National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for growing slowly due

  1. Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Boilers Market will grow due...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Concerns to Push Global Market to Grow at 8.1% CAGR from 2013 to 2019 Oil Shale Market is Estimated to Reach USD 7,400.70 Million by 2022 more Group members (32)...

  2. Synfuels from biomass grow slowly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, J.; Wedlock, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current developments in the manufacture of synfuels are discussed with emphasis on the sources of biomass suitable for synfuels production, processes for converting biomass to synfuels, and the economics of the technology. The sources include wood, nonwood crops, root crops, aquatic biomass, and oils from plants such as soybean, safflower, and peanut. The biomass conversion processes discussed include pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction, and aerobic and anaerobic digestion.

  3. Abstract--As information networks grow larger in size due to automation or organizational integration, it is important to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gautam, Natarajan

    on networked systems in many domains due to automation or organizational integration. The growth in complexity element and component technology utilizes the components so that developers can build systems needed1 Abstract--As information networks grow larger in size due to automation or organizational

  4. CFD modeling and image analysis of exhaled aerosols due to a growing bronchial tumor: Towards non-invasive diagnosis and treatment of respiratory obstructive diseases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi, Jinxiang [Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant, MI (United States); Kim, JongWon [Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant, MI (United States); Si, Xiuhua A. [California Baptist Univ., Riverside, CA (United States); Corley, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kabilan, Senthil [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Shengyu [First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Medical Univ., Shaanxi (China); Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 ?m at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug delivery protocol.

  5. CFD modeling and image analysis of exhaled aerosols due to a growing bronchial tumor: Towards non-invasive diagnosis and treatment of respiratory obstructive diseases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treatmore »the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 ?m at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug delivery protocol.« less

  6. Cuton, cutoff transition of sound in slowly varying flow ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Cut­on, cut­off transition of sound in slowly varying flow ducts Sjoerd W. Rienstra 19­walled duct with irrotational isentropic mean flow is studied. The usual turning point behaviour was found. 1 Introduction The exact multiple scale solution for sound propagation in a slowly varying lined flow duct

  7. Organization of growing random networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  8. Tidal deformation of a slowly rotating material body. External metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philippe Landry; Eric Poisson

    2015-07-31

    We construct the external metric of a slowly rotating, tidally deformed material body in general relativity. The tidal forces acting on the body are assumed to be weak and to vary slowly with time, and the metric is obtained as a perturbation of a background metric that describes the external geometry of an isolated, slowly rotating body. The tidal environment is generic and characterized by two symmetric-tracefree tidal moments E_{ab} and B_{ab}, and the body is characterized by its mass M, its radius R, and a dimensionless angular-momentum vector \\chi^a new quantities, which we designate as rotational-tidal Love numbers. All these Love numbers are gauge invariant in the usual sense of perturbation theory, and all vanish when the body is a black hole.

  9. SOUND PROPAGATION IN SLOWLY VARYING LINED FLOW DUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    SOUND PROPAGATION IN SLOWLY VARYING LINED FLOW DUCTS OF ARBITRARY CROSS SECTION S.W. Rienstra.w.rienstra@tue.nl November 20, 2002 Abstract Sound transmission through ducts of constant cross section with a uniform expansion, where the modes are eigenfunctions of the corresponding Laplace eigenvalue problem along a duct

  10. THE LYAPUNOV EXPONENTS FOR SCHRODINGER OPERATORS WITH SLOWLY OSCILLATING POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makarov, Nikolai

    THE LYAPUNOV EXPONENTS FOR SCHR¨ODINGER OPERATORS WITH SLOWLY OSCILLATING POTENTIALS Barry Simon Abstract. By studying the integrated density of states, we prove the existence of Lyapunov exponents an explicit formula for these Lyapunov exponents. By applying rank one perturbation theory, we also obtain

  11. How Markets Slowly Digest Changes in Supply and Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHAPTER 2 How Markets Slowly Digest Changes in Supply and Demand Jean-Philippe Bouchaud Science.3. Information, Liquidity, and Efficiency 65 2.3.1. Information and Fundamental Values 66 2.3.2. Market, and NSF grant HSD-0624351. HANDBOOK OF FINANCIAL MARKETS: DYNAMICS AND EVOLUTION Copyright c 2009, North

  12. Photon propagation in slowly varying inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix Karbstein; Rashid Shaisultanov

    2015-04-23

    Starting from the Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian, we determine the photon current and photon polarization tensor in inhomogeneous, slowly varying electromagnetic fields. To this end, we consider background field configurations varying in both space and time, paying special attention to the tensor structure. As a main result, we obtain compact analytical expressions for the photon polarization tensor in realistic Gaussian laser pulses, as generated in the focal spots of high-intensity lasers. These expressions are of utmost importance for the investigation of quantum vacuum nonlinearities in realistic high-intensity laser experiments.

  13. Photon propagation in slowly varying inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karbstein, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian, we determine the photon current and photon polarization tensor in inhomogeneous, slowly varying electromagnetic fields. To this end, we consider background field configurations varying in both space and time, paying special attention to the tensor structure. As a main result, we obtain compact analytical expressions for the photon polarization tensor in realistic Gaussian laser pulses, as generated in the focal spots of high-intensity lasers. These expressions are of utmost importance for the investigation of quantum vacuum nonlinearities in realistic high-intensity laser experiments.

  14. How markets slowly digest changes in supply and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    In this article we revisit the classic problem of tatonnement in price formation from a microstructure point of view, reviewing a recent body of theoretical and empirical work explaining how fluctuations in supply and demand are slowly incorporated into prices. Because revealed market liquidity is extremely low, large orders to buy or sell can only be traded incrementally, over periods of time as long as months. As a result order flow is a highly persistent long-memory process. Maintaining compatibility with market efficiency has profound consequences on price formation, on the dynamics of liquidity, and on the nature of impact. We review a body of theory that makes detailed quantitative predictions about the volume and time dependence of market impact, the bid-ask spread, order book dynamics, and volatility. Comparisons to data yield some encouraging successes. This framework suggests a novel interpretation of financial information, in which agents are at best only weakly informed and all have a similar and ...

  15. Precise rotation rates for five slowly rotating A stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, David F.

    2014-04-01

    Projected rotation rates of five early A-type slowly rotating stars are measured spectroscopically to a precision of 0.2 km s{sup –1}. A detailed Fourier analysis is done, as well as a comparison of profiles directly. Macroturbulence is needed in addition to rotation to reproduce the profile shapes. An upper limit of ?2 km s{sup –1} is placed on the microturbulence dispersion. Small unexplained differences between the models and the observations are seen in the sidelobe structure of the transforms. The v sin i results are: ? Dra, 26.2; ? Leo, 22.5; ? CMa A, 16.7; ? Gem A, 10.7; o Peg, 6.0 km s{sup –1}. These stars are suitable as standards for measuring rotation using less fundamental methods.

  16. Precision measurements in ion traps using slowly moving standing waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Walther; U. Poschinger; K. Singer; F. Schmidt-Kaler

    2011-05-09

    The present paper describes the experimental implementation of a measuring technique employing a slowly moving, near resonant, optical standing wave in the context of trapped ions. It is used to measure several figures of merit that are important for quantum computation in ion traps and which are otherwise not easily obtainable. Our technique is shown to offer high precision, and also in many cases using a much simpler setup than what is normally used. We demonstrate here measurements of i) the distance between two crystalline ions, ii) the Lamb-Dicke parameter, iii) temperature of the ion crystal, and iv) the interferometric stability of a Raman setup. The exact distance between two ions, in units of standing wave periods, is very important for motional entangling gates, and our method offers a practical way of calibrating this distance in the typical lab situation.

  17. Slowly Varying Dilaton Cosmologies and Their Field Theory Duals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awad, Adel; Das, Sumit R.; Ghosh, Archisman; Oh, Jae-Hyuk; Trivedi, Sandip P.; /Tata Inst. /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-06-28

    We consider a deformation of the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} solution of IIB supergravity obtained by taking the boundary value of the dilaton to be time dependent. The time dependence is taken to be slowly varying on the AdS scale thereby introducing a small parameter {epsilon}. The boundary dilaton has a profile which asymptotes to a constant in the far past and future and attains a minimum value at intermediate times. We construct the sugra solution to first non-trivial order in {epsilon}, and find that it is smooth, horizon free, and asymptotically AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} in the far future. When the intermediate values of the dilaton becomes small enough the curvature becomes of order the string scale and the sugra approximation breaks down. The resulting dynamics is analysed in the dual SU(N) gauge theory on S{sup 3} with a time dependent coupling constant which varies slowly. When N{epsilon} << 1, we find that a quantum adiabatic approximation is applicable, and use it to argue that at late times the geometry becomes smooth AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} again. When N{epsilon} >> 1, we formulate a classical adiabatic perturbation theory based on coherent states which arises in the large N limit. For large values of the tHooft coupling this reproduces the supergravity results. For small 'tHooft coupling the coherent state calculations become involved and we cannot reach a definite conclusion. We argue that the final state should have a dual description which is mostly smooth AdS5 space with the possible presence of a small black hole.

  18. FLUID AND DIFFUSION LIMITS FOR QUEUES IN SLOWLY CHANGING ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitt, Ward

    AT&T Laboratories Faculty of Industrial and Room 1L­238 Management Engineering Holmdel, NJ 07730--146 (Received the first Marcel F. Neuts best paper award) Key Words: queues in random environments, nearly­length and work­ load processes grow. However, with appropriate normalizations, these pro­ cesses converge

  19. FLUID AND DIFFUSION LIMITS FOR QUEUES IN SLOWLY CHANGING ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitt, Ward

    AT&T Laboratories Faculty of Industrial and Room 1L-238 Management Engineering Holmdel, NJ 07730­146 (Received the first Marcel F. Neuts best paper award) Key Words: queues in random environments, nearly-state sojourn times. As the mean environment-state sojourn times grow, the queue-length and work- load processes

  20. f your soil has a high salinity content, the plants growing there will not be as vigorous as they would

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I f your soil has a high salinity content, the plants growing there will not be as vigorous as they would be in normal soils. Seeds will germinate poorly, if at all, and the plants will grow slowly much you water them. Routine soil testing can identify your soil's salinity levels and suggest measures

  1. What Really Grows Exports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    What Really Grows Exports Bringing It All Back Home Should We Be Afraid of Accruals? Products of Their Environment a report on new research from the tuck school of business at dartmouth | fall 2014 Do exporters Competitiveness Diagnostic Toolkit," which was written to help developing nations increase their exports

  2. Mitigation, Adaptation, Uncertainty -- Growing Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felsen, Martin; Dunn, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Growing Water Martin Felsen andSarah Dunn The Growing Water project addresses a report fromin the world will face water shortages by 2025, a situation

  3. Growing Oats in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins; I. M.; McDaniel, M. E.; Gardenhire, J. H.

    1969-01-01

    and more rapidly growing intermediate ?.inter-type varieties can be used in the northern !'art of Central and East Texas. Included in .his group are New Nortex, Norwin, Alamo-X, Qra. Moregrain and others. Less cold tolerant :.arieties and near..., Norwin, Bronco, Mustang, New Nortex, Ora, Alamo-X, Nora Spring seedin! Cimarron, Norwin, A Moregrain, Coronado, Corte7 do. Ora, Nora, New Nortex, Coronado, Cortez, Alaa Norwin, Alamo-X, Moregrain Moregrain IV 8, 9, 11 Ora, New Nortex, Moregrain...

  4. Elastic Instability in Growing Yeast Colonies Baochi Nguyen,* Arpita Upadhyaya,y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    the overall adhesive energy between cell surfaces. We demonstrate in a model experimental system that there exist conditions where a slowly growing tissue does not minimize this adhesive energy. A mathematical elastic and surface energies. INTRODUCTION The differential adhesion hypothesis states that cells

  5. Cut-on, cut-off transition of sound in slowly varying flow ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rienstra, Sjoerd W.

    Cut-on, cut-off transition of sound in slowly varying flow ducts Sjoerd W. Rienstra 19-walled duct with irrotational isentropic mean flow is studied. The usual turning point behaviour was found. 1 Introduction The exact multiple scale solution for sound propagation in a slowly varying lined flow duct

  6. SOUND TRANSMISSION IN SLOWLY VARYING CIRCULAR AND ANNULAR LINED DUCTS WITH FLOW a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    SOUND TRANSMISSION IN SLOWLY VARYING CIRCULAR AND ANNULAR LINED DUCTS WITH FLOW a S.W. Rienstra/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, June 2­4, 1998, Toulouse ABSTRACT Sound transmission through straight circular ducts by a modal expansion. A natural ex­ tension for ducts with axially slowly varying properties (diameter

  7. Bioproducts and Biofuels – Growing Together!

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2B—Integration of Supply Chains II: Bioproducts—Enabling Biofuels and Growing the Bioeconomy Bioproducts and Biofuels – Growing Together! Andrew Held, Senior Director, Deployment and Engineering, Virent, Inc.

  8. Main Sequence Evolution As the hydrogen in its core is slowly used up, a star's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    Main Sequence Evolution As the hydrogen in its core is slowly used up, a star's `thermostat photosphere hydrogen- `burning' core A Main-Sequence Star... photosphere hydrogen- `burning' shell inert the Main Sequence Once hydrogen starts burning in a shell, a star becomes larger, redder, and much more

  9. Transient effective hydraulic conductivities under slowly and rapidly varying mean gradients in bounded three-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    Transient effective hydraulic conductivities under slowly and rapidly varying mean gradients it Darcian in real or transformed domains. Each such situation gives rise to an effective hydraulic-time. In this paper we develop first-order analytical expressions for effective hydraulic conductivity under three

  10. Lyapunov Function Constructions for Slowly Time-Varying Systems Frederic Mazenc and Michael Malisoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sontag, Eduardo

    Lyapunov Function Constructions for Slowly Time-Varying Systems Fr´ed´eric Mazenc and Michael Malisoff Abstract-- We provide general methods for explicitly con- structing strict Lyapunov functions previous Lyapunov function constructions for rapidly time-varying dynamics. We also explicitly construct

  11. Optimal Renewal Policy for Slowly Degrading Andr'as Pfening and Mikl'os Telek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Telek, Miklós

    Optimal Renewal Policy for Slowly Degrading Systems Andr'as Pfening and Mikl'os Telek Dept. In the paper we address the problem of determining the optimal time to renew a system when it experiences so to ``renew'' the system to its peak performance level. We analyze this model for two different queueing

  12. 4.1.1.6 Quiet and slowly varying radio emissions Arnold O. Benz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    4.1.1.6 Quiet and slowly varying radio emissions of the sun Arnold O. Benz The solar atmosphere emits radio emission at all wavelengths and at all times. Its total flux density varies with magnetic. It is reached when the sun has been free of spots for some weeks. This is called the quiet radio emission

  13. Growing and Storing Sweet Potatoes. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potts, A. T.; Olsen, J. C.

    1916-01-01

    College o/Texas (in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture) AUGUST, 1916 EXTENSION SERVICE No. B. 27 Gro"lVing and Storing S"lVeet Potatoes Address CLARENCE OUSLEY Director and State Agent, College Station, Texas Growing alld Storing... of mixed potatoes seldom bring satisfactory prices. Each community should try to confine their planting to one, or, at the most, two varieties. If more than one variety is grown they mU:st be harvested, stored and marketed separately. The varieties to grow...

  14. Research Councils UK Growing with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    Research Councils UK Growing with agri-science #12;Research funded by the Research Councils makes of approaches to support innovation and deliver impact from research, including the development of collaborative research programmes, investment in major research capabilities, such as national research facilities

  15. Centrifugal Force and Ellipticity behaviour of a slowly rotating ultra compact object

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anshu Gupta; Sai Iyer; A. R. Prasanna

    1996-03-28

    Using the optical reference geometry approach, we have derived in the following, a general expression for the ellipticity of a slowly rotating fluid configuration using Newtonian force balance equation in the conformally projected absolute 3-space, in the realm of general relativity. Further with the help of Hartle-Thorne (H-T) metric for a slowly rotating compact object, we have evaluated the centrifugal force acting on a fluid element and also evaluated the ellipticity and found that the centrifugal reversal occurs at around $R/R_s \\approx 1.45$, and the ellipticity maximum at around $R/R_s \\approx 2.75$. The result has been compared with that of Chandrasekhar and Miller which was obtained in the full 4-spacetime formalism.

  16. Statistics of random quasi 1D Hamiltonian with slowly varying parameters. Painlevé again.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. G. Silvestrov

    1995-03-15

    The statistics of random band--matrices with width and strength of the band slowly varying along the diagonal is considered. The Dyson equation for the averaged Green function close to the edge of spectrum is reduced to the Painlev\\'{e} I equation. The analytical properties of the Green function allow to fix the solution of this equation. The former appears to be the same as that arose within the random--matrix regularization of 2d-gravity.

  17. Slowly rotating neutron and strange stars in R{sup 2} gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staykov, Kalin V.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Doneva, Daniela D.; Kokkotas, Kostas D. E-mail: daniela.doneva@uni-tuebingen.de E-mail: kostas.kokkotas@uni-tuebingen.de

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper we investigate self-consistently slowly rotating neutron and strange stars in R-squared gravity with Lagrangian f(R) = R + aR{sup 2}, where a is a parameter. For this purpose we first derive the equations describing the structure of the slowly rotating compact stars in f(R)-gravity and then simultaneously solve numerically the exterior and the interior problem. The structure of the slowly rotating neutron stars is studied for two different hadronic equations of state and a strange matter equation of state. The moment of inertia and its dependence on the stellar mass and the R-squared gravity parameter a is also examined in details. The numerical results show that the neutron star moment of inertia can be up to 30% larger compared to the corresponding general relativistic models. This is much higher than the change in the maximum mass induced by R-squared gravity and is beyond the EOS uncertainty. In this way the future observations of the moment of inertia of compact stars could allow us to distinguish between general relativity and f(R) gravity, and more generally to test the strong field regime of gravity.

  18. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    On carbon footprints and growing energy use Curtis M.reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organizationhis own organization's carbon footprint and answers this

  19. Bioproducts and Biofuels - Growing Together! | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioproducts and Biofuels - Growing Together Bioproducts and Biofuels - Growing Together Breakout Session 2B-Integration of Supply Chains II: Bioproducts-Enabling Biofuels and...

  20. GROW HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11, SolarMat 4" |a,- p^A CU ^ ^JL\ CC6p^ w bGROW HOME

  1. GROW HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11, SolarMat 4" |a,- p^A CU ^ ^JL\ CC6p^ w bGROW

  2. Seismic modelling of the rotating, slowly pulsating B-type star HD 21071

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szewczuk, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of the oscillation spectrum of the slowly pulsating B-type star HD21071 is presented. We show that non-rotating models cannot account for the two highest amplitude frequencies and taking into account the effects of rotation is necessary. Rotating seismic models are constructed using various chemical compositions, opacity data, core overshooting parameters and rotational velocities. There are prospects for seismic modelling of SPB stars, even if no asymptotic pattern is observed in their oscillation spectra, provided an unambiguous mode identification is doable and the effects of rotation are properly included.

  3. First magnetic field models for recently discovered magnetic beta Cephei and slowly pulsating B stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubrig, S; Schoeller, M; Briquet, M; Morel, T; De Cat, P

    2011-01-01

    In spite of recent detections of magnetic fields in a number of beta Cephei and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, their impact on stellar rotation, pulsations, and element diffusion is not sufficiently studied yet. The reason for this is the lack of knowledge of rotation periods, the magnetic field strength distribution and temporal variability, and the field geometry. New longitudinal field measurements of four beta Cephei and candidate beta Cephei stars, and two SPB stars were acquired with FORS2 at the VLT. These measurements allowed us to carry out a search for rotation periods and to constrain the magnetic field geometry for four stars in our sample.

  4. Efficient photoassociation with a slowly-turned-on and rapidly-turned-off laser field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Wei; Huang Yin; Xie Ting; Wang Gaoren; Cong Shulin [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2010-12-15

    We present a theoretical scheme used for investigating the formation of ultracold molecules via photoassociation with a slowly-turned-on and rapidly-turned-off (STRT) laser pulse, with Cs{sub 2} as an example. As compared with an unshaped laser pulse, this kind of shaped laser pulse has a prominent advantage by which we can prevent the associated molecules from returning to the initial scattering state. Numerical calculations show that an efficient photoassociation can be realized with the STRT laser pulse, which is available in the current experiment as an optical tool.

  5. Country Report Impact of growing urbanization and air pollution on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Ramesh P.

    discussion is presented here of the degradation in air quality in major cities, the source of the pollutants5 Country Report Impact of growing urbanization and air pollution on the regional climate over. censusindia.net/, Fig. 1). The population growth has been mainly centered around cities due pri- marily

  6. Ames Lab 101: Growing Crystals in Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivedi, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    Rohit Trivedi, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research with NASA to grow crystals in space.

  7. Silicon crystal growing by oscillating crucible technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Smetana, P.

    1983-08-03

    A process for growing silicon crystals from a molten melt comprising oscillating the container during crystal growth is disclosed.

  8. Ames Lab 101: Growing Crystals in Space

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Trivedi, Rohit

    2012-08-29

    Rohit Trivedi, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research with NASA to grow crystals in space.

  9. Growing plants on atoll soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the year. Except on the driest of atolls, air temperature and humidity range only within limits set by the surrounding sea. There are no cold seasons, no frosts, no cold soils, no dry winds, and no periodic plagues of insects or diseases moving from miles away. Problems of soil drainage or salinity are few and easily recognized. Nor are there problems with acid soils, soil crusting, or erosion that challenge cultivators in many other areas. On the contrary, some of the black soils at the center of wide islands rank with the best soils of Russia and the American Midwest, except for their shortage of potassium and the uncertainties of rainfall. Some of these atoll soils contain more total nitrogen than many of the world's most productive agricultural soils and, in some, the total phosphorus content is so high as to be almost unbelievable--two to five tons of the element per acre. Certainly, problems exist in growing plants on atolls. There are also some special concerns not encountered in other environments, such as the wind and salt spray near shore. The two major physical limitations, however, are inadequate rainfall in some years and in many places, and soil fertility limitations. The alkaline or ''limy'' make-up of atoll soils means that a few plant nutrients, especially iron, limit growth of many introduced plants, and this is difficult to correct. As elsewhere in the world, many--but not all--atoll soils lack enough nitrogen and/or phosphorus for high yield, and all lack sufficient potassium. There is no practical way of overcoming drought except by use of tolerant plants such as coconut (ni) and Pandanus (bob), plus collection and careful use of whatever water is available. There are opportunities to overcome nutritional limitations mentioned above, first, by intensive use of all organic debris and household wastes in small gardens and, second, by use of commercial fertilizers. Imported fertilizers are expensive, certainly, but much less so on a family basis than the equivalent costs of imported food.

  10. Slowly rotating superfluid neutron stars with isospin dependent entrainment in a two-fluid model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kheto, Apurba

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars including the entrainment effect in a two-fluid model, where one fluid represents the superfluid neutrons and the other is the charge-neutral fluid called the proton fluid, made of protons and electrons. The equation of state and the entrainment effect between the superfluid neutrons and the proton fluid are computed using a relativistic mean field (RMF) model where baryon-baryon interaction is mediated by the exchange of $\\sigma$, $\\omega$, and $\\rho$ mesons and scalar self interactions are also included. The equations governing rotating neutron stars in the slow rotation approximation are second order in rotational velocities of neutron and proton fluids. We explore the effects of the isospin dependent entrainment and the relative rotation between two fluids on the global properties of rotating superfluid neutron stars such as mass, shape, and the mass shedding (Kepler) limit within the RMF model with different parameter sets. ...

  11. Maine Company Growing with Weatherization Work

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maine's BIOSAFE Environmental Services expands into weatherization, assisting low-income families with their services and creating jobs as business grows.

  12. One Direction: Researchers grow nanocircuitry with semiconducting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    partners@anl.gov. One Direction: Researchers grow nanocircuitry with semiconducting graphene nanoribbons By Justin H.S. Breaux * October 13, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint In a...

  13. Nitrogen enrichment, boron depletion and magnetic fields in slowly-rotating B-type dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Morel; S. Hubrig; M. Briquet

    2008-01-29

    Evolutionary models for massive stars, accounting for rotational mixing effects, do not predict any core-processed material at the surface of B dwarfs with low rotational velocities. Contrary to theoretical expectations, we present a detailed and fully-homogeneous, NLTE abundance analysis of 20 early B-type dwarfs and (sub)giants that reveals the existence of a population of nitrogen-rich and boron-depleted, yet intrinsically slowly-rotating objects. The low-rotation rate of several of these stars is firmly established, either from the occurrence of phase-locked UV wind line-profile variations, which can be ascribed to rotational modulation, or from theoretical modelling in the pulsating variables. The observational data presently available suggest a higher incidence of chemical peculiarities in stars with a (weak) detected magnetic field. This opens the possibility that magnetic phenomena are important in altering the photospheric abundances of early B dwarfs, even for surface field strengths at the one hundred Gauss level. However, further spectropolarimetric observations are needed to assess the validity of this hypothesis.

  14. Nitrogen enrichment, boron depletion and magnetic fields in slowly-rotating B-type dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morel, T; Briquet, M

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary models for massive stars, accounting for rotational mixing effects, do not predict any core-processed material at the surface of B dwarfs with low rotational velocities. Contrary to theoretical expectations, we present a detailed and fully-homogeneous, NLTE abundance analysis of 20 early B-type dwarfs and (sub)giants that reveals the existence of a population of nitrogen-rich and boron-depleted, yet intrinsically slowly-rotating objects. The low-rotation rate of several of these stars is firmly established, either from the occurrence of phase-locked UV wind line-profile variations, which can be ascribed to rotational modulation, or from theoretical modelling in the pulsating variables. The observational data presently available suggest a higher incidence of chemical peculiarities in stars with a (weak) detected magnetic field. This opens the possibility that magnetic phenomena are important in altering the photospheric abundances of early B dwarfs, even for surface field strengths at the one hund...

  15. Slowly Rotating Anisotropic Neutron Stars in General Relativity and Scalar-Tensor Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hector O. Silva; Caio F. B. Macedo; Emanuele Berti; Luís C. B. Crispino

    2015-06-04

    Some models (such as the Skyrme model, a low-energy effective field theory for QCD) suggest that the high-density matter prevailing in neutron star interiors may be significantly anisotropic. Anisotropy is known to affect the bulk properties of nonrotating neutron stars in General Relativity. In this paper we study the effects of anisotropy on slowly rotating stars in General Relativity. We also consider one of the most popular extensions of Einstein's theory, namely scalar-tensor theories allowing for spontaneous scalarization (a phase transition similar to spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnetic materials). Anisotropy affects the moment of inertia of neutron stars (a quantity that could potentially be measured in binary pulsar systems) in both theories. We find that the effects of scalarization increase (decrease) when the tangential pressure is bigger (smaller) than the radial pressure, and we present a simple criterion to determine the onset of scalarization by linearizing the scalar-field equation. Our calculations suggest that binary pulsar observations may constrain the degree of anisotropy or even, more optimistically, provide evidence for anisotropy in neutron star cores.

  16. Slowly rotating superfluid neutron stars with isospin dependent entrainment in a two-fluid model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apurba Kheto; Debades Bandyopadhyay

    2015-02-13

    We investigate the slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars including the entrainment effect in a two-fluid model, where one fluid represents the superfluid neutrons and the other is the charge-neutral fluid called the proton fluid, made of protons and electrons. The equation of state and the entrainment effect between the superfluid neutrons and the proton fluid are computed using a relativistic mean field (RMF) model where baryon-baryon interaction is mediated by the exchange of $\\sigma$, $\\omega$, and $\\rho$ mesons and scalar self interactions are also included. The equations governing rotating neutron stars in the slow rotation approximation are second order in rotational velocities of neutron and proton fluids. We explore the effects of the isospin dependent entrainment and the relative rotation between two fluids on the global properties of rotating superfluid neutron stars such as mass, shape, and the mass shedding (Kepler) limit within the RMF model with different parameter sets. It is observed that for the global properties of rotating superfluid neutron stars in particular, the Kepler limit is modified compared with the case that does not include the contribution of $\\rho$ mesons in the entrainment effect.

  17. Re-evaluation of the Vitamin D3 Requirement for Growing Chickens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leyva Jimenez, Hector Enrique

    2015-07-24

    Three experiments were conducted with the purpose of re-evaluating the vitamin D3 requirement of growing chickens. Due to intense genetic selection in the poultry industry, it is probable that modern strains have altered ...

  18. Growing minds: evaluating the effects of gardening on quality of life and obesity in older adults 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lillard, Aime Jo Sommerfeld

    2009-05-15

    Older adults represent a growing part of the population of the United States. Due to decreased physical activity, dietary changes, and alterations in metabolic rate this population is susceptible to an increased rate of diseases. The generation...

  19. Riparian Forest Grows Trees fall in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riparian Forest Grows Trees Die Trees fall in the lake Trees leave the littoral zone "Life" Cycle of Coarse Woody Habitat #12;Riparian Forest Grows What factors drive the species composition and stand factors drive the species composition and stand structure? Trees Die Trees fall in the lake Trees leave

  20. Generation of tsunamis by a slowly spreading uplift of the sea oor Maria I. Todorovska*, Mihailo D. Trifunac

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Generation of tsunamis by a slowly spreading uplift of the sea ¯oor Maria I. Todorovska*, Mihailo D spreading of the sea ¯oor uplift. A linearized solution for constant water depth is derived by transform methods (Laplace in time and Fourier in space), for sea ¯oor uplift represented by a sliding Heaviside

  1. Summary Pinus taeda L. stomata respond slowly to changes in irradiance. Because incident irradiance on a leaf varies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    Summary Pinus taeda L. stomata respond slowly to changes in irradiance. Because incident irradiance on a leaf varies constantly, the rate of change in stomatal conductance to fluc- tuating irradiance may have with very different irradiance patterns, assuming that rates of stomatal opening and closing were similar

  2. Excitation of solitons by an external resonant wave with a slowly varying phase velocity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aranson, I.; Meerson, B. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics; Tajima, Toshiki [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1992-02-01

    A novel mechanism is proposed for the excitation of solitons in nonlinear dispersive media. The mechanism employs an external pumping wave with a varying phase velocity, which provides a continuous resonant excitation of a nonlinear wave in the medium. Two different schemes of a continuous resonant growth (continuous phase-locking) of the induced nonlinear wave are suggested. The first of them requires a definite time dependence of the pumping wave phase velocity and is relatively sensitive to the initial wave phase. The second employs the dynamic autoresonance effect and is insensitive to the exact time dependence of the pumping wave phase velocity. It is demonstrated analytically and numerically, for a particular example of a driven Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with periodic boundary conditions, that as the nonlinear wave grows, it transforms into a soliton, which continues growing and accelerating adiabatically. A fully nonlinear perturbation theory is developed for the driven KdV equation to follow the growing wave into the strongly nonlinear regime and describe the soliton formation.

  3. Microalgae Cultivation using Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiley, Patrick Edward

    2013-01-01

    enclosures for growing algae (OMEGA). J. Sustainableenclosures for growing algae (OMEGA). Bioresour. Technol.enclosures for growing algae (OMEGA). Journal of Sustainable

  4. An argument for weakly magnetized, slowly rotating progenitors of long gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno Méndez, Enrique, E-mail: enriquemm@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2014-01-20

    Using binary evolution with Case-C mass transfer, the spins of several black holes (BHs) in X-ray binaries (XBs) have been predicted and confirmed (three cases) by observations. The rotational energy of these BHs is sufficient to power up long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and hypernovae (HNe) and still leave a Kerr BH behind. However, strong magnetic fields and/or dynamo effects in the interior of such stars deplete their cores from angular momentum preventing the formation of collapsars. Thus, even though binaries can produce Kerr BHs, most of their rotation is acquired from the stellar mantle, with a long delay between BH formation and spin up. Such binaries would not form GRBs. We study whether the conditions required to produce GRBs can be met by the progenitors of such BHs. Tidal-synchronization and Alfvén timescales are compared for magnetic fields of different intensities threading He stars. A search is made for a magnetic field range that allows tidal spin up all the way in to the stellar core but prevents its slow down during differential rotation phases. The energetics for producing a strong magnetic field during core collapse, which may allow for a GRB central engine, are also estimated. An observationally reasonable choice of parameters is found (B ? 10{sup 2} G threading a slowly rotating He star) that allows Fe cores to retain substantial angular momentum. Thus, the Case-C mass-transfer binary channel is capable of explaining long GRBs. However, the progenitors must have low initial spin and low internal magnetic field throughout their H-burning and He-burning phases.

  5. What Makes Clouds Grow and Die?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fairly well." Based on these results, Hagos and his collaborators will next focus on cold pools and their role in growing small shallow clouds into large, deep ones. The team...

  6. Social disruption caused by tobacco growing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marty Otanez

    2008-01-01

    suffocating. The smell and the poison grow in your mouth.of the question going near that poison [tobacco pesticides].doesn’t let me do the poison now because of what happened

  7. Orthopedic Correction of Growing Retrognathic Hyperdivergent Patients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrillo, Roberto

    2014-05-13

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine whether dental intrusion is effective in treating growing retrognathic hyperdivergent patients without negatively affecting the roots and periodontal structures. The ...

  8. 2014 ALCC Proposals Due

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALCC Proposals Due February 3, 2014 2014 DOE ALCC Proposals Due February 3 December 23, 2013 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) DOE's 2014 call for its ASCR Leadership Computing...

  9. Method of synthesizing and growing copper-indium-diselenide (CuInSe/sub 2/) crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1984-11-29

    A process for preparing CuInSe/sub 2/ crystals includes melting a sufficient quantity of B/sub 2/O/sub 2/ along with stochiometric quantities of Cu, In, and Se in a crucible in a high-pressure atmosphere of inert gas to encapsulate the CuInSe/sub 2/ melt and confine the Se to the crucible. Additional Se in the range of 1.8 to 2.2% over the stochiometric quantity is preferred to make up for small amounts of Se lost in the process. The melt can then be cooled slowly to form the crystal as direct solidification, or the crystal can be grown by inserting a seed crystal through the B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ encapsulate into contact with the CuInSe/sub 2/ melt and withdrawing the seed upwardly to grow the crystal thereon from the melt.

  10. Growing Cutting-edge X-ray Optics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ray Conley

    2013-07-17

    Ever imagined that an Xbox controller could help open a window into a world spanning just one billionth of a meter? Brookhaven Lab's Ray Conley grows cutting-edge optics called multilayer Laue lenses (MLL) one atomic layer at a time to focus high-energy x-rays to within a single nanometer. To achieve this focusing feat, Ray uses a massive, custom-built atomic deposition device, an array of computers, and a trusty Xbox controller. These lenses will be deployed at the Lab's National Synchrotron Light Source II, due to begin shining super-bright light on pressing scientific puzzles in 2015

  11. Quantum states built on classical nonlinear resonances for slowly deforming billiards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, Nandan; Jain, Sudhir R.

    2014-10-15

    We study the modification in the energy spectrum of a closed, adiabatic Hamiltonian system due to the presence of classical nonlinear resonances. A number of resonances are shown to appear in the neighbourhood of the unperturbed energy levels. The unperturbed system is a simple rectangular billiard, subjected to adiabatic rotations and vibrations. We believe that the results hold equally well for a generic unperturbed system expressible in action variables alone, and perturbed there from.

  12. Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    home garden? *Growing potatoes produces a bountiful harvest....depending on which variety your choose. In general, 1 inch of water per week, from rainfall or irrigation, is needed on well drained soil. When to plant potatoes: * Plant seed pieces in spring when the soil temp. is 45F or above. When to harvest

  13. Energy risk in Latin America:Energy risk in Latin America: the growing challengesthe growing challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, Juan

    resources -economic reforms opened space for private investment in energy -development of an infrastructureEnergy risk in Latin America:Energy risk in Latin America: the growing challengesthe growing Conference on Energy Trading and Risk Management 21 - 22 November 2005, City University, London

  14. Energy & Water:Energy & Water: A Growing and IncreasinglyA Growing and Increasingly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    #12;20 Treatment TechnologiesTreatment Technologies #12;21 21 #12;22 Skinner PlantSkinner Plant Solar1 Energy & Water:Energy & Water: A Growing and IncreasinglyA Growing and Increasingly Important of Southern California First Western Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability #12;2 "Water is for life, power

  15. UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Modeling Fracture Formation on Growing Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Modeling Fracture Formation on Growing Surfaces by Pavol Federl A THESIS Fracture Formation on Growing Surfaces" submitted by Pavol Federl in partial fulfillment This thesis describes a framework for modeling fracture formation on differentially growing, bi- layered

  16. About the Bioenergy Technologies Office: Growing America's Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    You are here Home About the Bioenergy Technologies Office: Growing America's Energy Future About the Bioenergy Technologies Office: Growing America's Energy Future The U.S....

  17. Mass freezing in growing neutrino quintessence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson J. Nunes; Lily Schrempp; Christof Wetterich

    2011-05-31

    Growing neutrino quintessence solves the coincidence problem for dark energy by a growing cosmological value of the neutrino mass which emerges from a cosmon-neutrino interaction stronger than gravity. The cosmon-mediated attraction between neutrinos induces the formation of large scale neutrino lumps in a recent cosmological epoch. We argue that the non-linearities in the cosmon field equations stop the further increase of the neutrino mass within sufficiently dense and large lumps. As a result, we find the neutrino induced gravitational potential to be substantially reduced when compared to linear extrapolations. We furthermore demonstrate that inside a lump the possible time variation of fundamental constants is much smaller than their cosmological evolution. This feature may reconcile current geophysical bounds with claimed cosmological variations of the fine structure constant.

  18. Growing America's Energy Future | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancial OpportunitiesDepartment of EnergyGrowing America's

  19. GROW, EXPORT, ATTRACT, SUPPORT Universities' contribution to Scotland's economic growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    GROW, EXPORT, ATTRACT, SUPPORT Universities' contribution to Scotland's economic growth #12;Contents Summary Grow 3 Export 5 Attract 10 Support 21 #12;Universities are recognised throughout the world to grow the GVA it contributes to Scotland. Universities have a growing export role, with international

  20. Discovery of magnetic fields in the beta Cephei star xi^1 CMa and in several Slowly Pulsating B stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Hubrig; M. Briquet; M. Schoeller; P. De Cat; G. Mathys; C. Aerts

    2006-04-12

    We present the results of a magnetic survey of a sample of eight beta Cephei stars and 26 Slowly Pulsating B stars with FORS1 at the VLT. A weak mean longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred Gauss is detected in the beta Cephei star xi^1 CMa and in 13 SPB stars. The star xi^1 CMa becomes the third magnetic star among the beta Cephei stars. Before our study, the star zeta Cas was the only known magnetic SPB star. All magnetic SPB stars for which we gathered several magnetic field measurements show a field that varies in time. We do not find a relation between the evolution of the magnetic field with stellar age in our small sample. Our observations imply that beta Cephei stars and SPBs can no longer be considered as classes of non-magnetic pulsators, but the effect of the fields on the oscillation properties remains to be studied.

  1. Behaviour of the Centrifugal Force and of Ellipticity for a Slowly Rotating Fluid Configuration with Different Equations of State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anshu Gupta; Sai Iyer; A. R. Prasanna

    1997-01-07

    We have evaluated the centrifugal force acting on a fluid element and the ellipticity of the fluid configuration, which is slowly rotating, using the Hartle-Thorne solution for different equations of state. The centrifugal force shows a maximum in every case, whereas the reversal in sign could be seen in only one case, and the system becomes unstable in other cases. The ellipticity as calculated from the usual definition shows maxima, whereas the definition obtained from the equilibration of the inertial forces, shows a negative behaviour, indicating that the system is prolate and not oblate. This prolate shape of the configuration is similar to the one earlier found by Pfister and Braun for a rotating shell of matter, using the correct centrifugal force expression for the interior. The location of the centrifugal maxima gets farther away from the Schwarzschild radius as the equation of state gets softer.

  2. Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korolev, Kirill S; Karahan, Nilay; Murray, Andrew W; Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R; 10.1088/1478-3975/9/2/026008

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction-diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast...

  3. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Canastota`

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-05-15

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix sachalinensis.times.S. miyabeana named `Canastota`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 2.7-fold more woody biomass than its female parent (Salix sachalinensis `SX61`), 28% greater woody biomass yield than its male parent (Salix miyabeana `SX64`), and 20% greater woody biomass yield than a standard production cultivar, Salix dasyclados `SV1` when grown in the same field for the same length of time (two growing seasons after coppice) in Tully, N.Y. `Canastota` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. `Canastota` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by willow sawfly.

  4. The Growing Web of Open Data | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The Growing Web of Open Data The Growing Web of Open Data September 26, 2012 - 10:57am Addthis NREL's Visual API Browser presents energy data APIs as a web of key words. NREL's...

  5. Solar Ready Vets: Preparing Our Veterans to Join the Growing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solar Ready Vets: Preparing Our Veterans to Join the Growing Solar Workforce Solar Ready Vets: Preparing Our Veterans to Join the Growing Solar Workforce April 6, 2015 - 2:27pm...

  6. Fact #816: February 10, 2014 Natural Gas Refueling Stations Grow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6: February 10, 2014 Natural Gas Refueling Stations Grow Over the Last Ten Years Fact 816: February 10, 2014 Natural Gas Refueling Stations Grow Over the Last Ten Years In 2003...

  7. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Abundance analysis of prime B-type targets for asteroseismology I. Nitrogen excess in slowly-rotating beta Cephei stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morel, T; Aerts, C; Neiner, C; Briquet, M

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed NLTE abundance study of nine beta Cephei stars, all of them being prime targets for theoretical modelling: gamma Peg, delta Cet, nu Eri, beta CMa, xi1 CMa, V836 Cen, V2052 Oph, beta Cep and DD (12) Lac. The following chemical elements are considered: He, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, S and Fe. Our abundance analysis is based on a large number of time-resolved, high-resolution optical spectra covering in most cases the entire oscillation cycle of the stars. Nitrogen is found to be enhanced by up to 0.6 dex in four stars, three of which have severe constraints on their equatorial rotational velocity, \\Omega R, from seismic or line-profile variation studies: beta Cep (\\Omega R~26 km/s), V2052 Oph (\\Omega R~56 km/s), delta Cet (\\Omega R < 28 km/s) and xi1 CMa (\\Omega R sin i < 10 km/s). The existence of core-processed material at the surface of such largely unevolved, slowly-rotating objects is not predicted by current evolutionary models including rotation. We draw attention to ...

  9. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

  10. Abundance analysis of prime B-type targets for asteroseismology I. Nitrogen excess in slowly-rotating beta Cephei stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Morel; K. Butler; C. Aerts; C. Neiner; M. Briquet

    2006-07-12

    We present the results of a detailed NLTE abundance study of nine beta Cephei stars, all of them being prime targets for theoretical modelling: gamma Peg, delta Cet, nu Eri, beta CMa, xi1 CMa, V836 Cen, V2052 Oph, beta Cep and DD (12) Lac. The following chemical elements are considered: He, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, S and Fe. Our abundance analysis is based on a large number of time-resolved, high-resolution optical spectra covering in most cases the entire oscillation cycle of the stars. Nitrogen is found to be enhanced by up to 0.6 dex in four stars, three of which have severe constraints on their equatorial rotational velocity, \\Omega R, from seismic or line-profile variation studies: beta Cep (\\Omega R~26 km/s), V2052 Oph (\\Omega R~56 km/s), delta Cet (\\Omega R < 28 km/s) and xi1 CMa (\\Omega R sin i < 10 km/s). The existence of core-processed material at the surface of such largely unevolved, slowly-rotating objects is not predicted by current evolutionary models including rotation. We draw attention to the fact that three stars in this subsample have a detected magnetic field and briefly discuss recent theoretical work pointing to the occurrence of diffusion effects in beta Cephei stars possibly capable of altering the nitrogen surface abundance. On the other hand, the abundances of all the other chemical elements considered are, within the errors, indistinguishable from the values found for OB dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood. Despite the mild nitrogen excess observed in some objects, we thus find no evidence for a significantly higher photospheric metal content in the studied beta Cephei stars compared to non-pulsating B-type stars of similar characteristics.

  11. FOA aimed at growing expansive database of Renewable Energy and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FOA aimed at growing expansive database of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Incentives and Policies Home > Groups > Utility Rate Graham7781's picture Submitted by...

  12. Growing Up in Scotland: Food and Activity - Summary Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Government, Scottish

    2009-03-18

    This report uses data from the Growing Up in Scotland study to explore issues related to, food and activity in Scotland specifically in relation to young children.

  13. The growing world LP-gas supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoare, M.C.

    1988-11-01

    The possible range of future (LPG) export availabilities is huge, but actual production levels depend on factors, many of which are beyond our direct control - world demand for crude oil and gas, developments in technology, and the price of both energy in general and LPG specifically. Although these factors limit some of the potential developments, a substantial increase in LPG supply is certain, and this is likely to depress its price relative to other products. Over the last few years, a dramatic expansion has taken place in the industry. From 1980 to 1987, non-Communist world production of LPG increased by close to 35%, to a total of 115 million tonnes. If this is set against the general energy scene, LPG represented 3.7% of crude oil production by weight in 1980, rising to 5.4% in 1987. This growth reflects rise in consciousness around the world of the value of the product. LPG is no longer regarded as a byproduct, which is flared or disposed of at low value, but increasingly as a co-product, and much of the growth in production has been due to the installation of tailored recovery systems. LPG markets historically developed around sources of supply, constrained by the costs of transportation. The major exceptions, of course, were the Middle East, the large exporter, and Japan, the large importer.

  14. Abstract--Electrical Distribution Systems (EDS) are facing ever-increasing complexity due to fast growing demand and large

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of challenges for technological research. Indeed, the EU long- term vision on future grids, European Smartgrids

  15. Seismic diagnostics for transport of angular momentum in stars 2. Interpreting observed rotational splittings of slowly-rotating red giant stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goupil, M J; Marques, J P; Ouazzani, R M; Belkacem, K; Lebreton, Y; Samadi, R

    2012-01-01

    Asteroseismology with the space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler provides a powerful mean of testing the modeling of transport processes in stars. Rotational splittings are currently measured for a large number of red giant stars and can provide stringent constraints on the rotation profiles. The aim of this paper is to obtain a theoretical framework for understanding the properties of the observed rotational splittings of red giant stars with slowly rotating cores. This allows us to establish appropriate seismic diagnostics for rotation of these evolved stars. Rotational splittings for stochastically excited dipolar modes are computed adopting a first-order perturbative approach for two $1.3 M_\\odot$ benchmark models assuming slowly rotating cores. For red giant stars with slowly rotating cores, we show that the variation of the rotational splittings of $\\ell=1$ modes with frequency depends only on the large frequency separation, the g-mode period spacing, and the ratio of the average envelope to core rotatio...

  16. Irrigation Resources to Grow Biofuel:Irrigation Resources to Grow Biofuel: A National Overview with Role of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Christopher

    1 Irrigation Resources to Grow Biofuel:Irrigation Resources to Grow Biofuel: A National Overview about the water and land potentially used forabout the water and land potentially used for biofuel Dry Beans Other small Wheat Barley Pasture Other Crops Other Hay Potatoes Veggies Silage corn Berries

  17. Growing Sweetpotatoes in New Hampshire BECKY SIDEMAN, PHD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Growing Sweetpotatoes in New Hampshire BECKY SIDEMAN, PHD Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) is a member food for deer in midsummer, a lightweight electric fence may successfully keep the deer at bay

  18. Growing Up in Scotland: first research report on Sweep 1 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Simon; Bradshaw, Paul; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Hayes, Fenella; Jamieson, Lynn; MacGregor, Andy; Marryat, Louise; Wasoff, Fran

    The Growing Up in Scotland study ( GUS) is an important and ambitious new longitudinal research project aimed at tracking the lives of a cohort of Scottish children from the early years, through childhood and beyond. Funded ...

  19. Growing Up in Scotland: Year 3 - Non-resident Parents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marryat, Louise; Reid, Susan; Wasoff, Fran

    2009-01-21

    This report uses data from the Growing Up in Scotland study (GUS) to explore the prevalence of, and many issues related to, non-resident parenthood in Scotland specifically in relation to young and very young children. ...

  20. Growing Energy - How Biofuels Can Help End America's Oil Dependence...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    27 percent of U.S. global warming pollution, as well as soot and smog that damage human lungs. NRDC.Growing.Energy.Final.3.pdf More Documents & Publications Biofuels & Greenhouse...

  1. Learn How To Grow Your Business Through Government Contracting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OPEN for Government Contracts presents: Summit for Success is a FREE event hosted by American Express OPEN. The "Grow Your Business Through Government Contracting” events are FREE, day-long events focusing on small business government contracting.

  2. System development & validation process for emerging growing organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almazán López, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has the main purpose of presenting the Development and Validation phase of the product development system from the point of view of an emerging and growing product development organization, denoting the obstacles ...

  3. Growing Up in Scotland: Year 3 - Food and Activity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marryat, Louise; Valeria, Skafida; Webster, Catriona

    2009-01-21

    This report uses data from the Growing Up in Scotland study to explore the prevalence of, and many issues related to, food and activity in Scotland specifically in relation to young children.

  4. Fact #567: April 20, 2009 Cars are Growing Older

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The median age of cars continues to grow in 2008 while the median age of light trucks has remained fairly constant over the last ten years. The average age for all trucks, which includes heavy...

  5. Tight asteroseismic constraints on core overshooting and diffusive mixing in the slowly rotating pulsating B8.3V star KIC 10526294

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moravveji, Ehsan; Papics, Peter I; Triana, Santiago Andres; Vandoren, Bram

    2015-01-01

    KIC 10526294 is a very slowly rotating and slowly pulsating late B-type star. Its 19 consecutive dipole gravity modes constitute a series with almost constant period spacing. This unique collection of identified modes probes the near-core environment of this star and holds the potential to reveal the size and structure of the overshooting zone on top of the convective core, as well as the mixing properties of the star. We pursue forward seismic modelling based on adiabatic eigenfrequencies of equilibrium models for eight extensive evolutionary grids tuned to KIC 10526294, by varying the initial mass, metallicity, chemical mixture, and the extent of the overshooting layer on top of the convective core. We examine models for both OP and OPAL opacities and test the occurrence of extra diffusive mixing. We find a tight mass, metallicity relation within the ranges $M$ ~ 3.13 to 3.25 Msun and $Z$ ~ 0.014 to 0.028. We deduce that an exponentially decaying diffusive core overshooting prescription describes the seismi...

  6. Composting Successes and Failures Extending the Growing Season Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    3/18/2014 1 Composting Successes and Failures Extending the Growing Season Workshop LaMoine Nickel University of MN SWROC March 12, 2014 Beginning of compost process 9/6/2013 Finished compost product 11/19/2013 What is Composting Composting is a biological process in which microorganisms convert organic

  7. Ris Energy Report 2 Three growing concerns sustainability (particularly in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Risø Energy Report 2 Three growing concerns ­ sustainability (particularly in the transport sector), security of energy supply and cli- mate change ­ have combined to increase interest in bioenergy and significant changes in energy markets. We even have a new term, "modern bioenergy", to cover those areas

  8. Glass Needs for a Growing Photovoltaics Industry Keith Burrows1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Glass Needs for a Growing Photovoltaics Industry Keith Burrows1 and Vasilis Fthenakis1,2* 1 Center for Life Cycle Analysis, Columbia University, New York, NY 2 Photovoltaics Environmental Research Center, Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY Abstract With the projected growth in photovoltaics

  9. Growing the renewable chemicals and advanced biofuels cluster in MN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Growing the renewable chemicals and advanced biofuels cluster in MN #12;Renewable Chemical Value% Reduction 60% Reduction 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Gasoline Corn Ethanol Advanced Biofuel Cellulosic Biofuel Corn Ethanol 20% GHG Reduction Compared to gasoline: Advanced Biofuel 50% GHG Reduction e

  10. Growing and Sustaining Communities with Bioenergy- Text-Alt Version

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From Vero Beach, Florida, to Hugoton, Kansas, to Emmetsburg, Iowa, cellulosic ethanol biorefineries have had major impacts on communities and their residents. In other areas, bioenergy has significant potential to transform current and establish new industry. This short video illustrates how biorefineries and other bioenergy developments can benefit citizens, businesses, and whole communities, helping America’s rural economies grow and thrive.

  11. Know and Grow Your Worth: Negotiating the Job Offer and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Know and Grow Your Worth: Negotiating the Job Offer and Managing Your Ongoing Professional Offer Researching salary ranges Answering salary requirements early in process Negotiating salary once offer is made Negotiating other benefits and perks Negotiating raises and promotions once you

  12. Greater fuel diversity needed to meet growing US electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, B.; Mullins, S.

    2008-01-15

    Electricity demand is growing in the USA. One way to manage the uncertainty is to diversity fuel sources. Fuel sources include coal, natural gas, nuclear and renewable energy sources. Tables show actual and planned generation projects by fuel types. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Finite Element Model of Fracture Formation on Growing Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    Finite Element Model of Fracture Formation on Growing Surfaces Pavol Federl and Przemyslaw-mail: federl|pwp@cpsc.ucalgary.ca Abstract We present a model of fracture formation on surfaces of bilayered materials. The model makes it possible to synthesize patterns of fractures induced by growth or shrinkage

  14. Growing interfaces uncover universal fluctuations behind scale invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazumasa A. Takeuchi; Masaki Sano; Tomohiro Sasamoto; Herbert Spohn

    2011-08-10

    Stochastic motion of a point -- known as Brownian motion -- has many successful applications in science, thanks to its scale invariance and consequent universal features such as Gaussian fluctuations. In contrast, the stochastic motion of a line, though it is also scale-invariant and arises in nature as various types of interface growth, is far less understood. The two major missing ingredients are: an experiment that allows a quantitative comparison with theory and an analytic solution of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation, a prototypical equation for describing growing interfaces. Here we solve both problems, showing unprecedented universality beyond the scaling laws. We investigate growing interfaces of liquid-crystal turbulence and find not only universal scaling, but universal distributions of interface positions. They obey the largest-eigenvalue distributions of random matrices and depend on whether the interface is curved or flat, albeit universal in each case. Our exact solution of the KPZ equation provides theoretical explanations.

  15. Inductance due to spin current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei

    2014-03-21

    The inductance of spintronic devices that transport charge neutral spin currents is discussed. It is known that in a media that contains charge neutral spins, a time-varying electric field induces a spin current. We show that since the spin current itself produces an electric field, this implies existence of inductance and electromotive force when the spin current changes with time. The relations between the electromotive force and the corresponding flux, which is a vector calculated by the cross product of electric field and the trajectory of the device, are clarified. The relativistic origin generally renders an extremely small inductance, which indicates the advantage of spin current in building low inductance devices. The same argument also explains the inductance due to electric dipole current and applies to physical dipoles consist of polarized bound charges.

  16. Renewable energy has political support, room to grow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-08-11

    Renewable energy sources enjoy growing political support and have plenty of room to grow in the worldwide energy mix. And grow they will, according to most projections. The US Energy Information Administration`s (EIA`s) International Energy Outlook 1997 says consumption of hydroelectricity and other renewables will increase by 56% during 1995--2015. The renewable share of the total energy mix will remain at about current levels, however. The EIA projection includes only renewable fuels used in the generation of electricity. It therefore excludes most biomass energy. Despite the importance of biomass energy, data on consumption of it are sparse. IEA estimates that in the industrialized world, the biomass share of primary energy consumption amounts to 3.5%. Also excluded from EIA`s projection because of insufficiency of data are dispersed renewables, a category that includes energy consumed at the site of production, such as solar panels used for water heating. This paper discusses regional trends, North American activity, Western Europe, Asian developments, and the rest of the world.

  17. Nucleosynthesis in slowly evolving Cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pranav Kumar; Daksh Lohiya

    2008-02-08

    We explore aspects of Cosmological Nucleosynthesis in an FRW universe in which the scale factor evolves linearly with time: $a(t) \\sim t$. A high Lepton number density during the period when significant nucleosynthesis takes place would lead to a dominant screening of the Coulomb potential of colliding nucleii. This would lead to a significant enhancement of nucleosynthesis rates. We demonstrate how adequate amount of $^4He$ and a collataral metallicity, close to the lowest metallicity observed in metal poor Pop II stars and clouds, can be produced with such an evolution.

  18. Calif. ISO gears up for growing renewables portfolio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    Operating the grid is going to become more of a challenge as wind and solar generation -- the biggest two contributors with the most hourly and daily variations -- grow over time. Forecasting exactly how much capacity will be available a mere one hour ahead still remains difficult. More renewable generation is not good business for conventional peaking and load-following thermal generation, mostly burning natural gas. Their revenues, depending on the specific scenario considered, may drop by 20 to 40 percent. Something has to be done to sustain these critical players even as their output is not required as much as in the past.

  19. Apparatus for growing HgI.sub.2 crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schieber, Michael M. (Jerusalem, IL); Beinglass, Israel (Jerusalem, IL); Dishon, Giora (Jerusalem, IL)

    1978-01-01

    A method and horizontal furnace for vapor phase growth of HgI.sub.2 crystals which utilizes controlled axial and radial airflow to maintain the desired temperature gradients. The ampoule containing the source material is rotated while axial and radial air tubes are moved in opposite directions during crystal growth to maintain a desired distance and associated temperature gradient with respect to the growing crystal, whereby the crystal interface can advance in all directions, i.e., radial and axial according to the crystallographic structure of the crystal. Crystals grown by this method are particularly applicable for use as room-temperature nuclear radiation detectors.

  20. Financing the Growing American Auto Industry | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) |Final Reportthe Growing American Auto Industry Financing

  1. 2014 NERSC allocation requests due September 22

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    requests due September 22 2014 NERSC allocation requests due September 22 August 13, 2013 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) NERSC's allocation submission system is now open for...

  2. 2015 NERSC allocation requests due September 22

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 NERSC allocation requests due September 22 2015 NERSC allocation requests due September 22 August 13, 2014 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) The NERSC allocation submission...

  3. On the co-existence of chemically peculiar Bp stars, slowly pulsating B stars and constant B stars in the same part of the H-R diagram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briquet, M; De Cat, P; Aerts, C; North, P; Scholler, M; 10.1051/0004-6361:20066940

    2009-01-01

    Aims. In order to better model massive B-type stars, we need to understand the physical processes taking place in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, chemically peculiar Bp stars, and non-pulsating normal B stars co-existing in the same part of the H-R diagram. Methods. We carry out a comparative study between samples of confirmed and well-studied SPB stars and a sample of well-studied Bp stars with known periods and magnetic field strengths. We determine their evolutionary state using accurate HIPPARCOS parallaxes and Geneva photometry. We discuss the occurrence and strengths of magnetic fields as well as the occurrence of stellar pulsation among both groups. Further, we make a comparison of Geneva photometric variability for both kinds of stars. Results. The group of Bp stars is significantly younger than the group of SPB stars. Longitudinal magnetic fields in SPB stars are weaker than those of Bp stars, suggesting that the magnetic field strength is an important factor for B type stars to become chemically pec...

  4. Far East LPG sales will grow faster than in West

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-30

    LPG sales through 2010 in regions east of the Suez Canal (East of Suez) will grow at more than twice those in regions west of the canal. East-of-Suez sales will grow at more than 4.0%/year, compared to slightly less than 2.0%/year growth in sales West of Suez. East-of-Suez sales will reach 92 million tons/year (tpy) by 2010, accounting for 39% of the worldwide total. This share was 31% in1995 and only 27% in 1990. LPG sales worldwide will reach 192 million tons in 2000 and 243 million tpy by 2010. In 1995, they were 163 million tons. These are some of the major conclusions of a recent study by Frank R. Spadine, Christine Kozar, and Rudy Clark of New York City-based consultant Poten and Partners Inc. Details of the study are in the fall report ``World Trade in LPG 1990--2010``. This paper discusses demand segments, seaborne balance, Western sources, largest trading region, North American supplies, and other supplies.

  5. New constraints on Northern Hemisphere growing season net flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuelby A. L. Brenkert (Carbon dioxide emission estimates fromcarbon dioxide due to terrestrial processes. Including this estimate of fossil fuel L12807 emissions

  6. Study the kinemages in this file, following along on this worksheet and answering its questions. Use chapter 1 of the Branden & Tooze textbook for background. Practice dragging back & forth slowly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    . Use chapter 1 of the Branden & Tooze textbook for background. Practice dragging back & forth slowly a partial "ball&stick" representation. For a skeletal model, one aspect of the basic physical nature in this representation? ________ Now turn off the spheres and go back to View1. Selected atom labels can be turned on

  7. Study the kinemages in this file, following along on this worksheet and answering its questions. Use chapter 1 of the Branden & Tooze textbook for background. Practice dragging back & forth slowly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    . Use chapter 1 of the Branden & Tooze textbook for background. Practice dragging back & forth slowly model, one aspect of the basic physical nature of the molecule - namely the chemical bonding arrangement you turn the H atoms on & off in this representation? ________ Now turn off the spheres and go back

  8. Since 1992--the end of the Cold War--Brazil has been slowly and quietly carving a niche for itself in the international community. Under President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Brazil embarked on a new direc-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botea, Adi

    Since 1992--the end of the Cold War--Brazil has been slowly and quietly carving a niche for itself in the international community. Under President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Brazil embarked on a new direc- tion vis, positioning Brazil as a spokesperson for the global, using the language of solidarity to open new

  9. The three-dimensional morphology of growing dendrites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gibbs, J. W.; Mohan, K. A.; Gulsoy, E. B.; Shahani, A. J.; Xiao, X.; Bouman, C. A.; De Graef, M.; Voorhees, P. W.

    2015-07-03

    The processes controlling the morphology of dendrites have been of great interest to a wide range of communities, since they are examples of an out-of-equilibrium pattern forming system, there is a clear connection with battery failure processes, and their morphology sets the properties of many metallic alloys. We determine the three-dimensional morphology of free growing metallic dendrites using a novel X-ray tomographic technique that improves the temporal resolution by more than an order of magnitude compared to conventional techniques. These measurements show that the growth morphology of metallic dendrites is surprisingly different from that seen in model systems, the morphologymore »is not self-similar with distance back from the tip, and that this morphology can have an unexpectedly strong influence on solute segregation in castings. These experiments also provide benchmark data that can be used to validate simulations of free dendritic growth.« less

  10. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm's efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank's performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  11. Growing timescales and lengthscales characterizing vibrations of amorphous solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludovic Berthier; Patrick Charbonneau; Yuliang Jin; Giorgio Parisi; Beatriz Seoane; Francesco Zamponi

    2015-11-13

    Low-temperature properties of crystalline solids can be understood using harmonic perturbations around a perfect lattice, as in Debye's theory. Low-temperature properties of amorphous solids, however, strongly depart from such descriptions, displaying enhanced transport, activated slow dynamics across energy barriers, excess vibrational modes with respect to Debye's theory (i.e., a Boson Peak), and complex irreversible responses to small mechanical deformations. These experimental observations indirectly suggest that the dynamics of amorphous solids becomes anomalous at low temperatures. Here, we provide direct numerical evidence that vibrations change nature at a well-defined location deep inside the glass phase of a simple glass former. We provide a real-space description of this transition and of the rapidly growing time and length scales that accompany it. We discuss our results both in the theoretical context of the recently discovered Gardner phase transition and in connection with low-temperature glass experiments.

  12. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Tully Champion`

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-08-28

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.S. miyabeana named `Tully Champion`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 25% more woody biomass than two current production clones (Salix dasyclados `SV1` and Salix miyabeana `SX64`), more than 2.5-fold greater biomass than one of its parents (Salix miyabeana `SX67`), and nearly 3-fold more biomass than another production clone (Salix sacchalinensis, `SX61`) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (two growing seasons after coppice) in Tully, N.Y. `Tully Champion` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Tully Champion` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  13. On the co-existence of chemically peculiar Bp stars, slowly pulsating B stars and constant B stars in the same part of the H-R diagram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Briquet; S. Hubrig; P. De Cat; C. Aerts; P. North; M. Scholler

    2007-02-05

    Aims. In order to better model massive B-type stars, we need to understand the physical processes taking place in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, chemically peculiar Bp stars, and non-pulsating normal B stars co-existing in the same part of the H-R diagram. Methods. We carry out a comparative study between samples of confirmed and well-studied SPB stars and a sample of well-studied Bp stars with known periods and magnetic field strengths. We determine their evolutionary state using accurate HIPPARCOS parallaxes and Geneva photometry. We discuss the occurrence and strengths of magnetic fields as well as the occurrence of stellar pulsation among both groups. Further, we make a comparison of Geneva photometric variability for both kinds of stars. Results. The group of Bp stars is significantly younger than the group of SPB stars. Longitudinal magnetic fields in SPB stars are weaker than those of Bp stars, suggesting that the magnetic field strength is an important factor for B type stars to become chemically peculiar. The strongest magnetic fields appear in young Bp stars, indicating a magnetic field decay in stars at advanced ages. Rotation periods of Bp and pulsation periods of SPB stars are of the same order and the behaviour of Geneva photometric variability of some Bp stars cannot be distinguished from the variability of SPB stars, illustrating the difficulty to interpret the observed variability of the order of days for B-type stars. We consider the possibility that pulsation could be responsible for the variability among chemically peculiar stars. In particular, we show that a non-linear pulsation model is not excluded by photometry for the Bp star HD175362.

  14. Hardboiled eggs petri dishes for growing tooth microbes (find proper agar)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Materials Hardboiled eggs cola OJ Water petri dishes for growing tooth microbes (find proper agar) activities: roleplay egg in acid grow microbes Intro so just a little about myself; name; Im a Chemist I go

  15. EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow April 1, 2009 - 11:35am Addthis The growth of...

  16. Partnering with Utilities and Other Program Administrators to Sustain and Grow Your Energy Efficiency Initiatives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation contains information on Partnering with Utilities and Other Program Administrators to Sustain and Grow Your Energy Efficiency Initiatives.

  17. Biotechnology and genetic optimization of fast-growing hardwoods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garton, S.; Syrkin-Wurtele, E.; Griffiths, H.; Schell, J.; Van Camp, L.; Bulka, K. (NPI, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1991-02-01

    A biotechnology research program was initiated to develop new clones of fast-growing Populus clones resistant to the herbicide glyphosate and resistant to the leaf-spot and canker disease caused by the fungus Septoria musiva. Glyphosate-resistant callus was selected from stem segments cultured in vitro on media supplemented with the herbicide. Plants were regenerated from the glyphosate-resistant callus tissue. A portion of plants reverted to a glyphosate susceptible phenotype during organogenesis. A biologically active filtrate was prepared from S. musiva and influenced fresh weight of Populus callus tissue. Disease-resistant plants were produced through somaclonal variation when shoots developed on stem internodes cultured in vitro. Plantlets were screened for disease symptoms after spraying with a suspension of fungal spores. A frequency of 0.83 percent variant production was observed. Genetically engineered plants were produced after treatment of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefasciens strains carrying plasmid genes for antibiotic resistance. Transformers were selected on media enriched with the antibiotic, kanamycin. Presence of foreign DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Protoplasts of popular were produced but did not regenerate into plant organs. 145 refs., 12 figs., 36 tabs.

  18. Interest grows in African oil and gas opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knott, D.

    1997-05-12

    As African countries continue a slow drift towards democratic government and market economics, the continent is increasingly attractive to international oil and gas companies. Though Africa remains politically diverse, and its volatile politics remains a major barrier to petroleum companies, a number of recent developments reflect its growing significance for the industry. Among recent projects and events reflecting changes in Africa: oil and gas exporter Algeria has invited foreign oil companies to help develop major gas discoveries, with a view to boosting exports to Europe; oil and gas producer Egypt invited foreign companies to explore in the Nile Delta region, and the result appears to be a flowering world scale gas play; west African offshore exploration has entered deep water and new areas, and a number of major projects are expected in years to come; Nigeria`s reputation as a difficult place to operate has been justified by recent political and civil events, but a long-planned liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant is being built there; South Africa, which has returned to the international scene after years of trade isolation because of apartheid, is emerging as a potential driver for energy industry schemes throughout the continent. Activities are discussed.

  19. Dynamics of pebbles in the vicinity of a growing planetary embryo: hydro-dynamical simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the growth of the cores of giant planets is a difficult problem. Recently, Lambrechts and Johansen (2012; LJ12) proposed a new model in which the cores grow by the accretion of pebble-size objects, as the latter drift towards the star due to gas drag. Here, we investigate the dynamics of pebble-size objects in the vicinity of planetary embryos of 1 and 5 Earth masses and the resulting accretion rates. We use hydrodynamical simulations, in which the embryo influences the dynamics of the gas and the pebbles suffer gas drag according to the local gas density and velocities. The pebble dynamics in the vicinity of the planetary embryo is non-trivial, and it changes significantly with the pebble size. Nevertheless, the accretion rate of the embryo that we measure is within an order of magnitude of the rate estimated in LJ12 and tends to their value with increasing pebble-size. We conclude that the model by LJ12 has the potential to explain the rapid growth of giant planet cores. The actual accretion r...

  20. Growing Up in Scotland: The Impact of Children's Early Activities on Cognitive Development - Summary Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Government, Scottish

    2009-03-18

    This report uses data from the first three waves of the Growing Up in Scotland study (GUS) to explore differences in children’s cognitive ability.

  1. Growing Up in Scotland: Sweep 2 - Experiences of Pre-School Education 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Government, Scottish

    2008-02-18

    Research findings (of four) accompanying the full research report on Sweep 2 findings of the Growing Up in Scotland study Year 2.

  2. Extending the Growing Season Workshop Registration Form. Preregister by Wednesday, March 5, 2014.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    the Growing Season Workshop Wednesday, March 12, 2014 from 9:00 to 2:30 ChuckDahn 1804Broadway Emmetsburg

  3. Math Play : growing and developing mathematics understanding in an emergent play-based environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeGroot, Kendra

    2012-01-01

    objects Playing games using math reasoning Recognizing andobjects Playing games using math reasoning Recognizing andOF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Math Play: Growing and developing

  4. 2014 INCITE Call for Proposals - Due

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INCITE Call for Proposals 2014 INCITE Call for Proposals - Due June 28 April 30, 2013 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) The 2014 INCITE Call for Proposals is now open. Open to...

  5. MODELING SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippmann, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    pore-water pressures , subsidence. DISCLAIMER NeiIher ( h ehere," do not MODELING SUBSIDENCE DUE T GEOTHERMAL FLUIDSecond Syhposium on Land Subsidence 1976 a t Anaheim, I n t

  6. Visualization Contest Applications due August 3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    due August 3 June 22, 2012 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) In support of the IEEE Symposium on Large-Scale Data Analysis and Visualization (LDAV) 2012's visualization...

  7. Seismic attenuation due to patchy saturation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masson, Y. J; Pride, S. R

    2011-01-01

    attenuation peak is observed at lower frequencies due to oilor when oil is invading water, a single attenuation peak isusing oil as fluid 1 and water as fluid 2. The two peaks in

  8. INVESTIGATION Distortions in Genealogies due to Purifying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Michael

    INVESTIGATION Distortions in Genealogies due to Purifying Selection and Recombination Lauren E overall diversity and distorting the shapes of genealogies. Recombination attenuates these effects; however, purifying selection can significantly distort genealogies even for substantial recombination

  9. The response of venation networks in growing leaves to external mechanical stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar

    The response of venation networks in growing leaves to external mechanical stress Yohai Bar-Sinai1 the coupling between vein patterns and growth. We first model the mechanics of a growing vascular network and study its response to external mechanical stress. We use the so-called texture tensor to quantify

  10. Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up. By Joshua M. Epstein and Robert Axtell.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up. By Joshua M. Epstein and Robert be passed in modified form to descendants. Such an artificial society can grow itself over time, with large) and a vision level that helps it search for sugar. Any sugar collected by an agent in excess of its metabolic

  11. Is Hubble's Expansion due to Dark Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. C. Gupta; Anirudh Pradhan

    2010-10-19

    {\\it The universe is expanding} is known (through Galaxy observations) since 1929 through Hubble's discovery ($V = H D$). Recently in 1999, it is found (through Supernovae observations) that the universe is not simply expanding but is accelerating too. We, however, hardly know only $4\\%$ of the universe. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite observational data suggest $73\\%$ content of the universe in the form of dark-energy, $23\\%$ in the form of non-baryonic dark-matter and the rest $4\\%$ in the form of the usual baryonic matter. The acceleration of the universe is ascribed to this dark-energy with bizarre properties (repulsive-gravity). The question is that whether Hubble's expansion is just due to the shock of big-bang & inflation or it is due to the repulsive-gravity of dark-energy? Now, it is believed to be due to dark-energy, say, by re-introducing the once-discarded cosmological-constant $\\Lambda$. In the present paper, it is shown that `the formula for acceleration due to dark-energy' is (almost) exactly of same-form as `the acceleration formula from the Hubble's law'. Hence, it is concluded that: yes, `indeed it is the dark-energy responsible for the Hubble's expansion too, in-addition to the current on-going acceleration of the universe'.

  12. APPARENT PULSE DIFFUSION DUE TO DISORDERED MICROSTRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solna, Knut

    APPARENT PULSE DIFFUSION DUE TO DISORDERED MICROSTRUCTURE A. Nachbin \\Lambda and K. Sølna y \\Lambda, and it is important to describe when and how fine scale heterogeneities interact with a traveling seismic pulse. We are interested in pulse shaped waves that interact with the rapidly varying features (i.e. microstruture

  13. Renewable Energy Loan Applications Due Today!

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you haven't submitted your Part I application for Department of Energy Loan Guarantee Program’s Renewables Solicitation yet, today is your last day! Round 8, Part I applications for DOE's Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy and Advanced Transmission and Distribution Technologies Solicitation (2009) are due today by midnight EDT.

  14. Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution First author: Amir Givati The Hebrew January 2004 #12;ABSTRACT: Urban and industrial air pollution has been shown qualitatively to suppress. The evidence suggests that air pollution aerosols that are incorporated in orographic clouds slow down cloud

  15. Cell migration or cytokinesis and proliferation? – Revisiting the “go or grow” hypothesis in cancer cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garay, Tamás; Juhász, Éva; Molnár, Eszter; Eisenbauer, Maria; Czirók, András; Dekan, Barbara; László, Viktória; Hoda, Mir Alireza; Döme, Balázs; Tímár, József; Klepetko, Walter; Berger, Walter; Heged?s, Balázs

    2013-12-10

    The mortality of patients with solid tumors is mostly due to metastasis that relies on the interplay between migration and proliferation. The “go or grow” hypothesis postulates that migration and proliferation spatiotemporally excludes each other. We evaluated this hypothesis on 35 cell lines (12 mesothelioma, 13 melanoma and 10 lung cancer) on both the individual cell and population levels. Following three-day-long videomicroscopy, migration, proliferation and cytokinesis-length were quantified. We found a significantly higher migration in mesothelioma cells compared to melanoma and lung cancer while tumor types did not differ in mean proliferation or duration of cytokinesis. Strikingly, we found in melanoma and lung cancer a significant positive correlation between mean proliferation and migration. Furthermore, non-dividing melanoma and lung cancer cells displayed slower migration. In contrast, in mesothelioma there were no such correlations. Interestingly, negative correlation was found between cytokinesis-length and migration in melanoma. FAK activation was higher in melanoma cells with high motility. We demonstrate that the cancer cells studied do not defer proliferation for migration. Of note, tumor cells from various organ systems may differently regulate migration and proliferation. Furthermore, our data is in line with the observation of pathologists that highly proliferative tumors are often highly invasive. - Highlights: • We investigated the “go or grow” hypothesis in human cancer cells in vitro. • Proliferation and migration positively correlate in melanoma and lung cancer cells. • Duration of cytokinesis and migration shows inverse correlation. • Increased FAK activation is present in highly motile melanoma cells.

  16. Growing Green Environmental stewardship is a complex issue that engages governments,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennard, William N.

    Growing Green Environmental stewardship is a complex issue that engages governments, academics, practitioners, non-profit organizations and companies. Corporations are sizeable players in this global and environmental responsibility · Helps companies acknowledge sustainable business practices ­ which can mean many

  17. Growing Up in Scotland: Year 3 - The Impact of Children's Early Activities of Cognitive Development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Paul; Wasoff, Fran

    2009-03-18

    The Growing Up in Scotland study (GUS) is an important longitudinal research project aimed at tracking the lives of a cohort of Scottish children from the early years, through childhood and beyond. The study is funded by ...

  18. Sources of biological variation in residual feed intake in growing and finishing steers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Erin Gwen

    2006-04-12

    Objectives of this research were to characterize residual feed intake (RFI) in growing and finishing steers and examine phenotypic correlations between performance, feed efficiency, carcass, digestib ility, and physiological indicator traits...

  19. Evaluation of a mathematical model in predicting intake of growing and finishing cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourg, Brandi Marie

    2009-05-15

    energy (ME) value was conducted. A meta-analysis of growing and finishing steers evaluated to model’s accuracy in predicting DMR of individually fed steers, and the relationships between several model-predicted variables and actual performance...

  20. Timing and duration of European larch growing season along altitudinal gradients in the Swiss Alps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esper, Jan

    and matura- tion of the stem wood. Needles appeared ~3­4 weeks earlier than stem growth. The duration of ring growth throughout the entire growing season. Exceptions include a limited number of stud- ies that showed

  1. Growing Up In Scotland Study: GUS Exploring The Experience and Outcomes For Advantaged and Disadvantaged Families 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Paul; Martin, Claudia; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2008-03-12

    This report draws on data from the first sweep of the Growing Up in Scotland ( GUS) study. The Sweep 1 Report highlighted the persistence of inequalities between advantaged and disadvantaged families which impact on parents ...

  2. Using RPS Policies to Grow the Solar Market in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan H

    2008-01-01

    RPS policies to grow the solar market in the United StatesCalifornia is not the only market for solar in the US; otherthe long-term, the largest markets for solar electricity are

  3. Building community assets through individual development accounts : growing a strategic network in Lawrence, Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Cindy C. (Cindy Cin-Wei)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to inform the decision-making process for growing an asset-building program through strategic partnerships with other community-based organizations (CBOs). The impetus for this paper came from Lawrence ...

  4. Asian Greens Offer Tasty, Easy-to-Grow Source of Nutrition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Orin

    2008-01-01

    leafy vegetables. They offer nutritious dark greens high inAnd at full maturity, they offer an amazing amount of high-UC Santa Cruz Asian Greens Offer Tasty, Easy-to-Grow Source

  5. For Immediate Release --Monday, March 30, 2015 Growing global phenomenon of atomic tourism sparks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Joy

    was introduced to the devastating power of an atomic bomb, and as the anniversary phenomenon of atomic tourism sparks unique research project by U of L professor on a unique project that examines the growing global phenomenon of atomic tourism

  6. Growing Up in Scotland: Sources of Formal and Informal Support for Parents of Young Children 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Government, Scottish

    2007-01-08

    The Growing Up in Scotland study ( GUS) is an important new longitudinal research project aimed at tracking the lives of a cohort of Scottish children from the early years, through childhood and beyond. Its principal aim ...

  7. LIMITS FOR QUEUES AS THE WAITING ROOM GROWS Daniel P. Heyman Ward Whitt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitt, Ward

    LIMITS FOR QUEUES AS THE WAITING ROOM GROWS by Daniel P. Heyman Ward Whitt Bell Communications Research AT&T Bell Laboratories Red Bank, NJ 07701 Murray Hill, NJ 07974 May 11, 1988 #12;ABSTRACT We study

  8. LIMITS FOR QUEUES AS THE WAITING ROOM GROWS Daniel P. Heyman Ward Whitt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitt, Ward

    LIMITS FOR QUEUES AS THE WAITING ROOM GROWS by Daniel P. Heyman Ward Whitt Bell Communications Research AT&T Bell Laboratories Red Bank, NJ 07701 Murray Hill, NJ 07974 May 11, 1988 #12; ABSTRACT We

  9. Quasar Image Shifts due to Gravitational Microlensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata

    1998-02-23

    Gravitational microlensing of quasars by stars in external galaxies can introduce fluctuations in the centroid of the ``point-like'' macro--images. The induced shifts are extremely small, on micro--arcsecond scales, below the limits of current optical observations. However, such shifts will become measurable with the proposed ``Space Interferometry'' mission, due to fly in 2005. The degree of the centroid shifts and their application as probes of both quasar structure and the stellar mass function in the lensing galaxy are discussed.

  10. Growing machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, Saul Thomas, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    construction is developed in three dimensions. It is similarly shown that right-angled tetrahedrons, when folded from an edge-connected string, can generate any three dimensional structure where the primitive pixel (or ...

  11. Growing smarter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swyden, Courtney

    2007-01-01

    water use that residents can implement around the home such as raising the height of lawn mower blades and using soaker hoses, as well as swimming pool tips and explanations on how to read water bills. EnviroMedia originally conducted statewide research... to prevent evaporation and keep soil moist. ? Choose ?water wise? or native Texas plants such as lantana, salvia and Mexican sage. ? Raise your lawn mower blade and cut grass to a height of 3 inches?this shades the soil, which reduces evaporation...

  12. Extreme events due to localisation of energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colm Mulhern; Stephan Bialonski; Holger Kantz

    2015-01-09

    We study a one-dimensional chain of harmonically coupled units in an asymmetric anharmonic soft potential. Due to nonlinear localisation of energy, this system exhibits extreme events in the sense that individual elements of the chain show very large excitations. A detailed statistical analysis of extremes in this system reveals some unexpected properties, e.g., a pronounced pattern in the inter event interval statistics. We relate these statistical properties to underlying system dynamics, and notice that often when extreme events occur the system dynamics adopts (at least locally) an oscillatory behaviour, resulting in, for example, a quick succession of such events. The model therefore might serve as a paradigmatic model for the study of the interplay of nonlinearity, energy transport, and extreme events.

  13. Kuiper Belt evolution due to dynamical friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Del Popolo; E. Spedicato; M. Gambera

    1999-05-04

    In this paper we study the role of dynamical friction on the evolution of a population of large objects ($m>10^{22}$ g) at heliocentric distances $>70$ AU in the Kuiper Belt. We show that the already flat distribution of these objects must flatten further due to non-spherically symmetric distribution of matter in the Kuiper Belt. Moreover the dynamical drag, produced by dynamical friction, causes objects of masses $\\geq 10^{24} g$ to lose angular momentum and to fall through more central regions in a timescale $\\approx 10^9 yr$. This mechanism is able to transport inwards objects of the size of Pluto, supposing it was created beyond 50 AU, according to a Stern & Colwell's (1997b) suggestion.

  14. Radio wave emissions due to gravitational radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattias Marklund; Gert Brodin; Peter Dunsby

    2000-02-29

    We consider the interaction of a weak gravitational wave with electromagnetic fields in a thin plasma on a Minkowski background spacetime using the 1+3 orthonormal frame formalism. Because gravitational and electromagnetic waves satisfy the same dispersion relation, electromagnetic waves can be effectively generated as a result of this interaction. In the case of the interaction with a static magnetic field, the amplitude of the electromagnetic waves depends on the size of the excitation region in which the magnetic field is contained. It is argued that due to the presence of a plasma this process can also lead to the generation of higher harmonics of the original mode. Estimates are given for this effect in the case of a binary pulsar and a cold electron plasma. It is found that the emmited radiation will lie in the radio frequency band. We also speculate on the possible relevance of this process on situations in cosmology, in particular whether this could be used to constrain primordial magnetic fields.

  15. Productive Energy of Some Feeds and Foods as Measured by Gains of Energy by Growing Chickens. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

    1942-01-01

    STATION A B. CONNER, DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 625 DECEMBER 1942 PRODUCTIVE ENERGY OF SOME FEEDS AND FOODS AS MEASURED BY GAINS OF ENERGY BY GROWING CHICKENS G. S. FRAPS AND E. C. CARLYLE Division of Chemistry -* LIBRA RY... Aflculfural&~eetv~! ~~i\\~~~~~~~ - 601i~p7 ~faf>~ T kJ;:~: AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF' TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President B-28-1242-6M-L180 - IC- - [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] The value of 62 feeds and foods for furnishing energy for growing...

  16. Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations...

  17. SC11 Education Program Applications due July 31

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SC11 Education Program Applications due July 31 SC11 Education Program Applications due July 31 June 9, 2011 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) Applications for the Education...

  18. Study finds radioactivity around Los Alamos largely due to natural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radioactivity largely due to natural sources Study finds radioactivity around Los Alamos largely due to natural sources The study was subsequently peer reviewed externally by...

  19. Iraqi oil industry slowly returning to normal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-07

    This paper reports that Iraq is making progress in putting its battered petroleum industry back together 1 1/2 years after the Persian Gulf war ended. OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported the finish of reconstruction of Iraq's Mina al-Bakr oil terminal on the northern tip of the Persian Gulf, using Iraqi know-how and engineering personnel. The terminal, heavily damaged during the gulf conflict, has been restored to its prewar loading capacity of 1.6 million b/d at a cost of $16 million. Ninety per cent of the port had been damaged.

  20. Technology Assistance Program Growing technology-based business with free service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technology Assistance Program Growing technology-based business with free service Economic Development Is your small, technology-based business faced with a specific challenge, but lacking scientist or engineer help your company? If the answer is yes, the Technology Assistance Program (TAP

  1. INTRODUCTION There is growing recognition that responses to global warming will

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Bryan D.

    3436 INTRODUCTION There is growing recognition that responses to global warming will vary among increase with temperature (Gillooly et al., 2001; Sogard and Spencer, 2004). SUMMARY Global warming poses species (Pörtner et al., 2008; Eliason et al., 2011). With the average global air temperature projected

  2. Wind power is a rapidly growing con-tributor to worldwide energy supplies and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    Wind power is a rapidly growing con- tributor to worldwide energy supplies and UW Atmospheric the weather for the Bonneville Power Admin- istration, he moved to PPM Energy, a lead- ing wind energy rapidly moved into the new field of wind energy prediction, using a sophisticated suite of numerical

  3. Wind power is a rapidly growing and evolving field that crosses traditional academic disciplines and increasingly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Wind power is a rapidly growing and evolving field that crosses traditional academic disciplines to locate wind power projects, the economics and regulatory policies governing wind power and the complex wind projects. Interdisciplinary Research and Education The Wind Power Science, Engineering and Policy

  4. Abstract--The growing popularity and success of fuel cells in aerospace, stationary power, and transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    1 Abstract-- The growing popularity and success of fuel cells in aerospace, stationary power runtime, and decreasing size. Di- rect-methanol fuel cell batteries have now been built and conformed to low cost technologies and chip-scale dimen- sions. Conventional fuel cell models, however, fail

  5. The Wulff Shape as the Asymptotic Limit of a Growing Crystalline Interface*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    The Wulff Shape as the Asymptotic Limit of a Growing Crystalline Interface* by Stanley Osher of crystalline materials in the plane, and the propagation of shock waves. They show that there is a precise sense in which any two dimensional crystalline form can be described in terms of rarefaction waves

  6. Detection of Oil Spills in SAR Images Using Wavelets and Region Growing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    Detection of Oil Spills in SAR Images Using Wavelets and Region Growing RÉGIA T. S. ARAÚJO, FÁTIMA an algorithm to detect oil spills in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images that can be used to support sensing of environmental disasters. Spillage of oil in coastal waters can be a catastrophic event

  7. NRRI NowWinter 2009 GrowingStrongIndustries~DevelopingNewIdeas~NurturingNaturalResources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    of India and China are expected to push demand even further. By 2030, worldwide consumption of oilNRRI NowWinter 2009 GrowingStrongIndustries~DevelopingNewIdeas~NurturingNaturalResources 2 Energy. There is enough oil to meet the expected demand for the next 40 years, according to analyses of oil and natural

  8. Art and Science for Life: Designing and Growing Virtual Plants with L-systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    Art and Science for Life: Designing and Growing Virtual Plants with L-systems Przemyslaw@cpsc.ucalgary.ca Abstract Virtual plants are computer models that recreate the structure and simulate the development of plants. Virtual plant modeling is an interdisciplinary area combining mathematical formalisms, biological

  9. Growing Green As part of its strategic plan to foster growth and development in key

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennard, William N.

    -of-the-art, environmentally friendly and energy-efficient building that houses advanced environmental engineering and greenGrowing Green As part of its strategic plan to foster growth and development in key areas related to energy and the environment, Western University has created the Centre for Environmental Sustainability

  10. Evaluation of Two Methods to Prevent Bovine Respiratory Disease in Growing Cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Word, Alyssa Brook

    2014-07-09

    performance outcomes were not different, animal health was improved with metaphylaxis. A second trial was conducted to determine the effects of limit-feeding growing steers on immune function. Thirty-two steers were fed the same ration at one of three intake...

  11. Abstract--Despite growing interest in the behavior of electromyographic signals during muscle fatigue, few studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    Abstract--Despite growing interest in the behavior of electromyographic signals during muscle fatigue, few studies investigate fatigue recovery. In this work, we use surface electromyographic signals for each experimental group: 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 hours. Surface electromyographic signals were acquired

  12. Journal of Biomechanics 40 (2007) 412426 Haemodynamics and wall remodelling of a growing cerebral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    Journal of Biomechanics 40 (2007) 412­426 Haemodynamics and wall remodelling of a growing cerebral wall under constant tension is a biomechanical process of rupture, degradation and reconstruction biomechanical mechanisms cannot be found in the literature. The aim of this study is to investigate

  13. Food-stamp use triples as local despair grows By ANA M. VALDES AND ADAM PLAYFORD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Food-stamp use triples as local despair grows By ANA M. VALDES AND ADAM PLAYFORD Palm Beach Post increases every year in the number of individuals using food stamps to feed their families. In Palm Beach County, 161,250 of the county's 1.3 million residents - 12.4 percent - received food stamps in August

  14. improving energy efficiency in the built environment is now seen as a growing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotchen, Matthew J.

    improving energy efficiency in the built environment is now seen as a growing policy priority the 1973 oil embargo. Codes by state but they generally establish a minimum energy efficiency stan- dard.S. Department of Energy to establish building code energy efficiency targets by January 1, 2014. it also

  15. plagioclase phenocrysts form in a magma reservoir but then grow considerably during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulsson, Johan

    plagioclase phenocrysts form in a magma reservoir but then grow considerably during an eruption range in observed H2O contents (0.3­6.4 wt%) as representing saturation at pressures ranging from those at reservoir level all the way up to those near the surface. They also recognize a consistent rela- tionship

  16. Carbon limitation of soil respiration under winter snowpacks: potential feedbacks between growing season

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon limitation of soil respiration under winter snowpacks: potential feedbacks between growing season and winter carbon fluxes PA U L D . B R O O K S *, D I A N E M C K N I G H T w and K E L LY E L D- latitude and high-elevation ecosystems may increase soil carbon availability both through increased litter

  17. Growing season methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes at a sub-arctic wetland in Sweden 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardacre, Catherine J.; Blei, Emanuel; Heal, Mathew R

    2009-01-01

    Methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes were measured at several sites in a sub-arctic wetland near Abisko, Sweden (68°28?N 18°49?E) throughout the 2008 growing season. Averaged over 92 flux measurements the sub-arctic ...

  18. Carbon sequestration and biodiversity of re-growing miombo woodlands in Mozambique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration and biodiversity of re-growing miombo woodlands in Mozambique M. Williams a in tropical woodlands is being used to sequester carbon (C), alleviate poverty and protect biodiversity, among there is a potential for C sequestration in soils on abandoned farmland. Management should focus on identifying C

  19. Growing the gas-giant planets by the gradual accumulation of pebbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levison, Harold F; Duncan, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    It is widely held that the first step in forming the gas giant planets, such as Jupiter and Saturn, is to form solid `cores' of roughly 10 M$_\\oplus$. Getting the cores to form before the solar nebula dissipates ($\\sim\\!1-10\\,$Myr) has been a major challenge for planet formation models. Recently models have emerged in which `pebbles' (centimeter- to meter-size objects) are first concentrated by aerodynamic drag and then gravitationally collapse to form 100 --- 1000 km objects. These `planetesimals' can then efficiently accrete leftover pebbles and directly form the cores of giant planets. This model known as `pebble accretion', theoretically, can produce 10 M$_\\oplus$ cores in only a few thousand years. Unfortunately, full simulations of this process show that, rather than creating a few 10 M$_\\oplus$ cores, it produces a population of hundreds of Earth-mass objects that are inconsistent with the structure of the Solar System. Here we report that this difficulty can be overcome if pebbles form slowly enough t...

  20. Growing consumption of petroleum products worldwide has resulted in the proliferation of vessels carrying oil, chemicals, and gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neimark, Alexander V.

    Growing consumption of petroleum products worldwide has resulted in the proliferation of vessels carrying oil, chemicals, and gases into our harbors. Meeting our society's surging demand for commodities

  1. Contoured inner after-heater shield for reducing stress in growing crystalline bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalejs, Juris P. (Wellesley, MA)

    1996-09-24

    An apparatus for growing hollow crystalline bodies by the EFG process, comprising an EFG die having a top surface shaped for growing a hollow crystalline body having a cross-sectional configuration in the shape of a polygon having n faces, and a radiation shield adjacent to and surrounded by the top end surface of the die, characterized in that the shield has an inner edge defining a similar polygon with n sides, and the inner edge of the shield is notched so that the spacing between the n faces and the n sides is greatest between the central portions of the n faces and the n sides, whereby the greater spacing at the central portions helps to reduce lateral temperature gradients in the crystalline body that is grown by use of the die.

  2. Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973, a fast growing cyanobacterial chassis for biosynthesis using light and CO2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Jingjie; Liberton, Michelle; Cliften, Paul F.; Head, Richard D.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Brand, Jerry J.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2015-01-30

    Photosynthetic microbes are of emerging interest as production organisms in biotechnology because they can grow autotrophically using sunlight, an abundant energy source, and CO2, a greenhouse gas. Important traits for such microbes are fast growth and amenability to genetic manipulation. Here we describe Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973, a unicellular cyanobacterium capable of rapid autotrophic growth, comparable to heterotrophic industrial hosts such as yeast. Synechococcus 2973 can be readily transformed for facile generation of desired knockout and knock-in mutations. Genome sequencing coupled with global proteomics studies revealed that Synechococcus 2973 is a close relative of the widely studied cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatusmore »PCC 7942, an organism that grows more than two times slower. A small number of nucleotide changes are the only significant differences between the genomes of these two cyanobacterial strains. Thus, our study has unraveled genetic determinants necessary for rapid growth of cyanobacterial strains of significant industrial potential.« less

  3. Productive Energy of Certain Feeds as Measured by Production of Fat and Flesh by Growing Rats. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1943-01-01

    STATION A B. CONNER, DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BUIJTJETIN NO. ($32 OCTOBER 1943 PRODUCTIVE ENERGY OF CERTAIN FEEDS AS MEASURED BY PRODUCTION OF FAT AND FLESH BY GROWING RATS G. S. FRAPS Division of Chemistry AGRICULTZTRAL AND MECHANICAL... COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] 'revious work with chickens shoxved that the energy values of feeds re very nearly in proportion to the digestible nutrients. Experiments *e made with a different kind...

  4. Mesoscopic model for filament orientation in growing actin networks: the role of obstacle geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julian Weichsel; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    2013-04-13

    Propulsion by growing actin networks is a universal mechanism used in many different biological systems. Although the core molecular machinery for actin network growth is well preserved in most cases, the geometry of the propelled obstacle can vary considerably. In recent years, filament orientation distribution has emerged as an important observable characterizing the structure and dynamical state of the growing network. Here we derive several continuum equations for the orientation distribution of filaments growing behind stiff obstacles of various shapes and validate the predicted steady state orientation patterns by stochastic computer simulations based on discrete filaments. We use an ordinary differential equation approach to demonstrate that for flat obstacles of finite size, two fundamentally different orientation patterns peaked at either +35/-35 or +70/0/-70 degrees exhibit mutually exclusive stability, in agreement with earlier results for flat obstacles of very large lateral extension. We calculate and validate phase diagrams as a function of model parameters and show how this approach can be extended to obstacles with piecewise straight contours. For curved obstacles, we arrive at a partial differential equation in the continuum limit, which again is in good agreement with the computer simulations. In all cases, we can identify the same two fundamentally different orientation patterns, but only within an appropriate reference frame, which is adjusted to the local orientation of the obstacle contour. Our results suggest that two fundamentally different network architectures compete with each other in growing actin networks, irrespective of obstacle geometry, and clarify how simulated and electron tomography data have to be analyzed for non-flat obstacle geometries.

  5. Modeling water uptake by a root system growing in a fixed soil volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albrieu, J L Blengino; Tarzia, D A

    2015-01-01

    The water uptake by roots of plants is examined for an ideal situation, with an approximation that resembles plants growing in pots, meaning that the total soil volume is fixed. We propose a coupled water uptake-root growth model. A one-dimensional model for water flux and water uptake by a root system growing uniformly distributed in the soil is presented, and the Van Genuchten model for the transport of water in soil is used. The governing equations are represented by a moving boundary model for which the root length, as a function of time, is prescribed. The solution of the model is obtained by front-fixing and finite element methods. Model predictions for water uptake by a same plant growing in loam, silt and clay soils are obtained and compared. A sensitivity analysis to determine relative effects on water uptake when system parameters are changed is also presented and shows that the model and numerical method proposed are more sensitive to the root growth rate than to the rest of the parameters. This se...

  6. EAC Meeting Cancelled Due to Weather | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EAC Meeting Cancelled Due to Weather EAC Meeting Cancelled Due to Weather March 5, 2013 - 3:06pm Addthis This week's Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC) meeting has been cancelled...

  7. Simulation of paraffin damage due to natural cooling in reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peddibhotla, Sriram

    1993-01-01

    in the reservoir. Suitable modifications were made to model the paraffin precipitation due to natural cooling. The mechanisms which were modeled include (1) reduction in paraffin solubility due to evolution of dissolved gas and due to temperature changes, (2... independently, after which they were incorporated into a reservoir simulator. Then cases were run to simulate field conditions. Natural cooling is the temperature drop due to the gas leaving solution. The simulation results indicate that natural cooling...

  8. Applying an Information Gathering Architecture to Netfind: A White Pages Tool for a Changing and Growing Internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael F.

    ], the Internet is one the fastest growing human-constructed phenomena in history. The explosive growth and Growing Internet Michael F. Schwartz, University of Colorado, Boulder (schwartz@cs.colorado.edu) Calton Pu on Networking The Internet is quickly becoming an indispensable means of communication and collaboration, based

  9. The Comparative Value of Cottonseed Hulls and Hay as Roughages for Growing Dairy Heifers. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephos)

    1932-01-01

    . DeMottier, Asst. Chemist Rural Home Research: R. L. Schwartz, B. S.. Asst. Chemist Jessie Whitacre, Ph. D.. Chief C. M. Pounders, B. S., Asst. Chemist Mary Anna Grimes, M. S.. Textiles Rorticulture: Elizabeth D. Terrill, M. A., Nutrition S. H... with grain, silage, and pasturage when available, proved to be slightly superior to cottonseed hulls as the sole dry roughage for growing dairy heifers. The more rapid growth of the hay group was made during the first 18 months of age, more especially...

  10. Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

  11. On atomic structure of Ge huts growing on the Ge/Si(001) wetting layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arapkina, Larisa V.; Yuryev, Vladimir A. [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)] [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-14

    Structural models of growing Ge hut clusters—pyramids and wedges—are proposed on the basis of data of recent STM investigations of nucleation and growth of Ge huts on the Si(001) surface in the process of molecular beam epitaxy. It is shown that extension of a hut base along <110> directions goes non-uniformly during the cluster growth regardless of its shape. Growing pyramids, starting from the second monolayer, pass through cyclic formation of slightly asymmetrical and symmetrical clusters, with symmetrical ones appearing after addition of every fourth monolayer. We suppose that pyramids of symmetrical configurations composed by 2, 6, 10, etc., monolayers over the wetting layer are more stable than asymmetrical ones. This might explain less stability of pyramids in comparison with wedges in dense arrays forming at low temperatures of Ge deposition. Possible nucleation processes of pyramids and wedges on wetting layer patches from identical embryos composed by 8 dimers through formation of 1 monolayer high 16-dimer nuclei different only in their symmetry is discussed. Schematics of these processes are presented. It is concluded from precise STM measurements that top layers of wetting layer patches are relaxed when huts nucleate on them.

  12. High-moisture grain and high-moisture hay (haylage) for growing and fattening beef cattle and the value of pelleting coastal bermuda hay for growing beef cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franke, Harold William

    1961-01-01

    WC space, reduces feedlot losses, eiaplifieo feed baadliag, reduces traaaportatioa seato, reduces duet, asd elisiaetse selective feedlot. ws aloe hase that che swuipsoat aseeoaary fer pallet isg io bulhy asd quite eapeaoivs aed that it ie the esaeumdsg... tests with cattle several years sgs. These tests vere conducted due to early frosts ia Cbs cora belt which kille4 the plants thus eausiag s delay of tha senal 4rying process of Che oars. Seisture coateat of this corn vas too high for ncrketing...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are processed and recycled legally under a regularly audited New Mexico hazardous waste management permit, Pollution Prevention (P2) was prompted to perform a due diligence audit...

  14. Electrochemical Surface Potential due to Classical Point Charge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Potential due to Classical Point Charge Models Drives Anion Adsorption to the Air-Water Interface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemical Surface Potential...

  15. Modeling shear failure and permeability enhancement due to coupled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    enhancement due to coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical processes in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling shear failure and...

  16. Effect of different ratios of sodium to chloride using isokalemic diets for growing and finishing swine raised during hot weather 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othon

    1982-01-01

    ABSTBXCT Effect of Different Ratios of Sodium to Chloride Using Isokalemic Diets for Growing and Pinishing Swine Raised During Hot Weather {Bay 1982) Sergio Othon Serna-Saldivar B. S, Inn tituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de monterrey...

  17. Effects of Residual Feed Intake Classification on Temperament, Carcass Composition, and Feeding Behavior Traits in Growing Santa Gertrudis Heifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Justin A

    2014-04-16

    Objectives of this study were to evaluate the associations of feed intake, feeding behavior, temperament, and carcass composition with performance and feed efficiency traits in growing heifers. Santa Gertrudis heifers (n ...

  18. Exploring the Impact of Growing Up in a Single Parent Family from an Adult Perspective: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Annabel

    2012-05-25

    This study explores the impact that growing up in a single parent family from a young age has on adulthood. Previous quantitative research suggests that children raised in this family structure encounter more difficulties ...

  19. Freezing / Thawing mammalian cells (AG/2-96) 1. Grow cells to confluency in 100 mm plates.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Anirvan

    Freezing / Thawing mammalian cells (AG/2-96) Freezing: 1. Grow cells to confluency in 100 mm plates ml per vial), seal, place between styrofoam tube holders, and freeze at -70 C. 7. Transfer tubes

  20. www.rtands.com Railway Track & Structures March 2009 37 s rail transport continues to grow in popularity, so does

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    www.rtands.com Railway Track & Structures March 2009 37 A s rail transport continues to grow is protected from debris, rain and freezing temperatures, the more smoothly it flows." Barr cites the findings

  1. Forest phenology and a warmer climate - Growing season extension in relation to climatic provenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; Edwards, Nelson T [ORNL; Walker, Ashley V [ORNL; O'Hara, Keiran H [ORNL; Campion, Christina M [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Predicting forest responses to warming climates relies on assumptions about niche and temperature sensitivity that remain largely untested. Observational studies have related current and historical temperatures to phenological shifts, but experimental evidence is sparse, particularly for autumn responses. A five-year field experiment exposed four deciduous forest species from contrasting climates (Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus rubra, Populus grandidentata, and Betula alleghaniensis) to air temperatures 2 and 4 C above ambient controls. Impacts of year-round warming on bud burst (BB), senescence and abscission were evaluated in relation to thermal provenance. Leaves emerged earlier in all species, by an average of 6-9 days at +2 and +4 C. Magnitude of advance varied with species and year, but was larger for the first 2 C increment than the second. The effect of warming increased with early BB, favoring Liquidambar, from the warmest climate, but even BB in northern species advanced, despite temperatures well beyond those of the realized niche. Treatment differences in BB were poorly explained by temperature sums, which increased with treatment. In autumn, chlorophyll was retained an average of 4 and 7 days longer in +2 and +4 C treatments, and abscission delayed by 8 and 13 days. Species differences in autumn responses were marginally significant. Growing seasons in the warmer atmospheres were 6 - 28 days longer, with the least impact in Quercus. Results are compared with a 16-year record of canopy onset and offset in a nearby upland deciduous forest, where BB showed similar responsiveness to spring temperatures (2 - 4 days C-1). Offset dates in the stand tracked August-September temperatures, except when late summer drought caused premature senescence. The common garden-like experimental approach provides evidence that warming alone extends the growing season, at both ends, even if stand-level impacts are complicated by other environmental factors.

  2. PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES Fabien FouiHen, INERIS, Parc initiating event of the fire ball observed. In concrete terms, when a fixed roof storage tank is surrounded

  3. Estimation of the ion toroidal rotation source due to momentum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimation of the ion toroidal rotation source due to momentum transfer from Lower Hybrid waves in Alcator C-Mod Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of the ion...

  4. Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    potentially lead to the exposure to members of the public. The potential amount of contamination deposited on the ground surface, due to plant intrusion into buried waste, is a...

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Overcoming Comfort Issues Due...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues Due to Reduced Flow Room Air Mixing Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the heating, ventilating, and...

  6. COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF sup 26Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR...

  7. Resistance to Thyroid Hormone due to defective thyroid receptor alpha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moran, Carla; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2015-07-30

    )](1). Intracellularly, deiodinase enzymes (DIOs) mediate hormone metabolism, with a high-affinity type 2 enzyme (DIO2) mediating T4 to T3 conversion in the central nervous system (CNS) including pituitary and hypothalamus, type I deiodinase (DIO1) generating... and kidney, while TR?2 expression is limited principally to the hypothalamus, pituitary, inner ear, and retina (4). Resistance to Thyroid Hormone beta (RTH?), a dominantly-inherited disorder due to THRB mutations, is readily recognized due to a...

  8. Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part II Due Date | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due

  9. Results from intercropping fast-growing trees and food crops at Morogoro, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redhead, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    In Morogoro, Tanzania, agroforestry trials were set up to investigate intercropping with primarily eucalypt species. The climate in the region is very similar to Kolar, Karnataka State, India. Three crops-sorghum, bean and maize-were grown annually under Eucalyptus tereticornis at 2.5 m x 2.5 m for three years with a range of weeding practices. Plots that were intercropped with beans showed best results. Shading by the eucalypts after three years resulted in negligible crop yields in all treatments. Three tree spacings of E. camaldulensis (3 m x 3 m, 4 m x 4 m, and 5 m x 5 m) were combined with the intercropping of beans and maize. Beans gave satisfactory yields at all spacings, but the maize showed significantly depressed yields at 3 m x 3 m at 4 m x 4 m, but was similar to pure maize crop at 5 m x 5 m spacing. Overall the extra revenue from a food crop in the first and second year of tree growth increases the return from the land. The short rotation of fast growing trees depleted the soil of nutrients and, as with other crops, the fertility would have to be maintained by applying fertilizer.

  10. Oil demand continues to grow in the U.S. and worldwide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tippee, B.; Beck, R.J.

    1995-07-31

    Rising oil consumption is challenging the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production quota--but not the group`s ability to meet demand. In the second half of 1995, the oil market will continue to need more oil from OPEC members than the group claims to be willing to produce with its quota at 24.52 million b/d. If the quota really limited supply, ingredients would be in place for a significant price hike. Growth in a non-OPEC production intensities temptations on OPEC members to cheat on quotas and has become a key factor in the market. OPEC producers have seen that if they don`t meet incremental demand at the current price, other producers will. OPEC eventually will have to raise its quota or acknowledge that the artificial production limit lacks meaning. At present, the only real limit to supply is production capacity, which remains in excess relative to demand and which has demonstrated its ability to grow both within and outside of OPEC when prices rise. The paper discusses worldwide trends, pressures on OPEC, world crude prices, US prices, natural gas prices, US energy demand, natural gas use, gas supply, US demand for petroleum products, imports, and inventories.

  11. Growing White Dwarfs to the Chandrasekhar Limit: The Parameter Space of the Single Degenerate SNIa Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillman, Yael; Kovetz, Attay; Shara, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Can a white dwarf, accreting hydrogen-rich matter from a non-degenerate companion star, ever exceed the Chandrasekhar mass and explode as a type Ia supernova? We explore the range of accretion rates that allow a white dwarf (WD) to secularly grow in mass, and derive limits on the accretion rate and on the initial mass that will allow it to reach $1.4M_\\odot$ --- the Chandrasekhar mass. We follow the evolution through a long series of hydrogen flashes, during which a thick helium shell accumulates. This determines the effective helium mass accretion rate for long-term, self-consistent evolutionary runs with helium flashes. We find that net mass accumulation always occurs despite helium flashes. Although the amount of mass lost during the first few helium shell flashes is a significant fraction of that accumulated prior to the flash, that fraction decreases with repeated helium shell flashes. Eventually no mass is ejected at all during subsequent flashes. This unexpected result occurs because of continual heati...

  12. Eddy heat fluxes at Drake Passage due to mesoscale motions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojas Recabal, Ricardo Luis

    1982-01-01

    EDDY HEAT FLUKES AT DRAKE PASSAGE DUE TO MESOSCALE MOTIONS A Thesis by RICARDO LUIS ROJAS RECABAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography EDDY HEAT FLUXES AT DRAKE PASSAGE DUE TO MESOSCALE NOTIONS A Thesis by RICARDO LUIS ROJAS RECABAL Approved as to style and content by: was )W-~ Member em er May 1982 ABSTRACT Eddy Heat Fluxes at Drake Passage...

  13. Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due Date | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due Date

  14. Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due Date | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due DateAdv.

  15. Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part II Due Date | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due DateAdv.II

  16. Better Buildings Challenge to Cut Energy Waste Grows by 1 Billion Square

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETO Quiz -Technologies for Hybrid BestBest of

  17. Nonvolatile memory disturbs due to gate and junction leakage currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroder, Dieter K.

    leakage currents induced by stress due to LOCOS and trap- assisted tunneling (TAT). * Corresponding author Department of Electrical Engineering and Center for Solid State Electronics Research, Arizona State) from traps within the gate oxides. Such low gate leakage currents can lead to sufficient charge

  18. been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations."

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latham, Peter

    been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations." Not only is climate difficult to climate change, and house prices consequently fall, some of this loss can straightforwardly how some external driver of climate change, such as past green- house-gas emissions, may have

  19. Heliospheric MeV energization due to resonant interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Heliospheric MeV energization due to resonant interaction Ilan Roth1 Space Sciences Laboratory energetic heavy ions during active solar periods are of major importance with respect to the proper. Such processes may violate one or more invariants while preserving the other(s). Solar MeV ions are frequently

  20. Cluster Report or Survey Description Date due to IEA Responsible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Cluster Report or Survey Description Date due to IEA Responsible person(s) Comments Reports IEA will activate and distribute survey in August 2011 Summer Activity Report Faculty activity report for summer, 2012 December 20, 2012 Academic Department Heads By October 8, 2012, data is provided by IEA

  1. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AIR POLLUTION DYNAMICS DUE TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    spots. ­ Global weather patterns effected. ­ CO2 and other pollutant emissions contributing to globalNUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AIR POLLUTION DYNAMICS DUE TO POINT SOURCE EMISSIONS FROM AN INDUSTRIAL, and ultimately effects the global climate balance. · About 60% of emissions from point sources · Major pollutants

  2. Plastic strain due to twinning in austenitic TWIP steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Plastic strain due to twinning in austenitic TWIP steels B. Qin and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia* Twinning induced plasticity steels are austenitic alloys in which mechanical twinning is a prominent deformation, Twinning, Twinning induced plasticity, Automobiles Introduction Mechanical twinning is a plastic

  3. Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety I. Background. Due to the nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhongfei "Mark"

    Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety I. Background. Due to the nature of gas cylinders hazards of a ruptured cylinder. There are almost 200 different types of materials in gas cylinders, there are several general procedures to follow for safe storage and handling of a compressed gas cylinder: II

  4. Oil and Gas Production Optimization; Lost Potential due to Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    Oil and Gas Production Optimization; Lost Potential due to Uncertainty Steinar M. Elgsaeter Olav.ntnu.no) Abstract: The information content in measurements of offshore oil and gas production is often low, and when in the context of offshore oil and gas fields, can be considered the total output of production wells, a mass

  5. Cosmological electromagnetic fields due to gravitational wave perturbations Mattias Marklund*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunsby, Peter

    show that this coupling leads to an initial pulse of electromagnetic waves whose width and amplitude to produce a pulse of gravitationally induced electromagnetic waves. In particular, because of the differentCosmological electromagnetic fields due to gravitational wave perturbations Mattias Marklund

  6. Sawlog prices declined due to a depressed lum-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawlog prices declined due to a depressed lum- ber market and drying weather after the wet summer. Continuing shortage of residual chips for pulpwood mills kept pulpwood prices strong in East Texas this period. Hardwood pulpwood prices in Northeast Texas de- clined though. Average stumpage price for pine

  7. Availability Impact on GPS Aviation due to Strong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Availability Impact on GPS Aviation due to Strong Ionospheric Scintillation JIWON SEO TODD WALTER availability during a severe scintillation period observed using data from the previous solar maximum are considered. Availability results for both vertical and horizontal navigation during the severe scintillation

  8. Lamb shift due to surface plasmon polariton modes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Kamli, Ali; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2008-01-01

    The Lamb shift of a hydrogen atom due to the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes is calculated and we observe both band edge and surface enhancement. The atom sits inside a thin metal slab which is sandwiched by two semi-infinite dielectrics...

  9. Atomic displacements due to spinspin repulsion in conjugated alternant hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benzi, Michele

    Atomic displacements due to spin­spin repulsion in conjugated alternant hydrocarbons Ernesto-induced atomic displacements in conjugated alt- ernant hydrocarbons. It appears to be responsible alternant hydrocarbons (CAHs) have played a fun- damental role in the development of theoretical chemistry

  10. Researcharticle Distortions in Genealogies Due to Purifying Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Michael

    Researcharticle Distortions in Genealogies Due to Purifying Selection Lauren E. Nicolaisen1, leading to a reduced effective population size. However, it also distorts genealogies relative to neutral of genealogies in a population under strong purifying selection as equivalent to a purely neutral population

  11. Remote area wind energy harvesting for low-power autonomous sensors Abstract--A growing demand for deployment of autonomous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remote area wind energy harvesting for low-power autonomous sensors Abstract--A growing demand a wide range of wind speeds. Results show that power harvesting capability using the discussed alternator electronics to be less than the available power for harvest, which varies as a function of wind speed

  12. Characterization of Feed Efficiency Traits and Relationships with Temperament, Serum Hormones and Serum Metabolites in Growing Brangus Heifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Robynne 1977-

    2010-09-03

    metabolites in growing heifers. A 4 yr study (n = 114-119 heifers/yr) was conducted with Brangus heifers (Initial BW = 271 ± 26 kg) that were weaned for 25.5 ± 8.6 d prior to high roughage diet adaptation (ME = 2.0 Mcal/kg DM). Individual dry matter intakes...

  13. Growing a multi-class classifier with a reject option D.M.J. Tax *, R.P.W. Duin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duin, Robert P.W.

    Growing a multi-class classifier with a reject option D.M.J. Tax *, R.P.W. Duin Information Communicated by F. Roli Keywords: Multi-class classification Outlier detection Rejection a b s t r a c by estimating the class densities and assigning an object to the class with the highest posterior probability

  14. Abstract--Despite the growing interest in the transmission and storage of electromyographic signals for long periods of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    Abstract--Despite the growing interest in the transmission and storage of electromyographic signals present an algorithm for compression of electromyographic signals based on the JPEG2000 coding system]. However, few methods have been proposed for compression of electromyographic signals. Norris and Lovely [7

  15. Growing Up With Nell: A Narrative Interface for Literacy C. Scott Ananian Chris J. Ball Michael Stone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ananian, C. Scott

    personalized instruction which grows with the child. Nell's design builds on experience with the Sugar Learning the nearest school, a young Ethiopian girl named Rahel turns on her new tablet computer. The solar- powered across Now at Akamai Technologies. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work

  16. By: Leif Karlsson, ESAB AB, Gothenburg. The large and steadily growing family of stainless steels can offer unique combina-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    By: Leif Karlsson, ESAB AB, Gothenburg. The large and steadily growing family of stainless steels into an increasing number of applications. This review briefly summarises the history of stainless steel development and discusses selected weldability aspects. Examples from ESAB's long history of stainless steel welding

  17. Fusion rate enhancement due to energy spread of colliding nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fiorentini; C. Rolfs; F. L. Villante; B. Ricci

    2002-10-24

    Experimental results for sub-barrier nuclear fusion reactions show cross section enhancements with respect to bare nuclei which are generally larger than those expected according to electron screening calculations. We point out that energy spread of target or projectile nuclei is a mechanism which generally provides fusion enhancement. We present a general formula for calculating the enhancement factor and we provide quantitative estimate for effects due to thermal motion, vibrations inside atomic, molecular or crystal system, and due to finite beam energy width. All these effects are marginal at the energies which are presently measurable, however they have to be considered in future experiments at still lower energies. This study allows to exclude several effects as possible explanation of the observed anomalous fusion enhancements, which remain a mistery.

  18. Reflection beamshifts of visible light due to graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermosa, N

    2015-01-01

    I present theoretical calculations of reflection beamshifts, Goos-H\\"anchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts, due to the presence of a monolayer graphene on a dielectric media when using a beam with wavelength in the visible range. Specifically, I look at beamshifts for different polarization states (p, s, $45^0$, $\\sigma^+$). The Goos-H\\"anchen shifts I calculated are in good agreement with results of a recent experiment. I will discuss other possible experimental routes to determine beamshifts in graphene.

  19. Spectral Softening due to Winds in Accretion Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandip K. Chakrabarti

    1998-12-06

    Accretion flows may produce profuse winds when they have positive specific energy. Winds deplete matter from the inner region of the disk and makes the inner region thinner, optically. Since there are fewer electrons in this region, it becomes easier to Comptonize this part by the soft photons which are intercepted from the Keplerian disk farther out. We present a self-consistent picture of winds from an accretion disk and show how the spectra of the disk is softened due to the outflowing wind.

  20. Optical loss due to diffraction by concentrator Fresnel lenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornung, Thorsten Nitz, Peter

    2014-09-26

    Fresnel lenses are widely used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems as a primary optical element. They focus sunlight on small solar cells or on the entrance apertures of secondary optical elements. A Fresnel lens consists of several prism rings and diffraction by these prism rings is unavoidable. Some of the light that would reach a designated target area according to geometric optics will miss it due to diffraction. This diffraction loss may be of relevant magnitude for CPV applications. The results of published analytical calculations are evaluated, discussed, and compared to computer simulations and measurements.

  1. ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge proposals due February 3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation DataStreamsTotalproposals due February 3 ASCR Leadership

  2. Using RPS Policies to Grow the Solar Market in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan H; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2007-11-20

    The market for photovoltaics in the United States remains small relative to the nation's solar resource potential. Nonetheless, annual grid-connected PV installations have grown from just 4 MW in 2000 to over 100 MW in 2006, fast enough to the catch the attention of the global solar industry. The state of California deserves much of the credit for this growth. The State's historical rebate programs resulted in roughly 75% of the nation's grid-connected PV additions from 2000 through 2006 being located in California, and the $3 billion California Solar Initiative will ensure that the State remains a mainstay of the US solar industry for years to come. But California is not the only market for solar in the US; other states have recently developed policies that may rival those of the western state in terms of future growth potential. In particular, 25 states, as well as Washington, D.C., have established renewables portfolio standards (RPS), sometimes called quota systems in Europe, requiring electricity suppliers in those states to source a minimum portion of their need from renewable electricity. (Because a national RPS is not yet in place, my focus here is on state policies). Under many of these state policies, solar is not expected to fare particularly well: PV installations simply cannot compete on cost or scale with large wind plants in the US, at least not yet. In response, an expanding list of states have established solar or distributed generation (DG) set-asides within their RPS policies, effectively requiring that some fraction of RPS-driven supply derive from solar energy. The popularity of set-asides for solar and/or DG has increased dramatically in recent years. Already, 11 states and D.C. have developed such RPS set-asides. These include states with outstanding solar resources, such as Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico, as well as areas where the solar resource is less robust, including North Carolina, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, New Hampshire, Delaware, and DC. Among those states with set-asides, two are restricted to PV applications, nine also allow solar-thermal electric to qualify, three allow solar heating and/or cooling to qualify, and three have broader renewable DG set-asides. The policies also differ in their targets and timeframes, whether projects must be located in-state, the application of cost caps, and the degree of oversight on how suppliers contract with solar projects. Only three of these states have more than two years of experience with solar or DG set-asides so far: Arizona, Nevada, and New Jersey. And yet, despite the embryonic stage of these policies, they have already begun to have a significant impact on the grid-connected PV market. From 2000-2006, 16% (or 48 MW) of grid-connected PV installations in the US occurred in states with such set-asides, a percentage that increases to 67% if one only considers PV additions outside of California. The importance of these programs is growing and will continue to expand. In fact, if one assumes (admittedly somewhat optimistically) that these policies will be fully achieved, then existing state solar or DG set-asides could result in 400 MW of solar capacity by 2010, 2,000 MW by 2015, and 6,500 MW by 2025. This equates to annual additions of roughly 100 MW through 2010, increasing to over 500 MW per year by 2015 and 700 MW per year by 2020. PV is not assured of all of this capacity, and will receive strong competition from solar-thermal electric facilities in the desert southwest. Nonetheless, set-asides in those states outside of the southwest will favor PV, and even some of the southwestern states have designed their RPS programs to ensure that PV fares well, relative to other forms of solar energy. Since 2000, Arizona and, more recently, New Jersey have represented the largest solar set-aside-driven PV markets. Even more-recent additions are coming from Colorado, Nevada, New York, and Pennsylvania. In the long-term, the largest markets for solar electricity are predicted to include New Jersey, Maryland, Arizona, and P

  3. Variability of GRB Afterglows Due to Interstellar Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaohu Wang; Abraham Loeb

    1999-10-26

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglows are commonly interpreted as synchrotron emission from a relativistic blast wave produced by a point explosion in an ambient medium, plausibly the interstellar medium of galaxies. We calculate the amplitude of flux fluctuations in the lightcurve of afterglows due to inhomogeneities in the surrounding medium. Such inhomogeneities are an inevitable consequence of interstellar turbulence, but could also be generated by variability and anisotropy in a precursor wind from the GRB progenitor. Detection of their properties could provide important clues about the environments of GRB sources. We apply our calculations to GRB990510, where an rms scatter of 2% was observed for the optical flux fluctuations on the 0.1--2 hour timescale during the first day of the afterglow, consistent with it being entirely due to photometric noise (Stanek et al. 1999). The resulting upper limits on the density fluctuations on scales of 20-200 AU around the source of GRB990510, are lower than the inferred fluctuation amplitude on similar scales in the Galactic interstellar medium. Hourly monitoring of future optical afterglows might therefore reveal fractional flux fluctuations at the level of a few percent.

  4. From the Classroom to the Home : : The Repercussions of the Growing Divisions in Public and Private Schooling in Peru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jacqueline Rose

    me that the computer had had a virus for a long time, makingcomputer in the classroom, it was unusable due to a virus and

  5. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Warme und Feuchte instationar Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  6. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Wärme und Feuchte instationär Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  7. Changes in Dimethyl Sulfide Oceanic Distribution due to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Elliott, S; Maltrud, M; Erickson, D; Wingenter, O

    2011-02-16

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here they report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. They find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associted with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

  8. Backreaction effects due to matter coupled higher derivative gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lata Kh Joshi; P. Ramadevi

    2014-11-28

    AdS-hydrodynamics has proven to be a useful tool for obtaining transport coefficients observed in the collective flow of strongly coupled fluids like quark gluon plasma (QGP). Particularly, the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density ${\\eta/ s}$ obtained from elliptic flow measurements can be matched with the computation done in the dual gravity theory. The experimentally observed temperature dependence of ${\\eta/ s}$ requires the study of scalar matter coupled AdS gravity including higher derivative curvature corrections. We obtain the backreaction to the metric for such a matter coupled AdS gravity in $D$-dimensional spacetime due to the higher derivative curvature corrections. Then, we present the backreaction corrections to shear-viscosity $\\eta$ and entropy density $s$.

  9. Detailed characteristics of intermittent current pulses due to positive corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyangwuh520@sina.com; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Xuebao; Xiang, Yu; Wang, Xiaobo [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-08-15

    In order to get detailed characteristics of intermittent current pulses due to positive corona such as the repetition rate of burst-pulse trains, the peak value ratio of the primary pulse to the secondary pulse, the number of pulses per burst, and the interval of the secondary pulses, a systematic study was carried out in a coaxial conductor-cylinder electrode system with the conductor electrode being set with a discharge point. Empirical formulae for the number of pulses per burst and the interval of the secondary pulses are first presented. A theoretical model based on the motion of the space-charge clouds is proposed. Analysis with the model gives explanations to the experimental results and reveals some new insights into the physical mechanism of positive intermittent corona.

  10. Intrinsic chiral magnetic effect in Dirac semimetals due to dislocations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chernodub, M N

    2015-01-01

    The dislocation in Dirac semimetal carries an emergent magnetic flux parallel to the dislocation axis. We show that due to the emergent magnetic field the dislocation accommodates a single fermion massless mode of the corresponding low-energy one-particle Hamiltonian. The mode is propagating along the dislocation with its spin directed parallel to the dislocation axis. In agreement with the chiral anomaly observed in Dirac semimetals, an external electric field results in the spectral flow of the one-particle Hamiltonian, in pumping of the fermionic quasiparticles out from vacuum, and in creating a nonzero axial (chiral) charge in the vicinity of the dislocation. In the presence of the chirality imbalance, the intrinsic magnetic field of the dislocation generates an electric current along the dislocation axis. We point out that this effect - which is an "intrinsic" analogue of the chiral magnetic effect - may experimentally reveal itself through transport phenomena in Dirac semimetals via the enhanced conduct...

  11. Crystallographic changes in lead zirconate titanate due to neutron irradiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Henriques, Alexandra; Graham, Joseph T.; Landsberger, Sheldon; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Brown, Donald W.; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2014-11-17

    Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials are useful as the active element in non-destructive monitoring devices for high-radiation areas. Here, crystallographic structural refinement (i.e., the Rietveld method) is used to quantify the type and extent of structural changes in PbZr0.5Ti0.5O3 after exposure to a 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence of 1.7 × 1015 neutrons/cm2. The results show a measurable decrease in the occupancy of Pb and O due to irradiation, with O vacancies in the tetragonal phase being created preferentially on one of the two O sites. The results demonstrate a method by which the effects of radiation on crystallographic structure maymore »be investigated.« less

  12. Massloss of galaxies due to a UV-background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Okamoto; Liang Gao; Tom Theuns

    2008-07-25

    We perform cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to determine to what extent galaxies lose their gas due to photoheating from an ionizing background. We find that the characteristic mass at which haloes on average have lost half of their baryons is Mc ~ 6.5 x 10^9 Msun/h at z = 0, which corresponds to a circular velocity of 25 km/s. This is significantly lower than the filtering mass obtained by the linear theory, which is often used in semianalytical models of galaxy formation. We demonstrate it is the gas temperature at the virial radius which determines whether a halo can accrete gas. A simple model that follows the merger history of the dark matter progenitors, and where gas accretion is not allowed when this temperature is higher than the virial temperature of the halo, reproduces the results from the simulation remarkably well. This model can be applied to any reionization history, and is easy to incorporate in semianalytical models.

  13. Crystallographic changes in lead zirconate titanate due to neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriques, Alexandra; Graham, Joseph T.; Landsberger, Sheldon; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Brown, Donald W.; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2014-11-17

    Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials are useful as the active element in non-destructive monitoring devices for high-radiation areas. Here, crystallographic structural refinement (i.e., the Rietveld method) is used to quantify the type and extent of structural changes in PbZr0.5Ti0.5O3 after exposure to a 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence of 1.7 × 1015 neutrons/cm2. The results show a measurable decrease in the occupancy of Pb and O due to irradiation, with O vacancies in the tetragonal phase being created preferentially on one of the two O sites. The results demonstrate a method by which the effects of radiation on crystallographic structure may be investigated.

  14. Site assessment guidelines provide road map in due diligence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Buyers, sellers and lenders of commercial and industrial real estate since the 1980s have faced potential liability under CERCLA for property contamination. The law stipulates that buyers must exercise due diligence'', conducting all appropriate inquiry'' to determine past ownership and uses of a property, and whether contamination exists. Buyers of polluted property can avoid liability only by showing that contamination occurred before the property was transferred to them, and that they had no knowledge or reason to know'' about the contamination at the time of purchase. Owners or sellers of contaminated property, as well as buyers aware of the contamination at time of purchase, may be designated potentially responsible parties (PRPs) under CERCLA and held liable for site cleanup. Lenders that participate in managing a contaminated property also may be designated PRPs. EPA in 1992 provided a liability exemption for lenders with limited or no management responsibilities for a contaminated property.

  15. Abstract--Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the power industry and it will continue to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    1 Abstract--Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the power industry fault conditions. Index Terms--induction generators, wind power generation, fault tolerance. I of energy. Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the power industry

  16. Here we develop a new control model of water injection from a growing hydrofracture into a layered soft rock. We demonstrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Summary Here we develop a new control model of water injection from a growing hydrofracture design an optimal controller of water injection into a low-permeability rock from a growing vertical hydrofrac- ture. The objective of control is to inject water at a prescribed rate, which may change

  17. __________________________________2001 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, The Johns Hopkins University, March 2123, 2001 A Threshold and Region Growing Combined Method for Filament

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins University, March 21­23, 2001 A Threshold and Region Growing Combined Method for Filament ­ This paper presents one efficient automatic detection method for filament disappearance. The method the filament pixels by the threshold method. Then, using a region- growing method, we merge the adjacent

  18. Evolution of the university business model and infrastructure planning due to technological innovations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Go, Veronica, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    The quality of higher education has been a growing concern in the United States and United Kingdom. There have been no notable improvements in the education system until the last few years. Considerable transformation in ...

  19. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

  20. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva; Stan, Rydell

    2008-08-07

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  1. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raj Saha

    2015-02-21

    During the last ice age several quasi-periodic abrupt warming events took place. Known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature anomalies. Paleoclimate data shows that the fluctuations often occurred right after massive glacial meltwater releases in the North Atlantic and in bursts of three or four with progressively decreasing strengths. In this study a simple dynamical model of an overturning circulation and sea ice is developed with the goal of understanding the fundamental mechanisms that could have caused the DO events. Interaction between sea ice and the overturning circulation in the model produces self-sustained oscillations. Analysis and numerical experiments reveal that the insulating effect of sea ice causes the ocean to periodically vent out accumulated heat in the deep ocean into the atmosphere. Subjecting the model to idealized freshwater forcing mimicking Heinrich events causes modulation of the natural periodicity and produces burst patterns very similar to what is observed in temperature proxy data. Numerical experiments with the model also suggests that the characteristic period of 1,500 years is due to the geometry, or the effective heat capacity, of the ocean that comes under sea ice cover.

  2. Cancellation of RF Coupler-Induced Emittance Due to Astigmatism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dowell, David H

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that the electron beam quality required for applications such as FELs and ultra-fast electron diffraction can be degraded by the asymmetric fields introduced by the RF couplers of superconducting linacs. This effect is especially troublesome in the injector where the low energy beam from the gun is captured into the first high gradient accelerator section. Unfortunately modifying the established cavity design is expensive and time consuming, especially considering that only one or two sections are needed for an injector. Instead, it is important to analyze the coupler fields to understand their characteristics and help find less costly solutions for their cancellation and mitigation. This paper finds the RF coupler-induced emittance for short bunches is mostly due to the transverse spatial sloping or tilt of the field, rather than the field's time-dependence. It is shown that the distorting effects of the coupler can be canceled with a static (DC) quadrupole lens rotated about the z-axis.

  3. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially neededmore »immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.« less

  4. Comment on "Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power" and Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    due to wind and solar power. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2)Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power” Andrew Mills, ? , †due to wind and solar power. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2)

  5. Measurement of Hydrocarbon Fluxes due to Natural Seepage in the Northern Santa Barbara Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washburn, Libe; Clark, Jordan F.

    2002-01-01

    of Energy 001 "MEASUREMENT OF HYDROCARBON FLUXES DUE TOauthors directly. Measurement of Hydrocarbon Fluxes due toflux measurements been obtained in the region of hydrocarbon

  6. Deactivation Mechanism of Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalyst Due to Reductive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mechanism of CuZeolite SCR Catalyst Due to Reductive Hydrothermal Aging Deactivation Mechanism of CuZeolite SCR Catalyst Due to Reductive Hydrothermal Aging Better control for...

  7. Characterization of invariant patterns in a slowly rotated granular tumbler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonardo Reyes; Oscar Pérez; Claudia Colonnello; Angélica Goncalves; Haydn Barros; Iván Sánchez; Gustavo Gutiérrez

    2014-09-23

    We report experimental results of the pattern developed by a mixture of two types of grains in a triangular rotating tumbler operating in the avalanche regime. At the centroid of the triangular tumbler an invariant zone appears where the grains do not move relative to the tumbler. We characterize this invariant zone by its normalized area, $A_i$, and its circularity index as a function of the normalized filling area $A$. We find a critical filling area so that only for $A>A_c$ invariant zones are obtained. These zones scale as $A_i\\sim (A-A_c)^2$ near $A_c$. We have obtained a maximum in the circularity index for $A\\approx 0.8$, for which the shape of the invariant zone is closer to a circular one. The experimental results are reproduced by a simple model which, based on the surface position, accounts for all the possible straight lines within the triangle that satisfy the condition of constant $A$. We have obtained an analytic expression for the contour of the invariant zone.

  8. Why highly expressed proteins evolve slowly D. Allan Drummond*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    several confounding effects and show that expression level explains roughly half the variation at a rate primarily determined by the proportion of its sites involved in specific functions (or only a small fraction ( 5% or less) of the observed variation in evolutionary rate as quantified

  9. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2004, pp. 456463 Growing-Season Carbon Dioxide Flux in a Dry Subarctic Heath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grogan, Paul

    ecosystem production (NEP). Diurnal NEP through a day with clear skies at peak growing season was consistently negative through all treatments the first year of measurement, and day-time NEP varied around zero

  10. The World-Wide Quest for Better Web Search The World Wide Web is an ever-growing sea of information. The volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The World-Wide Quest for Better Web Search The World Wide Web is an ever-growing sea of information from all over the world are surfing in search of information on every possible walk of life. Web search

  11. Examining Mechanisms Contributing to the Biological Variation of Residual Feed Intake in Growing Heifers and Bulls and in Mid-Gestation Females 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hafla, Aimee

    2012-10-19

    The objectives of this study were to characterize residual feed intake (RFI) in growing bulls and heifers and in mid-gestation females to examine relationships with performance, body composition, feeding behavior, digestibility ...

  12. Photovoltaic (PV)energy conversion is a rapidly growing technology for converting solar energy into electricity. The current production is over 20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    Photovoltaic (PV)energy conversion is a rapidly growing technology for converting solar energy polymers, is making rapid strides towards becoming the low cost material of choice for PV energy conversion

  13. Evaluation of glandless cottonseed meal plus lysine as a substitute for soybean meal in swine starter and growing-finishing diets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaRue, David Charles

    1982-01-01

    EVALUATION OF GLANDIZSS COTTONSEED MEAL PLUS LYSINE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOYBEAN MEAL IN SWINE STARTER AND GROWING-FINISHING DIETS A Thesis by DAVID CHARLES LARUE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major Subject: Nutrition EVALUATION OF GLANDLESS COTTONSEED MEAL PLUS LYSINE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOYBEAN MEAL IN SWINE STARTER AND GROWING-FINISHING DIETS A Thesis by DAVID CHARLES LARUE...

  14. Method of growing GaN films with a low density of structural defects using an interlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic reduction of the dislocation density in GaN was obtained by insertion of a single thin interlayer grown at an intermediate temperature (IT-IL) after the growth of an initial grown at high temperature. A description of the growth process is presented with characterization results aimed at understanding the mechanisms of reduction in dislocation density. A large percentage of the threading dislocations present in the first GaN epilayer are found to bend near the interlayer and do not propagate into the top layer which grows at higher temperature in a lateral growth mode. TEM studies show that the mechanisms of dislocation reduction are similar to those described for the epitaxial lateral overgrowth process, however a notable difference is the absence of coalescence boundaries.

  15. New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the growing global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial uses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, C; Napier, JA; Clemente, TE; Cahoon, EB

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of oilseed metabolism and in the development of new oilseed platforms and metabolic engineering technologies.

  16. So Sociological Theories Grow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, David G; Berger, Johnson

    2015-08-15

    00 SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES ~?: DAVID G. WAGNER University of Iowa JOSEPH BERGER Stanford University Technical Report # 91 Stanford University September, 1983 *We are grateful to Edward J. Lawler and Guillermina Jasso for valuable comments... both possible ana des.i.ra.ol.e see .l.t as such a rare phenomenon. Extoll.~ng the v~tues of a cumulative soCLological science is an exceeu- ingl.y diff.1.cul.t tasL when ~ere .1.s so l.ittle evidence that such a sc~ence ex~sts. It is as tnough half...

  17. Growing Grapes in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEachern, George Ray; Stein, Larry A.; Gan, Peretz; Lipe, William N.; Stockton, L. Austin; Helmers, Sammy G.

    1982-01-01

    . Petrucci. The follOwing Texas grape growers made suggestions and allowed us to use their vineyards and laborers in developing this manuscript: Dale and Penny Bettis, Bobby Cox, Paul Crosnoe, J. W. and Lucille Word, Allen and Leta Hagen, Scott Slaughter.... Helmers, Bluefford G. Hancock, Dorothy See, Ronald W. Jackson, Ann M. Cole,Jim O. Jones, Jerrold Summerlin, Mable Pearce, John A. Lipe and James Kamas. The out?of?state grape authorities who shared their work and made suggestions were Michael W. Kilby...

  18. Growing the Future Bioeconomy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Future Bioeconomy JOEL VELASCO July 2014 2 Copyright 2012 Amyris, Inc. All rights reserved. This presentation and oral statements accompanying this presentation contain...

  19. Peach Growing in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyle, E. J. (Edwin Jackson)

    1905-01-01

    ............................................................................................................ LaGrange ............................................ L. D. AMSLER .......... Hempstead ............................................................................. A. J. BROWN. Dallas STATION OFFICERS H. H. HARRINGTON, M. S., President... ....................................................................... G. S. FRAPS : . Acting Chemist . . R. L. BENNETT ................................................................................... Cotton Spec~al~st 0. M. BALL...

  20. Growing Together Columbia University's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Junfeng

    . In addition, all construction equipment use air pollution control devices and Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD

  1. Growing Blackberries In Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, H. F.; Garner, C. F.; Hancock, Bluefford; Smith, Harlan

    1962-01-01

    purchased large quantities oE canned black- berries. Cafes and hotels also purchase limited quantities of No. 10's for pies ancl cobblers. The No. 2 and No. 303 cans of blackberries are distri- buted through retail store outlets in the Southwest anti...

  2. Growing a list

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letham, Benjamin

    It is easy to find expert knowledge on the Internet on almost any topic, but obtaining a complete overview of a given topic is not always easy: information can be scattered across many sources and must be aggregated to be ...

  3. Growing Sweetclover in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spears, Ben; Coffey, Lee; Trew, E. M.

    1957-01-01

    .nua,l yellow-flowered sweetclover, Meli- iotu.s indica, often called sour clover, seldom reaches a height of 3 feet while Hubam often is 6 feet tall. Melilotus indica matures very early, but the forage is not palatable to livestock and this clover should.... The object of this two-crop system is to obtain an extra crop from the land 8 and to keep down weeds in the young sweet- clover. Inoculation I A strain of bacteria lives on the roots of 1 legumes in clumps (nodules), and these bacteria take nitrogen...

  4. Growing Giant Crystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not findGeoscience/EnvironmentGlobalADDITIONALGrowing Giant Crystals

  5. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials 3rd Quarter 20062 he Internet continues to provide a fast growing arena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panwar, Shivendra S.

    ] and the Diffserv architecture described in [5]. However, due to advances in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing control, and queue management (see [6] for a survey on these QoS "build- T SHIWEN MAO, AUBURN UNIVERSITY-generation Internet. The class of envelope processes (EPs) is one of the key elements for many QoS provisioning

  6. Dietary cholesterol effects on tissue cholesterol and carcass characteristics of growing pigs selected for high or low serum cholesterol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbott, Tanya Lee

    1995-01-01

    for the high cholesterol diet groups. The brain and heart as a percentage' of live weight were higher due to diet, but liver percentage was not affected by diet. Carcass characteristics showed no significant difference for any of the treatments (P > .05). Back...

  7. Energy loss due to field fluctuations in a two-stream QCD plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahatsab Mandal; Sreemoyee Sarkar; Pradip Roy; Abhee K. Dutt-Mazumder

    2011-09-06

    We derive the expression for the collisional energy loss in two stream plasma induced by the fluctuating chromoelectric field. It is revealed that the main contribution here comes from the unstable modes which grow exponentially with time. A strong direction dependence of the energy loss has also been demonstrated.

  8. Fast, purely growing collisionless reconnection as an eigenfunction problem related to but not involving linear whistler waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellan, Paul M. [Applied Physics and Materials Science, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    If either finite electron inertia or finite resistivity is included in 2D magnetic reconnection, the two-fluid equations become a pair of second-order differential equations coupling the out-of-plane magnetic field and vector potential to each other to form a fourth-order system. The coupling at an X-point is such that out-of-plane even-parity electric and odd-parity magnetic fields feed off each other to produce instability if the scale length on which the equilibrium magnetic field changes is less than the ion skin depth. The instability growth rate is given by an eigenvalue of the fourth-order system determined by boundary and symmetry conditions. The instability is a purely growing mode, not a wave, and has growth rate of the order of the whistler frequency. The spatial profile of both the out-of-plane electric and magnetic eigenfunctions consists of an inner concave region having extent of the order of the electron skin depth, an intermediate convex region having extent of the order of the equilibrium magnetic field scale length, and a concave outer exponentially decaying region. If finite electron inertia and resistivity are not included, the inner concave region does not exist and the coupled pair of equations reduces to a second-order differential equation having non-physical solutions at an X-point.

  9. Direct measurements of growing amorphous order and non-monotonic dynamic correlations in a colloidal glass-former

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hima Nagamanasa; Shreyas Gokhale; A. K. Sood; Rajesh Ganapathy

    2014-08-23

    While the transformation of flowing liquids into rigid glasses is omnipresent, a complete understanding of vitrification remains elusive. Of the numerous approaches aimed at solving the glass transition problem, the Random First-Order Theory (RFOT) is the most prominent. However, the existence of the underlying thermodynamic phase transition envisioned by RFOT remains debatable, since its key microscopic predictions concerning the growth of amorphous order and the nature of dynamic correlations lack experimental verification. Here, by using holographic optical tweezers, we freeze a wall of particles in an equilibrium configuration of a 2D colloidal glass-forming liquid and provide direct evidence for growing amorphous order in the form of a static point-to-set length. Most remarkably, we uncover the non-monotonic dependence of dynamic correlations on area fraction and show that this non-monotonicity follows directly from the change in morphology of cooperatively rearranging regions, as predicted by RFOT. Our findings suggest that the glass transition has a thermodynamic origin.

  10. PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO...

  11. Government Benefits and the Rule of Law: Toward a Standards-Based Theory of Due Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Richard E.; Shapiro, Sidney A.

    2006-01-01

    Under the Supreme Court's current due process jurisprudence, due process applies only when government actors deprive a person of a protected interest in life, liberty, or property, and government benefits are property only when has an entitlement...

  12. Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content Fact 588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content The fuel economy of a vehicle is...

  13. Due Cut 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the cultural connections made between race and color in works of fiction from the Victorian and Edwardian era, particularly how authors who are also artists invent fantastically colored ...

  14. Prediction of Riser Carbon Macrosegregation due to Shrinkage Flow in Steel Casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    1 Prediction of Riser Carbon Macrosegregation due to Shrinkage Flow in Steel Casting Kent D Carbon Macrosegregation due to Shrinkage Flow in Steel Casting," in Proceedings of the 64th SFSA macrosegregation in and below risers due to feeding flow in steel castings. The model uses feeding flow velocities

  15. Corn versus three sorghums grown under the same dryland conditions as feeds for growing-finishing swine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meadows, Doyle Gene

    1974-01-01

    , (range of 8$. 5 to 102. 4 percent) the value of corn. A wide variation existed in effic'ency due to quality of' grain and protein supplements, creating a need for m &re identification of' ration constituents, More recent trials in which high quality... The data, indicates a 5. Pjo advantage in feed efficI. ency for corn over the average of the sorghum diets ($. 15 vs. 3. 27) . The advan- tage for corn in feed ef'ficiency is less than has been reported by Peo and. Hudman (1958), 11. II@; Danielson and...

  16. Water UseWater Use ater is an essential part of life and an essential part of any farm. It is necessary for growing produce and often

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Water UseWater Use W ater is an essential part of life and an essential part of any farm. It is necessary for growing produce and often for cleaning produce before it is sold. Water may also be used to protect crops from frost or to apply fertilizers or pesticides. Ensuring that you have clean water

  17. How a neural net grows symbols Proceedings of the Seventh Australian Conference on Neural Networks, Canberra, 1996, pp. 91-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franklin, James

    How a neural net grows symbols Proceedings of the Seventh Australian Conference on Neural Networks neural networks and symbolic AI, in such a way as to combine the good features of each. It is argued.Franklin@unsw.edu.au April 8, 2005 Abstract Brains, unlike artificial neural nets, use sym- bols to summarise and reason

  18. Rocky Mountain Environment and Society The Rocky Mountain West is the fastest-growing region of the United States. The rapid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Lee

    Rocky Mountain Environment and Society The Rocky Mountain West is the fastest-growing region conflicting uses. The goals of the Rocky Mountain Environment and Society Institute (RMES) are to understand and quantify the influence of natural and human-induced change on Rocky Mountain ecosystems from the mountains

  19. Energy Expenditure in Growing Heifers with Divergent Residual Feed Intake Phenotypes. Effects and Interaction of Metaphylactic Treatment and Temperament on Receiving Steers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paddock, Zachary Dean

    2011-10-21

    . The objectives of the second study was to examine iv the effects of metaphylactic treatment and temperament on performance, feed intake, feed efficiency, and feeding behavior traits in steers. Santa Gertrudis steers (n =119) were weighed and randomly... .................................................................................................. 26 Table 4.2 Summary statistics of performance, feed efficiency and ultrasound composition traits of growing steers during the 28-d receiving period...

  20. 70 IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE JUNE 2006 1066-033X/06/$20.002006IEEE ind energy is the fastest-growing energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pao, Lucy Y.

    Renewable Energy Laboratory and National Wind Technology Center"). A modern utility-scale wind turbine is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, with worldwide wind-generation capacity tripling in the five years leading up to 2004 [1]. Because wind turbines are large, flexible structures operating in noisy

  1. The Master of Science in Management: An Alternative The Master of Science in Management degree meets a growing need in graduate management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Joy

    The Master of Science in Management: An Alternative to the MBA The Master of Science in Management degree meets a growing need in graduate management education. Unlike a traditional MBA that focuses. The University of Lethbridge MSc (Management) degree is a proven alternative to the traditional MBA, and focuses

  2. The nations of the world are converging in health and wealth as the world grows more polluted. Navigating a path away from this

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lineweaver, Charles H.

    without increasing energy consumption and CO2 emissions (Rosling, 2009, 2010, 2011; Emerson, Levy, EstyThe nations of the world are converging in health and wealth as the world grows more polluted principle, is consistent with sustainable values for the rate of entropy production. To see a world

  3. Seismic bridge response modification due to degradation of viscous dampers performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graziotti, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of Isolated Bridges: Parametric Analysis of theidentification procedure for bridge structures with energyUCSD. Cendron. (2008). Bridge response modification due to

  4. Space weather effects on the Mars ionosphere due to solar flares and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Space weather effects on the Mars ionosphere due to solar flares and meteors Paul Withers1, Michael in the ionospheric response to these aspects of space weather. #12;

  5. Semester Project { Part 1 { CSE244 { Fall 2000 Due Dates: Thurdsay, October 5 and 12, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demurjian, Steven A.

    Semester Project { Part 1 { CSE244 { Fall 2000 Due Dates: Thurdsay, October 5 and 12, 2000 September 25, 2000 The project for the Fall 2000 Semester will focus on the design and implementation is divided into two major tasks. #15; Due: Thursday, October 5, 2000 at Start of Class Design a CFG

  6. Ground vibration due to a high-speed moving harmonic rectangular load on a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

    Ground vibration due to a high-speed moving harmonic rectangular load on a poroviscoelastic half'Avignon, Facult´e des Sciences, 33 rue Louis Pasteur, F-84000 Avignon, France RUNNING TITLE: Vibrations induced) #12;Abstract The transmission of vibrations in the ground, due to a high-speed moving vertical har

  7. COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER QUALITY: A CASE STUDY IN TEXAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER QUALITY: A CASE STUDY IN TEXAS David Dearmont and Resources Portland State University P O Box 751 Portland OR 97207-0751 October, 1997 Draft of paper in Water Resources Research, 34(4), 849-854, 1998. #12;2 CHEMICAL COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER

  8. Crustal subsidence due to the Hlsln reservoir: predicting the elastic Earth response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grapenthin, Ronni

    Crustal subsidence due to the Hálslón reservoir: predicting the elastic Earth response Ronni. Later, a viscoelastic response due to stress relaxation will result in further subsidence. We present to the actual subsidence after filling of the reservoir will e.g. allow a determination of the effective Young

  9. Heliospheric ion energization due to emerging and S. D. Bale1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Heliospheric ion energization due to emerging CME shocks I. Roth1 and S. D. Bale1 Received 16 and low turbulence levels, poses a dilemma regarding the energization mechanism. When the magnetic ramp nonadiabatic characteristics. Subset of ions is energized while surfing along the shock due to the combined

  10. NOAA Technical Memorandum OAR PMEL-121 ATLAS Module Temperature Bias Due to Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Technical Memorandum OAR PMEL-121 ATLAS Module Temperature Bias Due to Solar Heating P.N. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 Temperature time series from a 1 m Seacat, NX Modules at 1 m and 10 m, and downwelling solar values for a given day. . 6 #12;iv Contents #12;ATLAS Module Temperature Bias Due to Solar Heating P.N. A

  11. Come si sceglie l'algoritmo di allineamento? le due proteine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morante, Silvia

    Come si sceglie l'algoritmo di allineamento? Domande: le due proteine hanno domini simili locale quale algoritmo di allineamento è opportuno utilizzare quale matrice di somiglianza è opportuno;Descrizione di un generico algoritmo di allineamento Siano date due sequenze, S1 e S2 , formate

  12. Cesium-137 deposition and contamination of Japanese soils due to the Fukushima nuclear accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Cesium-137 deposition and contamination of Japanese soils due to the Fukushima nuclear accident contamination due to the emission from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) showed up after a massive and severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). This event led to emissions

  13. Experimental Study on Impact Load on a Dam Due to Debris Flow1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experimental Study on Impact Load on a Dam Due to Debris Flow1 lwao Miyoshi2 ABSTRACT When a dam such destruction, it is important to perform basic research about the impact load on a dam due to debris flow. Thus on the dam. The experiment was performed with glass beads of 5mm in diameter as bulk solid, in an open

  14. Parametric spatial solitary waves due to type II second-harmonic generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parametric spatial solitary waves due to type II second-harmonic generation Alexander V. Buryak either 1 or 2 is generated). A particular case of this three-wave interaction, formally described analyze (1 1)- and (2 1)-dimensional self-guided beams (spatial solitons) due to three-wave para- metric

  15. Climate change impacts on mountain glaciers and permafrost Due to their proximity to melting conditions under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raup, Bruce H.

    Editorial Climate change impacts on mountain glaciers and permafrost Due to their proximity sensitive to climate changes. In fact, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) re- cognizes glaciers as the best terrestrial indicator of climate change, due both to their sensitivity to climatic

  16. The dissipated power in atomic force microscopy due to interactions with a capillary fluid layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul, Mark

    The dissipated power in atomic force microscopy due to interactions with a capillary fluid layer N July 2008; published online 23 September 2008 We study the power dissipated by the tip interactions of the model are entirely conservative and the dissipated power is due to the hysteretic nature

  17. Productive Energy of Corn Meal, Alfalfa Leaf Meal, Dried Buttermilk, Casein, Cottonseed Meal, and Tankage as Measured by Production of Fat and Flesh by Growing Chickens. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

    1941-01-01

    , TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER. DIRECTOR. College Station. Texas BULLETIN NO. 600 PRODUCTIVE ENERGY OF CORN MEAL, ALFALF LEAF MEAL, DRIED BUTTERMILK, CASEIN, COT- TONSEED MEAL, AND TANKAGE AS MEASURED... of a comprehensive investigation of the value of feeds and foods for productive energy as measured by the production of fat and flesh in growing chickens. In 11 experi- ments with 256 chicks previously reported, it was found that the productive...

  18. Transient heat transfer in helium II due to a sudden vacuum break

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosque, Ernesto S.; Dhuley, Ram C.; Van Sciver, Steven W. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA and FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    To ensure future cryogenic devices meet safety and operational specifications, significant value is gained from a developed understanding of the transient heat fluxes that result from failure of an insulating vacuum jacket around a helium II (He II)-cooled device. A novel, one-dimensional experiment is successfully performed examining the phenomena immediately following a vacuum rupture onto a cryosurface. In the experiment, a fast-opening (?10 ms) valve isolates a rigid container of ultra high purity nitrogen (N{sub 2}) gas kept at room temperature and adjustable pressure from a vertically oriented, highly evacuated (?10{sup ?3} Pa) tube roughly 1 m in length. The bottom of the evacuated tube is sealed via a 2.54 mm thick copper disk, whose bottom surface is in intimate contact with an open column of He II (?1.8 K). The evacuated tube, disk, and He II column share a diameter of 24 mm. Opening the valve results in a vacuum rupture. N{sub 2} gas is immediately drawn into the evacuated space and cryopumped onto the disk as a growing layer of solid cryodeposit. Various coupled transient heat transfer processes proceed as the internal energy of the warm gas is transferred through the growing layer of solid N{sub 2}, through the copper disk, and into the He II column. This work examines the qualitative nature of these transient phenomena and the magnitude of the heat fluxes present through each of the series of thermal resistances.

  19. Consistent quantification of climate impacts due to biogenic carbon storage across a range of bio-product systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guest, Geoffrey Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco Strømman, Anders H.

    2013-11-15

    Temporary and permanent carbon storage from biogenic sources is seen as a way to mitigate climate change. The aim of this work is to illustrate the need to harmonize the quantification of such mitigation across all possible storage pools in the bio- and anthroposphere. We investigate nine alternative storage cases and a wide array of bio-resource pools: from annual crops, short rotation woody crops, medium rotation temperate forests, and long rotation boreal forests. For each feedstock type and biogenic carbon storage pool, we quantify the carbon cycle climate impact due to the skewed time distribution between emission and sequestration fluxes in the bio- and anthroposphere. Additional consideration of the climate impact from albedo changes in forests is also illustrated for the boreal forest case. When characterizing climate impact with global warming potentials (GWP), we find a large variance in results which is attributed to different combinations of biomass storage and feedstock systems. The storage of biogenic carbon in any storage pool does not always confer climate benefits: even when biogenic carbon is stored long-term in durable product pools, the climate outcome may still be undesirable when the carbon is sourced from slow-growing biomass feedstock. For example, when biogenic carbon from Norway Spruce from Norway is stored in furniture with a mean life time of 43 years, a climate change impact of 0.08 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year time horizon (TH)) would result. It was also found that when biogenic carbon is stored in a pool with negligible leakage to the atmosphere, the resulting GWP factor is not necessarily ? 1 CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored. As an example, when biogenic CO{sub 2} from Norway Spruce biomass is stored in geological reservoirs with no leakage, we estimate a GWP of ? 0.56 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year TH) when albedo effects are also included. The large variance in GWPs across the range of resource and carbon storage options considered indicates that more accurate accounting will require case-specific factors derived following the methodological guidelines provided in this and recent manuscripts. -- Highlights: • Climate impacts of stored biogenic carbon (bio-C) are consistently quantified. • Temporary storage of bio-C does not always equate to a climate cooling impact. • 1 unit of bio-C stored over a time horizon does not always equate to ? 1 unit CO{sub 2}eq. • Discrepancies of climate change impact quantification in literature are clarified.

  20. Critical-current reduction in thin superconducting wires due to current crowding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berggren, Karl K.

    We demonstrate experimentally that the critical current in superconducting NbTiN wires is dependent on their geometrical shape, due to current-crowding effects. Geometric patterns such as 90? corners and sudden expansions ...

  1. Physics 112 Problem Set #3 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY JANUARY 27, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 112 Problem Set #3 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY JANUARY 27, 2000 MIDTERM ALERT: The first midterm exam will be given in class on Tuesday February 1, 2000. This exam will cover material from

  2. Physics 112 Problem Set #6 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY FEBRUARY 17, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 112 Problem Set #6 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY FEBRUARY 17, 2000 SECOND MIDTERM ALERT: The second midterm exam will be given in class on Tuesday February 22, 2000 from 10--11:30 am in 283 Kerr

  3. Physics 112 Problem Set #6 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY FEBRUARY 17, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 112 Problem Set #6 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY FEBRUARY 17, 2000 SECOND MIDTERM ALERT: The second midterm exam will be given in class on Tuesday February 22, 2000 from 10­11:30 am in 283 Kerr Hall

  4. Strategies for mitigating adverse environmental impacts due to structural building materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaturvedi, Swati, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis assesses the problem of adverse environmental impacts due to the use of Portland cement and structural steel in the construction industry. The thesis outlines three technology and policy strategies to mitigate ...

  5. Estimation of economic impact of freight distribution due to highway closure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Shiyin

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to provide a theoretical framework and methodology to estimate and analyze the economic impact of freight disruption due to highway closure. The costs in this study will be classified into ...

  6. Study on Groundwater Quality Parameter Variation Due to Temperature Change in Calibration Solution and Instrumentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    1. Title Study on Groundwater Quality Parameter Variation Due to Temperature Change in Calibration of Florida, Gainesville, FL 4. Abstract Measurement of groundwater quality parameters is essential shown that there is some variation in measured groundwater quality parameters when

  7. Variations in astrocyte and fibroblast response due to biomaterial particulates in vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VandeVord, Pamela

    Variations in astrocyte and fibroblast response due to biomaterial particulates in vitro Roche C of the biomaterials tested promoted proliferation in fibroblasts implying that biomaterial par- ticles: 14­24, 2008 Key words: reactive astrocyte; fibroblast; proliferation; cy- totoxicity; biomaterial

  8. Anomalies in the theory of viscous energy losses due to shear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    resonators. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anomalies in the theory of viscous energy losses due to shear in rotational MEMS resonators. In this paper, the effect of...

  9. StrongantimicrobialactivityofLactobacillusrhamnosus GG against Salmonella typhimurium is due to accumulation of lactic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    StrongantimicrobialactivityofLactobacillusrhamnosus GG against Salmonella typhimurium is due Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; probiotics; Salmonella typhimurium; lactic acid; antimicrobial compound; organic had been reported to exert antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium. However

  10. Development of a research methodology to study lumber waste due to design causes in residential construction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vyas, Ashok Madhusudan

    1999-01-01

    Residential Construction faces problems regarding inefficiencies of material usage. Builders pay twice for the lumber that is wasted. Once when it is purchased and once when it is disposed. Part of the lumber waste is generated due to the design...

  11. Characterization of unsteady loading due to impeller-diffuser interaction in centrifugal compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lusardi, Christopher (Christopher Dean)

    2012-01-01

    Time dependent simulations are used to characterize the unsteady impeller blade loading due to imipeller-diffuser interaction in centrifugal compressor stages. The capability of simulations are assessed by comparing results ...

  12. Space weather effects on the Mars ionosphere due to solar flares and meteors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Space weather effects on the Mars ionosphere due to solar flares and meteors P. Withers (1), M observed two aspects of space weather at Mars. Following solar flares of both moderate to strong magnitude

  13. The assessment of mixing/solid suspension in a slab tank due to vibratory agitation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Christopher Joseph

    1988-01-01

    THE ASSESSMENT OF MIXING/SOLID SUSPENSION IN A SLAB TANK DUE TO VIBRATORY AGITATION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH RAMSEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE ASSESSMENT OF MIXING/SOLID SUSPENSION IN A SLAB TANK DUE TO VIBRATORY AGITATION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH RAMSEY Approved as to style and content by: Gar B. Tatterson...

  14. Fast reconnection in high-Lundquist-number plasmas due to the plasmoid Instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang Yimin; Yang, H.; Rogers, B.

    2009-11-15

    Thin current sheets in systems of large size that exceed a critical value of the Lundquist number are unstable to a super-Alfvenic tearing instability, referred to hereafter as the plasmoid instability. The scaling of the growth rate of the most rapidly growing plasmoid instability with respect to the Lundquist number is shown to follow from the classical dispersion relation for tearing modes. As a result of this instability, the system realizes a nonlinear reconnection rate that appears to be weakly dependent on the Lundquist number, and larger than the Sweet-Parker rate by nearly an order of magnitude (for the range of Lundquist numbers considered). This regime of fast reconnection is realizable in a dynamic and highly unstable thin current sheet, without requiring the current sheet to be turbulent.

  15. Substitution of meat and bone meal and cottonseed meal for soybean meal on a digestible amino acid basis in growing pig diets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobler-Mehner, Carl Heinz

    1982-01-01

    % gain made by this group but 27 again F:G was more desirable than predicted (93/). Adding 10Z addi- tional tryptophan to diet 5 made digestible tryptophan 99% adequate but lysine and isoleucine were only 80 and 83X adequate, therefore the gains were... for Soybean Meal on a Digestible Amino Acid Basis in Growing Pig Diets (May 1982) Carl Neinz Dobler-Mehner, B. S. , Instituto Tecnologico y de Fstudios Superiores de Monterrey Co-Chairmen of Committee: Dr. T. D. Tanksley, Jr. Dr. D. A. Knabe One hundred...

  16. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Comyn, T. P. [Institute for Materials Research, Woodhouse Lane, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ringgaard, E. [Meggitt Sensing Systems, Hejreskovvej 18A, 3490 Kvistgaard (Denmark); Wright, J. P. [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2013-07-14

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{l_brace}200{r_brace}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}-cos{sup 2} {psi} plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90 Degree-Sign ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{l_brace}200{r_brace}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

  17. High redshift signatures in the 21 cm forest due to cosmic string wakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroyuki Tashiro; Toyokazu Sekiguchi; Joseph Silk

    2013-10-15

    Cosmic strings induce minihalo formation in the early universe. The resultant minihalos cluster in string wakes and create a "21 cm forest" against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum. Such a 21 cm forest can contribute to angular fluctuations of redshifted 21 cm signals integrated along the line of sight. We calculate the root-mean-square amplitude of the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings and show that these fluctuations can dominate signals from minihalos due to primordial density fluctuations at high redshift ($z \\gtrsim 10$), even if the string tension is below the current upper bound, $G \\mu Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially detect the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings with $G \\mu \\approx 7.5 \\times 10^{-8}$ for the single frequency band case and $4.0 \\times 10^{-8}$ for the multi-frequency band case.

  18. High redshift signatures in the 21 cm forest due to cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Silk, Joseph E-mail: toyokazu.sekiguchi@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic strings induce minihalo formation in the early universe. The resultant minihalos cluster in string wakes and create a ''21 cm forest'' against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum. Such a 21 cm forest can contribute to angular fluctuations of redshifted 21 cm signals integrated along the line of sight. We calculate the root-mean-square amplitude of the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings and show that these fluctuations can dominate signals from minihalos due to primordial density fluctuations at high redshift (z?>10), even if the string tension is below the current upper bound, G? < 1.5 × 10{sup ?7}. Our results also predict that the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially detect the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings with G? ? 7.5 × 10{sup ?8} for the single frequency band case and 4.0 × 10{sup ?8} for the multi-frequency band case.

  19. Critical-Current Reduction in Thin Superconducting Wires Due to Current Crowding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hortensius, H.L.; Driessen, E.F.C.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Berggren, K.K.; Clem, John

    2012-05-03

    We demonstrate experimentally that the critical current in superconducting NbTiN wires is dependent on their geometrical shape, due to current-crowding effects. Geometric patterns such as 90{degrees} corners and sudden expansions of wire width are shown to result in the reduction of critical currents. The results are relevant for single-photon detectors as well as parametric amplifiers.

  20. Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trenberth, Kevin Edward

    Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 greenhouse gases build up from 1950 to 2100. There is an increase in net radiation absorbed, but not in ways from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly

  1. Revision of the global carbon budget due to changing air-sea oxygen fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    -derived relationship between changes in atmospheric O2/N2 due to oceanic outgassing and heat fluxes to estimate ocean O2 outgassing. The inferred terrestrial carbon sink for the 1990s is reduced by a factor of two: global carbon budget, changes in ocean heat content, oceanic oxygen outgassing, ocean and land sinks

  2. Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects On the Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murty, Katta G.

    Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects temperatures have increased much more than can be explained by changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases traffic round the clock and around the globe which is contributing to higher concentrations of greenhouse

  3. Modification of graphene properties due to electron-beam irradiation D. Teweldebrhan and A. A. Balandina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modification of graphene properties due to electron-beam irradiation D. Teweldebrhan and A. A of changes in the single and bilayer graphene crystal lattice induced by the low and medium energy electron-beam and device fabrication, which rely on the electron microscopy and focused ion beam processing. © 2009

  4. N2 DISSOCIATION IN THE MESOSPHERE DUE TO SECONDARY ELECTRONS DURING A SOLAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulich, Thomas

    N2 DISSOCIATION IN THE MESOSPHERE DUE TO SECONDARY ELECTRONS DURING A SOLAR PROTON EVENT, ionization processes produce secondary electrons that, if possessing 9.76 eV or more energy, dissociate N2 to secondary electrons dur- ing a solar proton event. Further, we have studied the effect on atomic nitrogen

  5. Physics 112 Problem Set #9 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY MARCH 16, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 112 Problem Set #9 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY MARCH 16, 2000 FINAL EXAM ALERT: The final exam will be given on Friday March 17, 2000 from 7:30­10:30 pm in 283 Kerr Hall. This will be a open

  6. Physics 112 Problem Set #9 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY MARCH 16, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 112 Problem Set #9 Winter 2000 DUE: THURSDAY MARCH 16, 2000 FINAL EXAM ALERT: The final exam will be given on Friday March 17, 2000 from 7:30--10:30 pm in 283 Kerr Hall. This will be a open

  7. Suppression of 2 phase-slip due to hidden zero modes in one dimensional topological superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    Suppression of 2 phase-slip due to hidden zero modes in one dimensional topological superconductors-dimensional topological superconducting wires. These wires have been proposed as building blocks for topologically in decoherence. Phase slips in topological superconductors are peculiar for the reason that they occur

  8. CS680: Value Iteration for Mountain Cars Due Feb. 21 (SURGE March 6)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    CS680: Value Iteration for Mountain Cars Due Feb. 21 (SURGE March 6) Introduction In this assignment, you will implement a simulated control system that learns to drive a simulated car out and back of the valley until the car gains enough momentum to get out. You will apply asynchronous value

  9. Escape patterns, magnetic footprints, and homoclinic tangles due to ergodic magnetic limiters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    of the most important problems in a plasma­wall interaction in tokamaks is the control of plasma contamina of the plasma temperature in the tokamak edge region and a reduction of the plasma­wall interactions, opening- tion due to localized heat and particle loadings on the inner tokamak wall.1 It is believed

  10. Investigation of Potential Fuel Savings Due to Continuous-Descent Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dengfeng

    Investigation of Potential Fuel Savings Due to Continuous-Descent Approach Li Jin, Yi Cao a considerable number of researchers have been devoted to the estimation of potential fuel savings of the continuous-descent approach, few have attempted to explain the fuel savings observed in field tests from

  11. Understanding subsidence in the Mississippi Delta region due to sediment, ice, and ocean loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    Understanding subsidence in the Mississippi Delta region due to sediment, ice, and ocean loading The processes responsible for land surface subsidence in the Mississippi Delta (MD) have been vigorously debated. Numerous studies have postulated a dominant role for isostatic subsidence associated with sediment loading

  12. NMR relaxation in spin ice due to diffusing emergent monopoles I Christopher L. Henley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henley, Christopher L.

    out, or the reverse, which were shown to behave as (emergent) magnetic monopole [3]. The low, spin dynamics in ideal spin ice is due mainly to dilute, thermally excited magnetic monopole exponent in that exponential and the formulas for the T1 (longitudinal) and T2 (dephasing) relaxations

  13. Observation of tearing mode deceleration and locking due to eddy currents induced in a conducting shell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    Observation of tearing mode deceleration and locking due to eddy currents induced in a conducting eddy currents induced by the rotating mode in the conducting shell surrounding the plasma. According to the amplitude of the mode.4­7 According to this theory, eddy currents induced in the conducting shell

  14. A simple numerical model of the apparent loss of eddy current conductivity due to surface roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    A simple numerical model of the apparent loss of eddy current conductivity due to surface roughness of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation, the path of the eddy current must follow a more tortuous route in the material, which produces a reduction

  15. Doctoral Defense "Frost Deterioration in Concrete Due to Deicer Salt Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Doctoral Defense "Frost Deterioration in Concrete Due to Deicer Salt Exposure: Mechanism-freeze climate zone. During winter a deicer-salt application is needed to melt snow on highways. Freezing in the presence of a deicer salt solution is considered a severe concrete exposure condition. Prolonged exposure

  16. Apparent Slip Due to the Motion of Suspended Particles in Flows of Electrolyte Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauga, Eric

    Apparent Slip Due to the Motion of Suspended Particles in Flows of Electrolyte Solutions Eric Lauga of electrolyte solutions in small channels or capillaries in which tracer particles are used to probe velocity near a stationary solid surface.1 Although it has been a crucial ingredient of our understanding

  17. Characterization and removal of errors due to local magnetic anomalies in directional drilling Nathan Hancock*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization and removal of errors due to local magnetic anomalies in directional drilling of Geophysics, Colorado School of Mines Summary Directional drilling has evolved over the last few decades utilizes a technique known as magnetic Measurement While Drilling (MWD). Vector measurements of geomagnetic

  18. Cluster Report Description Date due to IEA Responsible person(s) Comments Annual Faculty Assignments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Cluster Report Description Date due to IEA Responsible person(s) Comments Annual Faculty Heads By October 12, 2015, data is provided by IEA for report completion. Fall Activity Report Faculty is provided by IEA for report completion. Spring Activity Report Faculty activity report for Spring, 2016 June

  19. Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss Shfaqat A. Khan,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Kristine

    Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss Shfaqat A. Khan,1 John Wahr,2 caused an elastic uplift of $35 mm at a GPS site in Kulusuk. Most of the uplift results from ice dynamic digital elevation models, contributes about $16 mm of the observed uplift, with an additional $5 mm from

  20. PROBLEM SET 3 Due 2:40pm Wednesday 30 July

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    figure below), so you would say that at standard atmospheric pressure, water boils at 373 K. Use yourPROBLEM SET 3 Due 2:40pm Wednesday 30 July Astro/EPS C12 -- Mike Wong Write your name at the top studies to discover that this comet is made entirely of water ice. What is the mass of the comet

  1. High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Glycol Prevents Lethal Sepsis Due to Intestinal Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ka Yee C.

    High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Glycol Prevents Lethal Sepsis Due to Intestinal Pseudomonas of this study were to test the ability of a high-molecular- weight polyethylene glycol compound, polyethylene: The ability of polyethylene glycol 15­20 to protect the intestinal epi- thelium against the opportunistic

  2. GRADUATE RESEARCH ASSISTANT (GRA) TERM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION DUE: LAST DAY OF EACH TERM OF APPOINTMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    GRADUATE RESEARCH ASSISTANT (GRA) TERM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION DUE: LAST DAY OF EACH TERM No N/A If yes: By Grad School By Department When: Were the expectations made known to the GRA? Yes those functions that apply to the GRA. Otherwise select N/A.) RESEARCH FUNCTIONS PERFORMANCE LEVEL

  3. Math 702 Problem Set #7 Due Mon., April 26, 2004 1. Let Y P1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harbater, David

    Math 702 Problem Set #7 Due Mon., April 26, 2004 1. Let Y P1 C be a G-Galois branched cover, with branch locus P1, . . ., Pr, where Pj is at x = j. Let P be a base point on the positive imaginary axis. Choose a homotopy basis 1, . . ., r of counterclockwise loops at P, where j winds once around Pj

  4. Sinking cities in Indonesia: ALOS PALSAR detects rapid subsidence due to groundwater and gas extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amelung, Falk

    Sinking cities in Indonesia: ALOS PALSAR detects rapid subsidence due to groundwater and gas and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, USA b Institute of Technology, Bandung (ITB), Indonesia c Korea online xxxx Keywords: Subsidence Interferometric synthetic aperture radar SBAS time-series Indonesia We

  5. Math 331 -Fall 2008 Project 3 -Fractals Due Dec 17th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Scott

    Math 331 - Fall 2008 Project 3 - Fractals Due Dec 17th For this project, you should submit a paper clearly how you construct such a set and compute the similarity dimension. Plot the first 4 approximating must be entirely individual and that any form of sharing the paper or the Maple file will be penalized

  6. Simulation of coherent control of hydroxyl formed due to HCl adsorption on MgO(001)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markmann, Andreas

    Simulation of coherent control of hydroxyl formed due to HCl adsorption on MgO(001) Andreas-excitation scheme is proposed to excite the stretching vibration of the hydroxyl ion formed at the surface of Mg the yield of hydroxyl molecules in a vibrationally highly excited state. The main frequencies and chirp

  7. Formulating an Optimization Problem for Minimization of Losses due to Utilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Como, Giacomo

    Formulating an Optimization Problem for Minimization of Losses due to Utilities Anna Lindholm.lindholm@control.lth.se). Abstract: Utilities, such as steam and cooling water, are often shared between several production areas at industrial sites, and the effects of disturbances in utilities could thus be hard to predict. In addition

  8. SES: Methods in Microbial Ecology Fall 2015 Problem Set 5 (Due 22 Oct 2015)*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    ? (2 pts) 6) A) Let us assume that a microbial community has glucose available as an energy sourceSES: Methods in Microbial Ecology Fall 2015 Problem Set 5 (Due 22 Oct 2015)* 1) Plot are transport processes so important in studying microbial biogeochemistry? (2 pts) 5) A) From the electron

  9. SES: Methods in Microbial Ecology Problem Set 1 (Due 17 Sept 15)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    SES: Methods in Microbial Ecology Fall 2015 Problem Set 1 (Due 17 Sept 15) Answers to the questions the following energy and carbon sources: Carbon Source Energy Source a) CO2 Light b) C6H12O6 C6H12O6 2 CO2 + 2 one way a rumen microbial system can be destabilized, and explain what happens. #12;

  10. SES: Methods in Microbial Ecology Problem Set 1 (Due 11 Sept 14)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    SES: Methods in Microbial Ecology Fall 2014 Problem Set 1 (Due 11 Sept 14) Answers to the questions the following energy and carbon sources: Carbon Source Energy Source a) CO2 Light b) C6H12O6 C6H12O6 2 CO2 + 2 one way a rumen microbial system can be destabilized, and explain what happens. #12;

  11. Theoretical evaluation on burn injury of human respiratory tract due to inhalation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jun

    at tissue temperature (kPa) mQ Metabolic rate of tissue (W/m3 ) R Ideal gas constant (J/molK) Re Reynolds1 Theoretical evaluation on burn injury of human respiratory tract due to inhalation of hot gas to predict the thermal impact of inhaled hot air during the early stage of fires. Influences of individual

  12. News & Blogs U.S. Lightning Strikes May Increase 50% Due to Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romps, David M.

    News & Blogs U.S. Lightning Strikes May Increase 50% Due to Global Warming By: Dr. Jeff Masters (/blog/JeffMasters/show.html) , 4:04 PM GMT on November 14, 2014 A warmer world will have much more, (http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/comment.html?entrynum=2320) the Whitewater- Baldy Complex

  13. PREDICTION OF SURFACE SETTLEMENT DUE TO THE DISPLACEMENT OF SOFT ZONES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W

    2008-03-03

    In areas composed of coastal plain sediments, soft zones subjected to partial overburden may be present in the subsurface. During or after a seismic event, these soft zones may be compressed. The resulting displacement due to the deformation of the soft zones will propagate to the ground surface and cause the surface to settle. This paper presents a method to predict the settlement at the surface due to the propagation of the displacement from the soft zones. This method is performed by discretizing the soft zones into multiple clusters of finite sub-areas or subspaces. Settlement profile at the ground surface due to the displacement of each sub-area or subspace is computed assuming the shape is a normal distribution function. Settlement due to the displacement of the soft zones can then be approximated by adding the settlements computed for all the sub-areas or subspaces. This method provides a simple and useful tool for the prediction of the settlement profile and the results are consistent with those obtained from the finite difference analysis.

  14. Cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) have attracted much attention over the past several years due to their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) have attracted much attention over the past several years due- hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate). Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared from microcrystilline cellulose (MCC) using) threads with the addition of cellulose nanowhiskers. PHBV-CNW fibers were prepared by wet spinning

  15. Radar transponder operation with compensation for distortion due to amplitude modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ormesher, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Tise, Bertice L. (Albuquerque, NM); Axline, Jr., Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-01-04

    In radar transponder operation, a variably delayed gating signal is used to gate a received radar pulse and thereby produce a corresponding gated radar pulse for transmission back to the source of the received radar pulse. This compensates for signal distortion due to amplitude modulation on the retransmitted pulse.

  16. 4180 Design Project Status Report -Due every Friday Team Name/Project:___Autonomous Robotic Arm_____

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamblen, James

    4180 Design Project Status Report - Due every Friday Team Name/Project:___Autonomous Robotic Arm a continuous live video) Mbed (Arm): Successfully tested arm response to serial commands. (Objects were picked). Configuration: It was decided that the camera would be attached to the base of the mechanical arm. Remaining

  17. Mechanisms of triple-shape polymeric composites due to dual thermal transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Mechanisms of triple-shape polymeric composites due to dual thermal transitions Qi Ge,a Xiaofan Luo in response to environmental stimuli such as heat, electricity, irradiation, moisture, or magnetic field in experiments. The stress and stored energy analysis during the shape memory cycle provides insight

  18. Effective normal stress alteration due to pore pressure changes induced by dynamic slip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effective normal stress alteration due to pore pressure changes induced by dynamic slip propagation and permeabilities causes a change in pore pressure there. Because slip causes compression on one side of the fault wall and extension on the other, the pore pressure on the fault increases substantially when

  19. Change in surface energy balance in Alaska due to fire and spring warming, based on upscaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Change in surface energy balance in Alaska due to fire and spring warming, based on upscaling eddy in northern high latitudes has changed the energy balance between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere larger than the change in the energy forcing associated with CO2 balance for the Alaska region. Spring

  20. Growth Termination of Carbon Nanotubes at Millimeter Thickness Due to Structural Change in Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Growth Termination of Carbon Nanotubes at Millimeter Thickness Due to Structural Change in Catalyst, it is reported that "supergrowth" rate decreases with reaction time and finally the growth terminates [2]. Our group recently reproduced "supergrowth" [3] and observed similar "supergrowth" termination within a few

  1. Ladder Inspections Due to recent information, lessons learned, and accident reports from across the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quigg, Chris

    Ladder Inspections Due to recent information, lessons learned, and accident reports from across details: 29 CFR 1910 "General Industry" at 1910.25 Portable Wood Ladders; 1910.26 Portable Metal Ladders Portable Ladder Inspection Checklist #12;Date of Inspection: Name of Inspector: Ladder Identification: Type

  2. Winter Eddy Genesis in the Eastern South China Sea due to Orographic Wind Jets GUIHUA WANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, .Dake

    Winter Eddy Genesis in the Eastern South China Sea due to Orographic Wind Jets GUIHUA WANG State, China (Manuscript received 22 June 2007, in final form 10 August 2007) ABSTRACT Generation of mesoscale with a reduced-gravity model. It is found that the orographic wind jets associated with the northeast winter

  3. Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage voltage drops on the power grid that can affect circuit timing. We propose a statistical analysis supply voltage to circuit devices is referred to as the power grid. The consequences of power grid

  4. Prediction of shear strength and vertical movement due to moisture diffusion through expansive soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Xiaoyan

    2006-10-30

    be increased due to the presence of shrinkage cracks on soil drying or desiccation. This dissertation follows the style and format of the Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 2 For the case of foundation walls in basements...) Plasticity Index Shrinkage Limit Very High > 30 > 28 > 35 15 In geotechnical engineering practice, the problems associated...

  5. Temporal-spatial modeling of electron density enhancement due to successive lightning strokes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    (FDTD) model that describes the effect of lightning electromagnetic pulses (EMP) on the ionosphere. Each The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from lightning has been shown to modify conductivity and electron density in the lower successive EMP pulse interacts with a modified background ionosphere due to the previous pulses, resulting

  6. Stability of vertical films of molten glass due to evaporation F. Pigeonneau,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    to the high temperature, decreases due to the thermal insulator property of glass foam [38]. Consequently a carbon dioxide release. The low solubility of CO2 leads to a creation of large quantity of bubbles a stabilizing effect when temperature is larger than 1250 C. A model to describe the change of surface tension

  7. Cooling of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere due to doubling of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Cooling of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere due to doubling of CO2 R. A. Akmaev1 , V. I 1998 Abstract. A new parameterization of infrared radiative transfer in the 15-lm CO2 band has been to calcu- lations of heating rates above approximately 15 km for arbitrary vertical pro®les of the CO2

  8. KILLING OF TARGET CELLS DUE TO RADON PROGENY IN THE HUMAN LUNG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    KILLING OF TARGET CELLS DUE TO RADON PROGENY IN THE HUMAN LUNG B. M. F. Lau1 , D. Nikezic1,2 and K to inhaled radon progeny in the human lung. The present work uses the microdosimetric approach and determines/alleviate this discrepancy, including those based on different lung morpho- metry models(4) , different ethnic groups(5

  9. Biomaterials 26 (2005) 75877595 Nano-C60 cytotoxicity is due to lipid peroxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natelson, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Biomaterials 26 (2005) 7587­7595 Nano-C60 cytotoxicity is due to lipid peroxidation Christie M conducted to probe the mechanisms governing the ARTICLE IN PRESS www.elsevier.com/locate/biomaterials 0142-9612/$ - see front matter r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005

  10. Field monitoring and modeling of pavement response and service life consumption due to overweight truck traffic 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Jeong-Ho

    2004-11-15

    performance with respect to both rutting and fatigue cracking. Charts to evaluate the service life of the existing pavement subjected to OTTs are established in terms of the unit service life consumed due to the rutting and fatigue cracking with the various...

  11. Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow S. R. Pride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow S. R. Pride Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley that squirt flow is incapable of explaining the measured level of loss (10À2 seismic enough attenuation to explain the field data. INDEX TERMS: 0935 Exploration Geophysics: Seismic methods

  12. Transport of Energetic Ions due to Microturbulence, Sawteeth, and Alfven Eigenmodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhihong

    Transport of Energetic Ions due to Microturbulence, Sawteeth, and Alfv´en Eigenmodes D. C. Pace1 , R. B. White6 , J. H. Yu8 , W. Zhang1 and Y. B. Zhu1 1 University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, USA 2 General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 3 Max

  13. Instabilities due a vortex at a density interface: gravitational and centrifugal effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixit, Harish

    Instabilities due a vortex at a density interface: gravitational and centrifugal effects Harish N showed recently that the flow is subject to centrifugal Rayleigh-Taylor and spiral Kelvin for example [5]). In the absence of gravity, centrifugal forces are predominant, and we showed recently [4

  14. Renewable Energy Papers and Presentations Paper due Wednesday 16 October 2013 at 12:00 midnight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Cynthia

    Renewable Energy Papers and Presentations Paper due Wednesday 16 October 2013 at 12:00 midnight with specific focus on an aspect related to renewable energy. The topic should not be too broad. The length;Hybrid solar wind (83) Off grid systems (58) Smart grid storage (28) #12;

  15. Acceleration, due to occupational exposure, of time to onset of a disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huber, Catherine

    of specific diseases. A pecuniary compensation, to be paid by the state or the company, is then due not be the proper choice here. Several other models, though, can be used in order to solve our problem. One factors that could also induce lung cancer, like family history of cancer and tobacco consump- tion

  16. Project due (before) Wednesday, April 13 (5 pm) Two to three pages of write-up

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Nancy

    Project Project due (before) Wednesday, April 13 (5 pm) Two to three pages of write often as informative other methods of unsupervised learning include projection methods "classification measure Dii = p j=1 |xij - xi j| manhattan Dii = p j=1 |xij - xi j| |xij + xi j| Canberra STA 450/4000 S

  17. Impacts of land use change due to biofuel crops on carbon balance, bioenergy production, and agricultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Impacts of land use change due to biofuel crops on carbon balance, bioenergy production that biofuel crops have much higher net pri- mary production (NPP) than soybean and wheat crops. When food). Global biofuel production has increased dramatically in the last decade, especially in United States

  18. Evidence of enhanced precipitation due to irrigation over the Great Plains of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Evidence of enhanced precipitation due to irrigation over the Great Plains of the United States of the local hydrological cycle has enhanced the regional precipitation. We examined station and gridded precipitation observations for the warm season months over and downwind of the Ogallala over the 20th century

  19. Universality of the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AlGendy, Mohammad; Morsink, Sharon M.

    2014-08-20

    On the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star, the effective centrifugal force decreases the effective acceleration due to gravity (as measured in the rotating frame) at the equator while increasing the acceleration at the poles due to the centrifugal flattening of the star into an oblate spheroid. We compute the effective gravitational acceleration for relativistic rapidly rotating neutron stars and show that for a star with mass M, equatorial radius R{sub e} , and angular velocity ?, the deviations of the effective acceleration due to gravity from the nonrotating case take on a universal form that depends only on the compactness ratio M/R{sub e} , the dimensionless square of the angular velocity ?{sup 2}R{sub e}{sup 3}/GM, and the latitude on the star's surface. This dependence is universal, in that it has very little dependence on the neutron star's equation of state. The effective gravity is expanded in the slow-rotation limit to show the dependence on the effective centrifugal force, oblate shape of the star, and the quadrupole moment of the gravitational field. In addition, an empirical fit and simple formula for the effective gravity is found. We find that the increase in the acceleration due to gravity at the poles is of the same order of magnitude as the decrease in the effective acceleration due to gravity at the equator for all realistic value of mass, radius, and spin. For neutron stars that spin with frequencies near 600 Hz, the difference between the effective gravity at the poles and the equator is about 20%.

  20. Marangoni spreading due to a localized alcohol supply on a thin water film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernández-Sánchez, José Federico; Snoeijer, J H

    2013-01-01

    Bringing the interfaces of two miscible fluids into contact naturally generates strong gradients in surface tension. Here we investigate such a Marangoni-driven flow by continuously supplying isopropyl alcohol (IPA) on a film of water, using micron-sized droplets of IPA-water mixtures. These droplets create a localized depression in surface tension that leads to the opening of a circular and thin region in the water film. At the edge of the thin region, there is a rim growing and collecting the water of the film. We find that the spreading radius scales as $r \\sim t^{1/2}$. This result can be explained from a balance between Marangoni and viscous stresses, assuming that the gradients in surface tension are smoothened out over the entire size of the circular opening. We derive a scaling law that accurately predicts the influence of the IPA flux as well as the thickness of the thin film at the interior of the spreading front.

  1. Heavy Metal Islands | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    moving surface atoms and can grow slowly over hours. At temperatures well below freezing, lead atoms are systematically deposited onto a thick piece of silicon wafer, forming...

  2. Risk analysis of the LHC underground area fire risk due to faulty electrical equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, A

    2007-01-01

    The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, is currently building the latest generation of particle accelerators, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The machine is housed in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference and is situated approximately 100 metres beneath the surface astride the Franco-Swiss border. Electrically induced fires in the LHC are a major concern, since an incident could present a threat to CERN personnel as well as the public. Moreover, the loss of equipment would result in significant costs and downtime. However, the amount of electrical equipment in the underground area required for operation, supervision and control of the machine is essential. Thus the present thesis is assessing the risk of fire due to faulty electrical equipment in both a qualitative as well as quantitative way. The recommendations following the qualitative analysis suggest the introduction of fire protection zones for the areas with the highest risk of fire due to a combination of p...

  3. Calculating energy storage due to topological changes in emerging active region NOAA AR 11112

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarr, L A

    2012-01-01

    The Minimum Current Corona (MCC) model provides a way to estimate stored coronal energy using the number of field lines connecting regions of positive and negative photospheric flux. This information is quantified by the net flux connecting pairs of opposing regions in a connectivity matrix. Changes in the coronal magnetic field, due to processes such as magnetic reconnection, manifest themselves as changes in the connectivity matrix. However, the connectivity matrix will also change when flux sources emerge or submerge through the photosphere, as often happens in active regions. We have developed an algorithm to estimate the changes in flux due to emergence and submergence of magnetic flux sources. These estimated changes must be accounted for in order to quantify storage and release of magnetic energy in the corona. To perform this calculation over extended periods of time, we must additionally have a consistently labeled connectivity matrix over the entire observational time span. We have therefore develop...

  4. Exciton matter sustained by colossal dispersive interactions due to enhanced polarizability: Possible clue to ball lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgiev, M; Georgiev, Mladen; Singh, Jai

    2005-01-01

    Recently Gilman has pointed out that the material state of a ball lightning is both highly cohesive and flexible. He makes a specific proposal for a cohesive state arising from (colossal) Van-der-Waals attraction between highly polarizable Rydberg atoms produced under a linear lightning. We accept his general suggestions but propose that the colossal Van-der-Waals coupling may also arise from the enhanced polarizability of surrogate molecular clusters, due to the polaron gap narrowing effect. We consider a few illuminating cases and present calculations for the ammonia molecule. Although being unable to identify the exact nature of the surrogate molecules at least for the time-being, we suggest a general scenario of photoexcited vibronic excitons forming a supersaturated surrogate gas phase in which a ball arises as a result of condensation. The orange color of the luminous ball is due to radiative exciton deexcitation and suggests that there may be a unique surrogate material for ball lightning.

  5. The effective inertial acceleration due to oscillations of the gravitational potential: footprints in the solar system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. L. Khokhlov

    2003-12-02

    The conjecture is considered that every body induces the wave field which imposes oscillations on the gravitational potential of a body. The function for oscillations is chosen to prevent the gravitational collapse of the matter at the nucleus energy density. Oscillations of the gravitational potential of a body produce effective inertial outward acceleration for a particle orbiting around the body. Footprints of the effective inertial acceleration due to oscillations of the gravitational potentials of the Sun and Earth are investigated. The conjecture allows to explain the anomalous shift of the perihelion of Mercury and Icarus, the anomalous shift of the perigee of LAGEOS II, the anomalous acceleration acting on Pioneer 10, 11, the anomalous increase in the lunar semi-major axis. The advance of the Keplerian orbit for Earth, Jupiter, Neptune, Uranus caused by the effective inertial acceleration due to oscillations of the gravitational potential of the Sun is in agreement with the observational bounds from the planetary ephemeris.

  6. The Generation of Edge Toroidal Momentum due to Ion Orbit Losses and its Effect on the Scrape-Off Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Generation of Edge Toroidal Momentum due to Ion Orbit Losses and its Effect on the Scrape-Off Layer

  7. Generation of galactic disc warps due to intergalactic accretion flows onto the disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Lopez-Corredoira; J. Betancort-Rijo; J. E. Beckman

    2002-02-07

    A new method is developed to calculate the amplitude of the galactic warps generated by a torque due to external forces. This takes into account that the warp is produced as a reorientation of the different rings which constitute the disc in order to compensate the differential precession generated by the external force, yielding a uniform asymptotic precession for all rings. Application of this method to gravitational tidal forces in the Milky Way due to the Magellanic Clouds leads to a very low amplitude of the warp. If the force were due to an extragalactic magnetic field, its intensity would have to be very high, to generate the observed warps. An alternative hypothesis is explored: the accretion of the intergalactic medium over the disk. A cup-shaped distortion is expected, due to the transmission of the linear momentum; but, this effect is small and the predominant effect turns out to be the transmission of angular momentum, i.e. a torque giving an integral-sign shape warp. The torque produced by a flow of velocity ~100 km/s and baryon density \\~10^{-25} kg/m^3 is enough to generate the observed warps and this mechanism offers quite a plausible explanation. First, because this order of accretion rate is inferred from other processes observed in the Galaxy, notably its chemical evolution. The inferred rate of infall of matter, ~1 solar-mass/yr, to the Galactic disc that this theory predicts agrees with the quantitative predictions of this chemical evolution resolving key issues, notably the G-dwarf problem. Second, because the required density of the intergalactic medium is within the range of values compatible with observation. By this mechanism, we can explain the warp phenomenon in terms of intergalactic accretion flows onto the disk of the galaxy.

  8. Pathological changes in the goat associated with acute gastro-intestinal death due to radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Richard Michael

    1964-01-01

    ~4. 6 and increased activity of endothelial cells. An epithelioid transformation of the lymphoid follicles has been reported foLLowing 10& 32 comolete lymphocytic depletion. The lymphocyte count. in the peripheral blood of mammals drops soon after...' 29z 39 in globulins. "Sludging" of blood has been reported 9 in the irradiated hamster when the A/0 ratio falls to 1. 0 or below, Knteric loss of plasma proteins due to gastrointestinal disease can reach sez'ious proportions when the loss...

  9. Stresses due to environmental conditioning of cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglass, David Alan

    1979-01-01

    seconds, we discard the process of heat conduction and consider spatially uniform temperature profiles throughout the conditioning process. On the other hand, we account for the predominant effect of temperature on moisture diffusivity in solving... for the mositure diffusion which, due to its ex- tremely slol! progress, is described by a transient and non-uniform process throughout the conditioning stage. Moisture and temperature have a double-pronged effect on the response of composites. On one hand both...

  10. Quark confinement due to non-Abelian magnetic monopoles in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru; Kato, Seikou [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Computing Research Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Fukui National College of Technology, Sabae 916-8507 (Japan)

    2012-10-23

    We present recent results on quark confinement: in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, confinement of fundamental quarks is obtained due to the dual Meissner effect originated from non-Abelian magnetic monopoles defined in a gauge-invariant way, which is distinct from the well-known Abelian projection scenario. This is achieved by using a non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator and a new reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory.

  11. Mitigation, Adaptation, Uncertainty -- Growing Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felsen, Martin; Dunn, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    system for harvesting and returning clean water to Lakeharvesting for landscape and species health, and surface water and

  12. Mitigation, Adaptation, Uncertainty -- Growing Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felsen, Martin; Dunn, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    cantly reduce the urban heat-island effect, increase organicthereby reducing urban heat-island effects and increasing

  13. January2013Update Growing Together

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Philip

    , electric or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel equipment, and the washing of truck undercarriages and wheels

  14. How to Grow Old: Essays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez, Andrea Marie

    2012-01-01

    Arts by Andrea Marie Gutierrez June 2012 Thesis Committee:Thomas Lutz Copyright by Andrea Marie Gutierrez The Thesisof Andrea Marie Gutierrez is approved: Committee Chairperson

  15. Mitigation, Adaptation, Uncertainty -- Growing Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felsen, Martin; Dunn, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    intercept combined sewer and stormwater overflow in the citythat naturally manages stormwater and improves waterChicago’s wastewater and stormwater. Treated water would be

  16. Two Methods of Growing Onions. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittuck, B. C.; McHenry, S. A.

    1901-01-01

    per acre of $53.86. 2. FIoise Cziliure, seecl plantecl in beds ancl transpla 30"x4+", made a net irofit per acre of $58.95. 3. Hand Cultu~e, seed planted in field, rows 14"x-r,;,', macle a nc- profit per acre of $80.44. GROVCTI KG AKD 31s KIU 1...BULLETIN NO. 60. TlvO METHODS RO\\4TING ONIONS. X POETOFFICE: COLIJEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUI I -- A ITSTIS. TEXAS: VON ROECKYAKN, PCHI'IZE Pi CO.. STATE CON'lni\\~~r)nh. 15101. 1'191 (AS AGRICULTURAL EXPtHIMtN I STATIONS. OFFICERS...

  17. GROW HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to Tapping intoandMinimal Cost2-95) DATEDepartment ofGOODS

  18. GROW HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to Tapping intoandMinimal Cost2-95) DATEDepartment ofGOODSGROW HOME

  19. GROW HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to Tapping intoandMinimal Cost2-95) DATEDepartment ofGOODSGROW

  20. GROW HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice ofofWindUpcoming eventsFleetFranklinofFind7, 2011, theNEPAGROW

  1. Friction due to inhomogeneous driving of coupled spins in a quantum heat engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Thomas; Ramandeep S. Johal

    2013-10-01

    We consider two spin-1/2 particles with isotropic Heisenberg interaction, as the working substance of a quantum heat engine. We observe a frictional effect on the adiabatic branches of the heat cycle, which arises due to an inhomogeneous driving at a finite rate of the external magnetic field. The frictional effect is characterized by entropy production in the system and reduction in the work extracted. Corresponding to a sudden and a very slow driving, we find expressions for the lower and upper bounds of work that can be extracted on the adiabatic branches. These bounds are also confirmed with numerical simulations of the corresponding Liouville-von Neumann equation.

  2. Photoluminescence due to inelastic exciton-exciton scattering in ZnMgO-alloy thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chia, C. H.; Chen, J. N.; Hu, Y. M. [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-26

    We studied the photoluminescence of ZnMgO thin film, grown by the radiofrequency sputtering method, as a function of excitation intensity and temperature. As the excitation intensity increases, a nonlinear emission band caused by the radiative recombination of the inelastic exciton-exciton scattering was detected at low temperature. We found that the inelastic exciton-exciton scattering process can only persist up to T {approx} 260 K. The nonlinear emission band observed at room temperature is due to the radiative recombination of the electron-hole plasma.

  3. Time delay and magnification centroid due to gravitational lensing by black holes and naked singularities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. S. Virbhadra; C. R. Keeton

    2007-10-11

    We model the massive dark object at the center of the Galaxy as a Schwarzschild black hole as well as Janis-Newman-Winicour naked singularities, characterized by the mass and scalar charge parameters, and study gravitational lensing (particularly time delay, magnification centroid, and total magnification) by them. We find that the lensing features are qualitatively similar (though quantitatively different) for the Schwarzschild black holes, weakly naked, and marginally strongly naked singularities. However, the lensing characteristics of strongly naked singularities are qualitatively very different from those due the Schwarzschild black holes. The images produced by Schwarzschild black hole lenses and weakly naked and marginally strongly naked singularity lenses always have positive time delays. On the other hand, the strongly naked singularity lenses can give rise to images with positive, zero, or negative time delays. In particular, for a large angular source position the direct image (the outermost image on the same side as the source) due to strongly naked singularity lensing always has negative time delay. We also found that the scalar field decreases the time delay and increases the magnitude of magnifications of images; this result could have important implications for cosmology. As the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric also describes the exterior gravitational field of a scalar star, naked singularities as well as scalar star lenses, if these exist in nature, will serve as more efficient cosmic telescopes than regular gravitational lenses.

  4. Time delay and magnification centroid due to gravitational lensing by black holes and naked singularities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virbhadra, K. S.; Keeton, C. R.

    2008-06-15

    We model the massive dark object at the center of the Galaxy as a Schwarzschild black hole as well as Janis-Newman-Winicour naked singularities, characterized by the mass and scalar charge parameters, and study gravitational lensing (particularly time delay, magnification centroid, and total magnification) by them. We find that the lensing features are qualitatively similar (though quantitatively different) for Schwarzschild black holes, weakly naked, and marginally strongly naked singularities. However, the lensing characteristics of strongly naked singularities are qualitatively very different from those due to Schwarzschild black holes. The images produced by Schwarzschild black hole lenses and weakly naked and marginally strongly naked singularity lenses always have positive time delays. On the other hand, strongly naked singularity lenses can give rise to images with positive, zero, or negative time delays. In particular, for a large angular source position the direct image (the outermost image on the same side as the source) due to strongly naked singularity lensing always has a negative time delay. We also found that the scalar field decreases the time delay and increases the total magnification of images; this result could have important implications for cosmology. As the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric also describes the exterior gravitational field of a scalar star, naked singularities as well as scalar star lenses, if these exist in nature, will serve as more efficient cosmic telescopes than regular gravitational lenses.

  5. Millimeter-wave polarization of protoplanetary disks due to dust scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Momose, Munetake; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Fukagawa, Misato; Shibai, Hiroshi; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Murakawa, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to constrain the grain size in protoplanetary disks with polarization observations at millimeter wavelengths. If dust grains are grown to the size comparable to the wavelengths, the dust grains are expected to have a large scattering opacity and thus the continuum emission is expected to be polarized due to self-scattering. We perform 3D radiative transfer calculations to estimate the polarization degree for the protoplanetary disks having radial Gaussian-like dust surface density distributions, which have been recently discovered. The maximum grain size is set to be $100 {\\rm~\\mu m}$ and the observing wavelength to be 870 ${\\rm \\mu m}$. We find that the polarization degree is as high as 2.5% with a subarcsec spatial resolution, which is likely to be detected with near-future ALMA observations. The emission is polarized due to scattering of anisotropic continuum emission. The map of the polarization degree shows a double peaked distribution and the polarization vectors are in the radia...

  6. Neutrino pair emission due to scattering of electrons off fluxoids in superfluid neutron star cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D. Kaminker; D. G. Yakovlev; P. Haensel

    1997-02-18

    We study the emission of neutrinos, resulting from the scattering of electrons off magnetic flux tubes (fluxoids) in the neutron star cores with superfluid (superconducting) protons. In the absence of proton superfluidity (T> T_{cp}), this process transforms into the well known electron synchrotron emission of neutrino pairs in a locally uniform magnetic field B, with the neutrino energy loss rate Q proportional to B^2 T^5. For temperatures T not much below T_{cp}, the synchrotron regime (Q \\propto T^5) persists and the emissivity Q can be amplified by several orders of magnitude due to the appearance of the fluxoids and associated enhancement of the field within them. For lower T, the synchrotron regime transforms into the bremsstrahlung regime (Q \\propto T^6) similar to the ordinary neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung of electrons which scatter off atomic nuclei. We calculate Q numerically and represent our results through a suitable analytic fit. In addition, we estimate the emissivities of two other neutrino-production mechanisms which are usually neglected -- neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung processes due to electron-proton and electron-electron collisions. We show that the electron-fluxoid and electron-electron scattering can provide the main neutrino production mechanisms in the neutron star cores with highly superfluid protons and neutrons at T scattering is significant if the initial, locally uniform magnetic field B > 10^{13} G.

  7. Continuum-kinetic-microscopic model of lung clearance due to core-annular fluid entrainment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitran, Sorin

    2013-07-01

    The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale.

  8. Wakefield and RF Kicks Due to Coupler Asymmetry in TESLA-Type Accelerating Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; /SLAC; Dohlus, M.; Zagorodnov, I.; /DESY; Gonin, I.; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab; Gjonaj, E.; Weiland, T.; /Darmstadt, Tech. Hochsch.

    2008-07-07

    In a future linear collider, such as the International Linear Collider (ILC), trains of high current, low emittance bunches will be accelerated in a linac before colliding at the interaction point. Asymmetries in the accelerating cavities of the linac will generate fields that will kick the beam transversely and degrade the beam emittance and thus the collider performance. In the main linac of the ILC, which is filled with TESLA-type superconducting cavities, it is the fundamental (FM) and higher mode (HM) couplers that are asymmetric and thus the source of such kicks. The kicks are of two types: one, due to (the asymmetry in) the fundamental RF fields and the other, due to transverse wakefields that are generated by the beam even when it is on axis. In this report we calculate the strength of these kicks and estimate their effect on the ILC beam. The TESLA cavity comprises nine cells, one HM coupler in the upstream end, and one (identical, though rotated) HM coupler and one FM coupler in the downstream end (for their shapes and location see Figs. 1, 2) [1]. The cavity is 1.1 m long, the iris radius 35 mm, and the coupler beam pipe radius 39 mm. Note that the couplers reach closer to the axis than the irises, down to a distance of 30 mm.

  9. CALCULATING ENERGY STORAGE DUE TO TOPOLOGICAL CHANGES IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGION NOAA AR 11112

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana

    2012-04-10

    The minimum current corona model provides a way to estimate stored coronal energy using the number of field lines connecting regions of positive and negative photospheric flux. This information is quantified by the net flux connecting pairs of opposing regions in a connectivity matrix. Changes in the coronal magnetic field, due to processes such as magnetic reconnection, manifest themselves as changes in the connectivity matrix. However, the connectivity matrix will also change when flux sources emerge or submerge through the photosphere, as often happens in active regions. We have developed an algorithm to estimate the changes in flux due to emergence and submergence of magnetic flux sources. These estimated changes must be accounted for in order to quantify storage and release of magnetic energy in the corona. To perform this calculation over extended periods of time, we must additionally have a consistently labeled connectivity matrix over the entire observational time span. We have therefore developed an automated tracking algorithm to generate a consistent connectivity matrix as the photospheric source regions evolve over time. We have applied this method to NOAA Active Region 11112, which underwent a GOES M2.9 class flare around 19:00 on 2010 October 16th, and calculated a lower bound on the free magnetic energy buildup of {approx}8.25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg over 3 days.

  10. Assessing the Significance of Above- and Belowground Carbon Allocation of Fast- and Slow-Growing Families of Loblolly Pine - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Topa, M. A.; Weinstein, D. A.; Retzlaff, W. A.

    2001-03-01

    During this project we experimentally evaluated the below-ground biomass and carbon allocation and partitioning of four different fast- and slow-growing families of loblolly pine located in Scotland County, NC, in an effort to increase the long-term performance of the crop. The trees were subjected to optimal nutrition and control since planting in 1993. Destructive harvests in 1998 and 2000 were used for whole?plant biomass estimates and to identify possible family differences in carbon acquisition (photosynthesis) and water use efficiency. At regular intervals throughout each year we sampled tissues for carbohydrate analyses to assess differences in whole-tree carbon storage. Mini rhizotron observation tubes were installed to monitor root system production and turnover. Stable isotope analysis was used to examine possible functional differences in water and nutrient acquisition of root systems between the various families. A genetic dissection of root ontogenic and architectural traits, including biomass partitioning, was conducted using molecular markers to better understand the functional implications of these traits on resource acquisition and whole-plant carbon allocation.

  11. Transient Eddy Current Response Due to a Subsurface Crack in a Conductive Plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fangwei Fu

    2006-08-09

    Eddy current nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is usually carried out by exciting a time harmonic field using an inductive probe. However, a viable alternative is to use transient eddy current NDE in which a current pulse in a driver coil produces a transient .eld in a conductor that decays at a rate dependent on the conductivity and the permeability of the material and the coil configuration. By using transient eddy current, it is possible to estimate the properties of the conductive medium and to locate and size potential .aws from the measured probe response. The fundamental study described in this dissertation seeks to establish a theoretical understanding of the transient eddy current NDE. Compared with the Fourier transform method, the derived analytical formulations are more convenient when the transient eddy current response within a narrow time range is evaluated. The theoretical analysis provides a valuable tool to study the effect of layer thickness, location of defect, crack opening as well as the optimization of probe design. Analytical expressions have been developed to evaluate the transient response due to eddy currents in a conductive plate based on two asymptotic series. One series converges rapidly for a short time regime and the other for a long time regime and both of them agree with the results calculated by fast Fourier transform over all the times considered. The idea of asymptotic expansion is further applied to determine the induced electromotive force (EMF) in a pick-up coil due to eddy currents in a cylindrical rod. Starting from frequency domain representation, a quasi-static time domain dyadic Green's function for an electric source in a conductive plate has been derived. The resulting expression has three parts; a free space term, multiple image terms and partial reflection terms. The dyadic Green's function serves as the kernel of an electric field integral equation which defines the interaction of an ideal crack with the transient eddy currents in a conductive plate. The crack response is found using the reciprocity theorem. Good agreement is observed between the predictions of the magnetic field due to the crack and experimental measurements.

  12. Electron Scattering in InSb Quantum Wells due to Micro-twin Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Center for Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructure University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2011-12-26

    The transport electron scattering due to micro-twin (MT) defects in InSb quantum wells (QWs) has been investigated at room temperature (RT). A linear-regression-based scattering analysis showed that Matthiessen's rule is applicable to the RT electron mobility in 20-nm-thick InSb QWs that contain MTs (whose density is 5.6x10{sup 2}-1.2x10{sup 4} /cm) and threading dislocations (8.7x10{sup 8}-3.2x10{sup 9} /cm{sup 2}) as dominant structural defects. For such an InSb QW whose local electron mobility in its non-MT regions is 2.8x10{sup 4}-4.5x10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/(Vs), the MT-originated energy barrier against the electron transport is deduced to be 0.081-0.093 eV at RT.

  13. Does the mass of a black hole decrease due to the accretion of phantom energy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao Changjun; Chen Xuelei; Faraoni, Valerio; Shen Yougen

    2008-07-15

    According to Babichev et al., the accretion of a phantom test fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole will induce the mass of the black hole to decrease, however the backreaction was ignored in their calculation. Using new exact solutions describing black holes in a background Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, we find that the physical black hole mass may instead increase due to the accretion of phantom energy. If this is the case, and the future universe is dominated by phantom dark energy, the black hole apparent horizon and the cosmic apparent horizon will eventually coincide and, after that, the black hole singularity will become naked in finite comoving time before the big rip occurs, violating the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  14. CPT and lepton number violation in neutrino sector: Modified mass matrix and oscillation due to gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monika Sinha; Banibrata Mukhopadhyay

    2007-11-21

    We study the consequences of CPT and lepton number violation in neutrino sector. For CPT violation we take gravity with which neutrino and antineutrino couple differently. Gravity mixes neutrino and antineutrino in an unequal ratio to give two mass eigenstates. Lepton number violation interaction together with CPT violation gives rise to neutrino-antineutrino oscillation. Subsequently, we study the neutrino flavor mixing and oscillation under the influence of gravity. It is found that gravity changes flavor oscillation significantly which influences the relative abundance of different flavors in present universe. We show that the neutrinoless double beta decay rate is modified due to presence of gravity- the origin of CPT violation, as the mass of the flavor state is modified.

  15. Optimal Size for Maximal Energy Efficiency in Information Processing of Biological Systems Due to Bistability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Chi; Wang, Long-Fei; Yue, Yuan; Yu, Lian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency is closely related to the evolution of biological systems and is important to their information processing. In this paper, we calculated the excitation probability of a simple model of a bistable biological unit in response to pulsatile inputs, and its spontaneous excitation rate due to noise perturbation. Then we analytically calculated the mutual information, energy cost, and energy efficiency of an array of these bistable units. We found that the optimal number of units could maximize this array's energy efficiency in encoding pulse inputs, which depends on the fixed energy cost. We conclude that demand for energy efficiency in biological systems may strongly influence the size of these systems under the pressure of natural selection.

  16. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanenko, A. Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F.; Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.

    2014-02-17

    We investigate “hot” regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-?SR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth ?{sub L}=23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120??C baked cavity shows a much larger ?>100?nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  17. Orbital decay of hot Jupiters due to nonlinear tidal dissipation within solar-type hosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Essick, Reed

    2015-01-01

    We study the orbital evolution of hot Jupiters due to the excitation and damping of tidally driven $g$-modes within solar-type host stars. Linearly resonant $g$-modes (the dynamical tide) are driven to such large amplitudes in the stellar core that they excite a sea of other $g$-modes through weakly nonlinear interactions. By solving the dynamics of large networks of nonlinearly coupled modes, we show that the nonlinear dissipation rate of the dynamical tide is several orders of magnitude larger than the linear dissipation rate. As a result, we find that the orbits of planets with mass $M_p > 0.5M_J$ and period $P M_J$ and $Psolar-type hosts and could generate detectable transit-timing variations in the near future.

  18. New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

  19. Neutrino-Pair Emission due to Electron-Phonon Scattering in a Neutron Star Crust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. G. Yakovlev; A. D. Kaminker

    1996-04-19

    Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung radiation is considered due to electron--phonon scattering of degenerate, relativistic electrons in a lattice of spherical atomic nuclei in a neutron star crust. The neutrino energy generation rate is calculated taking into account exact spectrum of phonons, the Debye--Waller factor, and the nuclear form--factor in the density range from $10^7$~g~cm$^{-3}$ to $10^{14}$~g~cm$^{-3}$ at arbitrary nuclear composition for body-centered-cubic and face-centered-cubic Coulomb crystals. The results are fitted by a unified analytic expression. A comparison is given of the neutrino bremsstrahlung energy losses in a neutron star crust composed of ground state and accreted matter, in the solid and liquid phases.

  20. Heating rate and spin flip lifetime due to near field noise in layered superconducting atom chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachele Fermani; Tobias Mueller; Bo Zhang; Michael J. Lim; Rainer Dumke

    2009-12-11

    We theoretically investigate the heating rate and spin flip lifetimes due to near field noise for atoms trapped close to layered superconducting structures. In particular, we compare the case of a gold layer deposited above a superconductor with the case of a bare superconductor. We study a niobium-based and a YBCO-based chip. For both niobium and YBCO chips at a temperature of 4.2 K, we find that the deposition of the gold layer can have a significant impact on the heating rate and spin flip lifetime, as a result of the increase of the near field noise. At a chip temperature of 77 K, this effect is less pronounced for the YBCO chip.

  1. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  2. Estimating SI violation in CMB due to non-circular beam and complex scan in minutes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pant, Nidhi; Rotti, Aditya; Mitra, Sanjit; Souradeep, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    Mild, unavoidable deviations from circular-symmetry of instrumental beams along with scan strategy can give rise to measurable Statistical Isotropy (SI) violation in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. If not accounted properly, this spurious signal can complicate the extraction of other SI violation signals (if any) in the data. However, estimation of this effect through exact numerical simulation is computationally intensive and time consuming. A generalized analytical formalism not only provides a quick way of estimating this signal, but also gives a detailed understanding connecting the leading beam anisotropy components to a measurable BipoSH characterisation of SI violation. In this paper, we provide an approximate generic analytical method for estimating the SI violation generated due to a non-circular (NC) beam and arbitrary scan strategy, in terms of the Bipolar Spherical Harmonic (BipoSH) spectra. Our analytical method can predict almost all the features introduced by a NC beam in a compl...

  3. Failure of man-made cavities in salt and surface subsidence due to sulfur mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, G.K.; Lee, C.A.; McClain, W.C.; Senseny, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    An engineering data base relevant to subsidence due to sulfur mining and to structural failure of cavities in salt is established, evaluated and documented. Nineteen failure events are discussed. Based on these documented failure events, capabilities of and inputs to a mathematical model of cavity failure are determined. Two failure events are adequately documented for use in model verification studies. A conclusion of this study that is pertinent to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is that cavity failures in dome salt are fairly rare, but that as the number of large cavities (especially those having large roof spans) increases, failures will probably be more common unless stability and failure mechanisms of cavities are better understood.

  4. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romanenko, A; Barkov, F; Suter, A; Salman, Z; Prokscha, T

    2013-01-01

    We investigate "hot" regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-$\\mu$SR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth $\\lambda_\\mathrm{L} = 23 \\pm 2$ nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120$^\\circ$C baked cavity shows a much larger $\\lambda > 100$ nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  5. A unified numerical model of collisional depolarization and broadening rates due to hydrogen atom collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derouich, M; Barklem, P S

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of solar polarization spectra accounting for partial or complete frequency redistribution requires data on various collisional processes. Data for depolarization and polarization transfer are needed but often missing, while data for collisional broadening are usually more readily available. Recent work by Sahal-Br\\'echot and Bommier concluded that despite underlying similarities in the physics of collisional broadening and depolarization processes, relationships between them are not possible to derive purely analytically. We aim to derive accurate numerical relationships between the collisional broadening rates and the collisional depolarization and polarization transfer rates due to hydrogen atom collisions. Such relationships would enable accurate and efficient estimation of collisional data for solar applications. Using earlier results for broadening and depolarization processes based on general (i.e. not specific to a given atom), semi-classical calculations employing interaction potentials...

  6. Black Hole Corrections due to Minimal Length and Modified Dispersion Relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel Nasser Tawfik; Abdel Magied Diab

    2015-02-19

    The generalized uncertainty principles (GUP) and modified dispersion relations (MDR) are much like two faces for one coin in research for the phenomenology of quantum gravity which apparently plays an important role in estimating the possible modifications of the black hole thermodynamics and the Friedmann equations. We first reproduce the horizon area for different types of black holes and investigate the quantum corrections to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (entropy-area law). Based on this, we study further thermodynamical quantities and accordingly the modified Friedmann equation in four-dimensional de Sitter-Schwarzschild, Reissner-N\\"{o}rdstrom and Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black holes. In doing this we applied various quantum gravity approaches. The MDR parameter relative to the GUP one is computed and the properties of the black holes are predicted. This should play an important role in estimating response of quantum gravity to the various metric-types of black holes. We found a considerable change in the thermodynamics quantities. We find that the modified entropy of de-Sitter-Schwarzshild and Reissner-N\\"{o}rdstrom black holes starts to exist at a finite standard entropy. The Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black hole shows a different entropic property. The modified specific heat due to GUP and MDR approaches vanishes at large standard specific heat, while the corrections due to GUP result in different behaviors. The specific heat of modified de-Sitter-Schwarzshild and Reissner-N\\"{o}rdstrom black holes seems to increase, especially at large standard specific heat. In the early case, the black hole cannot exchange heat with the surrounding space. Accordingly, we would predict black hole remnants which may be considered as candidates for dark matter.

  7. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: Controls by light, temperature and stomatal conductance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harley, P.; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex B.; Monson, Russell K.

    2014-07-14

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was light dependent and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions which explicitly accounts for the physico-chemical properties of emitted compounds, we are able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced through experimentation or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light dependent monoterpenes can comprise a large fraction of emissions. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in ?-3-carene.

  8. Fatigue failure in thin-film polysilicon is due to subcriticalcracking within the oxide layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alsem, D.H.; Muhlstein, C.L.; Stach, E.A.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2005-01-11

    It has been established that microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) created from polycrystalline silicon thin-films are subject to cyclic fatigue. Prior work by the authors has suggested that although bulk silicon is not susceptible to fatigue failure in ambient air, fatigue in micron-scale silicon is a result of a ''reaction-layer'' process, whereby high stresses induce a thickening of the post-release oxide at stress concentrations such as notches, which subsequently undergoes moisture-assisted cracking. However, there exists some controversy regarding the post-release oxide thickness of the samples used in the prior study. In this Letter, we present data from devices from a more recent fabrication run that confirm our prior observations. Additionally, new data from tests in high vacuum show that these devices do not fatigue when oxidation and moisture are suppressed. Each of these observations lends credence to the '''reaction-layer'' mechanism. Recent advances in the design of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have increased the demand for more reliable microscale structures. Although silicon is an effective and widely used structural material at the microscale, it is very brittle. Consequently, reliability is a limiting factor for commercial and defense applications. Since the surface to volume ratio of these structural films is very large, classical models for failure modes in bulk materials cannot always be applied. For example, whereas bulk silicon is immune to cyclic fatigue failure thin micron-scale structural films of silicon appear to be highly susceptible. It is clear that at these size scales, surface effects may become dominant in controlling mechanical properties. The main reliability issues for MEMS are stiction, fatigue and wear. Fatigue is important in cases where devices are subjected to a large number of loading cycles with amplitudes below their (single-cycle) fracture stress, which may arise due to vibrations intentionally induced in the structure (i.e. a resonator) or those which arise from the service environment. While the reliability of MEMS has received extensive attention, the physical mechanisms responsible for these failure modes have yet to be conclusively determined. This is particularly true for fatigue, where the mechanisms have been subject to intense debate. Recently we have proposed that the fatigue of micron-scale polysilicon is associated with stress-induced surface oxide thickening and moisture-assisted subcritical cracking in the amorphous SiO{sub 2} oxide layer (''reaction-layer'' fatigue). The mechanism of oxide thickening is as yet unknown, but is likely related to some form of stress-assisted diffusion. Allameh et al. suggest a complementary mechanism involving stress-assisted oxide thickening, caused by dissolution of the surface oxide which forms deep grooves that are sites for crack initiation. Kahn et al. have criticized these mechanisms and proposed that, instead, fatigue is caused by subcritical cracking due to contacting surface asperities in the compressive part of the cycle. To the authors' knowledge, there is no direct experimental observation of such asperity contact. Also, their model cannot explain why micron-scale silicon, and not bulk silicon, is susceptible to fatigue. Moreover, Kahn et al. do not acknowledge the role of stress-induced oxide thickening, which has been observed directly using TEM and indirectly using atomic-force microscope measurements by several investigators, and have questioned whether the materials utilized by Muhlstein et al. and Allameh et al. were representative due to the relatively thick oxide scales. Accordingly, the goal of the present research is to seek a definitive understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for fatigue in polysilicon structural thin-films. Our approach is to combine on-chip testing methods with electron microscopy by fatiguing thin-film samples and observing them, in an unthinned condition, using high-voltage transmission electron microscopy (HVTEM). Two principal results are found from this work: (1

  9. Radiative forcing due to enhancements in tropospheric ozone and carbonaceous aerosols caused by Asian fires during spring 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiative forcing due to enhancements in tropospheric ozone and carbonaceous aerosols caused of fires that occurred in three regions of Asia, namely Thailand, Kazakhstan, and Siberia, during spring Dobson units (DU) near the Thailand region, and by lesser amounts in the other regions due to the fires

  10. Vibration of Wires in Liquid Argon Due to Fluid Flow Kirk T McDonald (kirkmcd@princeton.edu)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Vibration of Wires in Liquid Argon Due to Fluid Flow Kirk T McDonald (kirkmcd. But in these regions, the Reynolds number of the flow is 56/23 = 2.4, in which case the flow is laminar, not turbulent, and there is no excitation of wire vibration. So, I conclude that wire vibration due to fluid flow is negligible (unless

  11. THz generation from InN films due to destructive interference between optical rectification and photocurrent surge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    THz generation from InN films due to destructive interference between optical rectification.1088/0268-1242/25/1/015004 THz generation from InN films due to destructive interference between optical rectification investigated the characteristics of THz generation including the dependence of the output power

  12. Materials Science and Engineering A299 (2001) 141151 Microstructural changes due to heat-treatment of annealing and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Qiuming

    2001-01-01

    Materials Science and Engineering A299 (2001) 141­151 Microstructural changes due to heat-treatment of creep resistance by furnace and microwave annealing, we have investigated the effect of heat-treatment-ray diffraction was performed on the as-sintered and heat-treated samples to study the phase changes due

  13. Power losses in PV arrays due to variations in the I-V characteristics of PV modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Power losses in PV arrays due to variations in the I-V characteristics of PV modules Wolfgang Damm-V characteristics of the 36 individual modules of a PV generator at the University of Oldenburg were measured the basis for the calculations of the mismatch losses due to series and parallel connection of PV modules

  14. Turbine engine lubricant foaming due to silicone basestock used in non-specification spline lubricant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Centers, P.W.

    1995-05-01

    Dependent upon molecular weight and distribution, concentration, temperature, air flow, and test details or field application, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) may be neutral, profoamant or antifoamant in polyolesters. This understanding was critical in the solution of a turbine engine lubrication system foaming problem occurring at several military locations. Suspect turbine engine-accessory gearbox assembly materials gathered from several sites were evaluated. One non-specification PDMS-based spline lubricant caused copious foaming of the lubricant at less than ten parts-per-million concentration, while a specification polymethyl-phenylsiloxane (PMPS)-based lubricant required a concentration nearly 2000 times greater to generate equivalent foam. Use of the profoamant PDMS spline lubricant was then prohibited. Since prohibition, foaming of turbine engine lubricants used in the particular application has not been reported. PMPS impact on foaming of ester lubricants is similar to a much more viscous PDMS attributed to the reduced interaction of PMPS in esters due to pendant phenyl structure of PMPS absent in PDMS. These data provide significant additional insight and methodology to investigate foaming tendencies of partially miscible silicone-ester and other fluid systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Far-IR Detection Limits I: Sky Confusion Due to Galactic Cirrus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woong-Seob Jeong; Hyung Mok Lee; Soojong Pak; Takao Nakagawa; Suk Minn Kwon; Chris P. Pearson; Glenn J. White

    2004-11-16

    Fluctuations in the brightness of the background radiation can lead to confusion with real point sources. Such background emission confusion will be important for infrared observations with relatively large beam sizes since the amount of fluctuation tends to increase with angular scale. In order to quantitively assess the effect of the background emission on the detection of point sources for current and future far-infrared observations by space-borne missions such as Spitzer, ASTRO-F, Herschel and SPICA, we have extended the Galactic emission map to higher angular resolution than the currently available data. Using this high resolution map, we estimate the sky confusion noise due to the emission from interstellar dust clouds or cirrus, based on fluctuation analysis and detailed photometry over realistically simulated images. We find that the confusion noise derived by simple fluctuation analysis agrees well with the result from realistic simulations. Although the sky confusion noise becomes dominant in long wavelength bands (> 100 um) with 60 - 90cm aperture missions, it is expected to be two order of magnitude smaller for the next generation space missions with larger aperture sizes such as Herschel and SPICA.

  16. Discrimination of gamma rays due to inelastic neutron scattering in AGATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ataç; A. Ka?ka?; S. Akkoyun; M. ?enyi?it; T. Hüyük; S. O. Kara; J. Nyberg

    2009-06-10

    Possibilities of discriminating neutrons and gamma rays in the AGATA gamma-ray tracking spectrometer have been investigated with the aim of reducing the background due to inelastic scattering of neutrons in the high-purity germanium crystals. This background may become a serious problem especially in experiments with neutron-rich radioactive ion beams. Simulations using the Geant4 toolkit and a tracking program based on the forward tracking algorithm were carried out by emitting neutrons and gamma rays from the center of AGATA. Three different methods were developed and tested in order to find 'fingerprints' of the neutron interaction points in the detectors. In a simulation with simultaneous emission of six neutrons with energies in the range 1-5 MeV and ten gamma rays with energies between 150 and 1450 keV, the peak-to-background ratio at a gamma-ray energy of 1.0 MeV was improved by a factor of 2.4 after neutron rejection with a reduction of the photopeak efficiency at 1.0 MeV of only a factor of 1.25.

  17. Request for assistance in preventing vision disturbances and acute physical distress due to dimethylethylamine (DMEA) exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    Methods were sought to reduce exposure to dimethylethylamine (DMEA) among foundry owners, operators, and workers and manufacturers of polyamides, due to possible vision disturbances and acute physical distress which may result. An investigation was made at an aluminum-casting foundry where blurring, fogging, and halo visual disturbances had been reported among workers exposed to DMEA, along with headaches, nausea, stomach pain, and increased heart rate. Medical and environmental studies were made. Exposure concentrations causing effects were measured at equal to or greater than 6 mg/cu m, or 2 parts per million (ppm), 8 hour time-weighted average. Exposures as high as 29 mg/cu m, (9.7 ppm) for 15 minutes also may have caused adverse effects. There was no current permissible exposure limit for DMEA. Leakage around pressure-tight seals in corebox machine gaskets may have accounted for some excessive exposure. It was recommended that more-frequent maintenance of these gaskets be undertaken along with other engineering controls. Work practices should be adjusted so as to reduce the pressure that delivers DMEA to coreboxes and to avoid excess gaseous DMEA in the corebox machine. Protective gloves should be worn. Evacuation plans should be developed in the event of a spill, leak, or other serious accident that may cause high concentrations of DMEA in the workplace.

  18. Galactic disc warps due to intergalactic accretion flows onto the disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López-Corredoira, M; Beckman, J E

    2007-01-01

    The accretion of the intergalactic medium onto the gaseous disc is used to explain the generation of galactic warps. A cup-shaped distortion is expected, due to the transmission of the linear momentum; but, this effect is small for most incident inflow angles and the predominant effect turns out to be the transmission of angular momentum, i.e. a torque giving an integral-sign shaped warp. The torque produced by a flow of velocity ~100 km/s and baryon density ~10^{-25} kg/m^3, which is within the possible values for the intergalactic medium, is enough to generate the observed warps and this mechanism offers quite a plausible explanation. The inferred rate of infall of matter, ~1 M_sun/yr, to the Galactic disc that this theory predicts agrees with the quantitative predictions of chemical evolution resolving key issues, notably the G-dwarf problem. Sanchez-Salcedo (2006) suggests that this mechanism is not plausible because it would produce a dependence of the scaleheight of the disc with the Galactocentric azim...

  19. Galactic disc warps due to intergalactic accretion flows onto the disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Lopez-Corredoira; J. Betancort-Rijo; J. E. Beckman

    2007-06-11

    The accretion of the intergalactic medium onto the gaseous disc is used to explain the generation of galactic warps. A cup-shaped distortion is expected, due to the transmission of the linear momentum; but, this effect is small for most incident inflow angles and the predominant effect turns out to be the transmission of angular momentum, i.e. a torque giving an integral-sign shaped warp. The torque produced by a flow of velocity ~100 km/s and baryon density ~10^{-25} kg/m^3, which is within the possible values for the intergalactic medium, is enough to generate the observed warps and this mechanism offers quite a plausible explanation. The inferred rate of infall of matter, ~1 M_sun/yr, to the Galactic disc that this theory predicts agrees with the quantitative predictions of chemical evolution resolving key issues, notably the G-dwarf problem. Sanchez-Salcedo (2006) suggests that this mechanism is not plausible because it would produce a dependence of the scaleheight of the disc with the Galactocentric azimuth in the outer disc, but rather than being an objection this is another argument in favour of the mechanism because this dependence is actually observed in our Galaxy.

  20. HGSYSTEMUF6. Model for Simulating Dispersion due to Atmospheric Release of UF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanna, G; Chang, J.C.; Zhang, J.X.; Bloom, S.G.; Goode, W.D. Jr; Lombardi, D.A.; Yambert, M.W.

    1998-08-01

    HGSYSTEMUF6 is a suite of models designed for use in estimating consequences associated with accidental, atmospheric release of Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) and its reaction products, namely Hydrogen Fluoride (HF), and other non-reactive contaminants which are either negatively, neutrally, or positively buoyant. It is based on HGSYSTEM Version 3.0 of Shell Research LTD., and contains specific algorithms for the treatment of UF6 chemistry and thermodynamics. HGSYSTEMUF6 contains algorithms for the treatment of dense gases, dry and wet deposition, effects due to the presence of buildings (canyon and wake), plume lift-off, and the effects of complex terrain. The models components of the suite include (1) AEROPLUME/RK, used to model near-field dispersion from pressurized two-phase jet releases of UF6 and its reaction products, (2) HEGADAS/UF6 for simulating dense, ground based release of UF6, (3) PGPLUME for simulation of passive, neutrally buoyant plumes (4) UF6Mixer for modeling warm, potentially reactive, ground-level releases of UF6 from buildings, and (5) WAKE, used to model elevated and ground-level releases into building wake cavities of non-reactive plumes that are either neutrally or positively buoyant.

  1. Physical property changes in hydrate-bearingsediment due to depressurization and subsequent repressurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, Timothy; Waite, W.F.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2008-06-01

    Physical property measurements of sediment cores containing natural gas hydrate are typically performed on material exposed at least briefly to non-in situ conditions during recovery. To examine effects of a brief excursion from the gas-hydrate stability field, as can occur when pressure cores are transferred to pressurized storage vessels, we measured physical properties on laboratory-formed sand packs containing methane hydrate and methane pore gas. After depressurizing samples to atmospheric pressure, we repressurized them into the methane-hydrate stability field and remeasured their physical properties. Thermal conductivity, shear strength, acoustic compressional and shear wave amplitudes and speeds are compared between the original and depressurized/repressurized samples. X-ray computed tomography (CT) images track how the gas-hydrate distribution changes in the hydrate-cemented sands due to the depressurization/repressurization process. Because depressurization-induced property changes can be substantial and are not easily predicted, particularly in water-saturated, hydrate-bearing sediment, maintaining pressure and temperature conditions throughout the core recovery and measurement process is critical for using laboratory measurements to estimate in situ properties.

  2. Bose-glass phases of ultracold atoms due to cavity backaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hessam Habibian; André Winter; Simone Paganelli; Heiko Rieger; Giovanna Morigi

    2012-11-16

    We determine the quantum ground-state properties of ultracold bosonic atoms interacting with the mode of a high-finesse resonator. The atoms are confined by an external optical lattice, whose period is incommensurate with the cavity mode wave length, and are driven by a transverse laser, which is resonant with the cavity mode. While for pointlike atoms photon scattering into the cavity is suppressed, for sufficiently strong lasers quantum fluctuations can support the build-up of an intracavity field, which in turn amplifies quantum fluctuations. The dynamics is described by a Bose-Hubbard model where the coefficients due to the cavity field depend on the atomic density at all lattice sites. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field calculations show that for large parameter regions cavity backaction forces the atoms into clusters with a checkerboard density distribution. Here, the ground state lacks superfluidity and possesses finite compressibility, typical of a Bose-glass. This system constitutes a novel setting where quantum fluctuations give rise to effects usually associated with disorder.

  3. Runaway greenhouse effect on exomoons due to irradiation from hot, young giant planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, René

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler space telescope has detected transits of objects as small as the Earth's Moon, and moons as small as 0.2 Earth masses can be detected in the Kepler data by transit timing and transit duration variations of their host planets. Such massive moons around giant planets in the stellar habitable zone (HZ) could serve as habitats for extraterrestrial life. We here assess the danger of exomoons to be in a runaway greenhouse (RG) state due to extensive heating from the planet. We apply pre-computed evolution tracks for giant planets to calculate the incident planetary radiation on the moon as a function of time. The total energy budget of stellar flux, illumination from the planet, and tidal heating in the satellite is compared to the critical flux for the moon to experience an RG effect. Irradiation from a 13-Jupiter-mass planet onto an Earth-sized moon at a distance of ten Jupiter radii can drive an RG state on the moon for about 200 Myr. If stellar illumination equivalent to that received by Earth from t...

  4. Star Formation Suppression Due to Jet Feedback in Radio Galaxies with Shocked Warm Molecular Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanz, Lauranne; Alatalo, Katherine; Appleton, Philip N

    2015-01-01

    We present Herschel observations of 22 radio galaxies, selected for the presence of shocked, warm molecular hydrogen emission. We measured and modeled spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in 33 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared to investigate the impact of jet feedback on star formation activity. These galaxies are massive, early-type galaxies with normal gas-to-dust ratios, covering a range of optical and IR colors. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) is suppressed by a factor of ~3-6, depending on how molecular gas mass is estimated. We suggest this suppression is due to the shocks driven by the radio jets injecting turbulence into the interstellar medium (ISM), which also powers the luminous warm H2 line emission. Approximately 25% of the sample shows suppression by more than a factor of 10. However, the degree of SFR suppression does not correlate with indicators of jet feedback including jet power, diffuse X-ray emission, or intensity of warm molecular H2 emission, suggesting that whi...

  5. THE SIZE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RED AND BLUE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IS NOT DUE TO PROJECTION EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison

    2012-11-10

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  6. Mechanical Deformation of a Lithium-Metal Anode Due to a Very Stiff Separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrese, A; Newman, J

    2014-05-21

    This work builds on the two-dimensional model presented by Ferrese et al. [J. Electrochem. Soc., 159, A1615 (2012)1, which captures the movement of lithium metal at the negative electrode during cycling in a Li-metal/LiCoO2 cell. In this paper, the separator is modeled as a dendrite-inhibiting polymer separator with an elastic modulus of 16 GPa. The separator resists the movement of lithium through the generation of stresses in the cell. These stresses affect the negative electrode through two mechanisms altering the thermodynamics of the negative electrode and deforming the negative electrode mechanically. From this analysis, we find that the dendrite-inhibiting separator causes plastic and elastic deformation of the lithium at the negative electrode which flattens the electrode considerably when compared to the liquid-electrolyte case. This flattening of the negative electrode causes only very slight differences in the local state of charge in the positive electrode. When comparing the magnitude of the effects flattening the negative electrode, we find that the plastic deformation plays a much larger role than either the pressure-modified reaction kinetics or elastic deformation. This is due to the low yield strength of the lithium metal, which limits the stresses such that they have only a small effect on the reaction kinetics. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Unusual refinery boiler tube failures due to corrosion by sulfuric acid induced by steam leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Lopez, D.; Wong-Moreno, A.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion by sulfuric acid in boilers is a low probability event because gas temperature and metal temperature of boiler tubes are high enough to avoid the condensation of sulfuric acid from flue gases. This degradation mechanism is frequently considered as an important cause of air preheaters materials degradation, where flue gases are cooled by heat transfer to the combustion air. Corrosion is associated to the presence of sulfuric acid, which condensates if metal temperature (or gas temperature) is below of the acid dew point. In economizer tubes, sulfuric acid corrosion is an unlikely event because flue gas and tube temperatures are normally over the acid dewpoint. In this paper, the failure analysis of generator tubes (similar to the economizer of bigger boilers) of two small oil-fired subcritical boilers is reported. It is concluded that sulfuric acid corrosion was the cause of the failure. The sulfuric acid condensation was due to the contact of flue gases containing SO{sub 3} with water-steam spray coming from leaks at the interface of rolled tube to the drum. Considering the information gathered from these two cases studied, an analysis of this failure mechanism is presented including a description of the thermodynamics condition of water leaking from the drum, and an analysis of the factors favoring it.

  8. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  9. Variations of 14-C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14-C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14-C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14-C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14-C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14-C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects...

  10. The scope of SaCoNet is to deal with the growing smart communications fields embedded in complex systems for a wide variety of applications in the future generation of network and cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    emerging networks: sky of clouds, Internet of things, Smart Grids, Smart Cities, etc. The evolutionThe scope of SaCoNet is to deal with the growing smart communications fields embedded in complex technologies. SaCoNet focuses on how smart communications and ICT networks impact not only on network

  11. Underground Infrastructure Impacts Due to a Surface Burst Nuclear Device in an Urban Canyon Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bos, Randall J.; Dey, Thomas N.; Runnels, Scott R.

    2012-07-03

    Investigation of the effects of a nuclear device exploded in a urban environment such as the Chicago studied for this particular report have shown the importance on the effects from the urban canyons so typical of today's urban environment as compared to nuclear test event effects observed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Pacific Testing Area on which many of the typical legacy empirical codes are based on. This report first looks at the some of the data from nuclear testing that can give an indication of the damage levels that might be experienced due to a nuclear event. While it is well known that a above ground blast, even a ground burst, very poorly transmits energy into the ground ( < 1%) and the experimental results discussed here are for fully coupled detonations, these results do indicate a useful measure of the damage that might be expected. The second part of the report looks at effects of layering of different materials that typically would make up the near ground below surface environment that a shock would propagate through. As these simulations support and is widely known in the community, the effects of different material compositions in these layers modify the shock behavior and especially modify the energy dispersal and coupling into the basement structures. The third part of the report looks at the modification of the underground shock effects from a surface burst 1 KT device due to the presence of basements under the Chicago buildings. Without direct knowledge of the basement structure, a simulated footprint of a uniform 20m depth was assumed underneath each of the NGI defined buildings in the above ground environment. In the above ground case, the underground basement structures channel the energy along the line of site streets keeping the shock levels from falling off as rapidly as has been observed in unobstructed detonations. These simulations indicate a falloff of factors of 2 per scaled length as compared to 10 for the unobstructed case. Again, as in the above ground case, the basements create significant shielding causing the shock profile to become more square and reducing the potential for damage diagonal to the line of sight streets. The results for a 1KT device is that the heavily damaged zone (complete destruction) will extend out to 50m from the detonation ({approx}100m for 10KT). The heavily to moderately damaged zone will extend out to 100m ({approx}200m for 10KT). Since the destruction will depend on geometric angle from the detonation and also the variability of response for various critical infrastructure, for planning purposes the area out to 100m from the detonation should be assumed to be non-operational. Specifically for subway tunnels, while not operational, they could be human passable for human egress in the moderately damaged area. The results of the simulations presented in this report indicate only the general underground infrastructure impact. Simulations done with the actual basement geometry would be an important improvement. Equally as important or even more so, knowing the actual underground material configurations and material composition would be critical information to refine the calculations. Coupling of the shock data into structural codes would help inform the emergency planning and first response communities on the impact to underground structures and the state of buildings after the detonation.

  12. SU-E-T-41: Analysis of GI Dose Variability Due to Intrafraction Setup Variance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J; Wolfgang, J [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Proton SBRT (stereotactic body radiation therapy) can be an effective modality for treatment of gastrointestinal tumors, but limited in practice due to sensitivity with respect to variation in the RPL (radiological path length). Small, intrafractional shifts in patient anatomy can lead to significant changes in the dose distribution. This study describes a tool designed to visualize uncertainties in radiological depth in patient CT's and aid in treatment plan design. Methods: This project utilizes the Shadie toolkit, a GPU-based framework that allows for real-time interactive calculations for volume visualization. Current SBRT simulation practice consists of a serial CT acquisition for the assessment of inter- and intra-fractional motion utilizing patient specific immobilization systems. Shadie was used to visualize potential uncertainties, including RPL variance and changes in gastric content. Input for this procedure consisted of two patient CT sets, contours of the desired organ, and a pre-calculated dose. In this study, we performed rigid registrations between sets of 4DCT's obtained from a patient with varying setup conditions. Custom visualizations are written by the user in Shadie, permitting one to create color-coded displays derived from a calculation along each ray. Results: Serial CT data acquired on subsequent days was analyzed for variation in RPB and gastric content. Specific shaders were created to visualize clinically relevant features, including RPL (radiological path length) integrated up to organs of interest. Using pre-calculated dose distributions and utilizing segmentation masks as additional input allowed us to further refine the display output from Shadie and create tools suitable for clinical usage. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a method to visualize potential uncertainty for intrafractional proton radiotherapy. We believe this software could prove a useful tool to guide those looking to design treatment plans least insensitive to motion for patients undergoing proton SBRT in the GI tract.

  13. IMPLICATIONS OF MASS AND ENERGY LOSS DUE TO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS ON MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2013-02-20

    Analysis of a database of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated flares over the period 1996-2007 finds well-behaved power-law relationships between the 1-8 A flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy. We extrapolate these relationships to lower and higher flare energies to estimate the mass and energy loss due to CMEs from stellar coronae, assuming that the observed X-ray emission of the latter is dominated by flares with a frequency as a function of energy dn/dE = kE {sup -{alpha}}. For solar-like stars at saturated levels of X-ray activity, the implied losses depend fairly weakly on the assumed value of {alpha} and are very large: M-dot {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and E-dot {approx}0.1 L{sub sun}. In order to avoid such large energy requirements, either the relationships between CME mass and speed and flare energy must flatten for X-ray fluence {approx}> 10{sup 31} erg, or the flare-CME association must drop significantly below 1 for more energetic events. If active coronae are dominated by flares, then the total coronal energy budget is likely to be up to an order of magnitude larger than the canonical 10{sup -3} L {sub bol} X-ray saturation threshold. This raises the question of what is the maximum energy a magnetic dynamo can extract from a star? For an energy budget of 1% of L {sub bol}, the CME mass loss rate is about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  14. Permeability decline due to flow of dilute suspensions through porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasr-El-Din, H.A. [Lab R& D Center, Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    Suspension flow in porous media is encountered in many industrial applications. In the oil industry, suspended solids present in injected waters cart cause significant damage around the wellbore or deep in the formation. Depending on tire physical properties of tire solid particles, the porous medium, and operating conditions, solids can form external or internal filter cake, or just flow through the media without causing any damage. External filter cake formation causes a fast and sharp drop in permeability or injectivity of the formation. Reversing the flow direction can recover some of the damaged permeability. Internal filter cake formation cases a gradual or steady drop in permeability. Reversing the flow direction will not recover tire damaged permeability. Increasing solids concentration or particle size will cause more damage to formation. Injection of low-salinity water into sandstone reservoirs can trigger fines migration and clay swelling. Both factors can damage the formation. Injection of water that is incompatible with the formation brine may cause precipitation of insoluble sulfates that cart plug the formation. Stimulation (or acidizing) the formation cart also produce solid particles that can damage the formation. Corrosion by-products (e.g., iron sulfide) cart block the flow paths and reduce the permeability of the formation. Many experimental and modeling studies to predict formation damage due to flow of suspensions in porous media are discussed in this chapter. Solids can be present in injected waters or be generated in the formation. More research is needed to predict flow of suspensions in porous media when solid particles invade and are generated in tire formation simultaneously. 71 refs., 19 figs.

  15. Escape fraction of ionizing photons during reionization: Effects due to supernova feedback and runaway ob stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimm, Taysun; Cen, Renyue [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    The fraction of hydrogen ionizing photons escaping from galaxies into the intergalactic medium is a critical ingredient in the theory of reionization. We use two zoomed-in, high-resolution (4 pc), cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulations with adaptive mesh refinement to investigate the impact of two physical mechanisms (supernova, SN, feedback, and runaway OB stars) on the escape fraction (f {sub esc}) at the epoch of reionization (z ? 7). We implement a new, physically motivated SN feedback model that can approximate the Sedov solutions at all (from the free expansion to snowplow) stages. We find that there is a significant time delay of about ten million years between the peak of star formation and that of escape fraction, due to the time required for the build-up and subsequent destruction of the star-forming cloud by SN feedback. Consequently, the photon number-weighted mean escape fraction for dwarf galaxies in halos of mass 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10.5} M {sub ?} is found to be ?f{sub esc}??11%, although instantaneous values of f {sub esc} > 20% are common when star formation is strongly modulated by the SN explosions. We find that the inclusion of runaway OB stars increases the mean escape fraction by 22% to ?f{sub esc}??14%. As SNe resulting from runaway OB stars tend to occur in less dense environments, the feedback effect is enhanced and star formation is further suppressed in halos with M{sub vir}?10{sup 9} M{sub ?} in the simulation with runaway OB stars compared with the model without them. While both our models produce enough ionizing photons to maintain a fully ionized universe at z ? 7 as observed, a still higher amount of ionizing photons at z ? 9 appears necessary to accommodate the high observed electron optical depth inferred from cosmic microwave background observations.

  16. An Information-Theoretic Measure of Uncertainty due to Quantum and Thermal Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arlen Anderson; Jonathan J. Halliwell

    1993-04-28

    We study an information-theoretic measure of uncertainty for quantum systems. It is the Shannon information $I$ of the phase space probability distribution $\\la z | \\rho | z \\ra $, where $|z \\ra $ are coherent states, and $\\rho$ is the density matrix. The uncertainty principle is expressed in this measure as $I \\ge 1$. For a harmonic oscillator in a thermal state, $I$ coincides with von Neumann entropy, $- \\Tr(\\rho \\ln \\rho)$, in the high-temperature regime, but unlike entropy, it is non-zero at zero temperature. It therefore supplies a non-trivial measure of uncertainty due to both quantum and thermal fluctuations. We study $I$ as a function of time for a class of non-equilibrium quantum systems consisting of a distinguished system coupled to a heat bath. We derive an evolution equation for $I$. For the harmonic oscillator, in the Fokker-Planck regime, we show that $I$ increases monotonically. For more general Hamiltonians, $I$ settles down to monotonic increase in the long run, but may suffer an initial decrease for certain initial states that undergo ``reassembly'' (the opposite of quantum spreading). Our main result is to prove, for linear systems, that $I$ at each moment of time has a lower bound $I_t^{min}$, over all possible initial states. This bound is a generalization of the uncertainty principle to include thermal fluctuations in non-equilibrium systems, and represents the least amount of uncertainty the system must suffer after evolution in the presence of an environment for time $t$.

  17. SPECTRUM-DRIVEN PLANETARY DEGLACIATION DUE TO INCREASES IN STELLAR LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shields, Aomawa L.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Joshi, Manoj M.; Robinson, Tyler D.

    2014-04-10

    Distant planets in globally ice-covered, ''snowball'', states may depend on increases in their host stars' luminosity to become hospitable for surface life. Using a general circulation model, we simulated the equilibrium climate response of a planet to a range of instellations from an F-, G-, or M-dwarf star. The range of instellation that permits both complete ice cover and at least partially ice-free climate states is a measure of the climate hysteresis that a planet can exhibit. An ice-covered planet with high climate hysteresis would show a higher resistance to the initial loss of surface ice coverage with increases in instellation, and abrupt, extreme ice loss once deglaciation begins. Our simulations indicate that the climate hysteresis depends sensitively on the host star spectral energy distribution. Under fixed CO{sub 2} conditions, a planet orbiting an M-dwarf star exhibits a smaller climate hysteresis, requiring smaller instellation to initiate deglaciation than planets orbiting hotter, brighter stars. This is due to the higher absorption of near-infrared radiation by ice on the surfaces and greenhouse gases and clouds in the atmosphere of an M-dwarf planet. Increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} further lower the climate hysteresis, as M-dwarf snowball planets exhibit a larger radiative response than G-dwarf snowball planets for the same increase in CO{sub 2}. For a smaller hysteresis, planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone will thaw earlier in their evolutionary history, and will experience a less abrupt transition out of global ice cover.

  18. Planet Migration and Disk Destruction due to Magneto-Centrifugal Stellar Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. V. E. Lovelace; M. M. Romanova; A. W. Barnard

    2008-06-25

    This paper investigates the influence of magneto-centrifugally driven or simply magnetic winds of rapidly-rotating, strongly-magnetized T Tauri stars in causing the inward or outward migration of close-in giant planets. The azimuthal ram pressure of the magnetized wind acting on the planet tends to increase the planet's angular momentum and cause outward migration if the star's rotation period $P_*$ is less than the planet's orbital period $P_p$. In the opposite case, $P_* > P_p$, the planet migrates inward. Thus, planets orbiting at distances larger (smaller) than $0.06 {\\rm AU}(P_*/5{\\rm d})^{2/3}$ tend to be pushed outward (inward), where $P_*$ is the rotation period of the star assumed to have the mass of the sun. The magnetic winds are likely to occur in T Tauri stars where the thermal speed of the gas close to the star is small, where the star's magnetic field is strong, and where the star rotates rapidly. The time-scale for appreciable radial motion of the planet is estimated as $\\sim 2 - 20$ Myr. A sufficiently massive close-in planet may cause tidal locking and once this happens the radial migration due to the magnetic wind ceases. The magnetic winds are expected to be important for planet migration for the case of a multipolar magnetic field rather than a dipole field where the wind is directed away from the equatorial plane and where a magnetospheric cavity forms. The influence of the magnetic wind in eroding and eventually destroying the accretion disk is analyzed. A momentum integral is derived for the turbulent wind/disk boundary layer and this is used to estimate the disk erosion time-scale as $\\sim 1-10^2$ Myr, with the lower value favored.

  19. Analysis of linear elasticity and non-linearity due to plasticity and material damage in woven and biaxial braided composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Deepak

    2009-05-15

    Textile composites have a wide variety of applications in the aerospace, sports, automobile, marine and medical industries. Due to the availability of a variety of textile architectures and numerous parameters associated with each, optimal design...

  20. Abstract--The power requirements of automotive alternators are increasing significantly due to the introduction of new

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    Abstract-- The power requirements of automotive alternators are increasing significantly due. INTRODUCTION The output power and power density requirements of automotive alternators are increasing research into the design of automotive generators, ranging from improvements to conventional Lundell