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Sample records for growth country studies

  1. Poland-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Poland-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy Sector Management...

  2. Republic of Macedonia-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Republic of Macedonia-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy...

  3. Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Studies Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy Sector Management Assistance Program of the...

  4. Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies: Getting Started Experience...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as improved fiscal incentives in forestry, are also considered. Mexico's study provides a body of knowledge about prospective low carbon "wedges," specific low carbon projects, and...

  5. Catalyzing Low Carbon Growth in Developing Countries | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth in Developing Countries: Public Finance Mechanisms to scale up private sector investment in climate solutions AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Environment...

  6. Gas in developing countries: Volume 2, Country studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains detailed case-studies of the history and prospects for natural gas utilization in eight developing countries: Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia. All of these countries have been visited by members of the research team, with the exception of Pakistan. Running through all the case-histories is the importance of defining a clear market for the gas. In some cases this can prove remarkably difficult, especially when the oil price is relatively low. In other cases a market does exist, but is very limited in relation to the size of available reserves. The other theme which recurs over and over again is the importance of the relationship between the government and its agencies, and the foreign oil companies which are involved in exploration and development of gas reserves. These two issues are addressed in detail in each case study. But it is also the case that each country highlights specific aspects of the gas story.

  7. US Country Studies Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization United States Government Sector Energy, Land Website http:www.gcrio.orgCSP Program Start 1993 References US Country Studies...

  8. LBNL Developing Countries Studies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Climate, 1989 Organized and led studies of 12 developing countries on mitigation costs and emissions scenarios, 1991 and 1994 Special Issues of Energy Policy Technical...

  9. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country studies: Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia...

  10. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Econo References Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country...

  11. LBNL Developing Countries Studies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in a number of activities relating to energy use in developing countries and climate change. Developed international energy use data and emissions scenarios for the EPA report to...

  12. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  13. US country studies program: Support for climate change studies, national plans, and technology assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the objectives of the next phase of the U.S. Country Studies Program which was launched in support of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The next phases of this program aim to: assist countries in preparing Climate Change Action plans; support technology assessments and development of technology initiatives; enhance exchange of information and expertise in support of FCCC. The program offers support for these processes in the form of handbooks which have been published to aid in preparing action plans, and to provide information on methane, forestry, and energy technologies. In addition an array of training workshops have been and are scheduled to offer hands on instruction to participants, expert advice is available from trained personnel, and modeling tools are available to aid in development of action plans.

  14. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  15. Low Carbon Growth: a Potential Path for Mexico - GHG Abatement...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLowCarbonGrowth:aPotentialPathforMexico-GHGAbatementCostCurve&...

  16. Peru`s national greenhouse gas inventory, 1990. Peru climate change country study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study has been to determine the Inventory and to propose greenhouse gases mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting, improving in this way the Peruvian standard of life. The main objective of this executive summary is to show concisely the results of the National Inventory about greenhouse gases emitted by Peru in 1990.

  17. Econometric study of an oil-exporting country: the case of Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiat, A.

    1987-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to contribute toward an analytical and empirical work on the oil-based developing economy of Iran. It focuses on the aggregate behavior of the Iranian economy through a simple linear econometric model. After a survey of the literature on the theoretical framework of macroeconomic models for the developing countries in general, and for the oil-exporting developing countries in particular, a linear econometric model for the Iranian economy if formulated and its logical and economic aspects are explained. The proposed model consists of basic consumption, production, foreign trade, and employment relationship. Results obtained from the estimation of the consumption functions seem to indicate that the aggregate Iranian consumption behavior can be best explained by Fiedman's Permanent Income Hypothesis. In general, the results of this study demonstrate that the links between different sectors of the Iranian economy are very weak and the import-substitution strategy of the government during the period of study failed to establish a genuine domestic industrial base and to reduce its dependence on foreign resources.

  18. Philippines: Environment and natural resource management study. World Bank country study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This study addresses the most significant issues of natural-resource management in the Philippines. These include the disappearence or degradation of forests; erosion and changes in hydrological regimes; the conversion of mangrove swamps to fishponds; degradation of coral reefs; and depletion of nearshore fisheries through overfishing and destructive techniques. The issues addressed concern the extent and rate of degradation of these resource stocks, the impact thereof on the national economy, and the scope for ameliorative measures through policy responses, management changes, and investments. The Government is responsible for management of public resources, which include over half of the land area of the Philippines as well as the coastal waters. Historically, public management has been less than optimal, as evidenced by an unsustainable rate of deforestation and the recent stagnation or decline in extractive fisheries.

  19. GIS solutions for ecosystem management in developing countries: A case study of Sao Tome and Principe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, L.; Barrasso, T.; Pinto da Costa, H.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote awareness of the application of the Geographic information system (GIS) technology to the management of ecosystems in developing countries. The adoptation of systematic environmental research and management techniques by national and local conservation programs helps ensure the sustainability of important biological resources.

  20. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. . Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu . Research Inst. of Forestry)

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  1. Money windfalls and oil-exporting developing countries: a comparative study of Algeria, Ecuador, trinidad and Tobago, and Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avin, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis analyzes how the oil windfalls of the 1970s have affected the growth path and the sectoral composition of output and trade of the oil rich developing countries. The policy makers of the four subject countries have adopted different development strategies so that their economies can achieve sustained increases in per capita income and a higher level of economic development after the resource is depleted. The analysis is concerned with the consequences of these policies. The neoclassical models used in the literature to analyze the effects of a resource boom predict the following consequences among others: (1) increase in the prices of nontraded goods, which include construction and services; (2) appreciation of the real exchange rate, which is defined as the ratio of the price of nontraded goods to the price of traded goods, and (3) fall in the output and employment of the traditional traded goods sector, not including the resource or booming sector. The consequences are known as the Dutch Disease in reference to a decline in Dutch manufacturing in the 1960s brought about by natural gas discoveries. To test the hypotheses of the trade and development models, national accounts data are used in order to measure the changes in the composition of production and trade in the 1970s and early 1980s.

  2. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Fearnside, P.M. , Manaus, AM . Departmento de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  3. Country Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country Total Percent of U.S. total Canada 61,078 1% China 3,323,297 57% Germany 154,800 3% Japan 12,593 0% India 47,192 1% South Korea 251,105 4% All Others 2,008,612 34% Total 5,858,677 100% Table 7 . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2014 (peak kilowatts) Note: All Others includes Cambodia, Czech Republic, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Turkey Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic

  4. Differential impact of rising energy prices upon developed and developing countries: 1970-1977

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collier, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the impact of this era of restricted energy upon continued growth and development of poor, middle-income, and rich countries in the world society. The research objective is to ascertain if increased prices more adversely affected low-income countries (many of whom morally supported the behavior of th OPEC nations) than middle-income and rich countries. A 116-country sample is used and subdivided into five country groupings: poor, middle-income, industrialized, capital surplus oil-exporting, and centrally-planned countries. Data on the energy variables indicated that low-income countries continued to have access to energy during the post-embargo period in spite of higher prices. The average increase in energy consumption was greater for the poorer Lesser Developed Countries (LDC) in the post-1973 than in the pre-1973 years. In contrast, industrialized countries significantly reduced their mean rate of energy consumption. Thus, a slight redistribution of energy resources occurred from the industrialized countries to the rest of the world. Data analysis also revealed that while economic growth declined for all country groupings in the post-embargo years, industrialized countries experienced a greater percentage decrease in growth rates than did developing countries.

  5. Growth Mode Transition in Complex Oxide Heteroepitaxy: Atomically Resolved Studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tselev, Alexander; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Qiao, Liang; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Biegalski, Michael D.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-04-04

    Here we performed investigations of the atomic-scale surface structure of epitaxial La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 thin films as a model system dependent on growth conditions in pulsed laser deposition with emphasis on film growth kinetics. Postdeposition in situ scanning tunneling microscopy was combined with in operando reflective high-energy electron diffraction to monitor the film growth and ex situ X-ray diffraction for structural analysis. We find a correlation between the out-of-plane lattice parameter and both adspecies mobility and height of the Ehrlich–Schwoebel barrier, with mobility of adatoms greater over the cationically stoichiometric terminations. We find that the data suggest that the out-of-plane lattice parametermore » is dependent on the mechanism of epitaxial strain relaxation, which is controlled by the oxidative power of the deposition environment.« less

  6. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 3, India and China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M.; Deying, Xu

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  7. Country Analysis Briefs

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2028-01-01

    An ongoing compilation of country energy profiles. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries that are important to world energy markets, including members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers, major energy transit countries, major energy consumers, and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers.

  8. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

  9. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  10. Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Martinez, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Mark, J.

    1994-08-01

    Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in terms of their future carbon emissions reduction potential. This study outlines a methodology for identifying RETs that have the potential for achieving large carbon emissions reductions in the future, while also meeting key criteria for commercialization and acceptability in developing countries. In addition, this study evaluates the connection between technology identification and the selection of projects that are designed to demonstrate technologies with a propensity for carbon emission reductions (e.g., Global Environmental Facility projects). Although this report applies the methodology to Mexico in a case study format, the methodology is broad based and could be applied to any developing country, as well as to other technologies. The methodology used in this report is composed of four steps: technology screening, technology identification, technology deployment scenarios, and estimates of carbon emissions reductions. The four technologies with the highest ranking in the technology identification process for the on-grid category were geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind, and micro-/mini-hydro. Compressed natural gas (CNG) was the alternative that received the highest ranking for the transportation category.

  11. In Situ and Ex Situ Studies of Platinum Nanocrystals: Growth and Evolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Solution In Situ and Ex Situ Studies of Platinum Nanocrystals: Growth and Evolution in Solution figure 1 Figure 1. Time-resolved XRD results obtained for both low and high concentration reactions. (A) In situ XRD plots; the position of the (111) and (200) reflections for bulk fcc platinum is shown by the lines at bottom; (B) time evolution of area under the Pt(111) peak. I - IV denote the growth stages of the high concentration reaction; (C) evolution of X-ray correlation length (L)

  12. Low emittance growth funneling line: preliminary design and beam dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical design study has resulted in a conceptual funneling-line design that has a transverse emittance growth limited to only 15% based on beam-dynamics calculations. Two 2-MeV, 100-mA proton beams are funneled from a two-channel, 212.5-MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) to a single beam suitable for injection into a 425-MHz linac. The design uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles, dipoles, and combined-function elements. The low emittance growth is obtained by arranging the focusing strength, the periodic structure, and the bending elements so as to minimize abrupt changes in the beam environmental with consequent charge redistribution and space-charge-caused emittance growth.

  13. Fast Out of the Gate: How Developing Asian Countries can Prepare...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from Fast Out of the Gate: How Developing Asian Countries can Prepare to Access International Green Growth Financing)...

  14. Growth and micro structural studies on Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) buffer layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A.K.; Pinto, R.

    1994-12-31

    Microstructure of Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) of radio frequency magnetron sputtered buffer layers was studied at various sputtering conditions on Si<100>, Sapphire and LaAlO{sub 3} <100> substrates. The effect of substrate temperatures upto 800 C and sputtering gas pressures in the range of 50 mTorr. of growth conditions was studied. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed a strong tendency for columnar structure with variation growth conditions. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed orientation. The tendency for columnar growth was observed above 15 mTorr sputtering gas pressure and at high substrate temperatures. Post annealing of these films in oxygen atmosphere reduced the oxygen deficiency and strain generated during growth of the films. Strong c-axis oriented superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) thin films were obtained on these buffer layers using pulsed laser ablation technique. YBCO films deposited on multilayers of YSZ and STO were shown to have better superconducting properties.

  15. How Does Your Garden Grow? Study Identifies Instigators of Plant Growth |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) How Does Your Garden Grow? Study Identifies Instigators of Plant Growth Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000

  16. Study of CNT growth using nanocatalyst Ag precursor by HWC-VHF-PECVD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliyana, Ajeng; Rosikin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto

    2015-04-16

    The study of CNT growth has been done by using silver (Ag) nanocatalyst as a guide precursor on corning glass 7059 substrate. The silver catalyst was prepared by the evaporation method by varying deposition time for 50, 25, and 14 seconds. The silver films were then annealed at temperature of 400C for 4 hours. From Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) results the grain sizes are 65?nm, 57?nm, and 33?nm, and also the atomic compositions are 6,06%, 4,52%, and 3,73% for 14, 25 and 50 seconds samples, respectively. The 33?nm samples were then used for CNT growth by using Hot Wire Cell (HWC) Very High Frequency (VHF) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) at 275 C deposition temperature and pressure of 300 mTorr. The rf power was varied from 8 to 20 watts, with deposition time for 60 minutes. The methane (CH4) 99.999% was used as Carbon sources. Hydrogen gas (H2) was used to etch the oxide layer formed during the pre-deposition process. The diameter and length for the CNT are 125?nm and 1.650 to 2.989?nm respectively.

  17. Growth process of microcrystalline silicon studied by combined photoluminescence and Raman investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klossek, A.; Mankovics, D.; Ratzke, M.; Arguirov, T.; Kittler, M.; Kirner, S.; Gabriel, O.; Stannowski, B.; Schlatmann, R.; Friedrich, F.

    2013-12-14

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon on glass substrates leads to formation of silicon amorphous films with partial crystallization of nano-grains in the amorphous matrix. We studied the transition of amorphous to microcrystalline silicon during such deposition. Formation of silicon nano-grains was detected by means of photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline fraction and the mean size of the nano-grains were estimated by the position and the intensity of the peaks in the Raman spectrum. We showed that the fraction of crystalline silicon in the layers and the size of the nano-grains are strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The photoluminescence spectra exhibit distinct features related to recombination in the amorphous and in the crystalline phases. A significant narrowing of the photoluminescence peak related to the amorphous phase with increasing crystalline fraction indicates a structural modification in the amorphous silicon. It suggests an ordering process occurring before the start of the actual crystallization. A peak at about 1.4 eV was associated with isolated nano-crystalline grains within the amorphous matrix. A correlation between the peak energy and grain size was found, indicating effects of carrier quantum confinement. The experimental results confirm the established theoretical models for growth of microcrystalline silicon films.

  18. Study of microstructure and electrical properties of bulk YBCO prepared by melt textured growth technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonal, M. R.; Krishnan, Madangopal; Tewari, R.; Tyagi, A. K.; Gyore, A.; Vajda, I.

    2015-06-24

    Bulk YBCO components were prepared using Melt Texture Growth (MTG) technique. Components were fabricated using MTG by addition of Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (Y211) and Ag to YBCO, which leads to improved grain size without affecting superconducting properties. Green compacts prepared by cold isostatic pressing were pre-sintered at 930°C before subjecting melt texturing. Cooling rates lower than 1 °C.h{sup −1} was used, in between (peritectic) temperature of about 995 and 1025°C, to obtain large grained components. Microstructure studies in details were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA), Orientation Imaging Microscope (OIM) and TEM correlated with electrical properties like Critical current density (J{sub c})

  19. Studies and calculations of transverse emittance growth in high-energy proton storage rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mane, S.R.; Jackson, G.

    1989-03-01

    In the operation of proton-antiproton colliders, an important goal is to maximize the integrated luminosity. During such operations in the Fermilab Tevatron, the transverse beam emittances were observed to grow unexpectedly quickly, thus causing a serious reduction of the luminosity. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. A formula for the emittance growth rate, due to random dipole kicks, is derived. In the experiment, RF phase noise of known amplitude was deliberately injected into the Tevatron to kick the beam randomly, via dispersion at the RF cavities. Theory and experiment are found to agree reasonably well. We also briefly discuss the problem of quadrupole kicks. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Rachael E.; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ? Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ? Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ? High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ? Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  1. Low Carbon Green Growth: Integrated Policy Approach to Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth: Integrated Policy Approach to Climate Change for Asia-Pacific Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low Carbon Green Growth:...

  2. A Study of Detonation Diffraction in the Ignition-and-Growth Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapila, A K; Schwendeman, D W; Bdzil, J B; Henshaw, W D

    2006-04-14

    Heterogeneous high-energy explosives are morphologically, mechanically and chemically complex. As such, their ab-initio modeling, in which well-characterized phenomena at the scale of the microstructure lead to a rationally homogenized description at the scale of observation, is a subject of active research but not yet a reality. An alternative approach is to construct phenomenological models, in which forms of constitutive behavior are postulated with an eye on the perceived picture of the micro-scale phenomena, and which are strongly linked to experimental calibration. Most prominent among these is the ignition-and-growth model conceived by Lee and Tarver. The model treats the explosive as a homogeneous mixture of two distinct constituents, the unreacted explosive and the products of reaction. To each constituent is assigned an equation of state, and a single reaction-rate law is prescribed for the conversion of the explosive to products. It is assumed that the two constituents are always in pressure and temperature equilibrium. The purpose of this paper is to investigate in detail the behavior of the model in situations where a detonation turns a corner and undergoes diffraction. A set of parameters appropriate for the explosive LX-17 is selected. The model is first examined analytically for steady, planar, 1-D solutions and the reaction-zone structure of Chapman-Jouguet detonations is determined. A computational study of two classes of problems is then undertaken. The first class corresponds to planar, 1-D initiation by an impact, and the second to corner turning and diffraction in planar and axisymmetric geometries. The 1-D initiation, although interesting in its own right, is utilized here as a means for interpretation of the 2-D results. It is found that there are two generic ways in which 1-D detonations are initiated in the model, and that these scenarios play a part in the post-diffraction evolution as well. For the parameter set under study the model

  3. Nepal-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  4. Kenya-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  5. Mali-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  6. Laboratory Studies of the Role of Amines in Particle Formation, Growth and Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2015-02-07

    Organosulfur compounds have a variety of sources, particularly biological processes in the oceans. Their oxidation in air forms sulfur dioxide, which is further oxidized to sulfuric acid, as well as methanesulfonic acid (MSA). While sulfuric acid is a well known precursor to particles in air, MSA had not been regarded as a source of new particle formation. Laboratory studies were carried out under this project that showed MSA forms new particles quite efficiently in the presence of amines and water vapor. The data could be reproduced with a relatively simple kinetics model representing cluster formation and growth, which is promising for representing this chemistry in global climate models. The initial steps in the kinetics scheme are based on quantum chemical calculations of likely clusters. The organosulfur chemistry was introduced into an atmospheric model for southern California and used to predict the impact of going to a fossil-fuel free world in which anthropogenic emissions of SO2 are removed, but the natural processes remain.

  7. * City, State, Country:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 2015 Information and/or Documents NEEDED to CREATE a NEW Event: Information needed: * Official Name of the Event * Name of Organizing Institution * Organizer Contact Name, email and phone number * Event's web site * Date(s) of event * Location the event will take place at * City, State, Country: * Per Diem amounts for lodging and M&IE (meals) * Three to four sentences on how this event is in support of SLAC/DOE and/or the Office of Science mission, therefore representation from SLAC

  8. Venezuela Country Analysis Brief

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of crude oil. The country has been one of the largest exporters of crude oil in the Americas. As a founding member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Venezuela is an important player in the global oil market. Although oil production has declined since its peak in the late 1990s, Venezuela has been among the top exporters of crude oil to the United States have been among the largest in the world. In recent years, through significant upfront investment, an increasing share of Venezuela’s exports has been delivered to China. While Venezuela is important to the global oil market, the government’s reinvestment of oil revenues into social programs instead of reinvestment into exploration, production, and refining has led to declines in output. In 2014, Venezuela consumed 3.3 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of total energy.1 Oil continues to represent most of the country’s total energy consumed, and natural gas consumption has increased in the past five years. Hydroelectric power meets less than 25% of total demand, and coal represents less than 1%.

  9. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S.; Nadel, S.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  10. An MBE growth facility for real-time in situ synchrotron x-ray topography studies of strained-layer III--V epitaxial materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, C.R.; Barnett, S.J.; Soley, D.E.J.; Quarrell, J.; Aldridge, S.J.; Cullis, A.G.; Emeny, M.T.; Johnson, A.D. , St. Andrews Road, Malvern, Worcs WR14 3PS ); Clarke, G.F.; Lamb, W. ); Tanner, B.K.; Cottrell, S. ); Lunn, B.; Hogg, C.; Hagston, W. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a unique combined UHV MBE growth x-ray topography facility designed to allow the first real-time synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study of strained-layer III--V growth processes. This system will enable unambiguous determination of dislocation nucleation and multiplication processes as a function of controlled variations in growth conditions, and also during post-growth thermal processing. The planned experiments have placed very stringent demands upon the engineering design of the system, and design details regarding the growth chamber; sample manipulator, x-ray optics, and real-time imaging systems are described. Results obtained during a feasibility study are also presented.

  11. Study of nitrogen incorporation into GaInNAs: The role of growth temperature in molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korpijaervi, V.-M.; Aho, A.; Tukiainen, A.; Laakso, A.; Guina, M.; Laukkanen, P.; Tuominen, M.

    2012-07-15

    GaInNAs has an important impact on developing GaAs-based optoelectronics and multijunction solar cells, but the complex nature of the nitrogen incorporation into GaInAs is still not fully understood. By combining x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, we show that nitrogen incorporation is enhanced with increasing growth temperature in the range of 300-450 Degree-Sign C. We study the growth front and show that the surface reconstruction is (1 Multiplication-Sign 3) regardless of growth temperature in this range. The enhanced nitrogen incorporation can be modeled as a thermally activated process with activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  12. Country profile: Hungary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  13. Country profile: Hungary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  14. Risk perception in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Rayner, S.F.

    1985-02-15

    The paper briefly reviews: (1) what risk perception means to most people in developing countries; (2) some of the modern-technology-related risks to which people in these countries are exposed; and (3) some research evidence about risk perception that gives hints about how such perceptions will evolve in developing countries. (ACR)

  15. Smart Cities - Smart Growth

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart Cities - Smart Growth The United States Secretaries of Commerce will co-lead a Business Development Mission to China from April 12-17, 2015. This mission will promote U.S. clean technology products and services in the areas of green building/construction, energy efficiency, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) and environmental technologies in support of the Smart Cities-Smart Growth theme. On November 12, President Obama and President Xi jointly announced the two countries'

  16. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, Keith L; Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Wolfe, Amy K; Perlack, Robert D; Dale, Virginia H

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of

  17. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64

  18. First-principles studies on molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAs1-xBix

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Luo, Guangfu; Yang, Shujiang; Li, Jincheng; Arjmand, Mehrdad; Szlufarska, Izabela; Brown, April S.; Kuech, Thomas F.; Morgan, Dane

    2015-07-14

    We investigate the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of GaAs1-xBix film using density functional theory with spin-orbit coupling to understand the growth of this film, especially the mechanisms of Bi incorporation. We study the stable adsorption structures and kinetics of the incident molecules (As₂ molecule, Ga atom, Bi atom, and Bi₂ molecule) on the (2 x 1)-Gasub||Bi surface and a proposed q(1 x 1)-Gasub||AsAs surface has a quasi-(1 x 1) As layer above the Ga-terminated GaAs substrate and a randomly oriented As dimer layer on top. We obtain the desorption and diffusion barriers of the adsorbed molecules and also themore » reaction barriers of three key processes related to Bi evolution, namely, Bi incorporation, As/Bi exchange, and Bi clustering. The results help explain the experimentally observed dependence of Bi incorporation on the As/Ga ratio and growth temperature. Furthermore, we find that As₂ exchange with Bi of the (2 x 1)-Gasub||Bi surface is a key step controlling the kinetics of the Bi incorporation. Finally, we explore two possible methods to enhance the Bi incorporation, namely, replacing the MBE growth mode from codeposition of all fluxes with a sequential deposition of fluxes and applying asymmetric in-plane strain to the substrate.« less

  19. Numerical study of nucleation and growth of bubbles in viscous magmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toramaru, A.

    1995-02-01

    The nucleation and growth processes of bubbles in viscous magmas with a constant decompression rate have been numerically investigated based on a formation which accounts for effects of viscosity, as well as diffusivity, interfacial tension, and decompression rate. The numerical solutions show two regimes in the nucleation and growth process, a diffusion-controlled regime and a viscosity-controlled regime, mainly depending on the decompression rate, initial saturation pressure and viscosity. The basic mechanism common to both regimes is that growth governs nucleation through depletion of degassing components. In basaltic eruptions the vesiculation is essentially controlled by diffusion, and the viscosity-controlled regime is limited to very high decompression rate and very small water content. When andesitic magma saturated by water at 10 MPa is decompressed through the propagation of rarefraction wave induced by a landslide, as took place in the Mount St. Helens 1980 eruption, the vesiculation is controlled by the viscosity up to 100 m depth. On the other hand, in a rhyolitic magma for the same situation, vesiculation is controlled by the viscosity over the whole depth of the magma column. In the viscosity-controlled regime, the vesicularity may be 90% or less as seen in silicic pumice, whereas in the diffusion-controlled regime the vesicularity equals or exceeds 98% such as in reticulite in Hawaiian basalt. An observed variation of the number density of bubbles by several orders of magnitude in plinian eruptions and the correlation with the SiO2 content can be attributed approximately to the dependence of diffusivity of viscosity on SiO2 content and temperature, assuming the apparent correlation between SiO2 content and temperature of magma.

  20. Real-time x-ray studies of indium island growth kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demasi, Alexander; Rainville, Meliha G.; Ludwig, Karl F.

    2015-03-15

    The authors have investigated the early stages of indium island formation and growth by vapor phase deposition on room temperature sapphire using real-time grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS), followed by ex-situ atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results are consistent with the formation and coalescence of hemispherical islands, as described by Family and Meakin. Monte Carlo simulations of systems of coalescing islands were used to supplement and quantify the results of GISAXS, and a good agreement is seen between the data and the simulations.

  1. Catalytic Growth of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes: An {ital Ab Initio} Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.H.; Kim, S.G.; Tomanek, D.; Lee, Y.H.

    1997-03-01

    We propose a catalytic growth mechanism of single-wall carbon nanotubes based on density functional total energy calculations. Our results indicate nanotubes with an {open_quotes}armchair{close_quotes} edge to be energetically favored over {open_quotes}zigzag{close_quotes} nanotubes. We also suggest that highly mobile Ni catalyst atoms adsorb at the growing edge of the nanotube, where they catalyze the continuing assembly of hexagons from carbon feedstock diffusing along the nanotube wall. In a concerted exchange mechanism, Ni atoms anneal carbon pentagons that would initiate a dome closure of the nanotube. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Oil and economic performance in industrial countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries have experienced slower economic growth and periods of discontinuity in the energy market since the 1973-74 oil embargo. A review of this phenomenon examines changes in the market during the 1960s and 70s, linkages between oil prices and economic performance, and appropriate policy responses. When price elasticities are calculated over time, recent US economic behavior appears to have both historical and cross-sountry consistency. Little flexibility is seen in the available energy-using technologies for producing goods and services, while energy-using capital has been sluggish. Dr. Nordhaus advocates high oil price and high tax policies as the best way to limit demand without slowing economic growth. (DCK)

  3. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Fearnside, P.M.

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  4. Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic Documents: ARCGIS Shape...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ARCGIS Shape File, all Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic Documents: ARCGIS Shape File, all Countries...

  5. Nucleation and growth of MgO atomic layer deposition: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Han; Fu, Kan

    2013-11-15

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of MgO thin films from bis(cyclopentadienyl) magnesium and H{sub 2}O was studied using in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), ex-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. It is found that the initial growth is not linear during the first ten cycles, and magnesium silicate forms spontaneously on the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates at 250 C. Submonolayer sensitivity of SE is demonstrated by the analysis of each half-cycle and self-limiting adsorption, revealing characteristic features of hetero- and homo-MgO ALD processes.

  6. Growth of polyphenyls via ion-molecule reactions: An experimental and theoretical mechanistic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aysina, Julia; Tosi, Paolo; Ascenzi, Daniela; Maranzana, Andrea; Tonachini, Glauco

    2013-05-28

    The reactivity of biphenylium cations C{sub 12}H{sub 9}{sup +} with benzene C{sub 6}H{sub 6} is investigated in a joint experimental and theoretical approach. Experiments are performed by using a triple quadruple mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ion source to generate C{sub 12}H{sub 9}{sup +} via dissociative ionization of various isomers of the neutral precursor hydroxybiphenyl (C{sub 12}H{sub 10}O). C-C coupling reactions leading to hydrocarbon growth are observed. The most abundant ionic products are C{sub 18}H{sub 15}{sup +}, C{sub 18}H{sub 13}{sup +}, C{sub 17}H{sub 12}{sup +}, and C{sub 8}H{sub 7}{sup +}. The dependence of product ion yields on the kinetic energy of reagent ions, as well as further experiments performed using partial isotopic labelling of reagents, support the idea that the reaction proceeds via a long lived association product, presumably the covalently bound protonated terphenyl C{sub 18}H{sub 15}{sup +}. Its formation is found to be exothermic and barrierless and, therefore, might occur under the low pressure and temperature conditions typical of planetary atmospheres and the interstellar medium. Theoretical calculations have focussed on the channel leading to C{sub 8}H{sub 7}{sup +} plus C{sub 10}H{sub 8}, identifying, as the most probable fragments, the phenylethen-1-ylium cation and naphthalene, thus suggesting that the pathway leading to them might be of particular interest for the synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Both experiments and theory agree in finding this channel exoergic but hampered by small barriers of 2.7 and 3.7 kcal mol{sup -1} on the singlet potential energy surface.

  7. Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Studies on initiation, growth and sintering in the formation of utility boiler deposits: Topical technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Austin, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    Three laboratory-scale devices were utilized to investigate the mechanisms of the initiation, growth and sintering process involved in the formation of boiler deposits. Sticking apparatus investigations were conducted to study deposit initiation by comparing the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on four types of steel-based heat exchanger materials under the conditions found in a utility boiler and an entrained slagging gasifier. In addition, the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on a reduced steel surface were investigated. All the ash drops studied in this investigation were produced from bituminous coals.

  8. In-situ energy dispersive x-ray diffraction study of the growth of CuO nanowires by annealing method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Himanshu; Ganguli, Tapas; Deb, S. K.; Sant, Tushar; Poswal, H. K.; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2013-10-14

    The in-situ growth of CuO nanowires was studied by Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD) to observe the mechanism of growth. The study was carried out for comparison at two temperaturesat 500 C, the optimum temperature of the nanowires growth, and at 300 C just below the temperature range of the growth. The in situ observation revealed the successive oxidation of Cu foil to Cu{sub 2}O layer and finally to CuO layer. Further analysis showed the presence of a compressive stress in CuO layer due to interface at CuO and Cu{sub 2}O layers. The compressive stress was found to increase with the growth of the nanowires at 500 C while it relaxed with the growth of CuO layer at 300 C. The present results do not support the existing model of stress relaxation induced growth of nanowires. Based on the detailed Transmission Electron Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, and EDXRD results, a microstructure based growth model has been suggested.

  9. CO{sub 2} emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term. Volume 4, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world`s share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  10. Using Economic Input/Output Tables to Predict a Countrys Nuclear Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Daly, Don S.; Wood, Thomas W.

    2010-07-15

    Both nuclear power and nuclear weapons programs should have (related) economic signatures which are detectible at some scale. We evaluated this premise in a series of studies using national economic input/output (IO) data. Statistical discrimination models using economic IO tables predict with a high probability whether a country with an unknown predilection for nuclear weapons proliferation is in fact engaged in nuclear power development or nuclear weapons proliferation. We analyzed 93 IO tables, spanning the years 1993 to 2005 for 37 countries that are either members or associates of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The 2009 OECD input/output tables featured 48 industrial sectors based on International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Revision 3, and described the respective economies in current country-of-origin valued currency. We converted and transformed these reported values to US 2005 dollars using appropriate exchange rates and implicit price deflators, and addressed discrepancies in reported industrial sectors across tables. We then classified countries with Random Forest using either the adjusted or industry-normalized values. Random Forest, a classification tree technique, separates and categorizes countries using a very small, select subset of the 2304 individual cells in the IO table. A nations efforts in nuclear power, be it for electricity or nuclear weapons, are an enterprise with a large economic footprint -- an effort so large that it should discernibly perturb coarse country-level economics data such as that found in yearly input-output economic tables. The neoclassical economic input-output model describes a countrys or regions economy in terms of the requirements of industries to produce the current level of economic output. An IO table row shows the distribution of an industrys output to the industrial sectors while a table column shows the input required of each industrial sector by a given

  11. Develop low emissions growth scenarios | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    low emissions growth scenarios Jump to: navigation, search Stage 3 LEDS Home Introduction to Framework Assess current country plans, policies, practices, and capacities...

  12. Stress evolution during growth in direct-current-sputtered zinc...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CRYSTAL GROWTH; DIRECT CURRENT; FLOW STRESS; OXYGEN; OXYGEN IONS; RADIOWAVE RADIATION; ...

  13. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  14. The chemical industry, by country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-03-01

    Beijing will be the site for the third ACHEMASIA, international petrochemical and chemical exhibition and conference, May 15--20, 1995. In preparation for this conference, Hydrocarbon Processing contacted executives of petrochemical/chemical industries and trade associations, seeking views on the state of the industry. The Asia-Pacific region is the center of new construction and expanded capacity and also a mixture of mature, developing and emerging petrochemical industries. Established countries must mold and grow with emerging economies as the newcomers access natural resources and develop their own petrochemical infrastructures. The following nation reports focus on product supply/demand trends, economic forecasts, new construction, etc. Space limitations prohibit publishing commentaries from all countries that have petrochemical/chemical capacity. Reports are published from the following countries: Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

  15. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, L. C.; Leousis, D. P.

    2014-03-15

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

  16. Crystal growth and annealing study of fragile, non-bulk superconductivity in YFe2Ge 2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, H.; Ran, S.; Mun, E. D.; Hodovanets, H.; Tanatar, M. A.; Prozorov, R.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-02-05

    In this study, we investigated the occurrence and nature of superconductivity in single crystals of YFe2Ge2 grown out of Sn flux by employing X-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity and specific heat measurements. We found that the residual resistivity ratio (RRR) of single crystals can be greatly improved, reaching as high as ~60, by decanting the crystals from the molten Sn at ~350°C and/or by annealing at temperatures between 550°C and 600°C. We found that the samples with RRR ≳ 34 showed resistive signatures of superconductivity with the onset of the superconducting transition Tc ≈ 1.4K. RRR values vary between 35 andmore » 65 with, on average, no systematic change in value Tc, indicating that the systematic changes in RRR do not lead to comparable changes in Tc. Specific heat measurements on samples that showed the clear resistive signatures of a superconducting transition did not show any signature of a superconducting phase transition, which suggests that the superconductivity observed in this compound is either some sort of filamentary, strain-stabilized superconductivity associated with small amounts of stressed YFe2Ge2 (perhaps at twin boundaries or dislocations) or is a second crystallographic phase that is present at level below detection capability of conventional powder X-ray techniques.« less

  17. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  18. Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development Conference Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development Conference April 4, 2016 8:00AM CDT to ...

  19. North Country Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: North Country Ethanol LLC Place: Rosholt, South Dakota Zip: 57260 Product: 20mmgy (75.7m litresy) ethanol producer....

  20. Projections of water stress based on an ensemble of socioeconomic growth and climate change scenarios: A case study in Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C. Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2016-03-30

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios—internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population—to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify themore » primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region’s population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Lastly, tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers.« less

  1. EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in Indian Country EM Tribal Programs in

  2. Options for developing countries in mining development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walrond, G.W.; Kumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a study of the issues that developing countries face in planning and implementing mineral development, taking as case studies Botswana, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Tanzania, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the developed states of Quebec and Western Australia. The authors consider the major aspects of the matter including organization and administration; regulation; taxation and surplus distribution; the dynamics of such instruments as royalty, rent resource tax and capital allowances under various cost/price scenarios; and selected mining agreements and their key provisions. They stress throughout the need for foreign investment while maximizing the economic benefits reaped from exhaustible resources.

  3. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  4. Photoluminescence study of the substitution of Cd by Zn during the growth by atomic layer epitaxy of alternate CdSe and ZnSe monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernndez-Caldern, I.; Salcedo-Reyes, J. C.

    2014-05-15

    We present a study of the substitution of Cd atoms by Zn atoms during the growth of alternate ZnSe and CdSe compound monolayers (ML) by atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) as a function of substrate temperature. Samples contained two quantum wells (QWs), each one made of alternate CdSe and ZnSe monolayers with total thickness of 12 ML but different growth parameters. The QWs were studied by low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. We show that the Cd content of underlying CdSe layers is affected by the exposure of the quantum well film to the Zn flux during the growth of ZnSe monolayers. The amount of Cd of the quantum well film decreases with higher exposures to the Zn flux. A brief discussion about the difficulties to grow the Zn{sub 0.5}Cd{sub 0.5}Se ordered alloy (CuAu-I type) by ALE is presented.

  5. International Experiences and Frameworks to Support Country-Driven Low-Emissions Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benioff, R.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.

    2012-08-01

    Countries can use low-emission development strategies (LEDS) to advance sustainable development, promote private-sector growth, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper proposes a framework -- or support infrastructure -- to enable the efficient exchange of LEDS-related knowledge and technical assistance. Under the proposed framework, countries share LEDS-related resources via coordinating forums, 'knowledge platforms,' and networks of experts and investors. The virtual 'knowledge platforms' foster learning by allowing countries to communicate with each other and share technical reports, data, and analysis tools in support of LEDS development. Investing in all elements of the framework in an integrated fashion increases the efficacy of support for country-driven LEDS.

  6. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  7. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  8. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  9. A low energy electron microscopy study of the initial growth, structure, and thermal stability of 4,4{sup '}-biphenyldicarboxylic acid domains on Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khokhar, Fawad S.; Gastel, Raoul van; Schwarz, Daniel; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2011-09-28

    The growth of 4,4{sup '}-biphenyldicarboxylic acid (BDA) on Cu(001) has been studied using low energy electron microscopy and selective area low energy electron diffraction. The emergence of large islands and hydrogen bonding to perpendicularly oriented, adjacent molecules is confirmed. The two benzene rings of adsorbed BDA are twisted along the molecular axis. Unconventional growth of the domains, followed by a second nucleation stage, is observed at room temperature. This unanticipated feature is attributed to the accumulation of stress in the islands. Ostwald ripening in the films and the decay of BDA domains at 448 K exhibits features that are consistent with diffusion limited behavior.

  10. Study of radial growth rate and size control of silicon nanocrystals in square-wave-modulated silane plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen-Tran, Th.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Patriarche, G.

    2007-09-10

    The growth of silicon nanocrystals in high pressure and high dilution silane plasmas is investigated by using the temporal evolution of the self-bias on the radio frequency electrode and transmission electron microscopy. A square-wave-modulated plasma was used in order to control the growth of monodispersed nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 12 nm. To this end, the plasma on time was kept below 1 s. The radial growth rate of nanoparticles was varied in the range from 7.5 to 75 nm/s by changing silane partial pressure. Nanoparticles grown in silane-helium discharges have been found amorphous while they are crystalline in silane-hydrogen-argon discharges. Surprisingly, the crystallization in the gaseous phase does not depend on how slow or fast the particles grow but on the presence of atomic hydrogen.

  11. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry growth studies on the Al-doped ZnO films deposited by remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volintiru, I.; Creatore, M.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de

    2008-02-01

    In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was applied to study the pyramidlike and pillarlike growth of Al doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited by means of remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition for transparent conductive oxide applications. Real time SE studies in the visible region allowed discerning between the two growth modes by addressing the time evolution of the bulk and surface roughness layer thickness. While the pillarlike mode is characterized by a constant growth rate, a slower rate in the initial stage (up to 150-200 nm film thickness), compared to the bulk, is observed for the growth of pyramidlike AZO films. The two modes differ also in terms of surface roughness development: a saturation behavior is observed for film thickness above 150-200 nm in the case of the pyramidlike films, while a slow linear increase with film thickness characterizes the pillarlike mode. By extending the SE analysis of the AZO films to the near infrared region, valuable information about the in grain properties could be extracted: excellent in grain mobility values, i.e., larger than 100 and 50 cm{sup 2}/V s, are determined for the pyramidlike and pillarlike AZO layers, respectively. The comparison between the outcome of the in situ real time SE studies and the ex situ electrical and chemical characterization highlights the limitations in the electron transport occurring in both types of films and allows one to address routes toward further improvement in AZO conductivity.

  12. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of Energy in the long term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketoff, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. Of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist energy demand in developing will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. These individual studies were conducted fro Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela in Latin America.

  13. In situ study of the endotaxial growth of hexagonal CoSi{sub 2} nanoplatelets in Si(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva Costa, Daniel da; Kellermann, Guinther; Huck-Iriart, Cristián; Giovanetti, Lisandro J.; Requejo, Félix G.

    2015-11-30

    This investigation aims at studying–by in situ grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering–the process of growth of hexagonal CoSi{sub 2} nanoplatelets endotaxially buried in a Si(001) wafer. The early formation of spherical Co nanoparticles with bimodal size distribution in the deposited silica thin film during a pretreatment at 500 °C and their subsequent growth at 700 °C were also characterized. Isothermal annealing at 700 °C promotes a drastic reduction in the number of the smallest Co nanoparticles and a continuous decrease in their volume fraction in the silica thin film. At the same time, Co atoms diffuse across the SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) interface into the silicon wafer, react with Si, and build up thin hexagonal CoSi{sub 2} nanoplatelets, all of them with their main surfaces parallel to Si(111) crystallographic planes. The observed progressive growths in thickness and lateral size of the hexagonal CoSi{sub 2} nanoplatelets occur at the expense of the dissolution of the small Co nanoparticles that are formed during the pretreatment at 500 °C and become unstable at the annealing temperature (700 °C). The kinetics of growth of the volume fraction of hexagonal platelets is well described by the classical Avrami equation.

  14. In situ study on the effect of thermomigration on intermetallic compounds growth in liquid-solid interfacial reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Lin; Zhao, Ning; Ma, Haitao, E-mail: htma@dlut.edu.cn; Zhao, Huijing; Huang, Mingliang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China)

    2014-05-28

    Synchrotron radiation real-time imaging technology was carried out in situ to observe and characterize the effect of thermomigration on the growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn/Cu solder joint during soldering. The thermomigration resulted in asymmetrical formation and growth of the interfacial IMCs. Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Cu{sub 3}Sn IMCs formed at the cold end and grew rapidly during the whole soldering process. However, only Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC formed at the hot end and remained relatively thin until solidification. The IMCs at the cold end were nearly seven times thicker than that at the hot end after solidification. The Cu dissolution at the cold end was significantly restrained, while that at the hot end was promoted, which supplied Cu atoms to diffuse toward the cold end under thermomigration to feed the rapid IMC growth. Moreover, the thermomigration also caused asymmetrical morphology of the interfacial IMCs at the cooling stage, i.e., the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC at the cold end transformed into facet structure, while that at the hot end remained scallop-type. The asymmetrical growth behavior of the interfacial IMCs was analyzed from the view point of kinetics.

  15. The impact of oil on a developing country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikein, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of the impact of the oil industry on a particular developing country, Nigeria over a period of 32 years. Arguing that previous studies on the oil industry in developing countries have tended to focus only on the economic significance of oil, ignoring its societal costs, the author uses a multidimensional approach that enables him to identify the linkage between the performance of the oil industry and the pattern of Nigeria's national and regional development.

  16. First-principles studies on molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAs1-xBix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Guangfu; Yang, Shujiang; Li, Jincheng; Arjmand, Mehrdad; Szlufarska, Izabela; Brown, April S.; Kuech, Thomas F.; Morgan, Dane

    2015-07-14

    We investigate the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of GaAs1-xBix film using density functional theory with spin-orbit coupling to understand the growth of this film, especially the mechanisms of Bi incorporation. We study the stable adsorption structures and kinetics of the incident molecules (As? molecule, Ga atom, Bi atom, and Bi? molecule) on the (2 x 1)-Gasub||Bi surface and a proposed q(1 x 1)-Gasub||AsAs surface has a quasi-(1 x 1) As layer above the Ga-terminated GaAs substrate and a randomly oriented As dimer layer on top. We obtain the desorption and diffusion barriers of the adsorbed molecules and also the reaction barriers of three key processes related to Bi evolution, namely, Bi incorporation, As/Bi exchange, and Bi clustering. The results help explain the experimentally observed dependence of Bi incorporation on the As/Ga ratio and growth temperature. Furthermore, we find that As? exchange with Bi of the (2 x 1)-Gasub||Bi surface is a key step controlling the kinetics of the Bi incorporation. Finally, we explore two possible methods to enhance the Bi incorporation, namely, replacing the MBE growth mode from codeposition of all fluxes with a sequential deposition of fluxes and applying asymmetric in-plane strain to the substrate.

  17. Economic evaluation of rural woodlots in a developing country: Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kihiyo, V.B.M.S.

    1996-03-01

    Rural areas in developing countries use wood as their main source of energy. Previously, wood has been obtained free from natural forests and woodlands. The pressure of increased demand through population growth, and the fact that natural trees take longer to grow, has made this resource scarce. Thus, raising trees in woodlots has been adopted as the solution to its shortage in the wild. However, growing trees in woodlots will inevitably require resources in terms of capital, land and manpower. Economic evaluation becomes necessary to ascertain that these resources are used economically. This paper dwells on some of the salient features of the economic evaluation of woodlots, such as interest rates, shadow prices of factors of production, social opportunity, cost of capital and sensitivity analysis of such woodlots in a developing country such as Tanzania. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  19. Projections of motor vehicle growth, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions for the next thirty years in China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, D.; Wang, M.

    2000-12-12

    Since the early 1990s, China's motor vehicles have entered a period of fast growth resultant from the rapid economic expansion. As the largest developing country, the fast growth of China's motor vehicles will have tremendous effects on the world's automotive and fuel market and on global CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, we projected Chinese vehicle stocks for different vehicle types on the provincial level. First, we reviewed the historical data of China's vehicle growth in the past 10 years and the correlations between vehicle growth and economic growth in China. Second, we investigated historical vehicle growth trends in selected developed countries over the past 50 or so years. Third, we established a vehicle growth scenario based on the historical trends in several developed nations. Fourth, we estimated fuel economy, annual mileage and other vehicle usage parameters for Chinese vehicles. Finally, we projected vehicle stocks and estimated motor fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions in each Chinese province from 2000 to 2030. Our results show that China will continue the rapid vehicle growth, increase gasoline and diesel consumption and increased CO{sub 2} emissions in the next 30 years. We estimated that by year 2030, Chinese motor vehicle fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions could reach the current US levels.

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gałaś, Slávka; Gałaś, Andrzej; Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka; Fialová, Jitka; and others

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  1. Feasibility studies to rehabilitate TVA`s Chickamauga Navigation Facility due to the effects of concrete growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niznik, J.A.; Conner, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    Chickamauga Dam is a multi-purpose project constructed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in the early 1940s. Shortly after construction it was evident there was an alkali-aggregate reaction taking place in the concrete structures. This reaction resulted in a phenomenon of concrete growth; i.e., unchecked expansion of the concrete which causes high stresses, cracking and movement of concrete structures, and undesirable side effects. This problem has increased in severity resulting in increased concerns about structural integrity of the dam structures and long term outages to navigation.

  2. Lake Country Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number: 8004219959 Website: www.lakecountrypower.coopinde Twitter: @LakeCountryPowe Facebook: https:www.facebook.comlakecountrypower Outage Hotline: 8004219959 Outage Map:...

  3. Georgia (country): Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Georgia Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.17 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GE 3-letter ISO code GEO Numeric ISO...

  4. Chattahoochee Hill Country, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hill Country, Georgia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 31.721548, -83.2599068 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  5. Gold Country Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gold Country Energy Place: Alaska Phone Number: (907) 520-5681 Website: goldcountryenrgy.com Facebook: https:www.facebook.compages...

  6. REDD Country Activity Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in multiple languages across a broad range of areas including policies, plans, laws, statistics, activities and financing. The REDD Countries Database does not attempt to assess...

  7. Tribal Sustainability - Green Projects in Indian Country

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * Green Building in Indian Country * Conclusion INTRODUCTION Connecting Green Building to Renewable Energy Power Generation *Distribution *Transmission R & D *Highly technical ...

  8. Climate-Smart Agriculture Country Profiles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    featuredproductscsa-country-profiles Country: Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Grenada, Mexico, Peru Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Agriculture, country profiles,...

  9. Textured growth of Co film on CoO (fcc) layer; Structural studies using EDXRD beamline at Indus-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Dileep; Patidar, P.; Sant, T.; Pandey, K. K.; Gupta, A.; Sharma, S. M.

    2012-06-05

    Co film of 13 nm thickness has been deposited on native oxide (CoO) layer using electron beam evaporation technique. CoO (fcc) of 2.3 nm thickness has been prepared by oxidizing surface of 50 nm thick Co (fcc) by thermal annealing. The structure of the sample has been investigated in detail using in-plane and out-of-plane energy dispersive grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) at EDXRD beamline, Indus-2, RRCAT, Indore. It is found that the growth of the Co film takes place with preferential orientation of c-axis perpendicular to the film plane, which results in structure induced magnetic anisotropy with easy axis normal to the film plane.

  10. Wind Energy Developments: Incentives In Selected Countries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses developments in wind energy for the countries with significant wind capacity. After a brief overview of world capacity, it examines development trends, beginning with the United States - the number one country in wind electric generation capacity until 1997.

  11. Strategies of Asian oil-importing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.

    1997-04-01

    Various strategies are used by oil-importing countries to reduce their economic dependence on imported oil: national oil production, energy conservation, and the change of economic structures from high energy intensity sectors to low ones. In this article, the roles of these different strategies have been identified for 10 selected oil-importing countries in Asia: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Hong Kong, R.O Korea, and Taiwan. The results show that most of the selected countries (although Hong Kong and Taiwan are independent economic entities, for simplicity, the author refers to them as countries) have succeeded in reducing their national economy dependence on imported oil since 1973. Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and India are among the most successful countries, with more than 40% reduction in their economic dependence on imported oil.

  12. Determinants of CO{sub 2} emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Hamzah, Khairum; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Kun, Sek Siok

    2015-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO{sub 2} level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO{sub 2} emissions.

  13. Growth kinetics and compositional analysis of silicon rich a-SiN{sub x}:H film: A soft x-ray reflectivity study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Sarab Preet; Srivastava, P.; Modi, Mohammed H.

    2010-10-11

    We report soft x-ray reflectivity measurements near the Si L{sub 2,3} absorption edge for Si-rich silicon nitride thin film obtained by Hg-sensitized photochemical vapor deposition. We demonstrate that the precise analysis of optical index profile derived over extended energy region gives compositional details of the film. This nondestructive approach is used in Si-rich silicon nitride film to reveal buried Si-rich interfacial layer. Further, the combined study of soft x-ray reflectivity and optical density obtained from the reflectivity fitting at various photon energies provide a qualitative estimation of the film composition and its growth.

  14. Studies of emittance growth and halo particle production in intense charged particle beams using the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Dorf, Mikhail; Efthimion, Philip C.; Majeski, Richard; Chung, Moses; Gutierrez, Michael S.; Kabcenell, Aaron N.

    2010-05-15

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a compact laboratory experiment that places the physicist in the frame-of-reference of a long, charged-particle bunch coasting through a kilometers-long magnetic alternating-gradient (AG) transport system. The transverse dynamics of particles in both systems are described by the same set of equations, including nonlinear space-charge effects. The time-dependent voltages applied to the PTSX quadrupole electrodes in the laboratory frame are equivalent to the spatially periodic magnetic fields applied in the AG system. The transverse emittance of the charge bunch, which is a measure of the area in the transverse phase space that the beam distribution occupies, is an important metric of beam quality. Maintaining low emittance is an important goal when defining AG system tolerances and when designing AG systems to perform beam manipulations such as transverse beam compression. Results are reviewed from experiments in which white noise and colored noise of various amplitudes and durations have been applied to the PTSX electrodes. This noise is observed to drive continuous emittance growth and increase in root-mean-square beam radius over hundreds of lattice periods. Additional results are reviewed from experiments that determine the conditions necessary to adiabatically reduce the charge bunch's transverse size and simultaneously maintain high beam quality. During adiabatic transitions, there is no change in the transverse emittance. The transverse compression can be achieved either by a gradual change in the PTSX voltage waveform amplitude or frequency. Results are presented from experiments in which low emittance is achieved by using focusing-off-defocusing-off waveforms.

  15. Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic Documents: Interactive...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from the LEDS Global Partnership. When to Use This Tool While building a low emission strategy for your country's transportation system, this tool is most useful during these key...

  16. U.S. Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Import Area: U.S. Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile

  17. Costing and pricing electricity in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munasinghe, M.; Rungta, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles the papers presented at a conference on costing and pricing electricity in developing countries. The topics discussed include: Power tariffs, an overview; electricity tariff policy; estimating and using marginal cost pricing concepts; power tariff policy of Philippines, India, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan; Inter-American Development Bank-Electricity tariffs, policies and practices; and costs of supplying electricity and tariff policy in some other countries.

  18. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  19. CO{sub 2} emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of Energy in the long term. Volume 2, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketoff, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. Of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world`s share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist energy demand in developing will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. These individual studies were conducted fro Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela in Latin America.

  20. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  1. Situation report for petroleum exporting countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermelee, A.; D'Acierno, J.; Beller, M.; Smith, T.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report incorporates the contents of fifteen individual situation reports for major petroleum exporting countries that were prepared from the Office of Energy Emergency Management Information System. The situation reports give a synopsis of political, economic, and petroleum industry data for each oil exporting country and are designed to provide up-to-date information enabling the EEMIS Project Office to react in a timely manner to late-breaking events. The report gives a brief overview of crude oil production for the major oil producing regions of the world and identifies crude flows from the major oil producing to consuming regions - Western Europe, United States, and Japan.

  2. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  3. Trends in electricity demand and supply in the developing countries, 1980--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Campbell, C.

    1992-11-01

    This report provides an overview of trends concerning electricity demand and supply in the developing countries in the 1980--1990 period, with special focus on 13 major countries for which we have assembled consistent data series. We describe the linkage between electricity demand and economic growth, the changing sectoral composition of electricity consumption, and changes in the mix of energy sources for electricity generation. We also cover trends in the efficiency of utility electricity supply with respect to power plant efficiency and own-use and delivery losses, and consider the trends in carbon dioxide emissions from electricity supply.

  4. Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the Commercial and ...

  5. ORSSAB Member Greg Paulus Served His Country, Helped People With...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Greg Paulus Served His Country, Helped People With Disabilities and Continues to Serve His Community ORSSAB Member Greg Paulus Served His Country, Helped People With Disabilities ...

  6. Working In Indian Country: Building Successful Business Relationships...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working In Indian Country: Building Successful Business Relationships with American Indian Tribes Working In Indian Country: Building Successful Business Relationships with ...

  7. Hyannis Country Garden Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Owner Hyannis Country Garden Energy Purchaser Hyannis Country Garden Location Hyannis MA Coordinates 41.6356667, -70.2994661 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  8. The Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change...

  9. Access to Climate Change Technology by Developing Countries ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to Climate Change Technology by Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Access to Climate Change Technology by Developing Countries Agency...

  10. WWF-Country-Specific Low Carbon Plans | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country-Specific Low Carbon Plans Jump to: navigation, search Name WWF-Country-Specific Low Carbon Plans AgencyCompany Organization World Wildlife Fund Sector Energy, Land,...

  11. Clean Energy Investment in Developing Countries: Wind Power in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries: Wind Power in Egypt Jump to: navigation, search Name Clean Energy Investment in Developing Countries: Wind Power in Egypt AgencyCompany Organization...

  12. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Countries Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Countries Name Assessment of...

  13. Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report You are accessing a ...

  14. BLM Color Country District Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Color Country District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Color Country District Office Place: Cedar City, Utah ParentHolding Organization: BLM References: BLM Color...

  15. Pharmacogenetic Study in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy: Polymorphisms in Thymidylate Synthase, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, GSTP1, and DNA Repair Genes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paez, David; Salazar, Juliana; Pare, Laia; Pertriz, Lourdes; Targarona, Eduardo; Rio, Elisabeth del; Barnadas, Agusti; Marcuello, Eugenio; Baiget, Montserrat

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Several studies have been performed to evaluate the usefulness of neoadjuvant treatment using oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidines for locally advanced rectal cancer. However, preoperative biomarkers of outcome are lacking. We studied the polymorphisms in thymidylate synthase, epidermal growth factor receptor, glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), and several DNA repair genes to evaluate their usefulness as pharmacogenetic markers in a cohort of 128 rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Blood samples were obtained from 128 patients with Stage II-III rectal cancer. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood nucleated cells, and the genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and automated sequencing techniques or using a 48.48 dynamic array on the BioMark system. The germline polymorphisms studied were thymidylate synthase, (VNTR/5 Prime UTR, 2R G>C single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP], 3R G>C SNP), epidermal growth factor receptor (Arg497Lys), GSTP1 (Ile105val), excision repair cross-complementing 1 (Asn118Asn, 8092C>A, 19716G>C), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) (Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln), and xeroderma pigmentosum group D (Lys751Gln). The pathologic response, pathologic regression, progression-free survival, and overall survival were evaluated according to each genotype. Results: The Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 thymidylate synthase genotype was associated with a greater response rate (pathologic complete remission and microfoci residual tumor, 59% in Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 vs. 35% in Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 3; p = .013). For the thymidylate synthase genotype, the median progression-free survival was 103 months for the Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 patients and 84 months for the Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk

  16. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  17. Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INDIAN COUNTRY ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORKING GROUP ICEIWG APPROVED MEMBERS Blue Lake Rancheria  Jana Ganion, BLR Energy Director Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon  Chief Delvis Health  Jim Manion, General Manager, Warm Springs Power Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians  William Micklin, CEO Gila River Indian Community  Robert Stone, District 5 Community Councilman Ho-Chunk Nation  Representative Susan Waukon Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians

  18. Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dark energy, and the linear growth factor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor We study the degeneracies between ...

  19. An experimental study of CTOD for Mode I/Mode II stable crack growth in thin 2024-T3 aluminum specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amstutz, B.E.; Sutton, M.A.; Dawicke, D.S.; Newman, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental study of crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) for Mode I/Mode II stable crack growth in thin sheet 2024-T3 aluminum has been conducted. To perform the experiments, an Arcan specimen and fixture was modified so that (1) slippage in the grips was eliminated, (2) large rotations of the fixture components were achievable and (3) bending stresses were minimized. Defining {Theta} to be the angle between the Mode I loading direction (perpendicular to the crack line) and the direction of applied loading, experimental results indicate that (a) for large amounts of crack extension, a {ge} 10mm, the value of CTOD at 1 mm behind the crack tip appears to approach a constant value of 0.1 mm for all modes of loading, (b) the direction of crack extension varied with applied mixed mode loading, (c) Mode I crack extension is predominant for 0{degree} {le} {Theta} {le} 60{degree}, (d) Mode II crack extension is predominant for 75{degree} {le} {Theta} {le} 90{degree} and (e) a transition zone exists for angles {Theta} near 75{degree}.

  20. Potential for biomass electricity in four Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Tantlinger, J.; Kaya, M.

    1997-12-31

    Of all forms of renewable energy, biomass offers the best near-term opportunity for supplying a significant portion of the world`s need for electric power. Biomass is especially competitive when fuel supply costs are partially defrayed as production activities associated with the processing of another product, e.g., sugar, rice, or vegetable oil. Not only do such processing situations provide cost savings, they also generate very large supplies of fuel and therefore can contribute significantly to the local energy mix. Access to ample supplies of competitively-priced biomass feedstocks is only one of several factors needed to encourage the use of biomass for power generation; equally important is a healthy market for electricity, i.e., need for large blocks of additional power and sufficient strength in the economy to attract investment in new capacity. Worldwide, the Asia-Pacific region is projected to have the greatest need for new generating capacity in the next decade and shows the highest rate of economic growth, making it an attractive market for biomass power. Also critical to the expansion of bioenergy is the adoption of positive, stable policies on energy production, distribution, and sale, that encourage the generation and use of electricity from biomass. The aforementioned three factors--adequate biomass supplies, increasing demand for electricity, and supportive policies--are examined for four Asian countries, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Information presented for each of the four countries include the types and amounts of bioresidues and their associated electric power generation potential; present and future supplies and demand for electricity; and existing or planned government and utility policies that could impact the generation and use of biomass power.

  1. National climate change action plans: Interim report for developing and transition countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benioff, R.; Ness, E.; Hirst, J.

    1997-10-01

    Under its Support for National Action Plans (SNAP) initiative, the U.S. Country Studies Program is providing financial and technical assistance to 18 countries for the development of climate change action plans. Although most of the countries have not yet completed their plans, the important lessons learned thus far are valuable and should be shared with other countries and international institutions that have an interest in the process of action plan development. This interim report describes the experience of 11 countries that are the furthest along in their planning activity and who have offered to share their results to date with the larger community of interested nations. These action plans delineate specific mitigation and adaptation measures that the countries will implement and integrate into their ongoing development programs. This report focuses on the measures the countries have selected and the methods they used to prepare their action plans. This executive summary presents key lessons and common themes using a structure similar to that used in the individual country chapters.

  2. Energy conservation in typical Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.; Rumsey, P.

    1997-06-01

    Various policies and programs have been created to promote energy conservation in Asia. Energy conservation centers, energy conservation standards and labeling, commercial building codes, industrial energy use regulations, and utility demand-side management (DSM) are but a few of them. This article attempts to analyze the roles of these different policies and programs in seven typical Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The conclusions show that the two most important features behind the success policies and programs are (1) government policy support and (2) long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the programs.

  3. Electricity pricing as a demand-side management strategy: Western lessons for developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.

    1990-12-01

    Electric utilities in the Western world have increasingly realized that load commitments can be met not only by constructing new generating plants but also by influencing electricity demand. This demand-side management (DSM) process requires that electric utilities promote measures on the customer's side of the meter to directly or indirectly influence electricity consumption to meet desired load objectives. An important demand-side option to achieve these load objectives is innovative electricity pricing, both by itself and as a financial incentive for other demand-site measures. This study explores electricity pricing as a DSM strategy, addressing four questions in the process: What is the Western experience with DSM in general and electricity pricing in particular Do innovative pricing strategies alter the amount and pattern of electricity consumption Do the benefits of these pricing strategies outweigh the costs of implementation What are future directions in electricity pricing Although DSM can be used to promote increases in electricity consumption for electric utilities with excess capacity as well as to slow demand growth for capacity-short utilities, emphasis here is placed on the latter. The discussion should be especially useful for electric utilities in developing countries that are exploring alternatives to capacity expansion to meet current and future electric power demand.

  4. Power sector liberalization in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seabright, J.

    1998-07-01

    Based on extensive experience of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) with power sector liberalization in developing countries over the past decade, it has become clear that liberalization is a powerful tool for helping achieve sustainable and environmentally sound social and economic development. The basic driving forces for liberalization are: The need for additional energy to support sustainable economic and social development; the lack of public sector financial resources for system improvement; the inefficiency of existing power generation, transmission, distribution and end use; and the poor environmental performance of public sector power utilities. Power sector liberalization has brought the benefits of greater efficiency in the power sector, increased investment, more economic pricing, greater independence from political interference, increased competition and dampening of tariff increase, and better environmental protection. Care needs to be taken, however, to insure that progress in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and rural electrification are not compromised in the drive to liberalize. USAID firmly believes that power sector liberalization offers a fundamental opportunity to all countries to improve the sustainable supply and use of energy for productive purposes for this and future generations. All nations should seriously consider energy sector liberalization and one or more of the various approaches.

  5. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  6. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, MIchael; Letschert, Virginie; Shen, Bo; Sathaye, Jayant; de la Ru du Can, Stephane

    2011-01-12

    The global economy has grown rapidly over the past decade with a commensurate growth in the demand for electricity services that has increased a country's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Increasing need of reliable and affordable electricity supply is a challenge which is before every Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) country. Collaboration between APP members has been extremely fruitful in identifying potential efficiency upgrades and implementing clean technology in the supply side of the power sector as well established the beginnings of collaboration. However, significantly more effort needs to be focused on demand side potential in each country. Demand side management or DSM in this case is a policy measure that promotes energy efficiency as an alternative to increasing electricity supply. It uses financial or other incentives to slow demand growth on condition that the incremental cost needed is less than the cost of increasing supply. Such DSM measures provide an alternative to building power supply capacity The type of financial incentives comprise of rebates (subsidies), tax exemptions, reduced interest loans, etc. Other approaches include the utilization of a cap and trade scheme to foster energy efficiency projects by creating a market where savings are valued. Under this scheme, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of electricity are capped and electricity retailers are required to meet the target partially or entirely through energy efficiency activities. Implementation of DSM projects is very much in the early stages in several of the APP countries or localized to a regional part of the country. The purpose of this project is to review the different types of DSM programs experienced by APP countries and to estimate the overall future potential for cost-effective demand-side efficiency improvements in buildings sectors in the 7 APP countries through the year 2030. Overall, the savings potential is estimated to be 1

  7. Distributed Generation Study/VIP Country Club | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Microturbine Prime Mover Capstone C60 Heat Recovery Systems Built-in Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Advanced Power Systems System Enclosure Indoor System...

  8. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troschinetz, Alexis M. Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-02-15

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  9. Advancing Clean Energy in Indian Country | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy in Indian Country Advancing Clean Energy in Indian Country November 7, 2011 - 3:16pm Addthis Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs Director Tracey LeBeau meets ...

  10. Problems with packaged sources in foreign countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeyta, Cristy L; Matzke, James L; Zarling, John; Tompkin, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP), which is administered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), removes excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential threat to national security, public health, and safety. In total, GTRI/OSRP has been able to recover more than 25,000 excess and unwanted sealed sources from over 825 sites. In addition to transuranic sources, the GTRI/OSRP mission now includes recovery of beta/gamma emitting sources, which are of concern to both the U.S. government and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper provides a synopsis of cooperative efforts in foreign countries to remove excess and unwanted sealed sources by discussing three topical areas: (1) The Regional Partnership with the International Atomic Energy Agency; (2) Challenges in repatriating sealed sources; and (3) Options for repatriating sealed sources.

  11. Ecofys-Country Fact Sheets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Union,...

  12. Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the Commercial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Industrial Sectors | Department of Energy Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors A fact sheet on the global superior energy performance partnership from the Clean Energy Ministerial. Countries Launch Initiative to Drive Energy Efficiency in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors (123.65 KB) More Documents & Publications Countries

  13. Renewable Energy Projects in Indian Country | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Projects in Indian Country Renewable Energy Projects in Indian Country March 5, 2012 - 6:27pm Addthis This event will take place May 21-22, 2012, in Scottsdale, Arizona. At the fifth annual Renewable Energy Projects in Indian Country Conference, tribal leaders and professionals will discuss the significant opportunities for energy development in Indian Country, as well as the barriers that tribes must overcome to bring energy projects to fruition. Discussions will include

  14. Vietnam-USAID Country Report | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deployment programs, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications Website: usaid.eco-asia.orgprogramscdcpreportsIdeas-to-ActionannexesAnnex Country: Vietnam UN...

  15. Building REDD Capacity in Developing Countries | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Policiesdeployment programs Resource Type: Workshop, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.iisd.orgclimatelanduseredd Country:...

  16. Market leadership by example: Government sector energy efficiency in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harris, Jeffrey; Breceda, Miguel; Campbell, Stephanie; Sachu, Constantine; della Cava, Mirka; Gonzalez Martinez, Jose; Meyer, Sarah; Romo, Ana Margarita

    2002-05-20

    Government facilities and services are often the largest energy users and major purchasers of energy-using equipment within a country. In developing as well as industrial countries, government ''leadership by example'' can be a powerful force to shift the market toward energy efficiency, complementing other elements of a national energy efficiency strategy. Benefits from more efficient energy management in government facilities and operations include lower government energy bills, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, less demand on electric utility systems, and in many cases reduced dependence on imported oil. Even more significantly, the government sector's buying power and example to others can generate broader demand for energy-efficient products and services, creating entry markets for domestic suppliers and stimulating competition in providing high-efficiency products and services. Despite these benefits, with the exception of a few countries government sector actions have often lagged behind other energy efficiency policies. This is especially true in developing countries and transition economies - even though energy used by public agencies in these countries may represent at least as large a share of total energy use as the public sector in industrial economies. This paper summarizes work in progress to inventory current programs and policies for government sector energy efficiency in developing countries, and describes successful case studies from Mexico's implementation of energy management in the public sector. We show how these policies in Mexico, begun at the federal level, have more recently been extended to state and local agencies, and consider the applicability of this model to other developing countries.

  17. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting performance waste management systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very

  18. FACET Emittance Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  19. Emerging trends in informal sector recycling in developing and transition countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ezeah, Chukwunonye Fazakerley, Jak A.; Roberts, Clive L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: Reviewed emerging trends in Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) in developing countries. In some countries we found that ISR is the key factor in the recycling of waste materials. Overall impact of ISR upon the urban economy and environment is positive. In some instances ISR subsidises large areas of the formal sector. Ignoring the informal sector could result in unsustainable interventions. - Abstract: Optimistic estimates suggest that only 3070% of waste generated in cities of developing countries is collected for disposal. As a result, uncollected waste is often disposed of into open dumps, along the streets or into water bodies. Quite often, this practice induces environmental degradation and public health risks. Notwithstanding, such practices also make waste materials readily available for itinerant waste pickers. These scavengers as they are called, therefore perceive waste as a resource, for income generation. Literature suggests that Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) activity can bring other benefits such as, economic growth, litter control and resources conservation. This paper critically reviews trends in ISR activities in selected developing and transition countries. ISR often survives in very hostile social and physical environments largely because of negative Government and public attitude. Rather than being stigmatised, the sector should be recognised as an important element for achievement of sustainable waste management in developing countries. One solution to this problem could be the integration of ISR into the formal waste management system. To achieve ISR integration, this paper highlights six crucial aspects from literature: social acceptance, political will, mobilisation of cooperatives, partnerships with private enterprises, management and technical skills, as well as legal protection measures. It is important to note that not every country will have the wherewithal to achieve social inclusion and so the level of

  20. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  1. Gas in developing countries: Volume 1, Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-17

    When gas is discovered in a developing country, and there is either insufficient to justify an Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) export project, or a surplus over-and-above LNG requirements, what are the problems that hinder its development for the internal market in that country. Are there positive steps that can be taken to facilitate such development. The major focus of this study is therefore on the problems that arise in negotiating and implementing agreements between companies and governments. The asymmetries and differences between the behavior and perceptions of the two groups impinge on the conduct of negotiations and the nature of agreements reached between the parties. Objectives are examined for each group as well as the procedures they follow and the constraints under which they operate. The effect of differences on exploration contracts, on pricing and on fiscal regimes are examined and practical ways in which the different objectives of governments and companies can be reconciled to their mutual advantage are suggested. The report is divided into two parts. This Volume, Part One of the report, contains a synthesis of our views on the issues raised by research, and the main conclusions.

  2. Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

  3. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 2:26pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers Editor's Note: Yesterday Secretary ...

  4. Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group The Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group (ICEIWG) works collaboratively with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy to assist in surveys, analysis, and recommendations related to program and policy initiatives that fulfill DOE's statutory authorizations and requirements. About ICEIWG ICEIWG_Jan2016.jpg The working group was established in

  5. Clean Energy Solutions Center: Assisting Countries with Clean Energy Policy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Continuum Magazine | NREL A photo of colorful, light- colored buildings in Ghana. Solutions Center assistance will help develop policies to support renewable energy deployment in Ghana. Clean Energy Solutions Center: Assisting Countries with Clean Energy Policy NREL helps developing countries combat barriers to pave the way for policies and programs that advance clean energy technology deployment. Many countries are looking to grow their renewable energy and energy efficiency portfolios to

  6. Concentrating Solar Power Projects by Country | Concentrating Solar Power |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Country In this section, you can select a country from the map or the following list of countries. You can then select a specific concentrating solar power (CSP) project and review a profile covering project basics, participating organizations, and power plant configuration data for the solar field, power block, and thermal energy storage. Javascript must be enabled to view Flash movie Algeria Australia Canada Chile China Egypt France Germany India Israel Italy Kuwait Mexico Morocco

  7. REDD+ Country Readiness Preparation Proposals | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    getting-ready Country: Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guyana, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Suriname, Panama Middle Africa, Western Africa, South America,...

  8. Film Tells the Story of Indian Country's Energy Development from...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    drilling and fracking boom on North Dakota's Bakken Oil Plate, the story of Indian Country energy development emerged through the eyes of a diverse array of Native stakeholders. ...

  9. Scaling up Renewable Energy in Developing Countries: finance...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scaling up Renewable Energy in Developing Countries: finance and investment perspectives Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Scaling up Renewable Energy in...

  10. ,"California Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014...

  11. ,"Georgia Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Georgia Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014...

  12. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014...

  13. ,"Maryland Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maryland Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014...

  14. BACKGROUND GLOBAL STEEL OVERCAPACITY and OIL COUNTRY TUBULAR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) producers filed anti- dumping cases against South Korea, India, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine and Vietnam. ...

  15. Big Country Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1-888-662-2232 Website: www.bigcountry.coop Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesBig-Country-Electric-Cooperative217964055028487 Outage Hotline: 1-888-662-2232...

  16. En.lighten Country Lighting Assessments (CLAs) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References: CLAs1 Logo: En.lighten Country Lighting Assessments (CLAs) About "A large scale shift to efficient lighting is one of the most effective and economically...

  17. High Country Rose Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rose Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name High Country Rose Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  18. Lake Country Wind Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Energy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lake Country Wind Energy LLC Place: Minnesota Zip: 56209 Sector: Renewable Energy, Wind energy Product: Minnesota-based wind...

  19. DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stimulating Energy Efficiency in Kentucky and More DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country, Stimulating Energy Efficiency in Kentucky and More April 23,...

  20. US EIA Country Energy Profiles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy statistics for 215 countries. The statistics include crude oil production, oil consumption, natural gas production and consumption, electricity generation and...

  1. New York Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars per...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Price) All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Exports ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports Price New York U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports ...

  2. INDIAN COUNTRY ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORKING GROUP ICEIWG

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... in Indian Country, and those statistics are now available for every ... DOE has funded this project through the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (ECBG). ...

  3. DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country, Stimulating Energy Efficiency in Kentucky and More DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian...

  4. North Dakota Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    North Dakota Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports Price North Dakota U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports ...

  5. North Dakota Natural Gas Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Exports to All ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports (Summary) North Dakota U.S. Natural Gas Imports & ...

  6. Minnesota Natural Gas Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas Exports to All ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports (Summary) Minnesota U.S. Natural Gas Imports & ...

  7. Minnesota Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports Price Minnesota U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports ...

  8. Mexico-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  9. Brazil-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  10. India-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  11. Fuel Tax Incidence in Developing Countries: The Case of Costa...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conventional Energy Topics Finance, Market analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:www.rff.orgRFFDocumen Country Costa Rica...

  12. China-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  13. Indonesia-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  14. NREL: Technology Deployment - More Than 70 Countries Turn to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    More Than 70 Countries Turn to the Clean Energy Solutions Center for Policy Assistance News Solutions Center Announces Collaboration with R20 Regions of Climate Action Clean Energy ...

  15. Contribution of ion beam analysis to study the mechanisms of YBaCuO thin films growth and of their oxidation kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siejka, J.; Garcia-Lopez, J.

    1996-12-31

    At first a short review of ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques such as Rutherford Backscattering Analysis, Nuclear Reaction Analysis and of their contribution to the determination of composition and structure of YBaCuO thin films is presented. In the second part, IBA contribution to the measurements of oxygen content and mobility in YBaCuO and to elucidate the mechanisms of high temperature in situ growth of thin films are discussed. The emphasis is on the complementarity of IBA, Raman spectroscopy, TEM and XRD techniques to characterize the YBaCuO thin films in correlation with their physical properties. The results show that fully oxygenated YBaCuO thin films are formed in situ during high temperature T {le} 750 C, reactive sputtering. Their room temperature oxygen content and order is determined by oxygen loss and or uptake during the sample cooling conditions. The physical implications of these findings are analyzed.

  16. Nymex futures, options volumes continue growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, R.P. )

    1990-01-22

    The 1980s has been a decade of learning and growth for the members of the energy futures industry. As the New York Mercantile Exchange introduced new contracts, the energy industry gradually came to understand the value of futures trading to any business plan, especially during turbulent times in the mid-1980s. The result: explosive growth in the latter half of the decade. The author discusses how, as a new decade begins, new challenges are unfolding. Increased liberalization and deregulation of the energy market are trends both at home and abroad. There is increased demand for energy while environmental pressures mount and U.S. production declines. Future production and exports of the energy-rich Soviet Union and consumption patterns of the Eastern Bloc countries are uncertain.

  17. Forestry mitigation potential and costs in developing countries - Preface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Makundi, Willy; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    The forest sector in Tanzania offers ample opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and sequestered carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems. More than 90% of the country's demand for primary energy is obtained from biomass mostly procured unsustainably from natural forests. This study examines the potential to sequester C through expansion of forest plantations aimed at reducing the dependence on natural forest for wood fuel production, as well as increase the country's output of industrial wood from plantations. These were compared ton conservation options in the tropical and miombo ecosystems. Three sequestration options were analyzed, involving the establishment of short rotation and long rotation plantations on about 1.7 x 106 hectares. The short rotation community forest option has a potential to sequester an equilibrium amount of 197.4 x 106 Mg C by 2024 at a net benefit of $79.5 x 106, while yielding a NPV of $0.46 Mg-1 C. The long rotation options for softwood and hardwood plantations will reach an equilibrium sequestration of 5.6 and 11.8 x 106 Mg C at a negative NPV of $0.60 Mg-1 C and $0.32 Mg-1 C. The three options provide cost competitive opportunities for sequestering about 7.5 x 106 Mg C yr -1 while providing desired forest products and easing the pressure on the natural forests in Tanzania. The endowment costs of the sequestration options were all found to be cheaper than the emission avoidance cost for conservation options which had an average cost of $1.27 Mg-1 C, rising to $7.5 Mg-1 C under some assumptions on vulnerability to encroachment. The estimates shown here may represent the upper bound, because the actual potential will be influenced by market prices for inputs and forest products, land use policy constraints and the structure of global C transactions.

  18. Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing and Economic Development Conference is a three-day event that will cover new and rehabilitated homes of tribal members and economic development projects that have provided jobs and services in Indian Country. Attendees will hear from veteran developers and learn from industry leaders.

  19. INTERACTIVE: How Much Carbon Do Countries Emit? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INTERACTIVE: How Much Carbon Do Countries Emit? INTERACTIVE: How Much Carbon Do Countries Emit? This interactive map is not viewable in your browser. Please view it in a modern browser. If you are using IE9, you can also view the interactive here

  20. Radioactive Waste Management in Non-Nuclear Countries - 13070

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubelka, Dragan; Trifunovic, Dejan

    2013-07-01

    This paper challenges internationally accepted concepts of dissemination of responsibilities between all stakeholders involved in national radioactive waste management infrastructure in the countries without nuclear power program. Mainly it concerns countries classified as class A and potentially B countries according to International Atomic Energy Agency. It will be shown that in such countries long term sustainability of national radioactive waste management infrastructure is very sensitive issue that can be addressed by involving regulatory body in more active way in the infrastructure. In that way countries can mitigate possible consequences on the very sensitive open market of radioactive waste management services, comprised mainly of radioactive waste generators, operators of end-life management facilities and regulatory body. (authors)

  1. Report to Congress: Expressions of interest in commercial clean coal technology projects in foreign countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    This report was prepared in response to the guidance provided by the Congress in the course of the Fiscal Year 1995 appropriations process for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). As described in detail below, DOE was directed to make the international dissemination of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) an integral part of its policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Congress directed DOE to solicit ``Statements of Interest`` in commercial projects employing CCTs in countries projected to have significant growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, DOE was asked to submit to the Congress a report that analyzes the information contained in the Statements of Interest, and that identifies the extent to which various types of Federal incentives would accelerate the commercial availability of these technologies in an international context. In response to DOE`s solicitation of 18 November 1994, 77 Statements of Interest were received from 33 companies, as well as five additional materials. The contents of these submittals, including the requested Federal incentives, the CCTs proposed, the possible host countries, and the environmental aspects of the Statements of Interest, are described and analyzed in the chapters that follow.

  2. Effects of local structure on helium bubble growth in bulk and at grain boundaries of bcc iron: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Li; Gao, Fei; Kurtz, Richard J.; Zu, Xiaotao; Peng, S. M.; Long, X. G.; Zhou, X. S.

    2015-07-15

    The nucleation and growth of helium (He) bubbles in the bulk and at Σ3 <110> {112} and Σ73b <110> {661} grain boundaries (GBs) in bcc iron have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that a 1/2 <111> {111} dislocation loop is formed with the sequential collection of <111> interstitial crowdions at the periphery of the He cluster and is eventually emitted from the He cluster. Insertion of 45 He atoms into a He cluster leads to the formation of a 1/2 <111> dislocation loop in Σ3 GB. It is of interest to notice that the transition of a dislocation segment through the GB leads to the formation of a step at the GB plane following the loop formation, accounting for the formation of a residual GB defect. A 1/2 <111> loop, with a {110} habit plane, is emitted with further increase of the He bubble size in the Σ3 GB. In contrast, the sequential insertion of He atoms in Σ73b GB continuously emits self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), but these SIAs rearrange at the core of the inherent GB dislocation, instead of forming a dislocation loop, which leads the GB dislocation to propagate along the [1¯1¯ 1 2] direction. In the bulk and Σ3 GB, the He bubble exhibits three-dimensionally spherical shape, but it forms longitudinal shape along the dislocation line in the Σ73 GB, a shape commonly observed at GBs in experiments.

  3. The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

  4. Marginal cost of natural gas in developing countries: concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashayekhi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Many developing nations are facing complex questions regarding the best strategy for developing their domestic gas reserves. The World Bank has addressed these questions in studies on the cost and prices of gas and its optimal allocation among different markets. Based on the average incremental method, an estimate of the marginal cost of natural gas in 10 developing countries proved to be $0.61-1.79/1000 CF or $3.59-10.54/bbl of oil equivalent, far below the border prices of competing fuels in these nations. Moreover, the cost of gas is not expected to rise in these countries within the next 20 years while the reserves/production ratios remain high. The sample involves a variety of gas compositions and production conditions among the countries of Bangladesh, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Tunisia.

  5. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides background information on the agroenergetic potential of 65 countries and offers summaries of major crops planted, total area planted, yield per hectare, and total production. Total land area is categorized as to agriculture, forest, and woodland, and is discussed with demographic statistics for each country. The potential for agricultural by-products and biomass to contribute to energy availability is explored, with reference to each major crop. Vegetation and/or economic activity, or soil maps are presented for most countries, as are climatic data, with crop yields and residues which are compared with production elsewhere.

  6. Electricity demand in a developing country. [Paraguay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westley, G.D.

    1984-08-01

    This study analyzes the residential and commercial demand for electricity in ten regions in Paraguay for 1970-1977. Models that are both linear and nonlinear in the parameters are estimated. The nonlinear model takes advantage of prior information on the nature of the appliances being utilized and simultaneously deals with the demand discontinuities caused by appliance indivisibility. Three dynamic equations, including a novel cumulative adjustment model, all indicate rapid adjustment to desired appliance stock levels. Finally, the multiproduct surplus loss obtained from an estimated demand equation is used to measure the welfare cost of power outages. 15 references.

  7. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  8. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Hygroscopic growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsHygroscopic growth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hygroscopic growth The rate that aerosol particles grow at relative humidity values less than 100 percent. Sometimes supersaturation conditions are used in making this measurement. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the

  10. Green Business in Indian Country Start-Up Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Trees, Water, & People is accepting applications for the Green Business in Indian Country Start-Up Award and offering assistance to one selected applicant in starting their own business in a related field.

  11. Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    OPEC Algeria Indonesia Mexico Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Venezuela Other Countries Arab OPEC b Total OPEC c 1978 ... 14.12 13.61 13.24 14.05...

  12. Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 16th Annual Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development Conference is a free three-day conference to learn about housing programs, hear stories of successful projects from tribal members, and meet developers.

  13. DOE Office of Indian Energy Announces New Indian Country Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Deadline for DOE Indian Country Working Group Nominations Extended to Aug. 24 Julia Bovey, First Wind; Tracey LeBeau; Neil Kiely, First Wind; and Bob Springer (NREL) at First ...

  14. Global economic prospects and the developing countries, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The report`s central message is that the increasing integration of developing countries into the global economy constitutes perhaps the most important opportunity for raising the welfare of both developing and industrial countries over the long term. But the process of integration will not be without frictions that give rise to protectionist pressures. And, as recent events in Mexico have shown, it will increase the complexity of economic management for developing country policymakers. Globalization comes with liberalization, deregulation, and more mobile and potentially volatile cross-border capital flows, which means that sound macroeconomic management commands an increasingly high premium. Penalties for policy errors rise. Globalization thus requires closer monitoring and quicker policy responses at the country, regional, and global levels.

  15. Town 'n' Country, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County, Florida.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleTown%27n%27Country,Florida&oldid2512...

  16. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Non-OECD Countries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    Presents world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries (including the current and former centrally planned economies).

  17. CHARTER INDIAN COUNTRY ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORK GROUP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHARTER INDIAN COUNTRY ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORK GROUP Official Designation Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group ("Working Group") Purpose The purpose of the Working Group is to provide advice and recommendations to the Director of the Office of Indian Energy Policy & Programs (OIE) and the Secretary of Energy with respect to the strategic planning and implementation of OIE's energy resource, energy business and energy infrastructure development policy and

  18. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt

  19. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt

  20. INDIAN COUNTRY ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORKING GROUP ICEIWG

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of 8 INDIAN COUNTRY ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORKING GROUP ICEIWG May 29, 2013 Wild Horse Pass Hotel and Casino Chandler, Arizona MEETING OVERVIEW The U.S. Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Indian Energy (IE) hosted an Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group (ICEIWG) Meeting on Wednesday, May 29, 2013 in Chandler, Arizona. IE welcomed reappointed and new members to ICEIWG. The ICEIWG meeting was held prior to the seventh Tribal Leader Forum on "Leveraging Tribal Renewable

  1. DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pneumatic Control Retrofits and Air-Side Control Peer Exchange, and More | Department of Energy Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country, Pneumatic Control Retrofits and Air-Side Control Peer Exchange, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country, Pneumatic Control Retrofits and Air-Side Control Peer Exchange, and More April 3, 2014 - 9:21am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and

  2. East Coast (PADD 1) Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Import Area: East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Bosnia

  3. Indian Country Energy Roundup: Positioning Tribes to Thrive | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Indian Country Energy Roundup: Positioning Tribes to Thrive Indian Country Energy Roundup: Positioning Tribes to Thrive Addthis 1 of 9 During the Agua Caliente Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development and Finance Workshop, attendees toured the solar installations on the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indian Reservation. Image: Sherry Stout, NREL 2 of 9 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy hosted a three-day Community-Scale Tribal Renewable Energy Project

  4. U.S. Government Supports Low Emission Economic Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    Countries around the world face the challenge of maintaining long-term sustainable economic growth and development under the threat of climate change. By identifying and pursuing a sustainable development pathway now, they are better positioned to reach their economic growth goals while addressing climate change impacts and lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low emission development strategies - development plans that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing long-term GHG emissions - provide a pathway to preparing for a global low emission future. Partner country governments are working with the U.S. government through the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to further their national development objectives.

  5. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubic, Jr., William L.

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  6. Interim report of the interagency coal export task force: draft for public comment. [Trade by country 1960-1979; general forecasting to 1985, 1990 and 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    The Interagency Coal Export Task Force was formed in the Spring of 1980 at the direction of the President, in support of the international efforts of the United States, encouraging the use of coal. Its purpose was to report on possible courses of action to increase United States steam coal exports in a manner consistent with other national policies, including our commitment to environmental protection. The Task Force assembled existing data, developed significant new information regarding the international coal market and undertook analyses of apparent problems underlying coal exports. The Task Force contributed to a public awareness of the fact that increased coal exports will serve both the domestic and international interests of the United States. Based upon extensive, independent field studies in Europe and the Far East, the Task Force concludes that there will be significant growth in world demand for steam coal. Such growth has already begun, has contributed to the almost seven-fold increase in United States overseas steam coal exports for 1990 over 1979, and is expected to continue beyond the end of this century. The growth in world steam coal trade projected in the report does not guarantee United States coal exporters a large or expanding share of the market. The United States' role depends on the buying strategies of the consuming countries, the policies and prices of competing exporters, and the actions taken by the United States to maintain reasonable prices, prompt delivery and dependable quality. Projections of United States steam coal exports, therefore, rest upon a number of highly uncertain factors which are discussed in some detail.

  7. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  8. OSDBU Outreach to Indian Country Companies 2016 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OSDBU Outreach to Indian Country Companies 2016 OSDBU Outreach to Indian Country Companies 2016 July 29, 2016 - 11:59am Addthis DOE officials served as members of the “In It To Win IT” panel at the Reservation Economic Summit in Tulsa this month. From left to right, EM Acting Small Business Advocate Steve Sylvester, Jack Surash with EM’s Office of Corporate Services, DOE Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) Director John Hale III, OSDBU Deputy Director

  9. Louisiana Natural Gas Exports (Price) From All Countries (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) (Price) From All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Exports (Price) From All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- -- 2010's 7.07 9.63 11.80 -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural

  10. Louisiana Natural Gas Exports From All Countries (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    From All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Exports From All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 2010's 22,814 38,552 7,655 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports (Summary) Louisiana U.S. Natural Gas Imports &

  11. Maryland Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's -- 2000's -- -- -- 4.69 6.21 8.57 7.51 7.25 9.09 4.05 2010's 5.37 5.30 13.82 15.29 8.34 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  12. Mississippi Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- -- 2010's -- 13 -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Imports Price

  13. California Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- 9.15 2.83 2010's 4.76 3.57 -- 3.59 -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Imports Price

  14. Idaho Natural Gas Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Idaho Natural Gas Exports to All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 2000's 0 0 176 15 48 0 0 0 252 113 2010's 12 10 0 6 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports (Summary) Idaho U.S. Natural Gas

  15. Renewable Energy Development in Indian Country: A Handbook for Tribes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P O R T L A N D S E A T T L E M E N L O P A R K S A L T L A K E C I T Y aterwynne.com By Douglas C. MacCourt Chair, Indian Law Practice Ater Wynne LLP A Project for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. June 2010 Edition Renewable Energy Development in Indian Country: A Handbook for Tribes Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A4-48078 June 2010 RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN COUNTRY: A HANDBOOK FOR TRIBES A Project for the National Renewable

  16. EM Focuses on Potential Business Opportunities with Indian Country at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summits | Department of Energy Focuses on Potential Business Opportunities with Indian Country at Summits EM Focuses on Potential Business Opportunities with Indian Country at Summits July 28, 2016 - 1:15pm Addthis DOE officials served as members of the “In It To Win IT” panel at the Reservation Economic Summit in Tulsa this month. From left to right, EM Acting Small Business Advocate Steve Sylvester, Jack Surash with EM’s Office of Corporate Services, DOE Office of Small and

  17. Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia's need for toxicology education

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makalinao, Irma R. . E-mail: docirma@mydestiny.net; Awang, Rahmat

    2005-09-01

    Poison control centers (PCCs) in developing countries have been set up in response to the challenge of decreasing mortality and morbidity from poisoning. The services range from poison information to actual clinical treatment mostly of acute cases. Lately, PCCs have expanded from their traditional role to one that actively engages in community health studies, toxicovigilance along with treatment of chronic poisoning. Recognizing that types of poisoning and specific needs may vary from country to country, toxicology education that addresses these unique regional issues has become more necessary. Toxicology education, both formal and informal, exists in various stages of development in Asia. Clearly, there are gaps that need to be addressed especially in areas where there are no poison centers or where strengthening is necessary. Collaboration between PCCs in developing countries can help augment available resources including human, analytical and technical expertise. The critical mass of trained toxicologists will fill in the demand for clinical and regulatory specialists and educators as well. This paper highlights the experiences and resources available to the Philippine and Malaysian poison centers and the strengths generated by networking and collaboration. The role of Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT) as the Science NGO representative to the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) forum standing committee in promoting chemical safety at the regional level will be discussed. The 'Clearinghouse on the Sound Management of Chemicals', a platform for engaging multi-stakeholder and interdisciplinary partnerships, will be described as a possible model for capacity building to advance chemical safety through education and training not only in developing countries in Asia but globally as well.

  18. Advancing Energy Development in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  19. Crafting regulations in emerging geothermal countries: The Peru example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Conventional wisdom holds that no prudent investor or lender will ante up a penny of investment money in a geothermal project unless and until there is a geothermal resources law in place. Since every law depends on a regulatory regime to make the law work in actual practice, implemented regulations are equally important conditions precedent for geothermal development. In recognition of the importance of assisting geothermal regulatory development in the emerging geothermal countries of Latin America, during the 1995 to 1996 timeframe, the Geothermal Energy Association has acted in an advisory capacity to the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Peru, in the drafting of geothermal regulations for Peru. These regulations are designed to promote developmental investment in the geothermal resources of Peru, while simultaneously establishing reasonable standards for the protection of the people and the environment of the country. While these regulations are specific to Peru, they may well serve as a model for other countries of Latin America. Thus, the lessons learned in crafting the Peru regulatory regime may have applicability in other countries in which the geothermal industry is now working or may work in the future.

  20. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  1. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on Tribes in the lower 48 states selected to receive assistance from the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  2. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Alaska Native governments selected to receive assistance from the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  3. Solar Resources by Class and Country - Datasets - OpenEI Datasets

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Resources by Class and Country These estimates are derived from the best available solar resource data available to NREL. Resources are organized by class and country....

  4. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Other Countries (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Other Countries ... 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Other Countries (MMcf)" ...

  5. Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (886 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia National Laboratories has developed a disruptive new crystal growth technology, called Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG).

  6. Modeling delamination growth in composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Mello, F.J.

    1996-12-01

    A method for modeling the initiation and growth of discrete delaminations in shell-like composite structures is presented. The laminate is divided into two or more sublaminates, with each sublaminate modeled with four-noded quadrilateral shell elements. A special, eight-noded hex constraint element connects opposing sublaminate shell elements. It supplies the nodal forces and moments needed to make the two opposing shell elements act as a single shell element until a prescribed failure criterion is satisfied. Once the failure criterion is attained, the connection is broken, creating or growing a discrete delamination. This approach has been implemented in a 3D finite element code. This code uses explicit time integration, and can analyze shell-like structures subjected to large deformations and complex contact conditions. The shell elements can use existing composite material models that include in-plane laminate failure modes. This analysis capability was developed to perform crashworthiness studies of composite structures, and is useful whenever there is a need to estimate peak loads, energy absorption, or the final shape of a highly deformed composite structure. This paper describes the eight-noded hex constraint element used to model the initiation and growth of a delamination, and discusses associated implementation issues. Particular attention is focused on the delamination growth criterion, and it is verified that calculated results do not depend on element size. In addition, results for double cantilever beam and end notched flexure specimens are presented and compared to measured data to assess the ability of the present approach to model a growing delamination.

  7. Effective deployment of photovoltaics in the Mediterranean countries: Balancing policy risk and return

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luethi, S.

    2010-06-15

    Although the Mediterranean region is blessed with abundant solar resources, photovoltaic energy currently represents a very small share of power production. In Germany however, a much less sunny country, the photovoltaic (PV) industry is booming. This country has become a front runner in the adoption of PV because of effective policy incentives. Based on a cross-case study analysis of the German, Spanish and Greek PV markets, this paper investigates factors determining the effectiveness of PV policies. Our analysis shows that, above a certain level of return, risk-related factors (such as policy instability and administrative hurdles) play a more important role in influencing investment decisions than return-related factors (such as the level of a feed-in tariff). (author)

  8. Energy use and carbon emissions: Non-OECD countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report surveys world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD countries. The non OECD is important not only because it currently makes up 84% of world population, but because its energy consumption, carbon emissions, population, and grow domestic product have all been growing faster than OECD`s. This presentation has seven major sections: (1) overview of key trends in non-OECD energy use and carbon emissions since 1970; (2) Comparison and contrasting energy use and carbon emissions for five major non OEDC regions (former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, Pacific Rim including China, Latin America, other Asia; Africa; 3-7) presentation of aggregate and sectoral energy use and carbon emissions data for countries within each of the 5 regions.

  9. Maryland Natural Gas Imports from All Countries (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Imports from All Countries (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 2000's 0 0 0 66,078 209,294 221,689 116,613 148,231 25,894 72,339 2010's 43,431 13,981 2,790 5,366 11,585 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  10. 1996 hazardous waste management survey in selected Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, D.; Christie, K.; Tao, Hong-lei

    1996-12-31

    This report documents the results of a 42-question survey submitted to countries in Asia concerning their hazardous waste management programs and other issues. The same survey questions were distributed in 1992. This report compares the 1992 and 1996 responses. The respondents were Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Philippines, Hong Kong, People`s Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. 7 figs.