics of growth of the volume fraction of hexagonal platelets is well described by the classical Avrami equation.

  16. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  17. Economic evaluation of rural woodlots in a developing country: Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kihiyo, V.B.M.S.

    1996-03-01

    Rural areas in developing countries use wood as their main source of energy. Previously, wood has been obtained free from natural forests and woodlands. The pressure of increased demand through population growth, and the fact that natural trees take longer to grow, has made this resource scarce. Thus, raising trees in woodlots has been adopted as the solution to its shortage in the wild. However, growing trees in woodlots will inevitably require resources in terms of capital, land and manpower. Economic evaluation becomes necessary to ascertain that these resources are used economically. This paper dwells on some of the salient features of the economic evaluation of woodlots, such as interest rates, shadow prices of factors of production, social opportunity, cost of capital and sensitivity analysis of such woodlots in a developing country such as Tanzania. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. First-principles studies on molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAs1-xBix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Guangfu; Yang, Shujiang; Li, Jincheng; Arjmand, Mehrdad; Szlufarska, Izabela; Brown, April S.; Kuech, Thomas F.; Morgan, Dane

    2015-07-14

    We investigate the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of GaAs1-xBix film using density functional theory with spin-orbit coupling to understand the growth of this film, especially the mechanisms of Bi incorporation. We study the stable adsorption structures and kinetics of the incident molecules (As? molecule, Ga atom, Bi atom, and Bi? molecule) on the (2 x 1)-Gasub||Bi surface and a proposed q(1 x 1)-Gasub||AsAs surface has a quasi-(1 x 1) As layer above the Ga-terminated GaAs substrate and a randomly oriented As dimer layer on top. We obtain the desorption and diffusion barriers of the adsorbed molecules and also the reaction barriers of three key processes related to Bi evolution, namely, Bi incorporation, As/Bi exchange, and Bi clustering. The results help explain the experimentally observed dependence of Bi incorporation on the As/Ga ratio and growth temperature. Furthermore, we find that As? exchange with Bi of the (2 x 1)-Gasub||Bi surface is a key step controlling the kinetics of the Bi incorporation. Finally, we explore two possible methods to enhance the Bi incorporation, namely, replacing the MBE growth mode from codeposition of all fluxes with a sequential deposition of fluxes and applying asymmetric in-plane strain to the substrate.

  19. Projections of motor vehicle growth, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions for the next thirty years in China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, D.; Wang, M.

    2000-12-12

    Since the early 1990s, China's motor vehicles have entered a period of fast growth resultant from the rapid economic expansion. As the largest developing country, the fast growth of China's motor vehicles will have tremendous effects on the world's automotive and fuel market and on global CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, we projected Chinese vehicle stocks for different vehicle types on the provincial level. First, we reviewed the historical data of China's vehicle growth in the past 10 years and the correlations between vehicle growth and economic growth in China. Second, we investigated historical vehicle growth trends in selected developed countries over the past 50 or so years. Third, we established a vehicle growth scenario based on the historical trends in several developed nations. Fourth, we estimated fuel economy, annual mileage and other vehicle usage parameters for Chinese vehicles. Finally, we projected vehicle stocks and estimated motor fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions in each Chinese province from 2000 to 2030. Our results show that China will continue the rapid vehicle growth, increase gasoline and diesel consumption and increased CO{sub 2} emissions in the next 30 years. We estimated that by year 2030, Chinese motor vehicle fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions could reach the current US levels.

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gałaś, Slávka; Gałaś, Andrzej; Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka; Fialová, Jitka; and others

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  1. Feasibility studies to rehabilitate TVA`s Chickamauga Navigation Facility due to the effects of concrete growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niznik, J.A.; Conner, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    Chickamauga Dam is a multi-purpose project constructed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in the early 1940s. Shortly after construction it was evident there was an alkali-aggregate reaction taking place in the concrete structures. This reaction resulted in a phenomenon of concrete growth; i.e., unchecked expansion of the concrete which causes high stresses, cracking and movement of concrete structures, and undesirable side effects. This problem has increased in severity resulting in increased concerns about structural integrity of the dam structures and long term outages to navigation.

  2. Lake Country Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number: 8004219959 Website: www.lakecountrypower.coopinde Twitter: @LakeCountryPowe Facebook: https:www.facebook.comlakecountrypower Outage Hotline: 8004219959 Outage Map:...

  3. REDD Country Activity Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in multiple languages across a broad range of areas including policies, plans, laws, statistics, activities and financing. The REDD Countries Database does not attempt to assess...

  4. Gold Country Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gold Country Energy Place: Alaska Phone Number: (907) 520-5681 Website: goldcountryenrgy.com Facebook: https:www.facebook.compages...

  5. Chattahoochee Hill Country, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hill Country, Georgia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 31.721548, -83.2599068 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  6. Georgia (country): Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Georgia Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.17 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GE 3-letter ISO code GEO Numeric ISO...

  7. Tribal Sustainability - Green Projects in Indian Country

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * Green Building in Indian Country * Conclusion INTRODUCTION Connecting Green Building to Renewable Energy Power Generation *Distribution *Transmission R & D *Highly technical ...

  8. Climate-Smart Agriculture Country Profiles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    featuredproductscsa-country-profiles Country: Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Grenada, Mexico, Peru Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Agriculture, country profiles,...

  9. Textured growth of Co film on CoO (fcc) layer; Structural studies using EDXRD beamline at Indus-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Dileep; Patidar, P.; Sant, T.; Pandey, K. K.; Gupta, A.; Sharma, S. M.

    2012-06-05

    Co film of 13 nm thickness has been deposited on native oxide (CoO) layer using electron beam evaporation technique. CoO (fcc) of 2.3 nm thickness has been prepared by oxidizing surface of 50 nm thick Co (fcc) by thermal annealing. The structure of the sample has been investigated in detail using in-plane and out-of-plane energy dispersive grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) at EDXRD beamline, Indus-2, RRCAT, Indore. It is found that the growth of the Co film takes place with preferential orientation of c-axis perpendicular to the film plane, which results in structure induced magnetic anisotropy with easy axis normal to the film plane.

  10. Wind Energy Developments: Incentives In Selected Countries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses developments in wind energy for the countries with significant wind capacity. After a brief overview of world capacity, it examines development trends, beginning with the United States - the number one country in wind electric generation capacity until 1997.

  11. Strategies of Asian oil-importing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.

    1997-04-01

    Various strategies are used by oil-importing countries to reduce their economic dependence on imported oil: national oil production, energy conservation, and the change of economic structures from high energy intensity sectors to low ones. In this article, the roles of these different strategies have been identified for 10 selected oil-importing countries in Asia: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Hong Kong, R.O Korea, and Taiwan. The results show that most of the selected countries (although Hong Kong and Taiwan are independent economic entities, for simplicity, the author refers to them as countries) have succeeded in reducing their national economy dependence on imported oil since 1973. Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and India are among the most successful countries, with more than 40% reduction in their economic dependence on imported oil.

  12. Determinants of CO{sub 2} emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Hamzah, Khairum; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Kun, Sek Siok

    2015-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO{sub 2} level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO{sub 2} emissions.

  13. Growth kinetics and compositional analysis of silicon rich a-SiN{sub x}:H film: A soft x-ray reflectivity study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Sarab Preet; Srivastava, P.; Modi, Mohammed H.

    2010-10-11

    We report soft x-ray reflectivity measurements near the Si L{sub 2,3} absorption edge for Si-rich silicon nitride thin film obtained by Hg-sensitized photochemical vapor deposition. We demonstrate that the precise analysis of optical index profile derived over extended energy region gives compositional details of the film. This nondestructive approach is used in Si-rich silicon nitride film to reveal buried Si-rich interfacial layer. Further, the combined study of soft x-ray reflectivity and optical density obtained from the reflectivity fitting at various photon energies provide a qualitative estimation of the film composition and its growth.

  14. Studies of emittance growth and halo particle production in intense charged particle beams using the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Dorf, Mikhail; Efthimion, Philip C.; Majeski, Richard; Chung, Moses; Gutierrez, Michael S.; Kabcenell, Aaron N.

    2010-05-15

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a compact laboratory experiment that places the physicist in the frame-of-reference of a long, charged-particle bunch coasting through a kilometers-long magnetic alternating-gradient (AG) transport system. The transverse dynamics of particles in both systems are described by the same set of equations, including nonlinear space-charge effects. The time-dependent voltages applied to the PTSX quadrupole electrodes in the laboratory frame are equivalent to the spatially periodic magnetic fields applied in the AG system. The transverse emittance of the charge bunch, which is a measure of the area in the transverse phase space that the beam distribution occupies, is an important metric of beam quality. Maintaining low emittance is an important goal when defining AG system tolerances and when designing AG systems to perform beam manipulations such as transverse beam compression. Results are reviewed from experiments in which white noise and colored noise of various amplitudes and durations have been applied to the PTSX electrodes. This noise is observed to drive continuous emittance growth and increase in root-mean-square beam radius over hundreds of lattice periods. Additional results are reviewed from experiments that determine the conditions necessary to adiabatically reduce the charge bunch's transverse size and simultaneously maintain high beam quality. During adiabatic transitions, there is no change in the transverse emittance. The transverse compression can be achieved either by a gradual change in the PTSX voltage waveform amplitude or frequency. Results are presented from experiments in which low emittance is achieved by using focusing-off-defocusing-off waveforms.

  15. Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic Documents: Interactive...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from the LEDS Global Partnership. When to Use This Tool While building a low emission strategy for your country's transportation system, this tool is most useful during these key...

  16. U.S. Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Import Area: U.S. Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile

  17. Costing and pricing electricity in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munasinghe, M.; Rungta, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles the papers presented at a conference on costing and pricing electricity in developing countries. The topics discussed include: Power tariffs, an overview; electricity tariff policy; estimating and using marginal cost pricing concepts; power tariff policy of Philippines, India, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan; Inter-American Development Bank-Electricity tariffs, policies and practices; and costs of supplying electricity and tariff policy in some other countries.

  18. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  19. CO{sub 2} emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of Energy in the long term. Volume 2, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketoff, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. Of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world`s share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist energy demand in developing will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. These individual studies were conducted fro Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela in Latin America.

  20. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  1. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  2. Situation report for petroleum exporting countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermelee, A.; D'Acierno, J.; Beller, M.; Smith, T.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report incorporates the contents of fifteen individual situation reports for major petroleum exporting countries that were prepared from the Office of Energy Emergency Management Information System. The situation reports give a synopsis of political, economic, and petroleum industry data for each oil exporting country and are designed to provide up-to-date information enabling the EEMIS Project Office to react in a timely manner to late-breaking events. The report gives a brief overview of crude oil production for the major oil producing regions of the world and identifies crude flows from the major oil producing to consuming regions - Western Europe, United States, and Japan.

  3. Trends in electricity demand and supply in the developing countries, 1980--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Campbell, C.

    1992-11-01

    This report provides an overview of trends concerning electricity demand and supply in the developing countries in the 1980--1990 period, with special focus on 13 major countries for which we have assembled consistent data series. We describe the linkage between electricity demand and economic growth, the changing sectoral composition of electricity consumption, and changes in the mix of energy sources for electricity generation. We also cover trends in the efficiency of utility electricity supply with respect to power plant efficiency and own-use and delivery losses, and consider the trends in carbon dioxide emissions from electricity supply.

  4. Working In Indian Country: Building Successful Business Relationships...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working In Indian Country: Building Successful Business Relationships with American Indian Tribes Working In Indian Country: Building Successful Business Relationships with ...

  5. Hyannis Country Garden Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Owner Hyannis Country Garden Energy Purchaser Hyannis Country Garden Location Hyannis MA Coordinates 41.6356667, -70.2994661 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  6. ORSSAB Member Greg Paulus Served His Country, Helped People With...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Greg Paulus Served His Country, Helped People With Disabilities and Continues to Serve His Community ORSSAB Member Greg Paulus Served His Country, Helped People With Disabilities ...

  7. Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report You are accessing a ...

  8. BLM Color Country District Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Color Country District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Color Country District Office Place: Cedar City, Utah ParentHolding Organization: BLM References: BLM Color...

  9. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Countries Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Countries Name Assessment of...

  10. Clean Energy Investment in Developing Countries: Wind Power in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries: Wind Power in Egypt Jump to: navigation, search Name Clean Energy Investment in Developing Countries: Wind Power in Egypt AgencyCompany Organization...

  11. Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the Commercial and ...

  12. WWF-Country-Specific Low Carbon Plans | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country-Specific Low Carbon Plans Jump to: navigation, search Name WWF-Country-Specific Low Carbon Plans AgencyCompany Organization World Wildlife Fund Sector Energy, Land,...

  13. The Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change...

  14. Access to Climate Change Technology by Developing Countries ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to Climate Change Technology by Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Access to Climate Change Technology by Developing Countries Agency...

  15. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  16. Pharmacogenetic Study in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy: Polymorphisms in Thymidylate Synthase, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, GSTP1, and DNA Repair Genes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paez, David; Salazar, Juliana; Pare, Laia; Pertriz, Lourdes; Targarona, Eduardo; Rio, Elisabeth del; Barnadas, Agusti; Marcuello, Eugenio; Baiget, Montserrat

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Several studies have been performed to evaluate the usefulness of neoadjuvant treatment using oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidines for locally advanced rectal cancer. However, preoperative biomarkers of outcome are lacking. We studied the polymorphisms in thymidylate synthase, epidermal growth factor receptor, glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), and several DNA repair genes to evaluate their usefulness as pharmacogenetic markers in a cohort of 128 rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Blood samples were obtained from 128 patients with Stage II-III rectal cancer. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood nucleated cells, and the genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and automated sequencing techniques or using a 48.48 dynamic array on the BioMark system. The germline polymorphisms studied were thymidylate synthase, (VNTR/5 Prime UTR, 2R G>C single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP], 3R G>C SNP), epidermal growth factor receptor (Arg497Lys), GSTP1 (Ile105val), excision repair cross-complementing 1 (Asn118Asn, 8092C>A, 19716G>C), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) (Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln), and xeroderma pigmentosum group D (Lys751Gln). The pathologic response, pathologic regression, progression-free survival, and overall survival were evaluated according to each genotype. Results: The Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 thymidylate synthase genotype was associated with a greater response rate (pathologic complete remission and microfoci residual tumor, 59% in Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 vs. 35% in Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 3; p = .013). For the thymidylate synthase genotype, the median progression-free survival was 103 months for the Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 patients and 84 months for the Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk

  17. Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INDIAN COUNTRY ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORKING GROUP ICEIWG APPROVED MEMBERS Blue Lake Rancheria  Jana Ganion, BLR Energy Director Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon  Chief Delvis Health  Jim Manion, General Manager, Warm Springs Power Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians  William Micklin, CEO Gila River Indian Community  Robert Stone, District 5 Community Councilman Ho-Chunk Nation  Representative Susan Waukon Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians

  18. Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dark energy, and the linear growth factor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor We study the degeneracies between ...

  19. An experimental study of CTOD for Mode I/Mode II stable crack growth in thin 2024-T3 aluminum specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amstutz, B.E.; Sutton, M.A.; Dawicke, D.S.; Newman, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental study of crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) for Mode I/Mode II stable crack growth in thin sheet 2024-T3 aluminum has been conducted. To perform the experiments, an Arcan specimen and fixture was modified so that (1) slippage in the grips was eliminated, (2) large rotations of the fixture components were achievable and (3) bending stresses were minimized. Defining {Theta} to be the angle between the Mode I loading direction (perpendicular to the crack line) and the direction of applied loading, experimental results indicate that (a) for large amounts of crack extension, a {ge} 10mm, the value of CTOD at 1 mm behind the crack tip appears to approach a constant value of 0.1 mm for all modes of loading, (b) the direction of crack extension varied with applied mixed mode loading, (c) Mode I crack extension is predominant for 0{degree} {le} {Theta} {le} 60{degree}, (d) Mode II crack extension is predominant for 75{degree} {le} {Theta} {le} 90{degree} and (e) a transition zone exists for angles {Theta} near 75{degree}.

  20. Potential for biomass electricity in four Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Tantlinger, J.; Kaya, M.

    1997-12-31

    Of all forms of renewable energy, biomass offers the best near-term opportunity for supplying a significant portion of the world`s need for electric power. Biomass is especially competitive when fuel supply costs are partially defrayed as production activities associated with the processing of another product, e.g., sugar, rice, or vegetable oil. Not only do such processing situations provide cost savings, they also generate very large supplies of fuel and therefore can contribute significantly to the local energy mix. Access to ample supplies of competitively-priced biomass feedstocks is only one of several factors needed to encourage the use of biomass for power generation; equally important is a healthy market for electricity, i.e., need for large blocks of additional power and sufficient strength in the economy to attract investment in new capacity. Worldwide, the Asia-Pacific region is projected to have the greatest need for new generating capacity in the next decade and shows the highest rate of economic growth, making it an attractive market for biomass power. Also critical to the expansion of bioenergy is the adoption of positive, stable policies on energy production, distribution, and sale, that encourage the generation and use of electricity from biomass. The aforementioned three factors--adequate biomass supplies, increasing demand for electricity, and supportive policies--are examined for four Asian countries, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Information presented for each of the four countries include the types and amounts of bioresidues and their associated electric power generation potential; present and future supplies and demand for electricity; and existing or planned government and utility policies that could impact the generation and use of biomass power.

  1. National climate change action plans: Interim report for developing and transition countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benioff, R.; Ness, E.; Hirst, J.

    1997-10-01

    Under its Support for National Action Plans (SNAP) initiative, the U.S. Country Studies Program is providing financial and technical assistance to 18 countries for the development of climate change action plans. Although most of the countries have not yet completed their plans, the important lessons learned thus far are valuable and should be shared with other countries and international institutions that have an interest in the process of action plan development. This interim report describes the experience of 11 countries that are the furthest along in their planning activity and who have offered to share their results to date with the larger community of interested nations. These action plans delineate specific mitigation and adaptation measures that the countries will implement and integrate into their ongoing development programs. This report focuses on the measures the countries have selected and the methods they used to prepare their action plans. This executive summary presents key lessons and common themes using a structure similar to that used in the individual country chapters.

  2. Energy conservation in typical Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.; Rumsey, P.

    1997-06-01

    Various policies and programs have been created to promote energy conservation in Asia. Energy conservation centers, energy conservation standards and labeling, commercial building codes, industrial energy use regulations, and utility demand-side management (DSM) are but a few of them. This article attempts to analyze the roles of these different policies and programs in seven typical Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The conclusions show that the two most important features behind the success policies and programs are (1) government policy support and (2) long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the programs.

  3. Electricity pricing as a demand-side management strategy: Western lessons for developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.

    1990-12-01

    Electric utilities in the Western world have increasingly realized that load commitments can be met not only by constructing new generating plants but also by influencing electricity demand. This demand-side management (DSM) process requires that electric utilities promote measures on the customer's side of the meter to directly or indirectly influence electricity consumption to meet desired load objectives. An important demand-side option to achieve these load objectives is innovative electricity pricing, both by itself and as a financial incentive for other demand-site measures. This study explores electricity pricing as a DSM strategy, addressing four questions in the process: What is the Western experience with DSM in general and electricity pricing in particular Do innovative pricing strategies alter the amount and pattern of electricity consumption Do the benefits of these pricing strategies outweigh the costs of implementation What are future directions in electricity pricing Although DSM can be used to promote increases in electricity consumption for electric utilities with excess capacity as well as to slow demand growth for capacity-short utilities, emphasis here is placed on the latter. The discussion should be especially useful for electric utilities in developing countries that are exploring alternatives to capacity expansion to meet current and future electric power demand.

  4. Power sector liberalization in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seabright, J.

    1998-07-01

    Based on extensive experience of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) with power sector liberalization in developing countries over the past decade, it has become clear that liberalization is a powerful tool for helping achieve sustainable and environmentally sound social and economic development. The basic driving forces for liberalization are: The need for additional energy to support sustainable economic and social development; the lack of public sector financial resources for system improvement; the inefficiency of existing power generation, transmission, distribution and end use; and the poor environmental performance of public sector power utilities. Power sector liberalization has brought the benefits of greater efficiency in the power sector, increased investment, more economic pricing, greater independence from political interference, increased competition and dampening of tariff increase, and better environmental protection. Care needs to be taken, however, to insure that progress in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and rural electrification are not compromised in the drive to liberalize. USAID firmly believes that power sector liberalization offers a fundamental opportunity to all countries to improve the sustainable supply and use of energy for productive purposes for this and future generations. All nations should seriously consider energy sector liberalization and one or more of the various approaches.

  5. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  6. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, MIchael; Letschert, Virginie; Shen, Bo; Sathaye, Jayant; de la Ru du Can, Stephane

    2011-01-12

    The global economy has grown rapidly over the past decade with a commensurate growth in the demand for electricity services that has increased a country's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Increasing need of reliable and affordable electricity supply is a challenge which is before every Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) country. Collaboration between APP members has been extremely fruitful in identifying potential efficiency upgrades and implementing clean technology in the supply side of the power sector as well established the beginnings of collaboration. However, significantly more effort needs to be focused on demand side potential in each country. Demand side management or DSM in this case is a policy measure that promotes energy efficiency as an alternative to increasing electricity supply. It uses financial or other incentives to slow demand growth on condition that the incremental cost needed is less than the cost of increasing supply. Such DSM measures provide an alternative to building power supply capacity The type of financial incentives comprise of rebates (subsidies), tax exemptions, reduced interest loans, etc. Other approaches include the utilization of a cap and trade scheme to foster energy efficiency projects by creating a market where savings are valued. Under this scheme, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of electricity are capped and electricity retailers are required to meet the target partially or entirely through energy efficiency activities. Implementation of DSM projects is very much in the early stages in several of the APP countries or localized to a regional part of the country. The purpose of this project is to review the different types of DSM programs experienced by APP countries and to estimate the overall future potential for cost-effective demand-side efficiency improvements in buildings sectors in the 7 APP countries through the year 2030. Overall, the savings potential is estimated to be 1

  7. Distributed Generation Study/VIP Country Club | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Microturbine Prime Mover Capstone C60 Heat Recovery Systems Built-in Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Advanced Power Systems System Enclosure Indoor System...

  8. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troschinetz, Alexis M. Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-02-15

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  9. Advancing Clean Energy in Indian Country | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy in Indian Country Advancing Clean Energy in Indian Country November 7, 2011 - 3:16pm Addthis Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs Director Tracey LeBeau meets ...

  10. Problems with packaged sources in foreign countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeyta, Cristy L; Matzke, James L; Zarling, John; Tompkin, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP), which is administered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), removes excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential threat to national security, public health, and safety. In total, GTRI/OSRP has been able to recover more than 25,000 excess and unwanted sealed sources from over 825 sites. In addition to transuranic sources, the GTRI/OSRP mission now includes recovery of beta/gamma emitting sources, which are of concern to both the U.S. government and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper provides a synopsis of cooperative efforts in foreign countries to remove excess and unwanted sealed sources by discussing three topical areas: (1) The Regional Partnership with the International Atomic Energy Agency; (2) Challenges in repatriating sealed sources; and (3) Options for repatriating sealed sources.

  11. Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the Commercial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Industrial Sectors | Department of Energy Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors A fact sheet on the global superior energy performance partnership from the Clean Energy Ministerial. Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors (123.65 KB) More Documents & Publications Countries

  12. Renewable Energy Projects in Indian Country | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Projects in Indian Country Renewable Energy Projects in Indian Country March 5, 2012 - 6:27pm Addthis This event will take place May 21-22, 2012, in Scottsdale, Arizona. At the fifth annual Renewable Energy Projects in Indian Country Conference, tribal leaders and professionals will discuss the significant opportunities for energy development in Indian Country, as well as the barriers that tribes must overcome to bring energy projects to fruition. Discussions will include

  13. Vietnam-USAID Country Report | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deployment programs, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications Website: usaid.eco-asia.orgprogramscdcpreportsIdeas-to-ActionannexesAnnex Country: Vietnam UN...

  14. Ecofys-Country Fact Sheets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Union,...

  15. Building REDD Capacity in Developing Countries | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Policiesdeployment programs Resource Type: Workshop, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.iisd.orgclimatelanduseredd Country:...

  16. Market leadership by example: Government sector energy efficiency in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harris, Jeffrey; Breceda, Miguel; Campbell, Stephanie; Sachu, Constantine; della Cava, Mirka; Gonzalez Martinez, Jose; Meyer, Sarah; Romo, Ana Margarita

    2002-05-20

    Government facilities and services are often the largest energy users and major purchasers of energy-using equipment within a country. In developing as well as industrial countries, government ''leadership by example'' can be a powerful force to shift the market toward energy efficiency, complementing other elements of a national energy efficiency strategy. Benefits from more efficient energy management in government facilities and operations include lower government energy bills, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, less demand on electric utility systems, and in many cases reduced dependence on imported oil. Even more significantly, the government sector's buying power and example to others can generate broader demand for energy-efficient products and services, creating entry markets for domestic suppliers and stimulating competition in providing high-efficiency products and services. Despite these benefits, with the exception of a few countries government sector actions have often lagged behind other energy efficiency policies. This is especially true in developing countries and transition economies - even though energy used by public agencies in these countries may represent at least as large a share of total energy use as the public sector in industrial economies. This paper summarizes work in progress to inventory current programs and policies for government sector energy efficiency in developing countries, and describes successful case studies from Mexico's implementation of energy management in the public sector. We show how these policies in Mexico, begun at the federal level, have more recently been extended to state and local agencies, and consider the applicability of this model to other developing countries.

  17. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting performance waste management systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very

  18. FACET Emittance Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  19. Emerging trends in informal sector recycling in developing and transition countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ezeah, Chukwunonye Fazakerley, Jak A.; Roberts, Clive L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: Reviewed emerging trends in Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) in developing countries. In some countries we found that ISR is the key factor in the recycling of waste materials. Overall impact of ISR upon the urban economy and environment is positive. In some instances ISR subsidises large areas of the formal sector. Ignoring the informal sector could result in unsustainable interventions. - Abstract: Optimistic estimates suggest that only 3070% of waste generated in cities of developing countries is collected for disposal. As a result, uncollected waste is often disposed of into open dumps, along the streets or into water bodies. Quite often, this practice induces environmental degradation and public health risks. Notwithstanding, such practices also make waste materials readily available for itinerant waste pickers. These scavengers as they are called, therefore perceive waste as a resource, for income generation. Literature suggests that Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) activity can bring other benefits such as, economic growth, litter control and resources conservation. This paper critically reviews trends in ISR activities in selected developing and transition countries. ISR often survives in very hostile social and physical environments largely because of negative Government and public attitude. Rather than being stigmatised, the sector should be recognised as an important element for achievement of sustainable waste management in developing countries. One solution to this problem could be the integration of ISR into the formal waste management system. To achieve ISR integration, this paper highlights six crucial aspects from literature: social acceptance, political will, mobilisation of cooperatives, partnerships with private enterprises, management and technical skills, as well as legal protection measures. It is important to note that not every country will have the wherewithal to achieve social inclusion and so the level of

  20. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  1. Gas in developing countries: Volume 1, Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-17

    When gas is discovered in a developing country, and there is either insufficient to justify an Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) export project, or a surplus over-and-above LNG requirements, what are the problems that hinder its development for the internal market in that country. Are there positive steps that can be taken to facilitate such development. The major focus of this study is therefore on the problems that arise in negotiating and implementing agreements between companies and governments. The asymmetries and differences between the behavior and perceptions of the two groups impinge on the conduct of negotiations and the nature of agreements reached between the parties. Objectives are examined for each group as well as the procedures they follow and the constraints under which they operate. The effect of differences on exploration contracts, on pricing and on fiscal regimes are examined and practical ways in which the different objectives of governments and companies can be reconciled to their mutual advantage are suggested. The report is divided into two parts. This Volume, Part One of the report, contains a synthesis of our views on the issues raised by research, and the main conclusions.

  2. Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

  3. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 2:26pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers Editor's Note: Yesterday Secretary ...

  4. Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group The Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group (ICEIWG) works collaboratively with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy to assist in surveys, analysis, and recommendations related to program and policy initiatives that fulfill DOE's statutory authorizations and requirements. About ICEIWG ICEIWG_Jan2016.jpg The working group was established in

  5. Clean Energy Solutions Center: Assisting Countries with Clean Energy Policy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Continuum Magazine | NREL A photo of colorful, light- colored buildings in Ghana. Solutions Center assistance will help develop policies to support renewable energy deployment in Ghana. Clean Energy Solutions Center: Assisting Countries with Clean Energy Policy NREL helps developing countries combat barriers to pave the way for policies and programs that advance clean energy technology deployment. Many countries are looking to grow their renewable energy and energy efficiency portfolios to

  6. Concentrating Solar Power Projects by Country | Concentrating Solar Power |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Country In this section, you can select a country from the map or the following list of countries. You can then select a specific concentrating solar power (CSP) project and review a profile covering project basics, participating organizations, and power plant configuration data for the solar field, power block, and thermal energy storage. Javascript must be enabled to view Flash movie Algeria Australia Canada Chile China Egypt France Germany India Israel Italy Kuwait Mexico Morocco

  7. BACKGROUND GLOBAL STEEL OVERCAPACITY and OIL COUNTRY TUBULAR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) producers filed anti- dumping cases against South Korea, India, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine and Vietnam. ...

  8. Big Country Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1-888-662-2232 Website: www.bigcountry.coop Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesBig-Country-Electric-Cooperative217964055028487 Outage Hotline: 1-888-662-2232...

  9. En.lighten Country Lighting Assessments (CLAs) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References: CLAs1 Logo: En.lighten Country Lighting Assessments (CLAs) About "A large scale shift to efficient lighting is one of the most effective and economically...

  10. High Country Rose Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rose Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name High Country Rose Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  11. Lake Country Wind Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Energy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lake Country Wind Energy LLC Place: Minnesota Zip: 56209 Sector: Renewable Energy, Wind energy Product: Minnesota-based wind...

  12. Film Tells the Story of Indian Country's Energy Development from...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    drilling and fracking boom on North Dakota's Bakken Oil Plate, the story of Indian Country energy development emerged through the eyes of a diverse array of Native stakeholders. ...

  13. Scaling up Renewable Energy in Developing Countries: finance...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scaling up Renewable Energy in Developing Countries: finance and investment perspectives Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Scaling up Renewable Energy in...

  14. Mexico-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  15. Brazil-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  16. India-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  17. Fuel Tax Incidence in Developing Countries: The Case of Costa...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conventional Energy Topics Finance, Market analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:www.rff.orgRFFDocumen Country Costa Rica...

  18. China-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  19. Indonesia-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  20. New York Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars per...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Price) All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Exports ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports Price New York U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports ...

  1. REDD+ Country Readiness Preparation Proposals | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    getting-ready Country: Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guyana, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Suriname, Panama Middle Africa, Western Africa, South America,...

  2. ,"California Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014...

  3. ,"Georgia Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Georgia Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014...

  4. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014...

  5. ,"Maryland Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maryland Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014...

  6. INDIAN COUNTRY ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORKING GROUP ICEIWG

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... in Indian Country, and those statistics are now available for every ... DOE has funded this project through the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (ECBG). ...

  7. DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country, Stimulating Energy Efficiency in Kentucky and More DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian...

  8. North Dakota Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    North Dakota Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports Price North Dakota U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports ...

  9. North Dakota Natural Gas Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Exports to All ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports (Summary) North Dakota U.S. Natural Gas Imports & ...

  10. Minnesota Natural Gas Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas Exports to All ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports (Summary) Minnesota U.S. Natural Gas Imports & ...

  11. Minnesota Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports Price Minnesota U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports ...

  12. DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stimulating Energy Efficiency in Kentucky and More DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country, Stimulating Energy Efficiency in Kentucky and More April 23,...

  13. US EIA Country Energy Profiles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy statistics for 215 countries. The statistics include crude oil production, oil consumption, natural gas production and consumption, electricity generation and...

  14. NREL: Technology Deployment - More Than 70 Countries Turn to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    More Than 70 Countries Turn to the Clean Energy Solutions Center for Policy Assistance News Solutions Center Announces Collaboration with R20 Regions of Climate Action Clean Energy ...

  15. Contribution of ion beam analysis to study the mechanisms of YBaCuO thin films growth and of their oxidation kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siejka, J.; Garcia-Lopez, J.

    1996-12-31

    At first a short review of ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques such as Rutherford Backscattering Analysis, Nuclear Reaction Analysis and of their contribution to the determination of composition and structure of YBaCuO thin films is presented. In the second part, IBA contribution to the measurements of oxygen content and mobility in YBaCuO and to elucidate the mechanisms of high temperature in situ growth of thin films are discussed. The emphasis is on the complementarity of IBA, Raman spectroscopy, TEM and XRD techniques to characterize the YBaCuO thin films in correlation with their physical properties. The results show that fully oxygenated YBaCuO thin films are formed in situ during high temperature T {le} 750 C, reactive sputtering. Their room temperature oxygen content and order is determined by oxygen loss and or uptake during the sample cooling conditions. The physical implications of these findings are analyzed.

  16. Nymex futures, options volumes continue growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, R.P. )

    1990-01-22

    The 1980s has been a decade of learning and growth for the members of the energy futures industry. As the New York Mercantile Exchange introduced new contracts, the energy industry gradually came to understand the value of futures trading to any business plan, especially during turbulent times in the mid-1980s. The result: explosive growth in the latter half of the decade. The author discusses how, as a new decade begins, new challenges are unfolding. Increased liberalization and deregulation of the energy market are trends both at home and abroad. There is increased demand for energy while environmental pressures mount and U.S. production declines. Future production and exports of the energy-rich Soviet Union and consumption patterns of the Eastern Bloc countries are uncertain.

  17. Forestry mitigation potential and costs in developing countries - Preface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Makundi, Willy; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    The forest sector in Tanzania offers ample opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and sequestered carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems. More than 90% of the country's demand for primary energy is obtained from biomass mostly procured unsustainably from natural forests. This study examines the potential to sequester C through expansion of forest plantations aimed at reducing the dependence on natural forest for wood fuel production, as well as increase the country's output of industrial wood from plantations. These were compared ton conservation options in the tropical and miombo ecosystems. Three sequestration options were analyzed, involving the establishment of short rotation and long rotation plantations on about 1.7 x 106 hectares. The short rotation community forest option has a potential to sequester an equilibrium amount of 197.4 x 106 Mg C by 2024 at a net benefit of $79.5 x 106, while yielding a NPV of $0.46 Mg-1 C. The long rotation options for softwood and hardwood plantations will reach an equilibrium sequestration of 5.6 and 11.8 x 106 Mg C at a negative NPV of $0.60 Mg-1 C and $0.32 Mg-1 C. The three options provide cost competitive opportunities for sequestering about 7.5 x 106 Mg C yr -1 while providing desired forest products and easing the pressure on the natural forests in Tanzania. The endowment costs of the sequestration options were all found to be cheaper than the emission avoidance cost for conservation options which had an average cost of $1.27 Mg-1 C, rising to $7.5 Mg-1 C under some assumptions on vulnerability to encroachment. The estimates shown here may represent the upper bound, because the actual potential will be influenced by market prices for inputs and forest products, land use policy constraints and the structure of global C transactions.

  18. INTERACTIVE: How Much Carbon Do Countries Emit? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INTERACTIVE: How Much Carbon Do Countries Emit? INTERACTIVE: How Much Carbon Do Countries Emit? This interactive map is not viewable in your browser. Please view it in a modern browser. If you are using IE9, you can also view the interactive here

  19. Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing and Economic Development Conference is a three-day event that will cover new and rehabilitated homes of tribal members and economic development projects that have provided jobs and services in Indian Country. Attendees will hear from veteran developers and learn from industry leaders.

  20. Radioactive Waste Management in Non-Nuclear Countries - 13070

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubelka, Dragan; Trifunovic, Dejan

    2013-07-01

    This paper challenges internationally accepted concepts of dissemination of responsibilities between all stakeholders involved in national radioactive waste management infrastructure in the countries without nuclear power program. Mainly it concerns countries classified as class A and potentially B countries according to International Atomic Energy Agency. It will be shown that in such countries long term sustainability of national radioactive waste management infrastructure is very sensitive issue that can be addressed by involving regulatory body in more active way in the infrastructure. In that way countries can mitigate possible consequences on the very sensitive open market of radioactive waste management services, comprised mainly of radioactive waste generators, operators of end-life management facilities and regulatory body. (authors)

  1. Report to Congress: Expressions of interest in commercial clean coal technology projects in foreign countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    This report was prepared in response to the guidance provided by the Congress in the course of the Fiscal Year 1995 appropriations process for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). As described in detail below, DOE was directed to make the international dissemination of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) an integral part of its policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Congress directed DOE to solicit ``Statements of Interest`` in commercial projects employing CCTs in countries projected to have significant growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, DOE was asked to submit to the Congress a report that analyzes the information contained in the Statements of Interest, and that identifies the extent to which various types of Federal incentives would accelerate the commercial availability of these technologies in an international context. In response to DOE`s solicitation of 18 November 1994, 77 Statements of Interest were received from 33 companies, as well as five additional materials. The contents of these submittals, including the requested Federal incentives, the CCTs proposed, the possible host countries, and the environmental aspects of the Statements of Interest, are described and analyzed in the chapters that follow.

  2. Effects of local structure on helium bubble growth in bulk and at grain boundaries of bcc iron: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Li; Gao, Fei; Kurtz, Richard J.; Zu, Xiaotao; Peng, S. M.; Long, X. G.; Zhou, X. S.

    2015-07-15

    The nucleation and growth of helium (He) bubbles in the bulk and at Σ3 <110> {112} and Σ73b <110> {661} grain boundaries (GBs) in bcc iron have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that a 1/2 <111> {111} dislocation loop is formed with the sequential collection of <111> interstitial crowdions at the periphery of the He cluster and is eventually emitted from the He cluster. Insertion of 45 He atoms into a He cluster leads to the formation of a 1/2 <111> dislocation loop in Σ3 GB. It is of interest to notice that the transition of a dislocation segment through the GB leads to the formation of a step at the GB plane following the loop formation, accounting for the formation of a residual GB defect. A 1/2 <111> loop, with a {110} habit plane, is emitted with further increase of the He bubble size in the Σ3 GB. In contrast, the sequential insertion of He atoms in Σ73b GB continuously emits self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), but these SIAs rearrange at the core of the inherent GB dislocation, instead of forming a dislocation loop, which leads the GB dislocation to propagate along the [1¯1¯ 1 2] direction. In the bulk and Σ3 GB, the He bubble exhibits three-dimensionally spherical shape, but it forms longitudinal shape along the dislocation line in the Σ73 GB, a shape commonly observed at GBs in experiments.

  3. The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

  4. Marginal cost of natural gas in developing countries: concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashayekhi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Many developing nations are facing complex questions regarding the best strategy for developing their domestic gas reserves. The World Bank has addressed these questions in studies on the cost and prices of gas and its optimal allocation among different markets. Based on the average incremental method, an estimate of the marginal cost of natural gas in 10 developing countries proved to be $0.61-1.79/1000 CF or $3.59-10.54/bbl of oil equivalent, far below the border prices of competing fuels in these nations. Moreover, the cost of gas is not expected to rise in these countries within the next 20 years while the reserves/production ratios remain high. The sample involves a variety of gas compositions and production conditions among the countries of Bangladesh, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Tunisia.

  5. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides background information on the agroenergetic potential of 65 countries and offers summaries of major crops planted, total area planted, yield per hectare, and total production. Total land area is categorized as to agriculture, forest, and woodland, and is discussed with demographic statistics for each country. The potential for agricultural by-products and biomass to contribute to energy availability is explored, with reference to each major crop. Vegetation and/or economic activity, or soil maps are presented for most countries, as are climatic data, with crop yields and residues which are compared with production elsewhere.

  6. Electricity demand in a developing country. [Paraguay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westley, G.D.

    1984-08-01

    This study analyzes the residential and commercial demand for electricity in ten regions in Paraguay for 1970-1977. Models that are both linear and nonlinear in the parameters are estimated. The nonlinear model takes advantage of prior information on the nature of the appliances being utilized and simultaneously deals with the demand discontinuities caused by appliance indivisibility. Three dynamic equations, including a novel cumulative adjustment model, all indicate rapid adjustment to desired appliance stock levels. Finally, the multiproduct surplus loss obtained from an estimated demand equation is used to measure the welfare cost of power outages. 15 references.

  7. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  8. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Hygroscopic growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsHygroscopic growth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hygroscopic growth The rate that aerosol particles grow at relative humidity values less than 100 percent. Sometimes supersaturation conditions are used in making this measurement. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the

  10. Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 16th Annual Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development Conference is a free three-day conference to learn about housing programs, hear stories of successful projects from tribal members, and meet developers.

  11. DOE Office of Indian Energy Announces New Indian Country Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Deadline for DOE Indian Country Working Group Nominations Extended to Aug. 24 Julia Bovey, First Wind; Tracey LeBeau; Neil Kiely, First Wind; and Bob Springer (NREL) at First ...

  12. Global economic prospects and the developing countries, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The report`s central message is that the increasing integration of developing countries into the global economy constitutes perhaps the most important opportunity for raising the welfare of both developing and industrial countries over the long term. But the process of integration will not be without frictions that give rise to protectionist pressures. And, as recent events in Mexico have shown, it will increase the complexity of economic management for developing country policymakers. Globalization comes with liberalization, deregulation, and more mobile and potentially volatile cross-border capital flows, which means that sound macroeconomic management commands an increasingly high premium. Penalties for policy errors rise. Globalization thus requires closer monitoring and quicker policy responses at the country, regional, and global levels.

  13. Town 'n' Country, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County, Florida.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleTown%27n%27Country,Florida&oldid2512...

  14. Green Business in Indian Country Start-Up Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Trees, Water, & People is accepting applications for the Green Business in Indian Country Start-Up Award and offering assistance to one selected applicant in starting their own business in a related field.

  15. Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    OPEC Algeria Indonesia Mexico Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Venezuela Other Countries Arab OPEC b Total OPEC c 1978 ... 14.12 13.61 13.24 14.05...

  16. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Non-OECD Countries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    Presents world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries (including the current and former centrally planned economies).

  17. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt

  18. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt

  19. Indian Country Energy Roundup: Positioning Tribes to Thrive | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Indian Country Energy Roundup: Positioning Tribes to Thrive Indian Country Energy Roundup: Positioning Tribes to Thrive Addthis 1 of 9 During the Agua Caliente Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development and Finance Workshop, attendees toured the solar installations on the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indian Reservation. Image: Sherry Stout, NREL 2 of 9 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy hosted a three-day Community-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Project

  20. East Coast (PADD 1) Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Import Area: East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Bosnia

  1. DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pneumatic Control Retrofits and Air-Side Control Peer Exchange, and More | Department of Energy Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country, Pneumatic Control Retrofits and Air-Side Control Peer Exchange, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country, Pneumatic Control Retrofits and Air-Side Control Peer Exchange, and More April 3, 2014 - 9:21am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and

  2. CHARTER INDIAN COUNTRY ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORK GROUP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHARTER INDIAN COUNTRY ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORK GROUP Official Designation Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group ("Working Group") Purpose The purpose of the Working Group is to provide advice and recommendations to the Director of the Office of Indian Energy Policy & Programs (OIE) and the Secretary of Energy with respect to the strategic planning and implementation of OIE's energy resource, energy business and energy infrastructure development policy and

  3. INDIAN COUNTRY ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORKING GROUP ICEIWG

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of 8 INDIAN COUNTRY ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORKING GROUP ICEIWG May 29, 2013 Wild Horse Pass Hotel and Casino Chandler, Arizona MEETING OVERVIEW The U.S. Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Indian Energy (IE) hosted an Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group (ICEIWG) Meeting on Wednesday, May 29, 2013 in Chandler, Arizona. IE welcomed reappointed and new members to ICEIWG. The ICEIWG meeting was held prior to the seventh Tribal Leader Forum on "Leveraging Tribal Renewable

  4. U.S. Government Supports Low Emission Economic Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    Countries around the world face the challenge of maintaining long-term sustainable economic growth and development under the threat of climate change. By identifying and pursuing a sustainable development pathway now, they are better positioned to reach their economic growth goals while addressing climate change impacts and lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low emission development strategies - development plans that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing long-term GHG emissions - provide a pathway to preparing for a global low emission future. Partner country governments are working with the U.S. government through the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to further their national development objectives.

  5. Interim report of the interagency coal export task force: draft for public comment. [Trade by country 1960-1979; general forecasting to 1985, 1990 and 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    The Interagency Coal Export Task Force was formed in the Spring of 1980 at the direction of the President, in support of the international efforts of the United States, encouraging the use of coal. Its purpose was to report on possible courses of action to increase United States steam coal exports in a manner consistent with other national policies, including our commitment to environmental protection. The Task Force assembled existing data, developed significant new information regarding the international coal market and undertook analyses of apparent problems underlying coal exports. The Task Force contributed to a public awareness of the fact that increased coal exports will serve both the domestic and international interests of the United States. Based upon extensive, independent field studies in Europe and the Far East, the Task Force concludes that there will be significant growth in world demand for steam coal. Such growth has already begun, has contributed to the almost seven-fold increase in United States overseas steam coal exports for 1990 over 1979, and is expected to continue beyond the end of this century. The growth in world steam coal trade projected in the report does not guarantee United States coal exporters a large or expanding share of the market. The United States' role depends on the buying strategies of the consuming countries, the policies and prices of competing exporters, and the actions taken by the United States to maintain reasonable prices, prompt delivery and dependable quality. Projections of United States steam coal exports, therefore, rest upon a number of highly uncertain factors which are discussed in some detail.

  6. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubic, Jr., William L.

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  7. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  8. Louisiana Natural Gas Exports (Price) From All Countries (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) (Price) From All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Exports (Price) From All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- -- 2010's 7.07 9.63 11.80 -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural

  9. Louisiana Natural Gas Exports From All Countries (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    From All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Exports From All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 2010's 22,814 38,552 7,655 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports (Summary) Louisiana U.S. Natural Gas Imports &

  10. Maryland Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's -- 2000's -- -- -- 4.69 6.21 8.57 7.51 7.25 9.09 4.05 2010's 5.37 5.30 13.82 15.29 8.34 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  11. Mississippi Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- -- 2010's -- 13 -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Imports Price

  12. EM Focuses on Potential Business Opportunities with Indian Country at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summits | Department of Energy Focuses on Potential Business Opportunities with Indian Country at Summits EM Focuses on Potential Business Opportunities with Indian Country at Summits July 28, 2016 - 1:15pm Addthis DOE officials served as members of the “In It To Win IT” panel at the Reservation Economic Summit in Tulsa this month. From left to right, EM Acting Small Business Advocate Steve Sylvester, Jack Surash with EM’s Office of Corporate Services, DOE Office of Small and

  13. Renewable Energy Development in Indian Country: A Handbook for Tribes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P O R T L A N D S E A T T L E M E N L O P A R K S A L T L A K E C I T Y aterwynne.com By Douglas C. MacCourt Chair, Indian Law Practice Ater Wynne LLP A Project for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. June 2010 Edition Renewable Energy Development in Indian Country: A Handbook for Tribes Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A4-48078 June 2010 RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN COUNTRY: A HANDBOOK FOR TRIBES A Project for the National Renewable

  14. California Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- 9.15 2.83 2010's 4.76 3.57 -- 3.59 -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Imports Price

  15. Idaho Natural Gas Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Idaho Natural Gas Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 2000's 0 0 176 15 48 0 0 0 252 113 2010's 12 10 0 6 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports (Summary) Idaho U.S. Natural Gas

  16. OSDBU Outreach to Indian Country Companies 2016 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OSDBU Outreach to Indian Country Companies 2016 OSDBU Outreach to Indian Country Companies 2016 July 29, 2016 - 11:59am Addthis DOE officials served as members of the “In It To Win IT” panel at the Reservation Economic Summit in Tulsa this month. From left to right, EM Acting Small Business Advocate Steve Sylvester, Jack Surash with EM’s Office of Corporate Services, DOE Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) Director John Hale III, OSDBU Deputy Director

  17. Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia's need for toxicology education

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makalinao, Irma R. . E-mail: docirma@mydestiny.net; Awang, Rahmat

    2005-09-01

    Poison control centers (PCCs) in developing countries have been set up in response to the challenge of decreasing mortality and morbidity from poisoning. The services range from poison information to actual clinical treatment mostly of acute cases. Lately, PCCs have expanded from their traditional role to one that actively engages in community health studies, toxicovigilance along with treatment of chronic poisoning. Recognizing that types of poisoning and specific needs may vary from country to country, toxicology education that addresses these unique regional issues has become more necessary. Toxicology education, both formal and informal, exists in various stages of development in Asia. Clearly, there are gaps that need to be addressed especially in areas where there are no poison centers or where strengthening is necessary. Collaboration between PCCs in developing countries can help augment available resources including human, analytical and technical expertise. The critical mass of trained toxicologists will fill in the demand for clinical and regulatory specialists and educators as well. This paper highlights the experiences and resources available to the Philippine and Malaysian poison centers and the strengths generated by networking and collaboration. The role of Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT) as the Science NGO representative to the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) forum standing committee in promoting chemical safety at the regional level will be discussed. The 'Clearinghouse on the Sound Management of Chemicals', a platform for engaging multi-stakeholder and interdisciplinary partnerships, will be described as a possible model for capacity building to advance chemical safety through education and training not only in developing countries in Asia but globally as well.

  18. Crafting regulations in emerging geothermal countries: The Peru example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Conventional wisdom holds that no prudent investor or lender will ante up a penny of investment money in a geothermal project unless and until there is a geothermal resources law in place. Since every law depends on a regulatory regime to make the law work in actual practice, implemented regulations are equally important conditions precedent for geothermal development. In recognition of the importance of assisting geothermal regulatory development in the emerging geothermal countries of Latin America, during the 1995 to 1996 timeframe, the Geothermal Energy Association has acted in an advisory capacity to the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Peru, in the drafting of geothermal regulations for Peru. These regulations are designed to promote developmental investment in the geothermal resources of Peru, while simultaneously establishing reasonable standards for the protection of the people and the environment of the country. While these regulations are specific to Peru, they may well serve as a model for other countries of Latin America. Thus, the lessons learned in crafting the Peru regulatory regime may have applicability in other countries in which the geothermal industry is now working or may work in the future.

  19. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  20. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Alaska Native governments selected to receive assistance from the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  1. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on Tribes in the lower 48 states selected to receive assistance from the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  2. Advancing Energy Development in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  3. Solar Resources by Class and Country - Datasets - OpenEI Datasets

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Resources by Class and Country These estimates are derived from the best available solar resource data available to NREL. Resources are organized by class and country....

  4. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Other Countries (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Other Countries ... 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Other Countries (MMcf)" ...

  5. Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (886 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia National Laboratories has developed a disruptive new crystal growth technology, called Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG).

  6. Modeling delamination growth in composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Mello, F.J.

    1996-12-01

    A method for modeling the initiation and growth of discrete delaminations in shell-like composite structures is presented. The laminate is divided into two or more sublaminates, with each sublaminate modeled with four-noded quadrilateral shell elements. A special, eight-noded hex constraint element connects opposing sublaminate shell elements. It supplies the nodal forces and moments needed to make the two opposing shell elements act as a single shell element until a prescribed failure criterion is satisfied. Once the failure criterion is attained, the connection is broken, creating or growing a discrete delamination. This approach has been implemented in a 3D finite element code. This code uses explicit time integration, and can analyze shell-like structures subjected to large deformations and complex contact conditions. The shell elements can use existing composite material models that include in-plane laminate failure modes. This analysis capability was developed to perform crashworthiness studies of composite structures, and is useful whenever there is a need to estimate peak loads, energy absorption, or the final shape of a highly deformed composite structure. This paper describes the eight-noded hex constraint element used to model the initiation and growth of a delamination, and discusses associated implementation issues. Particular attention is focused on the delamination growth criterion, and it is verified that calculated results do not depend on element size. In addition, results for double cantilever beam and end notched flexure specimens are presented and compared to measured data to assess the ability of the present approach to model a growing delamination.

  7. Effective deployment of photovoltaics in the Mediterranean countries: Balancing policy risk and return

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luethi, S.

    2010-06-15

    Although the Mediterranean region is blessed with abundant solar resources, photovoltaic energy currently represents a very small share of power production. In Germany however, a much less sunny country, the photovoltaic (PV) industry is booming. This country has become a front runner in the adoption of PV because of effective policy incentives. Based on a cross-case study analysis of the German, Spanish and Greek PV markets, this paper investigates factors determining the effectiveness of PV policies. Our analysis shows that, above a certain level of return, risk-related factors (such as policy instability and administrative hurdles) play a more important role in influencing investment decisions than return-related factors (such as the level of a feed-in tariff). (author)

  8. Energy use and carbon emissions: Non-OECD countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report surveys world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD countries. The non OECD is important not only because it currently makes up 84% of world population, but because its energy consumption, carbon emissions, population, and grow domestic product have all been growing faster than OECD`s. This presentation has seven major sections: (1) overview of key trends in non-OECD energy use and carbon emissions since 1970; (2) Comparison and contrasting energy use and carbon emissions for five major non OEDC regions (former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, Pacific Rim including China, Latin America, other Asia; Africa; 3-7) presentation of aggregate and sectoral energy use and carbon emissions data for countries within each of the 5 regions.

  9. Maryland Natural Gas Imports from All Countries (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Imports from All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 2000's 0 0 0 66,078 209,294 221,689 116,613 148,231 25,894 72,339 2010's 43,431 13,981 2,790 5,366 11,585 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  10. NREL: Technology Deployment - Developing Countries Demonstrate Impacts of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Emission Development Strategies Developing Countries Demonstrate Impacts of Low Emission Development Strategies News EC-LEDS Highlights Renewable Energy Resource Data at COP21 Vietnam Makes Strides to Lower Emissions Thru Green Building Code, High-Performance Buildings Colombia Makes Major Strides in Low Emission Development Payments for Forest Environmental Services in Vietnam Preserves Forests, Engages Communities Presidential Engagement on Low Emission Development Strategies in Gabon

  11. Renewable Energy in Indian Country Handbook: Past, Present and Future

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In Indian Country The Handbook: Past, Present and Future Douglas C. MacCourt, Ater Wynne LLP Chair Member and Former Chair Indian Law Group Executive Committee Ater Wynne LLP Indian Law Section dcm@aterwynne.com Oregon State Bar Association Tribal Energy Program United States Department of Energy Annual Program Review May 4-7, 2015 Denver, Colorado Overview of Presentation * Overview of the Handbook - Origins - Goals - Details * Trends * Blueprint for a New Handbook Origins * In 2007, TEP

  12. How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    North Country School in Lake Placid, New York, recently installed a high-efficiency wood chip boiler using Recovery Act funds from the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Using wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests, the school will be able to cut energy costs by $38,970 annually and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 184 tons per year.

  13. Potential Barriers to Clean Energy Development in Indian Country

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indian Affairs Division of Energy and Mineral Development May 5, 2015 Potential barriers to clean energy development in Indian Country 1 Mission Provide the best possible technical and economic advice and services in assisting Indian mineral owners to achieve economic self- sufficiency by creating sustainable economies through the environmentally sound development of their energy and mineral resources. 2 RESULT: Jobs and Income Commodity Sales Value ($ billions) % of Sales Value Total Economic

  14. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obozov, A.J.; Loscutoff, W.V.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  15. Tribal Energy Project Development - Deals in Indian Country

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Development Deals in Indian Country Douglas C. MacCourt, Ater Wynne LLP Chair Indian Law Executive Committee Indian Law Practice Group Oregon State Bar Association Ater Wynne LLP dcm@aterwynne.com ABA Renewable Energy Resources www.aterwynne.com Committee; Vice Chair, Native American Subcommittee US DOE/EERE Tribal Energy Program Annual Program Review November 16-20, 2009 Denver, Colorado Overview of Presentation * Changing the historical paradigm * Project finance basics and update on

  16. 1996 hazardous waste management survey in selected Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, D.; Christie, K.; Tao, Hong-lei

    1996-12-31

    This report documents the results of a 42-question survey submitted to countries in Asia concerning their hazardous waste management programs and other issues. The same survey questions were distributed in 1992. This report compares the 1992 and 1996 responses. The respondents were Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Philippines, Hong Kong, People`s Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. 7 figs.

  17. USDA Rural Development: Sustaining Relationships in Indian Country

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development Sustaining Relationships in Indian Country USDA Rural Development Organizational Structure National Office State Directors Program Directors Specialists Architects Engineers Technicians Area Directors Native American Coordinators General Field Representatives Rur al Utilities Ser vice Rur al Housing & Community Facilities Rur al Business Cooper ative Ser vice Rural Development Program Areas Progr am Areas Business & Industr y Guar anteed Loans Rur al Business Enter pr ise Gr

  18. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalavapudi, M.; Iyengar, V.

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Global Green Growth Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth Institute Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Green Growth Strategy Support Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGlobalGreenGrowthIn...

  20. The Venezuelan gas industry. Venezuela and other South American countries: Impact on imports into the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantellini, R.

    1995-11-01

    The role of Venezuela as a supplier of natural gas and derivative products to international markets will experience significant growth in the medium to long term, in the context of expected market opportunities and the development plans envisaged regarding crude oil production. Venezuela has a very large natural gas resource base, which presently amounts to 287 trillion cubic feet (TCF) in terms of proven, probable and possible reserves. Local consumption is highly concentrated in the oil, petrochemicals, aluminum, steel and electricity generation sectors. At the current consumption level of 1.1 TCF/year, proven reserves would supply the country`s requirements for over 120 years. Probable and possible reserves would more than double this figure. Certainly, this is an indication that one is dealing with a gas surplus country with significant potential for growth towards the exports markets. In this regard, Venezuela`s competitive position is further strengthened by the fact that a large portion of its reserves are associated to crude oil, which allows for low production and handling costs, and a relatively high liquid content. It is expected that the natural gas industry will grow rapidly over the coming years. A significant number of gas projects will be developed, including the expansion of existing ones and the construction of new facilities for recovery of natural gas liquids, the expansion of city methane networks replacing LPG as a domestic and industrial fuel, the construction of ethane recovery units for petrochemical uses, etc., all of which represent an additional liquids production of more than 100 {times} 10{sup 3} bbl/d that could be exported to the US and The Caribbean.

  1. Developments in Assisting Countries in Implementing the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Cain, Ronald A.; Kovacic, Don N.; Apt, Kenneth E.; VanSickle, Matthew

    2010-08-11

    In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began assisting selected non-nuclear weapon states in planning and preparing for implementation of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Additional Protocol (AP). Since then, the AP international implementation program has contributed to the substantial progress made by Vietnam, Thailand, Iraq, and Malaysia in preparing for entry-into-force of the AP. An overall engagement plan has been developed with components designed to train government AP implementing agencies, inform policy makers, conduct outreach to industry and universities, make AP reporting software available and useful, and plan a detailed approach for implementing the declaration and complementary access provisions of the AP. DOE recently began collaborating with Indonesia, which has already entered the AP into force, requiring a second method of engagement somewhat different from that taken with countries that have not entered the AP into force. The AP international implementation program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program, is working more closely with DOE’s International Nonproliferation Export Control Program to ensure countries are aware of and prepared to implement the export/import provisions of the AP. As the AP implementation program matures and helps move countries closer to entry-into-force or improved AP implementation, it is identifying characteristics of a country’s “end-state” that indicate that DOE assistance is no longer required. The U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification require the Administration to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states. DOE’s AP international implementation program is a significant part of these measures. This paper describes recent developments to increase the scope and effectiveness of the program.

  2. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  3. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  4. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  5. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  6. AVTA: 2011 Chrysler Town and Country Experimental PHEV Testing Results

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a Chrysler Town and Country PHEV 2011, an experimental model not currently for sale. The baseline performance testing provides a point of comparison for the other test results. Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  7. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  8. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  9. Energy data collection as a necessary activity for developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loebl, A.S.; Cagle, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for energy data collection by developing countries and includes an examination of the special requirements of Costa Rica for energy data collection. A primary reason for national data collection is to support the planning function, and this is particularly significant where energy planning and economic development are concerned. Energy data are necessary to support all phases of planning: short-term; mid-term; and long-range and/or strategic planning. These different planning requirements are discussed. Energy data are also necessary to support national management, as well as the economic-development functions. These latter requirements are also discussed briefly.

  10. Abnormal grain growth in AISI 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2014-11-15

    The microstructural evolution during abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times. At relatively low temperatures, the grain growth mode was identified as normal. However, at homologous temperatures between 0.65 (850 °C) and 0.7 (900 °C), the observed transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal, which was also evident from the bimodality in grain size distribution histograms, was detected to be caused by the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. The microstructural features such as dispersed carbides were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and microhardness. Continued annealing to a long time led to the completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another instance of abnormal grain growth was observed at homologous temperatures higher than 0.8, which may be attributed to the grain boundary faceting/defaceting phenomenon. It was also found that when the size of abnormal grains reached a critical value, their size will not change too much and the grain growth behavior becomes practically stagnant. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in AISI 304L stainless steel • Exaggerated grain growth due to dissolution/coarsening of carbides • The enrichment of carbide particles by titanium • Abnormal grain growth due to grain boundary faceting at very high temperatures • The stagnancy of abnormal grain growth by annealing beyond a critical time.

  11. Workshop on nuclear power growth and nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    It is widely viewed that an expansion of nuclear power would have positive energy, economic and environmental benefits for the world. However, there are concerns about the economic competitiveness, safety and proliferation and terrorism risks of nuclear power. The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power will depend on the ability of governments and industry to address these concerns, including the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen nonproliferation, nuclear materials accountability and nuclear security. In his Prague speech, President Obama stated: 'we should build a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, including an international fuel bank, so that countries can access peaceful power without increasing the risks of proliferation. That must be the right of every nation that renounces nuclear weapons, especially developing countries embarking on peaceful programs. And no approach will succeed if it's based on the denial of rights to nations that play by the rules. We must harness the power of nuclear energy on behalf of our efforts to combat climate change, and to advance peace opportunity for all people.' How can the President's vision, which will rekindle a vigorous public debate over the future of nuclear power and its relation to proliferation, be realized? What critical issues will frame the reemerging debate? What policies must be put into place to address these issues? Will US policy be marked more by continuity or change? To address these and other questions, the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars will host a workshop on the future of nuclear power and nonproliferation.

  12. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO{sub 2}emissions through 2050.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Huo, H.; Johnson, L.; He, D.

    2006-12-20

    As the vehicle population in China increases, oil consumption and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions associated with on-road transportation are rising dramatically. During this study, we developed a methodology to project trends in the growth of the vehicle population, oil demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions associated with on-road transportation in China. By using this methodology, we projected--separately--the number of highway vehicles, motorcycles, and rural vehicles in China through 2050. We used three scenarios of highway vehicle growth (high-, mid-, and low-growth) to reflect patterns of motor vehicle growth that have occurred in different parts of the world (i.e., Europe and Asia). All are essentially business-as-usual scenarios in that almost none of the countries we examined has made concerted efforts to manage vehicle growth or to offer serious alternative transportation means to satisfy people's mobility needs. With this caveat, our projections showed that by 2030, China could have more highway vehicles than the United States has today, and by 2035, it could have the largest number of highway vehicles in the world. By 2050, China could have 486-662 million highway vehicles, 44 million motorcycles, and 28 million rural vehicles. These numbers, which assume essentially unmanaged vehicle growth, would result in potentially disastrous effects on the urban infrastructure, resources, and other social and ecological aspects of life in China. We designed three fuel economy scenarios, from conservative to aggressive, on the basis of current policy efforts and expectations of near-future policies in China and in developed countries. It should be noted that these current and near-future policies have not taken into consideration the significant potential for further fuel economy improvements offered by advanced technologies such as electric drive technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles). By using vehicle growth projections and potential

  13. Quartz crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  14. Fact #734: July 2, 2012 OPEC Countries Represent Less Than Half...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 734: July 2, 2012 OPEC Countries Represent Less Than Half of U.S. Petroleum Imports Even though Saudi Arabia is the world's largest producer of petroleum, and OPEC countries ...

  15. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

    2009-05-18

    The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

  16. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Ti-1100 at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.C.; Nicholas, T.

    1995-12-31

    Effects of temperature, frequency, and cycles with superimposed hold times are evaluated in Ti-1100 in order to study the complex creep-fatigue-environment interactions in this material. Crack growth rate tests conducted at cyclic loading frequency of 1.0 Hz show that raising the temperature from 593 to 650 C has only a slightly detrimental effect on crack growth rate, although these temperatures produce growth rates significantly higher than at room temperature. From constant {Delta}K tests, the effects of temperature at constant frequency show a minimum crack growth rate at 250 C. From the minimum crack growth rate at 250 C, the crack growth rate increases linearly with temperature. Increases in frequency at constant temperatures of 593 and 650 C produce a continuous decrease in growth rate in going from 0.001 to 1.0 Hz, although the behavior is primarily cycle dependent in this region. Tests at 1.0 Hz with superimposed hold times from 1 to 1,000 s are used to evaluate creep-fatigue-environment interactions. Hold times at maximum load are found to initially decrease and then increase the cyclic crack growth rate with increasing duration. This is attributed to crack-tip blunting during short hold times and environmental degradation at long hold times. Hold times at minimum load show no change in growth rates, indicating that there is no net environmental degradation to the bulk material beyond that experienced during the baseline 1 Hz cycling.

  17. An overview of water disinfection in developing countries and the potential for solar thermal water pasteurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Thomas, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This study originated within the Solar Buildings Program at the U.S. Department of Energy. Its goal is to assess the potential for solar thermal water disinfection in developing countries. In order to assess solar thermal potential, the alternatives must be clearly understood and compared. The objectives of the study are to: (a) characterize the developing world disinfection needs and market; (b) identify competing technologies, both traditional and emerging; (c) analyze and characterize solar thermal pasteurization; (d) compare technologies on cost-effectiveness and appropriateness; and (e) identify research opportunities. Natural consequences of the study beyond these objectives include a broad knowledge of water disinfection problems and technologies, introduction of solar thermal pasteurization technologies to a broad audience, and general identification of disinfection opportunities for renewable technologies.

  18. Quantitative assessment of growth plate activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harcke, H.T.; Macy, N.J.; Mandell, G.A.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the immature skeleton the physis or growth plate is the area of bone least able to withstand external forces and is therefore prone to trauma. Such trauma often leads to premature closure of the plate and results in limb shortening and/or angular deformity (varus or valgus). Active localization of bone seeking tracers in the physis makes bone scintigraphy an excellent method for assessing growth plate physiology. To be most effective, however, physeal activity should be quantified so that serial evaluations are accurate and comparable. The authors have developed a quantitative method for assessing physeal activity and have applied it ot the hip and knee. Using computer acquired pinhole images of the abnormal and contralateral normal joints, ten regions of interest are placed at key locations around each joint and comparative ratios are generated to form a growth plate profile. The ratios compare segmental physeal activity to total growth plate activity on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides and to adjacent bone. In 25 patients, ages 2 to 15 years, with angular deformities of the legs secondary to trauma, Blount's disease, and Perthes disease, this technique is able to differentiate abnormal segmental physeal activity. This is important since plate closure does not usually occur uniformly across the physis. The technique may permit the use of scintigraphy in the prediction of early closure through the quantitative analysis of serial studies.

  19. Key statistics related to CO/sub 2/ emissions: Significant contributing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellogg, M.A.; Edmonds, J.A.; Scott, M.J.; Pomykala, J.S.

    1987-07-01

    This country selection task report describes and applies a methodology for identifying a set of countries responsible for significant present and anticipated future emissions of CO/sub 2/ and other radiatively important gases (RIGs). The identification of countries responsible for CO/sub 2/ and other RIGs emissions will help determine to what extent a select number of countries might be capable of influencing future emissions. Once identified, those countries could potentially exercise cooperative collective control of global emissions and thus mitigate the associated adverse affects of those emissions. The methodology developed consists of two approaches: the resource approach and the emissions approach. While conceptually very different, both approaches yield the same fundamental conclusion. The core of any international initiative to control global emissions must include three key countries: the US, USSR, and the People's Republic of China. It was also determined that broader control can be achieved through the inclusion of sixteen additional countries with significant contributions to worldwide emissions.

  20. Isotropic Monte Carlo Grain Growth

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-04-25

    IMCGG performs Monte Carlo simulations of normal grain growth in metals on a hexagonal grid in two dimensions with periodic boundary conditions. This may be performed with either an isotropic or a misorientation - and incliantion-dependent grain boundary energy.

  1. US solar energy policy for less developed countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russett, B.

    1980-10-01

    By many different standards, solar energy is considered to be, at least potentially, a good thing. The assessment of its utility, however, typically is made on technical engineering grounds, or on economic standards of cost-effectiveness, without close attention to political and sociological implications of its use. While remaining sensitive to engineering and economic considerations, this report will concentrate on some political and sociological issues which will have great affect on decisions whether and how to make use of solar energy technology in less developed countries (LDCs). Only with an understanding of these issues - and with answers to some of the questions raised - can there be any serious effort to devise a satisfactory United States government policy for the promotion of solar energy applications abroad. This report, in the form of tentative propositions outlining issues about which further information is required, is based on the results of interviews in the United States, India and the Middle East, and an analysis of various reports by private individuals, national and transnational organizations, and government agencies.

  2. Energy resources and technologies for rural third world countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parate, N.S.

    1983-12-01

    This paper examines the various energy sources, renewable and nonrenewable, in the context of developing and industrialised countries. Particular experiences and technical data are mentioned regarding the United States' experience in this area and the Public Utilities Commissions of various states. The author has gathered various technical information on energy generation and public policies on energy issues while associated with the Public Utility Commission as a staff member and having testified as expert witness in a number of electric energy rate cases in Pennsylvania, North Carolina and West Virginia. This paper surveys the available alternate energy technologies to meet the energe needs at the village level, with particular reference to their application in Pakistan. This paper concludes after analysing the various energy choices as to the resources, policies and energy education development. The author has proposed small workshops at the high school level for students and teachers, based on the same concepts developed by the Department of Energy. Development of advanced research and cooperation in ''renewable energy resources'' through A.I.D. programs is recommended.

  3. Assessment of external costs for transport project evaluation: Guidelines in some European countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petruccelli, Umberto

    2015-09-15

    Many studies about the external costs generated by the transport system have been developed in the last twenty years. To standardize methodologies and assessment procedures to be used in the evaluation of the projects, some European countries recently have adopted specific guidelines that differ from each other in some aspects even sensibly. This paper presents a critical analysis of the British, Italian and German guidelines and is aimed at cataloguing the external cost types regarded and the assessment methods indicated as well as to highlight the differences of the results, in terms of applicability and reliability. The goal is to contribute to a European standardization process that would lead to the drafting of guidelines suited for all EU countries. - Highlights: • The analyzed guidelines agree on the methods to evaluate costs from air pollution, greenhouse gases and accidents. • They recommend respectively: dose-resp. approach; costs to reduce/permit emissions; whole direct, indirect and social costs. • For noise, DE guide indicates defensive expenditure or SP methods; IT guide, SP method; UK guide, the hedonic prices one. • For on territory impact, DE guide regards only the barrier effect; the IT one, also the soil consumption and system effects. • British guide proposes a qualitative methodology to estimate the impact on various landscapes and environments.

  4. Outlook for Non-OPEC Oil Supply Growth in 2008-2009 (Released in the STEO February 2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    In 2008-2009, the Energy Information Administration expects that non-OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) petroleum supply growth will surpass that in recent years because of the large number of new oil projects scheduled to come online during the forecast period.

  5. Growth Rates of Global Energy Systems and Future Outlooks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeoek, Mikael; Li, Junchen; Johansson, Kersti; Snowden, Simon

    2012-03-15

    The world is interconnected and powered by a number of global energy systems using fossil, nuclear, or renewable energy. This study reviews historical time series of energy production and growth for various energy sources. It compiles a theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding the behaviour underlying global energy systems' growth. The most extreme growth rates are found in fossil fuels. The presence of scaling behaviour, i.e. proportionality between growth rate and size, is established. The findings are used to investigate the consistency of several long-range scenarios expecting rapid growth for future energy systems. The validity of such projections is questioned, based on past experience. Finally, it is found that even if new energy systems undergo a rapid 'oil boom'-development-i.e. they mimic the most extreme historical events-their contribution to global energy supply by 2050 will be marginal.

  6. Observation of Single Colloidal Platinum Nanocrystal Growth Trajectories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Haimei; Smith, Rachel; Jun, Young-wook; Kisielowski, Christian; Dahmen, Ulrich; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-02-09

    It is conventionally assumed that the growth of monodisperse colloidal nanocrystals requires a temporally discrete nucleation followed by monomer attachment onto the existing nuclei. However, recent studies have reported violations of this classical growth model, and have suggested that inter-particle interactions are also involved during the growth. Mechanisms of nanocrystal growth still remain controversial. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we show that platinum nanocrystals can grow either by monomer attachment from solution onto the existing particles or by coalescence between the particles. Surprisingly, an initially broad size distribution of the nanocrystals can spontaneously narrow. We suggest that nanocrystals take different pathways of growth based on their size- and morphology-dependent internal energies. These observations are expected to be highly relevant for other nanocrystal systems.

  7. U.S. Government Supports Low Emission Economic Growth (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01

    Countries around the world face the challenge of maintaining long-term sustainable economic growth and development under the threat of climate change. By identifying and pursuing a sustainable development pathway now, they are better positioned to reach their economic growth goals while addressing climate change impacts and lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low emission development strategies - development plans that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing long-term GHG emissions - provide a pathway to preparing for a global low emission future. Partner country governments are working with the U.S. government through the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to further their national development objectives.

  8. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conditioning biomass for microbial growth Title: Conditioning biomass for microbial growth You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) DOE Patents. This ...

  9. Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers with Air DC Plasma Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon ...

  10. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially neededmore » immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.« less

  11. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

  12. Precision growth index using the clustering of cosmic structures and growth data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pouri, Athina; Basilakos, Spyros; Plionis, Manolis E-mail: svasil@academyofathens.gr

    2014-08-01

    We use the clustering properties of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) and the growth rate data provided by the various galaxy surveys in order to constrain the growth index ?) of the linear matter fluctuations. We perform a standard ?{sup 2}-minimization procedure between theoretical expectations and data, followed by a joint likelihood analysis and we find a value of ?=0.560.05, perfectly consistent with the expectations of the ?CDM model, and ?{sub m0}=0.290.01, in very good agreement with the latest Planck results. Our analysis provides significantly more stringent growth index constraints with respect to previous studies, as indicated by the fact that the corresponding uncertainty is only ?0.09?. Finally, allowing ? to vary with redshift in two manners (Taylor expansion around z=0, and Taylor expansion around the scale factor), we find that the combined statistical analysis between our clustering and literature growth data alleviates the degeneracy and obtain more stringent constraints with respect to other recent studies.

  13. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  14. Growth plate closure: Apex view on bone scan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, P.H.; Trochei, M.; Yeates, K.

    1984-01-01

    Angular deformities of the extremities in children following premature closure of the growth plate are well known. The deformities depend on the position of an osseus bridge which forms between the epiphysis and metaphysis. Several surgical procedures including resection of the osseus bridge have been described, however, delineation of the site of fusion is difficult to define. The commonest site of growth plate arrest is the distal femoral or proximal tibial growth plate. A new technique using the bone scan has been developed which accurately defines the area and position of these osseus bridges. Two hours after injection of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate apex views of the affected distal femoral growth plate were performed. The knee was flexed into its smallest angle. Using a pinhole collimator the gamma camera was angled to face the affected growth plate end on. The image was collected onto computer and analysed by: (I) regions of interest over segments of the growth plate to calculate the relative area of total growth plate affected: (II) generating histograms: (III) thresholding or performing isocontours to accentuate abnormal areas. The growth plate is normally uniformly increased when compared to the normal shaft of the bone. Fusion across the plate appears as an area of diminished uptake. The apex view gives a unique functional map of the growth plate such that abnormal areas are displayed, and the site, size and position of osseus fusion obtained. The technique has the potential for determining the metabolic activity of the growth plate before and after surgery. Serial studies will allow assessment of regneration of the plate and reformation of new osseus bridges.

  15. Waste collection in developing countries - Tackling occupational safety and health hazards at their source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleck, Daniela; Wettberg, Wieland

    2012-11-15

    Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.

  16. DOE Office of Indian Energy Announces New Indian Country Energy and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Working Group Members | Department of Energy Announces New Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group Members DOE Office of Indian Energy Announces New Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group Members April 24, 2013 - 6:11pm Addthis Through the Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group (ICEIWG), the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy works to collaborate with and seek out real-time tribal expertise and experiences

  17. The Department of Energy Hosts Its First STEM in Indian Country Roundtable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Series | Department of Energy The Department of Energy Hosts Its First STEM in Indian Country Roundtable Series The Department of Energy Hosts Its First STEM in Indian Country Roundtable Series April 13, 2015 - 9:22am Addthis The Department of Energy Hosts Its First STEM in Indian Country Roundtable Series In December 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary, Ernest Moniz, met with Departmental Tribal Advisory Groups in Phoenix, Arizona. During the meeting, many tribal leaders

  18. Growth in Biofuels Markets: Long Term Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seth D. Meyer; Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2010-12-02

    Over the last several years increasing energy and petroleum prices have propelled biofuels and the feedstocks used to produce them, to the forefront of alternative energy production. This growth has increased the linkages between energy and agricultural markets and these changes around the world are having a significant effect on agricultural markets as biofuels begin to play a more substantial role in meeting the world's energy needs. Biofuels are alternatively seen as a means to reduce carbon emissions, increase energy independence, support rural development and to raise farm income. However, concern has arisen that the new demand for traditional commodities or alternative commodities which compete for land can lead to higher food prices and the environmental effects from expanding crop acreage may result in uncertain changes in carbon emissions as land is converted both in the US and abroad. While a number of studies examine changes in land use and consumption from changes in biofuels policies many lack effective policy representation or complete coverage of land types which may be diverted in to energy feedstock production. Many of these biofuels and renewable energy induced land use changes are likely to occur in developing countries with at-risk consumers and on environmentally sensitive lands. Our research has improved the well known FAPRI-MU modeling system which represents US agricultural markets and policies in great detail and added a new model of land use and commodity markets for major commodity producers, consumers and trade dependent and food insecure countries as well as a rest of the world aggregate. The international modules include traditional annual crop lands and include perennial crop land, pasture land, forest land and other land uses from which land may be drawn in to biofuels or renewable energy feedstock production. Changes in calorie consumption in food insecure countries from changes in renewable energy policy can also be examined with a

  19. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  20. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  1. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E.; Hively, Lee M.; Holdaway, Ray F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  2. Bottom Up and Country Led: A New Framework for Climate Action...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    transition strategically to low-carbon economic development while bolstering their resilience to the effects of climate change." References "Bottom Up and Country Led: A New...

  3. Fast Out of the Gate: How Developing Asian Countries can Prepare...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from the LEDS Global Partnership. When to Use This Tool While building a low emission strategy for your country's transportation system, this tool is most useful during these...

  4. Fact #836: September 1, Non-OPEC Countries Supply Nearly Two...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Petroleum imports include crude oil and petroleum products. Other OPEC Countries include Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Qatar, and the ...

  5. Performance Measurement in the Road Sector: A Cross-Country Review...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by developed countries worldwide. Additionally, the concept of performance based maintenance and related contracts was presented as a modern approach for achieving sustainable...

  6. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  7. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  8. Wind Resources by Class and Country At 50m - Datasets - OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    high resolution wind resource datasets modeled for specific countries with low resolution data originating from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (United States)...

  9. 2015 NREL Industry Growth Forum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    During NREL’s 2015 Industry Growth Forum, 30 competitively selected clean energy startups will pitch their businesses to investors and compete to win the NREL Best Venture Award.  One of the...

  10. SBA Growth Accelerator Fund Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is accepting applications for the Growth Accelerator Fund Competition to identify the nation's innovative accelerators and similar organizations and award them cash prizes they may use to fund their operations costs and allow them to bring startup competitions to scale and new ideas to life.

  11. Direct flow crystal growth system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1992-01-01

    A crystal is grown in a constantly filtered solution which is flowed directly into the growing face of a crystal. In a continuous flow system, solution at its saturation temperature is removed from a crystal growth tank, heated above its saturation temperature, filtered, cooled back to its saturation temperature, and returned to the tank.

  12. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo

    2014-10-06

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  13. Policies to Promote Non-Hydro Renewable Energy in the United States and Selected Countries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    This article examines policies designed to encourage the development of non-hydro renewable energy in four countries - Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Japan - and compares the policies enacted in each of these countries to policies that were used in the United States between 1970 and 2003.

  14. Reversing the brain drain from Eastern European countries: the push' and pull' factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vizi, E.S. Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY )

    1993-01-01

    A mass departure of intellectuals is going on in countries such as Poland, Russia, the Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania. There is growing concern about the increasing number of intellectuals who have left, or are going to leave, these countries. The main problem is not that scientists and intellectuals are leaving to go abroad to work under better conditions - that is certainly beneficial for science as a whole. Rather, the problem occurs when they do not return. The migration of professionals, even if it is only temporary, only reflects the operation of an international market for specialized human capital. However, a minimum level of human capital is indispensable to a country's economic development. A loss of skilled human resources will ultimately have a grave impact on the economy and jeopardize development programs. There are several reasons for this migration. Top-level scientists have always been drawn to countries that offer greater attractions - facilities, salaries, career prospects, satisfaction, prestige. Drastic changes are needed in the official policy toward R D in Eastern European Countries. The atmosphere must be changed to make it more favorable for intellectual work. In addition, international agencies and governments of developed countries should help these poorer countries to reverse the brain drain. A program of Science and Technology for stability should be created in order to provide direct assistance to basic and applied scientific and technical research in these countries. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Insurance as an adaptation strategy for extreme weather events indeveloping countries and economies in transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Evan

    2004-06-30

    resource-based industries (e.g., agriculture). Naturaldisasters such as drought often dislocate large groups of people,amplifying their vulnerability to future disasters. Development itselfcan compound these vulnerabilities by promoting population growth,urbanization, intensive coastal development, and concentrations ofclimate-sensitive physical and health-related hazards. With its pool offinancial reserves, the global insurance market provides considerableadaptive capacity for weather-related damage to property, life, andhealth. The global insurance market--perhaps the world's largestindustry--represented $2.9 trillion in premiums in 2003, or approximatelyeight percent of global gross domestic product (GDP). To put this inperspective, the insurance industry s revenues make it equivalent to thethird largest country in the world in terms of GDP. In 2003, totalpremiums in emerging markets represented $314 billion (up from $270billion just a year earlier) or 11 percent of the global total, withgrowth rates often dramatically higher than those in the industrial world(twice as high, on average, between 1980 and 2000) and often exceedingGDP growth rates. Emerging markets are poised to represent half of worldinsurance premiums by the middle of this century.Insurance premiums arerising in part because the economic costs of natural disasters aregrowing, as is the insured share (up from a negligible level in the 1950sto approximately 20 percent of the total today). Insurance marketconditions vary regionally. Current insurance penetration (premiums perGDP) is lowest in Africa and Asia and highest in Latin America. Premiumsas a percent of GDP are lowest in the Middle East/Central Asia and LatinAmerica and highest in Africa. The smallest market by total premiums isthe Middle East/Central Asia, and the largest is South and East Asia(excluding Japan). The economic costs of weather-related events are high,totaling $1 trillion worldwide from 1980 through 2003. During thisperiod, insurance

  16. Petroleum product pricing in Asian developing countries: Lessons from the past and future issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1997-09-01

    This paper looks at the pricing of petroleum products in ten Asian developing countries using a data series for 1973--1992. Prices of petroleum products are compared with international prices. Differential prices are measured with respect to diesel prices. It is found that energy prices are used as instruments for revenue earnings. Pricing policies vary widely among countries and neighbors have different fuel prices. Countries try to align the local prices of petroleum products in line with international prices but with a lag of 1--2 years. The wave of liberalization and privatization is sweeping many developing countries. Additionally, environmental issues are gaining importance even in developing countries. The paper also discusses these emerging issues that need to be taken into account in the petroleum product pricing.

  17. Method for crystal growth control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Douglas A.; Hatch, Arthur E.; Goldsmith, Jeff M.

    1981-01-01

    The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

  18. New Partners for Smart Growth Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Partners for Smart Growth Conference is the nation's largest smart growth and sustainability conference. The three-day conference is themed, "Practical Tools and Innovative Strategies for Creating Great Communities."

  19. Demonstration of anaerobic biogas digesters in developing countries. Part III. The Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.H.; Morales, E.C.

    1980-03-01

    The main theme of this series of articles is that ours is now a world-wide society, short on meeting needs for energy yet long on waste from our industrial, agricultural and human consumption processes. This is a study report about developments in the Philippines where waste management has been recognized and considered as an important practical source of energy. This is revealed by several reports of the number of biogas plants in operation in this country. According to the July 31, 1977 survey made by the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industries, 200 biogas plants were then installed and in operation of which 46 were government-owned and 154 privately-owned. More have been installed since then. This report presents some of the operating observations and developments from the joint engineering analyses project of the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industry, Man and the Biosphere Inter-Agency Committee on Ecological Studies, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources and the National Institute of Science and Technology. The project's main objective was to show that establishing a biogas plant involves not only the production of a methane gas mixture but the integration of its other products as part of a system (i.e., using effluent water from the biogas digester for production of algae chlorell sp. for livestock and poultry feed, production of fish and fertilizing-irrigating of pasture and vegetable plots.). Housing development sewer systems with added biogas generators are also discussed.

  20. Table 5.7 Petroleum Net Imports by Country of Origin, 1960-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Net Imports by Country of Origin, 1960-2011 Year Persian Gulf 2 Selected OPEC 1 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 1 Countries Total Net Imports Total Net Imports as Share of Consumption 5 Net Imports From OPEC 1 Algeria Nigeria Saudi Arabia 3 Venezuela Total OPEC 4 Canada Mexico United Kingdom Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico Total Non-OPEC 4 Share of Total Net Imports 6 Share of Consumption 7 Thousand Barrels Percent 1960 NA [8] [9] 30,786 333,046 450,799 31,454 -620 -4,267 12,553 139,406

  1. Fact #664: February 28, 2011 2010 U.S. Petroleum Imports by Country |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 4: February 28, 2011 2010 U.S. Petroleum Imports by Country Fact #664: February 28, 2011 2010 U.S. Petroleum Imports by Country The U.S. imported almost 12 million barrels per day in 2010, according to data for the first ten months of the year. Canada, Mexico and other non-OPEC countries are the top three places from which the U.S. imported petroleum. Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, and Venezuela - which are all OPEC nations - each provided the U.S. with about one million barrels

  2. Geospatial Toolkits and Resource Maps for Selected Countries from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    NREL developed the Geospatial Toolkit (GsT), a map-based software application that integrates resource data and geographic information systems (GIS) for integrated resource assessment. A variety of agencies within countries, along with global datasets, provided country-specific data. Originally developed in 2005, the Geospatial Toolkit was completely redesigned and re-released in November 2010 to provide a more modern, easier-to-use interface with considerably faster analytical querying capabilities. Toolkits are available for 21 countries and each one can be downloaded separately. The source code for the toolkit is also available. [Taken and edited from http://www.nrel.gov/international/geospatial_toolkits.html

  3. Fact #878: June 22, 2015 Plug-in Vehicle Penetration in Selected Countries,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 - Dataset | Department of Energy 8: June 22, 2015 Plug-in Vehicle Penetration in Selected Countries, 2014 - Dataset Fact #878: June 22, 2015 Plug-in Vehicle Penetration in Selected Countries, 2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Plug-in Vehicle Penetration in Selected Countries, 2014 fotw#878_web.xlsx (21.78 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #892: September 28, 2015 Over One-Million in Plug-in Vehicle Sales Worldwide - Dataset Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric

  4. Oil inventories in industrialized countries to reach record high at end of 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil inventories in industrialized countries to reach record high at end of 2015 The amount of year-end oil inventories held in industrialized countries is expected to be the highest on record in 2015. In its monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said it expects commercial oil inventories in the United States and other industrialized countries to total 2.83 billion barrels at the end of this year almost 90 million barrels more than at the end of 2014. Global oil production

  5. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saum-Manning,L.

    2008-07-13

    Declining natural resources, rising oil prices, looming climate change and the introduction of nuclear energy partnerships, such as GNEP, have reinvigorated global interest in nuclear energy. The convergence of such issues has prompted countries to move ahead quickly to deal with the challenges that lie ahead. However, developing countries, in particular, often lack the domestic infrastructure and public support needed to implement a nuclear energy program in a safe, secure, and nonproliferation-conscious environment. How might countries become ready for nuclear energy? What is needed is a framework for assessing a country's readiness for nuclear energy. This paper suggests that a Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator (NERI) Index might serve as a meaningful basis for assessing a country's status in terms of progress toward nuclear energy utilization under appropriate conditions. The NERI Index is a benchmarking tool that measures a country's level of 'readiness' for nonproliferation-conscious nuclear energy development. NERI first identifies 8 key indicators that have been recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency as key nonproliferation and security milestones to achieve prior to establishing a nuclear energy program. It then measures a country's progress in each of these areas on a 1-5 point scale. In doing so NERI illuminates gaps or underdeveloped areas in a country's nuclear infrastructure with a view to enable stakeholders to prioritize the allocation of resources toward programs and policies supporting international nonproliferation goals through responsible nuclear energy development. On a preliminary basis, the indicators selected include: (1) demonstrated need; (2) expressed political support; (3) participation in nonproliferation and nuclear security treaties, international terrorism conventions, and export and border control arrangements; (4) national nuclear-related legal and regulatory mechanisms; (5) nuclear infrastructure; (6) the

  6. Implications of Low Electricity Demand Growth

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 | Washington, DC Jim Diefenderfer, Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, & Renewables Analysis U.S. Energy Information Administration Implications of low electricity demand growth Growth in electricity use slows, but still increases by 29% from 2012 to 2040 -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 percent growth (3-year compounded annual growth rate) Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2014 Reference

  7. Transforming Growth Factor ?-1 (TGF-?1) Is a Serum Biomarker of Radiation Induced Fibrosis in Patients Treated With Intracavitary Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boothe, Dustin L.; Coplowitz, Shana; Greenwood, Eleni; Barney, Christian L.; Christos, Paul J.; Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K. S. Clifford; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To examine a relationship between serum transforming growth factor ? -1 (TGF-?1) values and radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective analysis of the development of RIF in 39 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0-I breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and accelerated partial breast irradiation via intracavitary brachytherapy (IBAPBI). An enzyme-linked immunoassay (Quantikine, R and D, Minneapolis, MN) was used to measure serum TGF-?1 before surgery, before IBAPBI, and during IBAPBI. Blood samples for TGF-?1 were also collected from 15 healthy, nontreated women (controls). The previously validated tissue compliance meter (TCM) was used to objectively assess RIF. Results: The median time to follow-up for 39 patients was 44 months (range, 5-59 months). RIF was graded by the TCM scale as 0, 1, 2, and 3 in 5 of 20 patients (25%), 6 of 20 patients (30%), 5 of 20 patients (25%), and 4 of 20 patients (20%), respectively. The mean serum TGF-?1 values were significantly higher in patients before surgery than in disease-free controls, as follows: all cancer patients (30,201 5889 pg/mL, P=.02); patients with any type of RIF (32,273 5016 pg/mL, P<.0001); and women with moderate to severe RIF (34,462 4713 pg/mL, P<0.0001). Patients with moderate to severe RIF had significantly elevated TGF-?1 levels when compared with those with none to mild RIF before surgery (P=.0014) during IBAPBI (P?0001), and the elevation persisted at 6 months (P?.001), 12 months (P?.001), 18 months (P?.001), and 24 months (P=.12). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of TGF-?1 values predicting moderate to severe RIF was generated with an area under the curve (AUC){sub ROC} of 0.867 (95% confidence interval 0.700-1.000). The TGF-?1 threshold cutoff was determined to be 31,000 pg/mL, with associated sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusions: TGF-?1 levels correlate with the development of

  8. Fuel Cell Growth Markets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growth Markets Fuel Cell Growth Markets Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held Nov. 16, 2009 htmwg_nov09_fuel_cell_growth.pdf (1.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Accelerated Testing Validation Minutes of the Fall 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop Summary Report

  9. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-12-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  10. Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries: history, policies, and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tetreault, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis begins with OAPEC's formation in 1968, as a means of resisting pressure to embargo oil importers who supported Israel. The origins of the 1973 boycott during the Yom Kippur War are examined, showing how that step affected subsequent OAPEC policy. OAPEC's relationship to the rest of the international petroleum community is explored, focusing on the interaction between OAPEC and OPEC in the making of petroleum pricing policy. The expulsion of Egypt for trading with Israel is discussed. Huge profits from the oil industry are the key to the region's economic development. Successes and failures of OAPEC investments, joint ventures with various nations as partners in fostering the economic progress of the Arab world are examined. This study provides a useful tool for the understanding of the international petroleum industry.

  11. Plenum type crystal growth process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.

    1992-01-01

    Crystals are grown in a tank which is divided by a baffle into a crystal growth region above the baffle and a plenum region below the baffle. A turbine blade or stirring wheel is positioned in a turbine tube which extends through the baffle to generate a flow of solution from the crystal growing region to the plenum region. The solution is pressurized as it flows into the plenum region. The pressurized solution flows back to the crystal growing region through return flow tubes extending through the baffle. Growing crystals are positioned near the ends of the return flow tubes to receive a direct flow of solution.

  12. Table 5.6 Petroleum Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 (Thousand Barrels) Year Belgium 1 Brazil Canada France Italy Japan Mexico Nether- lands South Korea Spain United Kingdom U.S. ...

  13. ,"Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Other Countries...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Other Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

  14. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Other Countries (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    586-8800",,,"01292016 9:45:32 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Other Countries (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103982" "Date","U.S. Liquefied...

  15. Table 25. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    OPEC Algeria Canada Indonesia Mexico Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Venezuela Other Countries Arab OPEC a Total OPEC b 1978 ... 14.93 14.41 14.65...

  16. Fact #836: September 1, 2014 Non-OPEC Countries Supply Nearly...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nearly Two-thirds of U.S. Petroleum Imports - Dataset Fact 836: September 1, 2014 Non-OPEC Countries Supply Nearly Two-thirds of U.S. Petroleum Imports - Dataset Excel file ...

  17. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products Produced in Countries Other Than Iran

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products Produced in Countries Other Than Iran February 9, 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Number 25 in a series of reports required by section 1245(d)(4)(A) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 February 2016 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products Produced in Countries Other Than Iran 1 Table

  18. U.S. Secretary of Energy Participates in Five-Country Energy Ministerial in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Japan | Department of Energy Participates in Five-Country Energy Ministerial in Japan U.S. Secretary of Energy Participates in Five-Country Energy Ministerial in Japan June 7, 2008 - 12:51pm Addthis Signs Methane Hydrates Agreement WASHINGTON - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and top government officials from China, India, Japan, and Korea participated in discussions related to energy security challenges, emergency preparedness, investment climate, energy efficiency and

  19. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P.

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  20. Film Tells the Story of Indian Country's Energy Development from the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Native Perspective | Department of Energy Film Tells the Story of Indian Country's Energy Development from the Native Perspective Film Tells the Story of Indian Country's Energy Development from the Native Perspective April 19, 2016 - 5:15pm Addthis Office of Indian Energy Support for Tribal Energy Projects Resource Library Technical Assistance Education and Training Funding On April 13, I attended the premiere screening of the documentary film "Red Power Energy," the first in the

  1. DOE Tribal Intern Aims to Improve Conditions in Indian Country by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Barriers to Renewable Energy Development | Department of Energy Aims to Improve Conditions in Indian Country by Addressing Barriers to Renewable Energy Development DOE Tribal Intern Aims to Improve Conditions in Indian Country by Addressing Barriers to Renewable Energy Development September 17, 2014 - 9:47am Addthis Sandia/Tribal Energy Program 2014 summer interns Thomas Jones, Len Necefer, and Aaron Cate, and their supervisor and mentor Sandra Begay-Campbell. Photo from Thomas

  2. The role of developing countries in protecting the ozone layer: An ethical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zatz, M.N.

    1994-12-31

    In an effort to reduce the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, the nations of the world joined together in a landmark effort to address this most important problem. Unlike many environmental issues which are localized, ozone depletion is an environmental problem which must be addressed on a global scale. In order to successfully halt the depletion of the ozone layer, it is imperative that all countries amend their current practices and reduce their consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This necessity presents an ethical dilemma when assigning responsibility for ozone layer protection among nations. This paper will address the difficulties in dealing with ozone depletion on a global scale and will discuss the ethically correct role which should be assumed by developing countries. After presenting a brief history of the problem of ozone depletion and the measures which have been taken to halt it, this paper will describe an ethical framework in which ozone layer protection policies in developing countries should be evaluated. This framework is based on the concept of balancing morally-correct policies with economically-sound policies. It illustrates, in detail, how the environmental impacts of policies must be considered in conjunction with the impacts of such policies on the lives and well-being of the country`s citizens. The paper presents an ethical analysis of three primary policy options. These options address the phaseout of ozone-depleting substances (such as CFCs) and include: the no-phaseout option, the developed country accelerated phaseout schedule, and the delayed phaseout schedule. Each option is examined within the ethical framework presented earlier in the paper. Finally, the paper concludes by addressing the ethical responsibilities of developed countries. It discusses the various ways in which developed countries should provide aid.

  3. Method of monitoring crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanual M.

    1982-01-01

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

  4. Apparatus for monitoring crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanual M.

    1981-01-01

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

  5. Nuclear design of small-sized high temperature gas-cooled reactor for developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, M.; Seki, Y.; Inaba, Y.; Ohashi, H.; Sato, H.; Fukaya, Y.; Tachibana, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a small-sized HTGR with 50 MW thermal power (HTR50S), which is a first-of-a-kind commercial or demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR to be deployed in developing countries such as Kazakhstan in the 2020's. The nuclear design of the HTR50S is performed by upgrading the proven technology of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to reduce the cost for the construction. In the HTTR design, twelve kinds of fuel enrichment was used to optimize the power distribution, which is required to make the maximum fuel temperature below the thermal limitation during the burn-up period. However, manufacture of many kinds of fuel enrichment causes increase of the construction cost. To solve this problem, the present study challenges the nuclear design by reducing the number of fuel enrichment to as few as possible. The nuclear calculations were performed with SRAC code system whose validity was proven by the HTTR burn-up data. The calculation results suggested that the optimization of the power distribution was reasonably achieved and the maximum fuel temperature was kept below the limitation by using three kinds of fuel enrichment. (authors)

  6. New Report Highlights Growth of America's Clean Energy Job Sector...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New Report Highlights Growth of America's Clean Energy Job Sector New Report Highlights Growth of America's Clean Energy Job Sector New Report Highlights Growth of America's Clean ...

  7. Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and Developing New Growth Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change...

  8. Fact #836: September 1, Non-OPEC Countries Supply Nearly Two-thirds of U.S. Petroleum Imports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The figure below shows the volume and source of imported petroleum to the United States from 1960 to 2013. The countries which are members of OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries...

  9. Department of Energy Releases New 'Billion-Ton' Study Highlighting...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Opportunities for Growth in Bioenergy Resources Department of Energy Releases New 'Billion-Ton' Study Highlighting Opportunities for Growth in Bioenergy Resources August 10, 2011 - ...

  10. Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-ESMAP Low Carbon Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy Sector...

  11. Growth of a tectonic ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, R.W.; Messerich, J.A.; Johnson, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The 28 June 1992 Landers, California, earthquake of M 7.6 created an impressive record of surface rupture and ground deformation. Fractures extend over a length of more than 80 km including zones of right-lateral shift, steps in the fault zones, fault intersections and vertical changes. Among the vertical changes was the growth of a tectonic ridge described here. In this paper the authors describe the Emerson fault zone and the Tortoise Hill ridge including the relations between the fault zone and the ridge. They present data on the horizontal deformation at several scales associated with activity within the ridge and belt of shear zones and show the differential vertical uplifts. And, they conclude with a discussion of potential models for the observed deformation.

  12. Well having inhibited microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Brady D.; Dooley, Kirk J.

    2006-08-15

    The invention includes methods of inhibiting microbial growth in a well. A packing material containing a mixture of a first material and an antimicrobial agent is provided to at least partially fill a well bore. One or more access tubes are provided in an annular space around a casing within the well bore. The access tubes have a first terminal opening located at or above a ground surface and have a length that extends from the first terminal opening at least part of the depth of the well bore. The access tubes have a second terminal opening located within the well bore. An antimicrobial material is supplied into the well bore through the first terminal opening of the access tubes. The invention also includes well constructs.

  13. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  14. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  15. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  16. Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Wei; Cui, Ping; Zhu, Wenguang; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Gao, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-08

    Epitaxial growth on metal substrates has been shown to be the most powerful approach in producing large-scale high-quality monolayer graphene, yet it remains a major challenge to realize uniform bilayer graphene growth. Here we carry out a comparative study of the atomistic mechanisms for bilayer graphene growth on the (111) surfaces of Cu and Ni, using multiscale approaches combining first-principles calculations and rate-equation analysis. We first show that the relatively weak graphene-Cu interaction enhances the lateral diffusion and effective nucleation of C atoms underneath the graphene island, thereby making it more feasible to grow bilayer graphene on Cu. In contrast,more » the stronger graphene-Ni interaction suppresses the lateral mobility and dimerization of C atoms underneath the graphene, making it unlikely to achieve controlled growth of bilayer graphene on Ni. We then determine the critical graphene size beyond which nucleation of the second layer will take place. Intriguingly, the critical size exhibits an effective inverse "Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier" effect, becoming smaller for faster C migration from the Cu surface to the graphene-Cu interface sites across the graphene edge. Lastly, these findings allow us to propose a novel alternating growth scheme to realize mass production of bilayer graphene.« less

  17. Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei; Cui, Ping; Zhu, Wenguang; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Gao, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-08

    Epitaxial growth on metal substrates has been shown to be the most powerful approach in producing large-scale high-quality monolayer graphene, yet it remains a major challenge to realize uniform bilayer graphene growth. Here we carry out a comparative study of the atomistic mechanisms for bilayer graphene growth on the (111) surfaces of Cu and Ni, using multiscale approaches combining first-principles calculations and rate-equation analysis. We first show that the relatively weak graphene-Cu interaction enhances the lateral diffusion and effective nucleation of C atoms underneath the graphene island, thereby making it more feasible to grow bilayer graphene on Cu. In contrast, the stronger graphene-Ni interaction suppresses the lateral mobility and dimerization of C atoms underneath the graphene, making it unlikely to achieve controlled growth of bilayer graphene on Ni. We then determine the critical graphene size beyond which nucleation of the second layer will take place. Intriguingly, the critical size exhibits an effective inverse "Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier" effect, becoming smaller for faster C migration from the Cu surface to the graphene-Cu interface sites across the graphene edge. Lastly, these findings allow us to propose a novel alternating growth scheme to realize mass production of bilayer graphene.

  18. Predicting crack growth in continuous-fiber composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordes, J.A.; Yazici, R.

    1995-12-31

    Pre-notched composite lamina with unidirectional fibers were studied experimentally and using finite element analysis. Experiments were conducted on notched graphite/aluminum and glass/epoxy panels and the results were compared to a finite element method. Under remote tensile loading, cracks in the graphite/aluminum panels propagated perpendicular to the applied load without stable crack growth. In the glass/epoxy panels, crack propagation was initially stable and parallel to the fibers. A nonlinear damage zone method (DZM) was used to predict the crack growth directions, estimate damages, model stable and unstable crack growths, and predict the loads at failure. For both materials, the predicted loads at failure were within 20% of experimental loads.

  19. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in two EU countries: A comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torretta, Vincenzo; Ragazzi, Marco; Istrate, Irina Aura; Rada, Elena Cristina

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review on data regarding WEEE management in Italy and in Romania. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems that countries that will enter in the EU will have to solve facing with the WEEE management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pilot experiences useful for the awareness campaign of the population. - Abstract: The paper presents some data regarding waste electrical and electronic (WEEE) management in one of the founding countries of the EU, Italy, and in a recent entry into the EU, Romania. The aim of this research was to analyze some problems that countries entering the EU will have to solve with respect to WEEE management. The experiences of Italy and Romania could provide an interesting reference point. The strengths and weaknesses that the two EU countries have encountered can be used in order to give a more rational plan for other countries. In Italy the increase of WEEE collection was achieved in parallel with the increase of the efficiency of selective Municipal Solid Waste collection. In Romania, pilot experiences were useful to increase the awareness of the population. The different interests of the two populations towards recyclable waste led to a different scenario: in Romania all types of WEEE have been collected since its entrance into the EU; in Italy the 'interest' in recycling is typically related to large household appliances, with a secondary role of lighting equipment.

  20. Strategic environmental assessment can help solve environmental impact assessment failures in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alshuwaikhat, Habib M. . E-mail: habibms@kfupm.edu.sa

    2005-05-15

    The current trend of industrialization and urbanization in developing nations has a huge impact on anthropogenic and natural ecosystems. Pollution sources increase with the expansion of cities and cause contamination of water, air and soil. The absence of urban environmental planning and management strategies has resulted in greater concern for future urban development. This paper advocates the adoption of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to achieve sustainable development in developing countries. It investigates project-level environmental impact assessment (EIA) and its limitations. The exploration of SEA and its features are addressed. The effective implementation of SEA can create a roadmap for sustainable development. In many developing countries, the lack of transparency and accountability and ineffective public participation in the development of the policy, plan and program (PPP) would be mitigated by the SEA process. Moreover, the proactive and broadly based characteristics of SEA would benefit the institutional development of the PPP process, which is rarely experienced in many developing countries. The paper also explores the prospects for SEA and its guiding principles in developing countries. Finally, the paper calls for a coordinated effort between all government, nongovernment and international organizations involved with PPPs to enable developing countries to pursue a path of sustainable development through the development and application of strategic environmental assessment.

  1. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  2. VP 100: Growth in solar means growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growth in solar means growth in Ohio VP 100: Growth in solar means growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 10:57am Addthis DuPont is betting on major growth in the market for solar energy -- and therefore for its Tedlar film, a durable backing for silicon solar panels. | Photo Courtesy of DuPont DuPont is betting on major growth in the market for solar energy -- and therefore for its Tedlar film, a durable backing for silicon solar panels. | Photo Courtesy of DuPont Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy

  3. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha in plutonium-239-induced lung neoplasms in dogs: investigations of autocrine mechanisms of growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillett, N.A.; Stegelmeier, B.L.; Chang, I.Y.; Kelly, G. )

    1991-06-01

    We have previously shown that 47% of radiation-induced lung neoplasms in dogs exhibit increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study, we investigated the expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), a ligand for EGFR, to determine if an autocrine mechanism for growth stimulation was present in these tumors. As determined by immunohistochemistry, 59% (26/44) of the lung neoplasms examined had increased expression of TGF-alpha. Expression of TGF-alpha was not related to the etiology of the tumor, e.g., spontaneous or plutonium-induced; however, it was related to the phenotype of the tumor. Statistical analysis of the correlation of EGFR and TGF-alpha expression within the same tumor did not show a positive association; however, specific phenotypes did have statistically significant expression of EGFR or TGF-alpha, suggesting that overexpression of either the ligand or its receptor conferred a growth advantage to the neoplasm. Twenty-seven percent (32/117) of radiation-induced proliferative epithelial foci expressed TGF-alpha, and a portion of those foci (8/32) expressed both EGFR and TGF-alpha. This supports the hypothesis that these foci represent preneoplastic lesions, and suggests that those foci exhibiting increased expression of the growth factor or its receptor are at greater risk for progressing to neoplasia.

  4. GROWTH AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOSPIKE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: GROWTH AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOSPIKE THIN FILM ELECTRODES Authors: Sheridan, Leah B 1 ; Hensley, Dale K 1 ; Lavrik, Nickolay V 1 ; Smith, ...

  5. Crystallographic evidence for simultaneous growth in graphic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Crystallographic evidence for simultaneous growth in graphic granite ... Publication Date: 2015-08-21 OSTI Identifier: 1178828 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  6. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection", Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State...

  7. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demaurex, Bénédicte; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Alexander, Duncan T. L.; Jeangros, Quentin; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan

    2014-08-05

    Low-temperature (≤ 180 °C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-ehanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems not only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. As a result of our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.

  8. SEA effectiveness criteria-equally valid in all countries? The case of Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Thomas B. . E-mail: fischer@liverpool.ac.uk; Gazzola, Paola

    2006-05-15

    Recent years have seen the introduction of various sets of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) effectiveness criteria in the professional international literature. Content analysis of key international SEA publications suggest that these have been developed based on the experiences of a selected number of countries only, and to date, the question whether they are fully valid in all systems and countries world-wide has not been addressed sufficiently, yet. In this context, the paper discusses the validity of effectiveness criteria for Italy, a country from which authors have only contributed to a very limited extent to the international SEA literature. It is concluded that, particularly in the light of experiences with a 'flexible', but ineffective EIA system, in Italy SEA needs to be applied in a systematic and rigorous manner, aided by strong enforcement mechanisms.

  9. Strategies to address climate change in central and Eastern Euopean countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simeonova, K.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents analyses based on information mainly from the National Communications of nine Central and Eastern European countries that are undertaking radical transition from centrally planned to market driven economics (EIT). It is designed primarily to provide an overview of the policies and measures to address climate change that have been implemented, or under implementation or planned. In order to better understand the objective of policies and measures and the way they have been implemented in EIT countries that analysis has been supplemented by a review of the national circumstances and overall policy contexts in EIT countries that are relevant to climate change policies and measures problems. Therefore, these issues will be discussed in the paper along with analysis of mitigation policies and measures by sector.

  10. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  11. Energy-conservation-investment decision making in developing countries: A review of project implementation in industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    Despite recent efforts in a number of developing countries to promote energy conservation (EC) and efficiency, only a fraction of EC potential has been captured, especially for projects that require significant investments. The document analyzes EC efforts in 11 countries where energy audit and/or feasibility study programs have been carried out (Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Pakistan, Panama, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka), covering some 1,500 EC projects involving 242 industrial companies. Cost and length of payback seem to be the determining factors for companies considering EC measures; no-cost or low-cost projects with paybacks of less than a year (such as power factor improvement projects) had the highest rate of implementation, while expensive, complicated projects (e.g., cogeneration or fuel substitution projects) were most often rejected. The document concludes, however, that the rate of implementation of EC programs has been quite high, and recommends that inexpensive, short-term projects be featured in future EC programs and increased levels of TA and financial assistance be made available to companies implementing long-term EC measures.

  12. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Intharathirat, Rotchana; Abdul Salam, P.; Kumar, S.; Untong, Akarapong

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Grey model can be used to forecast MSW quantity accurately with the limited data. • Prediction interval overcomes the uncertainty of MSW forecast effectively. • A multivariate model gives accuracy associated with factors affecting MSW quantity. • Population, urbanization, employment and household size play role for MSW quantity. - Abstract: In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435–44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177–56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period.

  13. Comparing large scale CCS deployment potential in the USA and China: a detailed analysis based on country-specific CO2 transport & storage cost curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Dooley, James J.

    2011-04-18

    The United States and China are the two largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world and their projected continued growth and reliance on fossil fuels, especially coal, make them strong candidates for CCS. Previous work has revealed that both nations have over 1600 large electric utility and other industrial point CO2 sources as well as very large CO2 storage resources on the order of 2,000 billion metric tons (Gt) of onshore storage capacity. In each case, the vast majority of this capacity is found in deep saline formations. In both the USA and China, candidate storage reservoirs are likely to be accessible by most sources with over 80% of these large industrial CO2 sources having a CO2 storage option within just 80 km. This suggests a strong potential for CCS deployment as a meaningful option to efforts to reduce CO2 emissions from these large, vibrant economies. However, while the USA and China possess many similarities with regards to the potential value that CCS might provide, including the range of costs at which CCS may be available to most large CO2 sources in each nation, there are a number of more subtle differences that may help us to understand the ways in which CCS deployment may differ between these two countries in order for the USA and China to work together - and in step with the rest of the world - to most efficiently reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper details the first ever analysis of CCS deployment costs in these two countries based on methodologically comparable CO2 source and sink inventories, economic analysis, geospatial source-sink matching and cost curve modeling. This type of analysis provides a valuable insight into the degree to which early and sustained opportunities for climate change mitigation via commercial-scale CCS are available to the two countries, and could facilitate greater collaboration in areas where those opportunities overlap.

  14. PUBLIC COMMENT ON FEDERAL REGISTER - DOE IS BUSH CHENEY SCUM COUNTRY THESE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DAYS - WE NEED A CHANGE OF PERSONNELFW: more expoxsure to the general public needs to take place - not less | Department of Energy PUBLIC COMMENT ON FEDERAL REGISTER - DOE IS BUSH CHENEY SCUM COUNTRY THESE DAYS - WE NEED A CHANGE OF PERSONNELFW: more expoxsure to the general public needs to take place - not less PUBLIC COMMENT ON FEDERAL REGISTER - DOE IS BUSH CHENEY SCUM COUNTRY THESE DAYS - WE NEED A CHANGE OF PERSONNELFW: more expoxsure to the general public needs to take place - not less

  15. The New Energy Future in Indian Country: Confronting Climate Change, Creating Jobs, and Conserving Nature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NEW ENERGY FUTURE IN INDIAN COUNTRY: Confr onting Climate Change, Cr eating J obs, and Conser ving Natur e N A T I O N A L W I L D L I F E F E D E R A T I O N 2 0 1 0 * On average, Tribal households pay significantly more in home energy expenses than other Americans. Most utilities are solely owned and operated by non-Tribal entities, so the money paid to energy providers immediately leaves tribal communities. THE NEW ENERGY FUTURE IN INDIAN COUNTRY * The infrastructure and revenue streams

  16. The New Energy Future in Indian Country: Confronting Climate Change, Creating Jobs, and Conserving Nature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    THE NEW ENERGY FUTURE IN INDIAN COUNTRY: Confronting Climate Change, Creating Jobs, and Conserving Nature N A T I O N A L W I L D L I F E F E D E R A T I O N 2 0 1 0 * On average, Tribal households pay significantly more in home energy expenses than other Americans. Most utilities are solely owned and operated by non-Tribal entities, so the money paid to energy providers immediately leaves tribal communities. THE NEW ENERGY FUTURE IN INDIAN COUNTRY * The infrastructure and revenue streams

  17. Freeport, TX Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Other Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Other Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Freeport, TX Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Other Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2014 2,703 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports by Point of Entry Freeport, TX LNG Imports

  18. Idaho Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) (Price) All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Idaho Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's -- 2000's -- -- 4.40 4.34 5.36 -- -- -- 7.43 4.49 2010's 5.85 4.74 -- 3.27 -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring

  19. Indian Country Energy Roundup: FY15 Year in Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Country Energy Roundup: FY15 Year in Review Indian Country Energy Roundup: FY15 Year in Review October 16, 2015 - 6:05pm Addthis 1 of 27 Meeting with DOE and representatives from the Renewable Energy Alaska Project. Image: Photo from Givey Kochanowski, DOE Date taken: 2015-09-09 16:40 2 of 27 DOE Office of Indian Energy Director Chris Deschene going to work Alaska-style. Image: Photo from Givey Kochanowski, DOE Date taken: 2015-05-29 13:12 3 of 27 Alaska facility- and community-scale energy

  20. Price of Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Other Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Other Countries (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Other Countries (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 5.52 -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring

  1. Particle growth in silane-hydrogen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujundzic, Damir; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The growth of silicon particles has been measured in silane-hydrogen radio-frequency (rf) discharges using a typical hydrogen/silane dilution ratio (20) and the pressure range (1.2-2.2 Torr) used for the production of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films and devices. By operating brief discharges without gas flow, the particle size is obtained from the afterglow diffusion and the particle density from the scattered-light intensity. These small-reactor data thus provide the expected particle size and density versus location-in a commercial large-area-isothermal-flowing-gas reactor. Particle growth rate is a strong function of pressure, whereas film growth rate is almost independent of pressure. Both growth rates are sensitive to rf voltage, although particle growth is more sensitive.

  2. Total All Countries Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Destination Destination: Total All Countries Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andora Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bahama Islands Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Bermuda Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech

  3. Deadline for DOE Indian Country Working Group Nominations Extended to Aug. 24

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is looking for nominations for elected tribal government officials (or designated tribal government employees with authority to act on behalf of the elected officials) to serve as members of the Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group (ICEIWG).

  4. EUCI Tribal and Indian Country Energy Development: Collaborating for Successful Transactions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the Electric Utility Consultants, Inc. (EUCI), this conference will provide practical tips for mutually beneficial collaboration between tribes and utility companies. The conference will focus on the fundamental concepts on how to network and collaborate in renewable energy such as solar, wind, biomass, and natural gas in Indian Country.

  5. Development prospects of the capital-surplus oil-exporting countries. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habluetzel, R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the political and economic factors that are likely to determine, in the next five years, the absorptive capacity for investment and consumption in the capital-surplus oil-exporting countries; this permits an evaluation of the prospective size of their oil surplus under specific assumptions of oil export volume and oil prices. Starting with an analysis of the notion that the volume of oil production, beyond a specific point for each country, is of a discretionary nature, the paper proceeds to review the experience of the oil-surplus countries during the last seven years in absorbing oil income and creating a domestic income base for the post-oil era. The results of this experience and its side effects (in the form of inflation and immigrant labor) and their political and economic implications are reviewed in the context of different resource endowments and societal structures with a view to understanding the likely development and expenditures the governments will take. The paper concludes with a prognosis of likely levels of total oil income, domestic absorptions, and oil surpluses for the six countries. 4 references, 26 tables.

  6. Comparison of low-level waste disposal programs of DOE and selected international countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, B.G. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cole, L.T. [Cole and Associates (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine and compare the approaches and practices of selected countries for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with those of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The report addresses the programs for disposing of wastes into engineered LLW disposal facilities and is not intended to address in-situ options and practices associated with environmental restoration activities or the management of mill tailings and mixed LLW. The countries chosen for comparison are France, Sweden, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The countries were selected as typical examples of the LLW programs which have evolved under differing technical constraints, regulatory requirements, and political/social systems. France was the first country to demonstrate use of engineered structure-type disposal facilities. The UK has been actively disposing of LLW since 1959. Sweden has been disposing of LLW since 1983 in an intermediate-depth disposal facility rather than a near-surface disposal facility. To date, Canada has been storing its LLW but will soon begin operation of Canada`s first demonstration LLW disposal facility.

  7. Country Review of Energy-Efficiency Financial Incentives in the Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2011-07-13

    A large variety of energy-efficiency policy measures exist. Some are mandatory, some are informative, and some use financial incentives to promote diffusion of efficient equipment. From country to country, financial incentives vary considerably in scope and form, the type of framework used to implement them, and the actors that administer them. They range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-points rewarding customers for buying highly efficient appliances (Japan). All have the primary objective of transforming the current market to accelerate the diffusion of efficient technologies by addressing up-front cost barriers faced by consumers; in most instances, efficient technologies require a greater initial investment than conventional technologies. In this paper, we review the different market transformation measures involving the use of financial incentives in the countries belonging to the Major Economies Forum. We characterize the main types of measures, discuss their mechanisms, and provide information on program impacts to the extent that ex-ante or ex-post evaluations have been conducted. Finally, we identify best practices in financial incentive programs and opportunities for coordination between Major Economies Forum countries as envisioned under the Super Efficient Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative.

  8. Intervention in Countries with Unsustainable Energy Policies: Is it Ever Justifiable?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2010-08-01

    This paper explores whether it is ever justifiable for the international community to forcibly intervene in countries that have unsustainable energy policies. The literature on obligations to future generations suggests, philosophically, that intervention might be justified under certain circumstances. Additionally, the world community has intervened in the affairs of other countries for humanitarian reasons, such as in Kosovo, Somalia, and Haiti. However, intervention to deal with serious energy problems is a qualitatively different and more difficult problem. A simple risk analysis framework is used to organize the discussion about possible conditions for justifiable intervention. If the probability of deaths resulting from unsustainable energy policies is very large, if the energy problem can be attributed to a relatively small number of countries, and if the risk of intervention is acceptable (i.e., the number of deaths due to intervention is relatively small), then intervention may be justifiable. Without further analysis and successful solution of several vexing theoretical questions, it cannot be stated whether unsustainable energy policies being pursued by countries at the beginning of the 21st century meet the criteria for forcible intervention by the international community.

  9. Safety of nuclear power reactors in the former Eastern European Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, S.

    1995-10-01

    This article discusses the safety of nuclear power plants in the former Eastern European countries (including the former Soviet Union). The current international design, fabrication, construction, operation, safety, regulatory standards and practices, and ways to resolve plant problems are addressed in light of experience with the Western nuclear power development programs.

  10. Structural study of growth, orientation and defects characteristics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    With a quantitative analysis of the ACOM measurements, a ... crystallographic computing in terms of a supercell approach. ... Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, ...

  11. Brazil-Low Carbon Growth Studies Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and forestry (LULUCF), including deforestation; (ii) transport systems; (iii) energy production and use, particularly electricity, oil and gas and bio-fuels; and (iv) solid...

  12. Preliminary Study on Emittance Growth in the LHEC Recirculating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    view. The simulation results are also compared with a theoretical estimation. Authors: Sun, Yi-Peng ; Adolphsen, Chris ; SLAC ; Zimmermann, Frank ; CERN Publication Date: ...

  13. Preliminary Study on Emittance Growth in the LHEC Recirculating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and synchrotron radiation (SR) fluctuations in the recirculating arcs. 6-D multi-particle tracking is launched to calculate the emittance from the statistical point of view. ...

  14. Growth of age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Thompson, Bradley E.; Hayes, Daniel B.; Riley, Timothy S.

    2006-12-01

    We sampled ten sites within the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan. In 2001, age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected to determine growth rates. In 2002, emergence dates of steelhead were determined by observational studies and age-0 steelhead and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected to determine growth rates. Steelhead emergence occurred from late June to mid-July 2002. Growth rates of both species varied among branches within the watershed (P<0.05). Steelhead growth varied from 0.24 to 0.42 mm/day and brook trout growth varied from 0.22 to 0.37 mm/day.

  15. Characterization of secondary phases in modified vertical bridgman growth czt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, Martine

    2009-07-10

    CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals are highly suitable for use as a room temperature based spectrometer for the detection and characterization of gamma radiation. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. For example, various structural heterogeneities within the CZT crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SP) can have a negative impact on the detector performance. In this study, a CZT material was grown by the modified vertical Bridgman growth (MVB) method with zone leveled growth without excess Te in the melt. Visual observations of material from the growth of this material revealed significant voids and SP. Three samples from this material was analyzed using various analytical techniques to evaluate its electrical properties, purity and detector performance as radiation spectrometers and to determine the morphology, dimension and elemental/structural composition of one of the SP in this material. This material was found to have a high resistivity but poor radiation spectrometer performance. It had SP that were rich in polycrystalline aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), metallic Te and polycrystalline CdZnTe and 15 to 50 {micro}m in diameter. Bulk elemental analyses of sister material from elsewhere in the boule did not contain high levels of Al so there is considerable elemental impurity heterogeneity within the boule from this growth.

  16. Fostering Growth | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Despite this upward trend, solar energy is only 1% of the current U.S. electricity supply. The SunShot Vision Study says that cost-competitive solar has an estimated potential to ...

  17. Graphene as a surfactant for metal growth on solid surfaces:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; GRAPHENE; PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY; SILICON CARBIDES; ...

  18. Appendix B: High Economic Growth case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    B High Economic Growth case projections This page inTenTionally lefT blank 43 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 High Economic Growth case projections Table B1. World total primary energy consumption by region, High Economic Growth case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 120.6 118.1 128.2 132.3 137.0 142.4 150.1 0.9 United States a 96.8 94.4

  19. Big-Data RHEED analysis for understanding epitaxial film growth processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-10-28

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has by now become a standard tool for in-situ monitoring of film growth by pulsed laser deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Yet despite the widespread adoption and wealth of information in RHEED image, most applications are limited to observing intensity oscillations of the specular spot, and much additional information on growth is discarded. With ease of data acquisition and increased computation speeds, statistical methods to rapidly mine the dataset are now feasible. Here, we develop such an approach to the analysis of the fundamental growth processes through multivariate statistical analysis of RHEED image sequence. This approach is illustrated for growth of LaxCa1-xMnO3 films grown on etched (001) SrTiO3 substrates, but is universal. The multivariate methods including principal component analysis and k-means clustering provide insight into the relevant behaviors, the timing and nature of a disordered to ordered growth change, and highlight statistically significant patterns. Fourier analysis yields the harmonic components of the signal and allows separation of the relevant components and baselines, isolating the assymetric nature of the step density function and the transmission spots from the imperfect layer-by-layer (LBL) growth. These studies show the promise of big data approaches to obtaining more insight into film properties during and after epitaxial film growth. Furthermore, these studies open the pathway to use forward prediction methods to potentially allow significantly more control over growth process and hence final film quality.

  20. New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    subsidies for PV manufacturing in China account for that country's dominance in PV ... The study's findings also suggest that the current advantages of China-based manufacturers ...

  1. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (France...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    France) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country France Coordinates 45.897655, 2.021484 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  2. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Denmark...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type...

  3. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Spain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spain) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country Spain Coordinates 40.522152, -4.163818 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingserv...

  4. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (United...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country United Kingdom Coordinates 55.378052, -3.435973 Loading map......

  5. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Czech...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Czech Republic) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country Czech Republic Coordinates 49.817493, 15.472962 Loading map......

  6. Vertical Emmittance Studies at the ATF Damping Ring (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and beam current, and, subsequently, study several methods of betatron-coupling correction. ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 43 PARTICLE ...

  7. Development of a Fast Microfluidic Mixer for Studies of Protein...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    be compatible with most commonly used spectroscopic methods. ... The mixers are used to study kinetics of fast protein ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English ...

  8. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Germany...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Germany) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country Germany Coordinates 51.165691, 10.451526 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  9. A Survey of the U.S. ESCO Industry: Market Growth and Development from 2008 to 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satchwell, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Larsen, Peter; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2010-06-08

    In this study, LBNL analyzes the current size of the Energy Service Company (ESCO) industry, industry growth projections to 2011, and market trends in order to provide policymakers with a more indepth understanding of energy efficiency activity among private sector firms. We draw heavily on information from interviews with ESCOs conducted from October 2009 to February 2010 and from our review of publicly available financial information regarding individual ESCOs. A significant ramp-up in energy efficiency activities is occurring at the local, state, and federal level. These activities include the establishment in {approx}18 states of statewide energy savings goals to be obtained from adoption of an Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (EERS), legislative or state regulatory directives to obtain all cost-effective demand-side resources (Barbose et al 2009), and a significant increase in federal funding for energy efficiency programs as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). As part of this increased focus on energy efficiency, policymakers are evaluating the role of private sector companies, including ESCOs, in delivering cost-effective energy savings to end-users. The U.S. ESCO industry has long been recognized for its role in successfully delivering comprehensive energy projects in the public sector. This study analyzes the current size of the ESCO industry, industry growth projections, and market trends in order to provide policymakers with a more in-depth understanding of energy efficiency activity among private sector firms. This study may also be of interest to policymakers abroad who are exploring options to encourage development of a private-sector energy services industry in their own countries. This study draws heavily on information from interviews with ESCOs conducted from October 2009 to February 2010 and is part of a series of ESCO industry reports prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in collaboration with the

  10. Geothermal Energy Growth Continues, Industry Survey Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey released by the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) shows continued growth in the number of new geothermal power projects under development in the United States, a 20% increase since January of this year.

  11. Derisking Renewable Energy Investment. A Framework to Support Policymakers in Selecting Public Instruments to Promote Renewable Energy Investment in Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waissbein, Oliver; Glemarec, Yannick; Bayraktar, Hande; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2013-03-15

    This report introduces an innovative framework to assist policymakers to quantitatively compare the impact of different public instruments to promote renewable energy. The report identifies the need to reduce the high financing costs for renewable energy in developing countries as an important task for policymakers acting today. The framework is structured in four stages: (i) risk environment, (ii) public instruments, (iii) levelised cost and (iv) evaluation. To illustrate how the framework can support decision-making in practice, the report presents findings from illustrative case studies in four developing countries. It then draws on these results to discuss possible directions for enhancing public interventions to scale-up renewable energy investment. UNDP is also releasing a financial tool for policymakers to accompany the framework. The financial tool is available for download on the UNDP website.

  12. Au impact on GaAs epitaxial growth on GaAs (111){sub B} substrates in molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Ya-Nan; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Zhi; Yang, Lei; Lu, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Ping-Ping; Lu, Wei; Zou, Jin; Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072

    2013-02-11

    GaAs growth behaviour under the presence of Au nanoparticles on GaAs {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub B} substrate is investigated using electron microscopy. It has been found that, during annealing, enhanced Ga surface diffusion towards Au nanoparticles leads to the GaAs epitaxial growth into {l_brace}113{r_brace}{sub B} faceted triangular pyramids under Au nanoparticles, governed by the thermodynamic growth, while during conventional GaAs growth, growth kinetics dominates, resulting in the flatted triangular pyramids at high temperature and the epitaxial nanowires growth at relatively low temperature. This study provides an insight of Au nanoparticle impact on GaAs growth, which is critical for understanding the formation mechanisms of semiconductor nanowires.

  13. Price control survey, continued: Five countries: A South-South perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-24

    Among the developing countries, there are multiple strata today, from star performers to those seemingly stuck in self-deepening poverty. Domestic energy-pricing policy, as it will continue to play its key role in economic development, is scrutinized in this issue featuring five developing nations. They make up some of the world's have not and have little peoples, striving to participate in the world economy. The nations examined are Thailand, South Korea, Chile, Venezuela, and Bolivia. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Dec. 20, 1991; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, December 1991 edition.

  14. Georgia Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Georgia Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's -- 2000's -- 1.92 3.51 5.12 6.47 9.18 7.03 6.79 9.71 3.73 2010's 4.39 4.20 2.78 3.36 4.33 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  15. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  16. Effects of catalyst film thickness on plasma-enhanced carbon nanotube growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmann, S.; Cantoro, M.; Kleinsorge, B.; Casiraghi, C.; Parvez, A.; Robertson, J.; Ducati, C.

    2005-08-01

    A systematic study is presented of the influence of catalyst film thickness on carbon nanostructures grown by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition from acetylene and ammonia mixtures. We show that reducing the Fe/Co catalyst film thickness below 3 nm causes a transition from larger diameter (>40 nm), bamboolike carbon nanofibers to small diameter ({approx}5 nm) multiwalled nanotubes with two to five walls. This is accompanied by a more than 50 times faster growth rate and a faster catalyst poisoning. Thin Ni catalyst films only trigger such a growth transition when pretreated with an ammonia plasma. We observe a limited correlation between this growth transition and the coarsening of the catalyst film before deposition. For a growth temperature of {<=}550 deg. C, all catalysts showed mainly a tip growth regime and a similar activity on untreated silicon, oxidized silicon, and silicon nitride support.

  17. SEP Success Story: How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North Country School has dedicated itself to finding renewable sources of fuel to heat the approximately 85,000 square feet of classroom and office space on campus. After investigating many options, installing a wood chip boiler emerged as the most environmental and economical choice, due in large part to the availability of wood chips that are a by-product of the campus’ forest woodlot. Learn more.

  18. Country/Continent Total Percent of U.S. Total Africa/Europe

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    peak kilowatts Country/Continent Total Percent of U.S. Total Africa/Europe 53,898 29% Asia/Australia 107,460 59% South/Central America 11,692 6% Canada 4,378 2% Mexico 5,556 3% Total 182,984 100% Table 8. Destination of photovoltaic module export shipments, 2014 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.'

  19. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Energy in Indian Country - DOE Laboratory Overview and Resources -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Indian Country Roger Taylor Tribal Energy Program Manager NREL Major DOE National Laboratories Brookhaven Pacific Northwest Lawrence Berkeley Lawrence Livermore h h h h h INEEL National Renewable National Renewable Energy Laboratory Energy Laboratory Los Alamos Sandia Argonne Oak Ridge Defense Program Labs n Office of Science Labs Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Lab Environmental Management Lab Fossil Energy Lab NETL National Renewable Energy Laboratory i Only national laboratory

  20. Opportunities for the utilization of natural gas in the developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carameros, G.D. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A review of natural gas resources and utilization in the less-developed countries (LDCs) demonstrates that gas can be a very attractive option in meeting a nation's energy needs. Furthermore, some LDCs have sufficient reserves to undertake an export project as a new source of income. The obstacles hindering gas programs in LDCs involve market development, high-risk investment requirements, and manpower resources.

  1. Fuel cycle centers revisited: Consolidation of fuel cycle activities in a few countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kratzer, M.B.

    1996-07-01

    Despite varied expressions, the general impression remains that the international fuel cycle center concept, whatever its merits, is visionary. It also is quite possibly unattainable in light of strong national pressures toward independence and self-sufficiency in all things nuclear. Is the fuel cycle center an idea that has come and gone? Is it an idea whose time has not yet come? Or is it, as this paper suggests, an idea that has already arrived on the scene, attracting little attention or even acknowledgement of its presence? The difficult in answering this questions arises, in part, from the fact that despite its long and obvious appeal, there has been very little systematic analysis of the concept itself. Such obvious questions as how many and where fuel cycle centers should be located; what characteristics should the hot country or countries possess; and what are the institutional forms or features that endow the concept with enhanced proliferation protection have rarely been seriously and systematically addressed. The title of this paper focuses on limiting the geographic spread of fuel cycle facilities, and some may suggest that doing so does not necessarily call for any type of international or multinational arrangements applicable to those that exist. It is a premise of this paper, however, that a restriction on the number of countries possessing sensitive fuel cycle facilities necessarily involves some degree of multinationalization. This is not only because in every instance a nonproliferation pledge and international or multinational safeguards, or both, will be applied to the facility, but also because a restriction on the number of countries possessing these facilities implies that those in existence will serve a multinational market. This feature in itself is an important form of international auspices. Thus, the two concepts--limitation and multinationalization--if not necessarily one and the same, are at least de facto corollaries.

  2. 2010 DOE Peer Review Update Conference LIST OF ATTENDEES Last Name First Name Organization Country

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2/2010 1 2010 DOE Peer Review Update Conference LIST OF ATTENDEES Last Name First Name Organization Country Aalmans Luc General Compression USA Adams Michael Constellation Energy USA Agar Ertan Drexel University USA Agrawal Poonum Sentech, Inc USA Ahmed Jasim BOSCH USA Akhil Abbas Sandia National Laboratories USA Alexander Iwan Case Western Reserve University USA Alexander Jane USA Amy Fabrice Air Products USA Anderson Dianne Case Western Reserve University USA Anderson Travis Sandia National

  3. A Clean Energy Standard: Good for Consumers, Good for the Country

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earlier this week, the Congressional Budget Office issued a new report that highlights the important role a clean energy standard could have in creating the clean energy jobs of the future at minimal cost to consumers.
 
The report evaluates several proposed clean and renewable energy standards, running them through a variety of models to determine the impact they could have on electricity prices in five regions of the country.

  4. Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group Meeting Summary - Jan. 24, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    January 24, 2014 Seminole Hard Rock Hotel Hollywood, Florida MEETING OVERVIEW The 12 th meeting of the Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group (ICEIWG), established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (IE), took place on Friday, January 24, 2014 in Hollywood, Florida. The meeting site was hosted by ICEIWG Member, the Seminole Tribe of Florida. ACTION ITEMS 1. Final review of waste-to-energy letter to Secretary of Energy. 2. Final

  5. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  6. Apparatus for silicon web growth of higher output and improved growth stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Charles S.; Piotrowski, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    This disclosure describes an apparatus to improve the web growth attainable from prior web growth configurations. This apparatus modifies the heat loss at the growth interface in a manner that minimizes thickness variations across the web, especially regions of the web adjacent to the two bounding dendrites. In the unmodified configuration, thinned regions of web, adjacent to the dendrites, were found to be the origin of crystal degradation which ultimately led to termination of the web growth. According to the present invention, thinning adjacent to the dendrites is reduced and the incidence of crystal degradation is similarly reduced.

  7. Growth morphology and properties of metals on graphene (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth morphology and properties of metals on graphene Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2016 Title: Growth morphology ...

  8. NREL Growth Forum Brings Together Clean Energy Innovators - News...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Growth Forum Brings Together Clean Energy Innovators Event recognizes the top startup businesses and clean energy technologies November 5, 2015 The Industry Growth Forum, hosted by...

  9. From Climate Finance to Financing Green Growth | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    green growth and the importance of developing the right policies to support a transition towards the low carbon economy. It assesses the financing needs of green growth in...

  10. Indonesia-Low Carbon Growth Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia Low Carbon Growth Project AgencyCompany Organization United Kingdom Department for International Development Partner...

  11. Kenya-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  12. India-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name India-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  13. Brazil-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Brazil-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  14. Guyana-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Guyana-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  15. Mexico-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  16. Malaysia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Malaysia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Malaysia-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks,...

  17. Indonesia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  18. Egypt-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Egypt-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  19. Ethiopia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethiopia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Ethiopia-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks,...

  20. Understanding Cost Growth and Performance Shortfalls in Pioneer...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cost Growth and Performance Shortfalls in Pioneer Process Plants Understanding Cost Growth and Performance Shortfalls in Pioneer Process Plants This report presents an empirical ...

  1. Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates Title: Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates Authors: Chen, Wei ; Cui, ...

  2. Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on Superstructured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on Superstructured Mn-Cu(111) Surface Title: Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on Superstructured Mn-Cu(111) ...

  3. ClimateWorks-Egypt-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks-Egypt-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Retrieved from "http:...

  4. Thailand-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name Thailand-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  5. Cambodia-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name Cambodia-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  6. Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "GGGI is dedicated to pioneering and diffusing a new model of economic growth, known as "green growth," that simultaneously targets key aspects of economic performance, such as...

  7. Green Growth e-Learning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Green Growth e-Learning AgencyCompany Organization: Green Growth Best Practice Initiative (GGBPI) Focus Area: Economic Development, Energy...

  8. Peru-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name Peru-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  9. Jordan-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name Jordan-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  10. Ethiopia-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name Ethiopia-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) Partner...

  11. Nanoparticles to Mitigate Biofilm Growth. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoparticles to Mitigate Biofilm Growth. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoparticles to Mitigate Biofilm Growth. Abstract not provided. Authors: Altman, Susan Jeanne ...

  12. Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Prev Next Title: Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Authors: Lee, Shinbuhm ...

  13. OECD-Fostering Innovation for Green Growth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fostering Innovation for Green Growth Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: OECD-Fostering Innovation for Green Growth AgencyCompany Organization:...

  14. China-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  15. Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Presented at ...

  16. Ghana Goes for Green Growth: National Engagement on Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ghana Goes for Green Growth: National Engagement on Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Ghana Goes for Green Growth: National Engagement on...

  17. Enhancing Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance through Use of Fungi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhancing Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance through Use of Fungi and Bacteria that Comprise Plant Microbiomes Enhancing Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance through Use of Fungi and ...

  18. ARM - Lesson Plans: Plant Growth and Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant Growth and Carbon Dioxide Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge ... Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Plant Growth and Carbon Dioxide Objective The ...

  19. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  20. Co-GISAXS technique for investigating surface growth dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainville, Meliha G.; Hoskin, Christa; Ulbrandt, Jeffrey G.; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec R.; Zhou, Hua; Headrick, Randall L.; Ludwig, Jr., Karl F.

    2015-12-08

    Detailed quantitative measurement of surface dynamics during thin film growth is a major experimental challenge. Here X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy with coherent hard X-rays is used in a Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (i.e. Co-GISAXS) geometry as a new tool to investigate nanoscale surface dynamics during sputter deposition of a-Si and a-WSi2 thin films. For both films, kinetic roughening during surface growth reaches a dynamic steady state at late times in which the intensity autocorrelation function g2(q,t) becomes stationary. The g2(q,t) functions exhibit compressed exponential behavior at all wavenumbers studied. The overall dynamics are complex, but the most surface sensitive sections of the structure factor and correlation time exhibit power law behaviors consistent with dynamical scaling.

  1. On the origin of radiation growth of hcp crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golubov, Stanislav I; Barashev, Aleksandr; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work is to study theoretically the radiation growth (RG) of hcp-type materials with a particular focus on the effect of one-dimensionally (1-D) migrating clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), which are steadily produced in displacement cascades under neutron or heavy-ion irradiation. A reaction-diffusion model is developed for the description of RG in single hcp-type metallic crystals. The model reproduces all RG stages observed in neutron-irradiated annealed samples of pure Zr and Zr alloys, such as high strain rate at low, strain saturation at intermediate and breakaway growth at relatively high irradiation doses. In addition, it accounts for the striking observations of negative strains in prismatic directions and coexistence of vacancy- and SIA-type prismatic loops. The role of cold work in RG behavior and alignment of the vacancy-type loops along basal planes are revealed and the maximum strain rate is estimated.

  2. Chemical beam epitaxy growth of III–V semiconductor nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohummed Noori, Farah T.

    2013-12-16

    Indium- Arsenide (InAs) nanowires were grown in a high vacuum chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) unit on InAs(111) wafers substrates at 425–454°C. Two types of nanogold were used as orientation catalyst, 40nm and 80nm. The measurements were performed using scanning electron microscopy showed that uniform nanowires. The nanowires orient vertically in the InAs nanowire scanning electron microscopy of an array 80nm diameter InAs nanowire with length is in the range 0.5–1 μm and of an array 40nm diameter with length is in the range 0.3–0.7μm. The nanowire length with growth time shows that the linear increase of nanowires start to grow as soon as TMIn is available. The growth rate with temperature was studied.

  3. Growth of tapered silica nanowires with a shallow U-shaped vapor chamber: Growth mechanism and structural and optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Danqing; Zhang, Xi Wei, Jianglin; Gu, Gangxu; Xiang, Gang

    2015-04-28

    Traditional chemical vapor deposition method modified with a shallow U-shaped vapor chamber has been used to synthesize tapered bamboo shoot-like (BS-like) amorphous SiO{sub 2} nanowires (NWs) on Si (100) substrates without catalyst. The key innovation of this approach lies in a creation of swirling flow of the reactant vapors during the growth, which leads to a harvest of tapered silica NWs with lengths up to several microns. The unique structures and corresponding luminescence properties of the BS-like NWs were studied and their relationship with the evaporated active reactants was explored. A thermodynamic model that considers the critical role of the vapor flow during the growth is proposed to understand the structural and optical features. The shallow U-shaped vapor chamber-aided approach may provide a viable way to tailor novel structure of NWs for potential applications in nano-devices.

  4. Growth Kinetics and Modeling of Direct Oxynitride Growth with NO-O2 Gas Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everist, Sarah; Nelson, Jerry; Sharangpani, Rahul; Smith, Paul Martin; Tay, Sing-Pin; Thakur, Randhir

    1999-05-03

    We have modeled growth kinetics of oxynitrides grown in NO-O2 gas mixtures from first principles using modified Deal-Grove equations. Retardation of oxygen diffusion through the nitrided dielectric was assumed to be the dominant growth-limiting step. The model was validated against experimentally obtained curves with good agreement. Excellent uniformity, which exceeded expected walues, was observed.

  5. Role of nucleation in nanodiamond film growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, C.H.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, W.J.; Bello, I.; Lee, S.T.

    2006-06-12

    Nanodiamond films were deposited using different microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition schemes following several nucleation pretreatment methods. The nucleation efficiency and the films structure were investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. C{sub 2} dimer growth (CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} in 90% Ar) cannot nucleate diamond and works only on existing diamond surfaces. The methyl radical process (up to 20% CH{sub 4} in H{sub 2}) allows some nucleation probability on appropriate substrates. Prolonged bias enhanced nucleation initiates both diamond nucleation and growth. C{sub 2} dimer growth results in pure nanodiamond free of amorphous carbon, while prolonged bias enhanced nucleation forms an amorphous carbon/nanodiamond composite.

  6. Creep crack growth in ductile alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argon, A.S.; Lau, C.W.; Ozmat, B.; Parks, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Creep crack growth in ductile alloys involves considerable fragmentation of the crack tip region in its early phases of growth. This is a result of the defocusing action of crack tip blunting by both distortional and cavitational strains on the distribution of intergranular creep damage and is affected significantly by the initial sharpness of the crack. Specific models of intergranular damage combining non-steady creep flow, evolution and growth of grain boundary facet cracks in the inelastic deformation field leading to final fracture have been developed. When used in conjunction with finite element programs for crack tips, these damage models can explain such crack extension modes. The combination of mechanistic three dimensional damage models and large strain finite element codes, promise to be of wide-spread utility in predicting the development of creep damage under complex loading histories.

  7. Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arrow, K.; Bolin, B.; Costanza, R.; Dasgupta, P.; Folke, C.; Maeler, K.G.; Holling, C.S.; Jansson, B.O.; Levin, S.; Perrings, C.

    1995-04-28

    National and international economic policy has usually ignored the environment. In areas where the environment is beginning to impinge on policy, as in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), it remains a tangential concern, and the presumption is often made that economic growth and economic liberalization (including the liberalization of international trade) are, in some sense, good for the environment. This notion has meant that economy-wide policy reforms designed to promote growth and liberalization have been encouraged with little regard to their environmental consequences, presumably on the assumption that these consequences would either take care of themselves or could be dealt with separately. In this article, we discuss the relation between economic growth and environmental quality, and the link between economic activity and the carrying capacity and resilience of the environment.

  8. Efg Crystal Growth Apparatus And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackintosh, Brian H.; Ouellette, Marc

    2003-05-13

    An improved mechanical arrangement controls the introduction of silicon particles into an EFG (Edge-defined Film-fed Growth) crucible/die unit for melt replenishment during a crystal growth run. A feeder unit injects silicon particles upwardly through a center hub of the crucible/die unit and the mechanical arrangement intercepts the injected particles and directs them so that they drop into the melt in a selected region of the crucible and at velocity which reduces splashing, whereby to reduce the likelihood of interruption of the growth process due to formation of a solid mass of silicon on the center hub and adjoining components. The invention also comprises use of a Faraday ring to alter the ratio of the electrical currents flowing through primary and secondary induction heating coils that heat the crucible die unit and the mechanical arrangement.

  9. Crystal growth and annealing method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gianoulakis, Steven E.; Sparrow, Robert

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing crystals that minimizes birefringence even at large crystal sizes, and is suitable for production of CaF.sub.2 crystals. The method of the present invention comprises annealing a crystal by maintaining a minimal temperature gradient in the crystal while slowly reducing the bulk temperature of the crystal. An apparatus according to the present invention includes a thermal control system added to a crystal growth and annealing apparatus, wherein the thermal control system allows a temperature gradient during crystal growth but minimizes the temperature gradient during crystal annealing. An embodiment of the present invention comprises a secondary heater incorporated into a conventional crystal growth and annealing apparatus. The secondary heater supplies heat to minimize the temperature gradients in the crystal during the annealing process. The secondary heater can mount near the bottom of the crucible to effectively maintain appropriate temperature gradients.

  10. Direct growth of graphene on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanh Trung, Pham Joucken, Frdric; Colomer, Jean-Franois; Robert, Sporken; Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benot; Santos, Cristiane N.

    2014-06-14

    Due to the need of integrated circuit in the current silicon technology, the formation of graphene on Si wafer is highly desirable, but is still a challenge for the scientific community. In this context, we report the direct growth of graphene on Si(111) wafer under appropriate conditions using an electron beam evaporator. The structural quality of the material is investigated in detail by reflection high energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experimental results confirm that the quality of graphene is strongly dependent on the growth time during carbon atoms deposition.

  11. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Triplett, Eric W.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Chelius, Marisa K.

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  12. Petroleum refining industry of developed capitalist countries in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prokhorova, A.A.

    1994-07-01

    Crude oil is the principal source of energy today and in the immediate future. The increases in the consumption of crude oil (1.7% per year up to 2005) will be offset mainly by additional supplies from the countries of the Near East. Data on the imports of oil by the developed capitalists countries are presented in Table 2. In the United States, according to a projection made by Conoco, by the year 2000 the volume of imports will be twice the volume of domestic production; according to another prediction, the amount of Near East crude will increase from 34% in 1990 to 42% in 2000. Since the mid-1980s, the energy policy of the USA has been based on importing so-called cheap crude. Laws have been passed to mandate not only energy saving, but also cuts in the oil and gas production on U.S. territory. The volume of U.S. oil production will be 20% lower in 2000 than in 1990. Some 90% of the worldwide demand for oil is met by light and medium-density crudes, but such crudes account for only 25% of the oil resources. Projections indicate that the oil supplied to refiners in the future will be heavier and will have higher sulfur contents. The U.S. production of low-sulfur crude will drop off sharply in the next 10-15 years. The drop in oil production of the CIS [former USSR] and the consequent drop in exports from these countries will have a destabilizing effect on the world market. The average price of the {open_quotes}market basket{close_quotes} of OPEC crudes in 1991 was $149/ton (in 1990 $178/ton), in comparison with a 1992 price of $148/ton. This report presents data on refining process capacities and the ratio of secondary capacity to primary distillation capacity.

  13. U.S. assistance enhancing safety culture in countries operating Soviet-designed reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guppy, J.G.; Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.W.

    1995-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is managing the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), which is aimed at providing assistance to enhance safety at commercial nuclear power plants (NPPS) in Russia and Ukraine, as well as Central European countries (CEC). The funding for this program has been provided by the US Agency for International Development (AID). Brookhaven National Laboratory has been assisting DOE in certain portions of this program. The enhancement of safety culture is one of the most important goals of the joint International Nuclear Safety Program. In terms of the INSP, safety culture is comprised of two major components; (1) an environment that is a function of regulations, management sensitivity and structure; and (2) an individual commitment to safety in the day to day execution of activities in terms of thought and accountability. The long term impact of the INSP activities can only be measured by the effectiveness of strengthening safety culture within our partner counties. The strengthening of this culture will manifest in reduced risk of a nuclear accident long after other evidence of the INSP activities has disappeared. One area within the INSP, which has already led to a number of successful specific projects, is under the plant safety upgrade activities. Here, the US and the partner countries jointly identify specific target areas for the INSP efforts. Each identified area has a major component involving safety culture enhancement. With any direct involvement in the particular assistance activities, areas are identified to include a need for training. As technical experts and management from the partner country are assisted in addressing the identified needs, the training programs are provided which will not only address the specific need at hand, but will also teach skills which can be applied to different, but related needs that may exist or develop.

  14. Evaluation of geological formations of Eastern Europe countries for raw disposal and elaboration of joint R&D programmes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khrushchov, D.P.; Nigmatullin, N.S.; Balla, Z.

    1995-12-01

    The development of national R&D programmes on RAW management in the countries of East Europe is inevitably due to the fact that some of them (Ukraine, Russia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Romania), have rather developed nuclear power industries, whereas some others are planning their development (Poland, Byelarus, Lithuania, etc.). The majority of East European countries have their own R&D programmes. The territories of these countries are situated within the limits of the East European geological platforms. As to RAW disposal these geological areas and consequently, the geological regions of East European countries are in very different condition. However, all the countries making use of nuclear power and other industries producing RAW, are facing a need to solve the problem of RAW disposal and to develop their own national programmes. Thus, the different geological environments for RAW disposal, which are extremely unfavorable in some countries, may be considered as a reason for joint R&D programmes initiation. The aim of these programmes is a detailed evaluation of geological formations and geological structure of East European countries as to RAW isolation in order to unite the efforts and to increase the efficiency of national R&D programmes as well as to ground subsequent joint actions related to RAW disposal.

  15. Approaches used for Clearance of Lands from Nuclear Facilities among Several Countries: Evaluation for Regulatory Input

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    :14 Report number: 2013:14 ISSN: 2000-0456 Available at www.stralsakerhetsmyndigheten.se Approaches used for Clearance of Lands from Nuclear Facilities among Several Countries Evaluation for Regulatory Input Robert A. Meck Author: SSM perspektiv SSM har nyligen beslutat om föreskrifter om friklassning av material, loka- ler, byggnader och mark vid verksamhet med joniserande strålning (SSMFS 201 1:2). Föreskrifterna innehåller bland annat krav på att tillståndshavare, vid avveckling av

  16. International Clean Energy Analysis Gateway: Assisting Developing Countries with Clean Energy Deployment (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The International Clean Energy Analysis Gateway seeks to enhance developing country access to energy efficiency and renewable energy analysis tools, databases, methods, and other technical resources in a dynamic user interaction environment. In addition to providing information on available tools, the gateway also is a platform for Web seminars, online training, peer networks, and expert assistance. The gateway is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Further cooperation is desired with organizations that can help expand the information presented in the portal and assist with outreach and training.

  17. Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group Meeting Summary - May 15, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 15, 2014 U.S. Grant Hotel San Diego, California MEETING OVERVIEW The thirteenth meeting of the Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group (ICEIWG), established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (IE), took place on Thursday, May 15, 2014 in San Diego, California. The meeting was co-hosted by ICEIWG Member, the Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians at the U.S. Grant Hotel, owned by the Sycuan Band of Kumeyaay Indians. ACTION ITEMS 1.

  18. Growth and properties of Lithium Salicylate single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hull, G; Saw, C; Carman, L; Cherepy, N; Payne, S

    2009-02-13

    An attractive feature of {sup 6}Li containing fluorescence materials that determines their potential application in radiation detection is the capture reaction with slow ({approx}< 100 keV) neutrons: {sup 6}Li + n = {sup 4}He + {sup 3}H + 4.8MeV. The use of {sup 6}Li-salicylate (LiSal, LiC{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}) for thermal neutron detection was previously studied in liquid and polycrystalline scintillators. The studies showed that both liquid and polycrystalline LiSal scintillators could be utilized in pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques that enable separation of neutrons from the background gamma radiation. However, it was found that the efficiency of neutron detection using LiSal in liquid solutions was severely limited by its low solubility in commonly used organic solvents like, for example, toluene or xylene. Better results were obtained with neutron detectors containing the compound in its crystalline form, such as pressed pellets, or microscopic-scale (7-14 micron) crystals dispersed in various media. The expectation drown from these studies was that further improvement of pulse height, PSD, and efficiency characteristics could be reached with larger and more transparent LiSal crystals, growth of which has not been reported so far. In this paper, we present the first results on growth and characterization of relatively large, a cm-scale size, single crystals of LiSal with good optical quality. The crystals were grown both from aqueous and anhydrous (methanol) media, mainly for neutron detection studies. However, the results on growth and structural characterization may be interesting for other fields where LiSal, together with other alkali metal salicylates, is used for biological, medical, and chemical (as catalyst) applications.

  19. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of GaAs on (631) Oriented Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz Hernandez, Esteban; Rojas Ramirez, Juan-Salvador; Contreras Hernandez, Rocio; Lopez Lopez, Maximo; Pulzara Mora, Alvaro; Mendez Garcia, Victor H.

    2007-02-09

    In this work, we report the study of the homoepitaxial growth of GaAs on (631) oriented substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We observed the spontaneous formation of a high density of large scale features on the surface. The hilly like features are elongated towards the [-5, 9, 3] direction. We show the dependence of these structures with the growth conditions and we present the possibility of to create quantum wires structures on this surface.

  20. Nucleation and Growth of Electrodeposited ZnO Visualized by in-Situ X-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microscopy | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Nucleation and Growth of Electrodeposited ZnO Visualized by in-Situ X-ray Microscopy Thursday, June 30, 2016 Electrodeposition (ED) of ZnO has been widely used to deposit transparent conducting films for optoelectronic applications. The film quality, and consequently the performance of the film, is highly dependent on both the nucleation and growth of ZnO. Current studies employ ex-situ experiments where the film is deposited, dried,

  1. Growth of Quantum Wires on Step-Bunched Substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Feng

    2005-02-01

    This proposal initiates a combined theoretical and experimental multidisciplinary research effort to explore a novel approach for growing metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched semiconductor and dielectric substrates, and to lay the groundwork for understanding the growth mechanisms and the electronic, electrical, and magnetic properties of metallic and magnetic nanowires. The research will focus on four topics: (1) fundamental studies of step bunching and self-organization in a strained thin film for creating step-bunched substrates. (2) Interaction between metal adatoms (Al,Cu, and Ni) and semiconductor (Si and SiGe) and dielectric (CaF2) surface steps. (3) growth and characterization of metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched templates. (4) fabrication of superlattices of nanowires by growing multilayer films. We propose to attack these problems at both a microscopic and macroscopic level, using state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental techniques. Multiscale (electronic-atomic-continuum) theories will be applied to investigate growth mechanisms of nanowires: mesoscopic modeling and simulation of step flow growth of strained thin films, in particular, step bunching and self-organization will be carried out within the framework of continuum linear elastic theory; atomistic calculation of interaction between metal adatoms and semiconductor and dielectric surface steps will be done by large-scale computations using first-principles total-energy methods. In parallel, thin films and nanowires will be grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and the resultant structure and morphology will be characterized at the atomic level up to micrometer range, using a combination of different surface/interface probes, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, atomic resolution), atomic force microscopy (AFM, nanometer resolution), low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM, micrometer resolution), reflectance high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and x

  2. Climate indices strongly influence old-growth forest carbon exchange

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wharton, Sonia; Falk, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    We present a decade and a half (1998–2013) of carbon dioxide fluxes from an old-growth stand in the American Pacific Northwest to identify ecosystem-level responses to Pacific teleconnection patterns, including the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This study provides the longest, continuous record of old-growth eddy flux data to date from one of the longest running Fluxnet stations in the world. From 1998 to 2013, average annual net ecosystem exchange (FNEE) at Wind River AmeriFlux was –32 ± 84 g C m–2 yr–1 indicating that the late seral forest is on average a small net sink of atmospheric carbon. However, interannualmore » variability is high (>300 g C m–2 yr–1) and shows that the stand switches from net carbon sink to source in response to climate drivers associated with ENSO. The old-growth forest is a much stronger sink during La Niña years (mean FNEE = –90 g C m–2 yr–1) than during El Niño when the stand turns carbon neutral or into a small net carbon source (mean FNEE = +17 g C m–2 yr–1). Forest inventory data dating back to the 1930s show a similar correlation with the lower frequency Pacific North American (PNA) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) whereby higher aboveground net primary productivity (FANPP) is associated with cool phases of both the PNA and PDO. Furthermore, these measurements add evidence that carbon exchange in old-growth stands may be more sensitive to climate variability across shorter time scales than once thought.« less

  3. Closer look at our neighbors to the south: Air quality trends, standards, and monitoring programs of Latin American countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childers, L.O.; Medina-Vera, M.; Mitchell, W.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS/Air) is a program in which air monitoring data from over 50 countries throughout the world are collected and analyzed. The GEMS/Air program is sponsored by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). As part of a technical systems agreement between the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the UNEP/WHO, collaborative reviews of eighteen Latin American cities were conducted over the past two years. The countries visited include Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Venezuela. The findings of these reviews and the future direction of air pollution monitoring programs in these countries are presented.

  4. Growth Of Oriented Crystals At Polymerized Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah H. , Berman, Amir

    2000-01-25

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the growth and alignment of crystals at biopolymeric films. The methods and compositions of the present invention provide means to generate a variety of dense crystalline ceramic films, with totally aligned crystals, at low temperatures and pressures, suitable for use with polymer and plastic substrates.

  5. Emittance growth from electron beam modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2009-12-01

    In linac ring colliders like MeRHIC and eRHIC a modulation of the electron bunch can lead to a modulation of the beam beam tune shift and steering errors. These modulations can lead to emittance growth. This note presents simple formulas to estimate these effects which generalize some previous results.

  6. Melt dumping in string stabilized ribbon growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanuel M.

    1986-12-09

    A method and apparatus for stabilizing the edge positions of a ribbon drawn from a melt includes the use of wettable strings drawn in parallel up through the melt surface, the ribbon being grown between the strings. A furnace and various features of the crucible used therein permit continuous automatic growth of flat ribbons without close temperature control or the need for visual inspection.

  7. UV absorption control of thin film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Zuhoski, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the rate of growth of thin films in an atmosphere of reactant gases measures the UV absorbance of the atmosphere and calculates the partial pressure of the gases. The flow of reactant gases is controlled in response to the partial pressure.

  8. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  9. Growth evolution of AlN films on silicon (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Zhou, Shizhong; Lin, Zhiting; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-05-14

    AlN films with various thicknesses have been grown on Si(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The surface morphology and structural property of the as-grown AlN films have been investigated carefully to comprehensively explore the epitaxial behavior. The ∼2 nm-thick AlN film initially grown on Si substrate exhibits an atomically flat surface with a root-mean-square surface roughness of 0.23 nm. As the thickness increases, AlN grains gradually grow larger, causing a relatively rough surface. The surface morphology of ∼120 nm-thick AlN film indicates that AlN islands coalesce together and eventually form AlN layers. The decreasing growth rate from 240 to 180 nm/h is a direct evidence that the growth mode of AlN films grown on Si substrates by PLD changes from the islands growth to the layer growth. The evolution of AlN films throughout the growth is studied deeply, and its corresponding growth mechanism is hence proposed. These results are instructional for the growth of high-quality nitride films on Si substrates by PLD, and of great interest for the fabrication of AlN-based devices.

  10. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-05-01

    This analysis is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the US. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, namely unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity are investigated for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian stock scarcity and Malthusian flow scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce during the 1980s than the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has take place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent that resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. To see whether this is a relevant concern, subsequent to the examination of changing trends in resource scarcity, an objective effort is made to identify a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy scarcity and economic growth. Relying on cointegration techniques, only for crude oil is there a suggestion that resource scarcity has affected economic growth in the US over the period 1889--1992. 56 refs.

  11. Growth temperature dependence of Si doping efficiency and compensating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 117; Journal Issue: 18; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International ...

  12. Molecular design for growth of supramolecular membranes with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (US) Sponsoring Org: DOE - BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES Country of Publication: United States ...

  13. Fibroblast growth factor 10 protects neuron against oxygen-glucose...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Volume: 456; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input:...

  14. Regional overview of Latin American and Caribbean energy production, consumption, and future growth. Report series No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region - comprising Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean - is relatively well endowed with energy resources, although the distribution of these resources is uneven across countries. The region produces more energy than it consumes, and the surplus energy, which amounts to 3.6 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d), is mostly oil. While the region`s total oil (crude and products) exports decreased from 4.4 million barrels per day (b/d) in 1981 to 3.8 million b/d in 1992, its net oil exports increased from about 1.6 million b/d in 1981 to 2.8 million b/d in 1992. In 1993, the surplus oil in Latin America and the Caribbean remained at 2.8 million b/d. This report analyzes the key issues of the Latin American and Caribbean energy industry and presents the future outlook for oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power developments in the region. In addition, the status of biomass energy, geothermal, and other noncommercial energy in the region will be briefly discussed in the context of overall energy development. The rest of the report is organized as follows: Section II assesses the current situation of Latin American and Caribbean energy production and consumption, covering primary energy supply, primary energy consumption, downstream petroleum sector development, and natural gas utilization. Section III presents the results of our study of future energy growth in Latin America. Important hydrocarbons policy issues in the region are discussed in Section IV, and a summary and concluding remarks are provided in Section V.

  15. Fact #734: July 2, 2012 OPEC Countries Represent Less Than Half of U.S. Petroleum Imports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Even though Saudi Arabia is the world's largest producer of petroleum, and OPEC countries produce much of the oil in the global market, the U.S. imports most of its oil from Canada, Mexico and...

  16. Growth of Sb-Bi gradient single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozhemyakin, G. N. Lutskiy, D. V.; Rom, M. A.; Mateychenko, P. V.

    2008-12-15

    The growth conditions and structural quality of Sb-Bi gradient single crystals with Bi content from 2 to 18 at %, grown by the Czochralski method with solid phase feed, are investigated. Bi distribution in the crystals along their pulling direction are studied by electron probe microanalysis and the change in the interplanar spacing is analyzed by double-crystal X-ray diffraction. It is established that the pulling rate and feed mass affect the Bi distribution in Sb-Bi single crystals.

  17. Mechanism of abnormally slow crystal growth of CuZr alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, X. Q.; Lü, Y. J.

    2015-10-28

    Crystal growth of the glass-forming CuZr alloy is shown to be abnormally slow, which suggests a new method to identify the good glass-forming alloys. The crystal growth of elemental Cu, Pd and binary NiAl, CuZr alloys is systematically studied with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature dependence of the growth velocity indicates the different growth mechanisms between the elemental and the alloy systems. The high-speed growth featuring the elemental metals is dominated by the non-activated collision between liquid-like atoms and interface, and the low-speed growth for NiAl and CuZr is determined by the diffusion across the interface. We find that, in contrast to Cu, Pd, and NiAl, a strong stress layering arisen from the density and the local order layering forms in front of the liquid-crystal interface of CuZr alloy, which causes a slow diffusion zone. The formation of the slow diffusion zone suppresses the interface moving, resulting in much small growth velocity of CuZr alloy. We provide a direct evidence of this explanation by applying the compressive stress normal to the interface. The compression is shown to boost the stress layering in CuZr significantly, correspondingly enhancing the slow diffusion zone, and eventually slowing down the crystal growth of CuZr alloy immediately. In contrast, the growth of Cu, Pd, and NiAl is increased by the compression because the low diffusion zones in them are never well developed.

  18. U. S. Energy and Economic Growth, 1975--2010

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Allen, E. L.; Cooper, C. L.; Edmonds, F. C.; Edmonds, J. A.; Reister, D. B.; Weinberg, A. M.; Whittle, C. E.; Zelby, L. W.

    1976-09-01

    This study projects economic growth (GNP) and energy demand for the U.S. to the year 2010. The main finding is that both GNP and total energy demand are likely to grow significantly more slowly than has been assumed in most analyses of energy policy. Projections of energy, GNP, and electricity (total and per capita) are summarized, with electricity demand expected to grow more rapidly than total energy demand. Two scenarios designated ''high'' and ''low'' were developed in this study. However, even the ''high'' scenario, 126 quads (q; 1 q equals 10/sup 15/ Btu) in 2000, is much lower than most previous estimates. It is felt that this raises serious questions about fundamental energy and energy R and D policies which, generally, have been based on perceptions of more lavish energy futures. Although the aggregate demands and GNP are projected to increase rather modestly, the energy demands per capita and GNP per capita increase at rates comparable to or even higher than historic rates. The authors believe that the projections developed in this study represent a logical culmination of many trends toward lower growth. These trends have not yet been factored into the older energy projections upon which so much energy policy is based.

  19. Controlled Growth of Ordered III-Nitride Core-Shell Nanostructure Arrays for Visible Optoelectronic Devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rishinaramangalam, Ashwin K.; Mishkat Ul Masabih, Saadat; Fairchild, Michael N.; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Shima, Darryl M.; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Brener, Igal; Brueck, Steven R.J.; Feezell, Daniel F.

    2014-10-21

    In our paper, we demonstrate the growth of ordered arrays of nonpolar {101 ¯ 0} core–shell nanowalls and semipolar {101 ¯ 1} core–shell pyramidal nanostripes on c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates using selective-area epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure arrays are controllably patterned into LED mesa regions, demonstrating a technique to impart secondary lithography features into the arrays. Moreover, we study the dependence of the nanostructure cores on the epitaxial growth conditions and show that the geometry and morphology are strongly influenced by growth temperature, V/III ratio, and pulse interruption time. We also demonstrate the growth of InGaNmore » quantum well shells on the nanostructures and characterize the structures by using micro-photoluminescence and cross-section scanning tunneling electron microscopy.« less

  20. A continuum-scale model of hydrogen precipitate growth in tungsten plasma-facing materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Causey, Rion A.; Cowgill, Donald F.; Kolasinski, Robert D.

    2010-05-01

    The low solubility of hydrogen in tungsten leads to the growth of near-surface hydrogen precipitates during high-flux plasma exposure, strongly affecting migration and trapping in the material. We have developed a continuum-scale model of precipitate growth that leverages existing techniques for simulating the evolution of {sup 3}He gas bubbles in metal tritides. The present approach focuses on bubble growth by dislocation loop punching, assuming a diffusing flux to nucleation sites that arises from ion implantation. The bubble size is dictated by internal hydrogen pressure, the mechanical properties of the material, as well as local stresses. In this article, we investigate the conditions required for bubble growth. Recent focused ion beam (FIB) profiling studies that reveal the sub-surface damage structure provide an experimental database for comparison with the modeling results.