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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

non-energy | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

non-energy non-energy Dataset Summary Description The Energy Statistics Database contains comprehensive energy statistics on the production, trade, conversion and final consumption of primary and secondary; conventional and non-conventional; and new and renewable sources of energy. The Energy Statistics dataset, covering the period from 1990 on, is available at UNdata. This dataset relates to the consumption of alcohol for non-energy uses. Source United Nations (UN) Date Released December 09th, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords consumption dataset non-energy UN Data application/xml icon Consumption by non-energy uses XML (xml, 10.7 KiB) text/csv icon Consumption by non-energy uses CSV (csv, 2.4 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

2

Suitability of Non-Energy Greenhouse Gases for Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper assesses the suitability of different sources of non-energy greenhouse gases for emissions trading. Different forms of emissions trading are defined and criteria for determining whether a source is sui...

Erik Haites; Angelo Proestos

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Incorporating Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts Title Incorporating Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts Publication Type Conference Paper Year of Publication 2012 Authors Larsen, Peter H., Charles A. Goldman, Donald Gilligan, and Terry E. Singer Conference Name 2012 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings Date Published 2012 Publisher ACEEE Conference Location Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, California Abstract This paper evaluates the issue of non-energy benefits within the context of the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry-a growing industry comprised of companies that provide energy savings and other benefits to customers through the use of performance-based contracting. Recent analysis has found that ESCO projects in the public/institutional sector, especially at K-12 schools, are using performance-based contracting, at the behest of the customers, to partially -- but not fully -- offset substantial accumulated deferred maintenance needs (e.g., asbestos removal, wiring) and measures that have very long paybacks (roof replacement). This trend is affecting the traditional economic measures policymakers use to evaluate success on a benefit to cost basis. Moreover, the value of non-energy benefits which can offset some or all of the cost of the non-energy measures -- including operations and maintenance (O&M) savings, avoided capital costs, and tradable pollution emissions allowances -- are not always incorporated into a formal cost-effectiveness analysis of ESCO projects. Non- energy benefits are clearly important to customers, but state and federal laws that govern the acceptance of these types of benefits for ESCO projects vary widely (i.e., 0-100% of allowable savings can come from one or more non-energy categories). Clear and consistent guidance on what types of savings are recognized in Energy Savings Agreements under performance contracts is necessary, particularly where customers are searching for deep energy efficiency gains in the building sector.

4

AIJ in the Non-Energy Sector in India: Opportunities and Concerns  

SciTech Connect

Although the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) has been signed and ratified by 168 countries, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased substantially since the 1992 Rio Summit. In both developing countries (DCs) and industrialized countries (ICs), there has been a need to find mechanisms to facilitate environmentally sound mitigation strategies. This need led to the formation of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) at the first Conference-of the Parties (COP) in 1995. In Article 4A, para 2D, the COP established an AIJ pilot phase in which Annex I (IC) countries would enter into agreements to implement activities jointly with non-Annex I parties. DCs would engage in AIJ on a purely voluntary basis and all AIJ projects should be compatible with and supportive of national environment and development goals. AIJ does not imply GHG reduction commitments by DCs. Neither do all projects undertaken during the pilot phase qualify as a fulfillment of current commitment s of Annex I parties under the COP. The current pilot phase for AIJ ends in the year 2000, a date which may be extended. Current AIJ activities are largely focused on the energy sector. The Nordic countries, for example, feel that the most important potential areas for cooperation in AIJ are fuel conversion, more effective energy production, increased energy efficiency, and reforms in energy-intensive industry (Nordic Council of Ministers, 1995). Denmark does not want to include non-energy sector projects such as carbon sink enhancement projects in the pilot phase (Nordic Council of Ministers, 1995). However, other countries, including the US, have already funded a number of forestry sector projects (Development Alternatives, 1997). Moreover, energy-sector projects involving high technology or capital-intensive technology are often a source of controversy between DCs and ICs regarding the kind of technology transferred and sharing of costs and benefits. Further, the pilot phase provide s an opportunity for capacity-building and learning about methods of planning, implementation, and monitoring of GHG abatement in land-based non-energy sector projects.

Ravindranath, N.H.; Meili, A.; Anita, R.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Applying bottom-up analysis to identify the system boundaries of non-energy use data in international energy statistics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Data on the non-energy use of fossil fuels in energy statistics are subject to major uncertainties. We apply a simple bottom-up methodology to recalculate non-energy use for the entire world and for the 50 countries with the highest consumption of fossil fuels for non-energy purposes. We quantify worldwide non-energy use in the year 2000 to be 24±2 exajoules (EJ), thereby accounting for 6% of the global total primary energy supply (TPES). Our bottom-up estimates are in line with data from international energy statistics for the entire world and for 14 individual countries. Our estimates exceed official non-energy use data for 22 countries, whereas they are lower than official data in the case of 14 countries. Inconsistent system boundaries of non-energy use data in international energy statistics can explain parts of the observed deviations. We regard our bottom-up methodology as reliable albeit being attached with uncertainties. We recommend its use for energy statisticians and greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory makers to generate a shortlist of countries, for which efforts should be made to clarify and improve the quality of non-energy use data in national and international energy statistics.

M. Weiss; M.L. Neelis; M.C. Zuidberg; M.K. Patel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Energy and materials conservation: applying pioneering research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Ashby, Tim Gutowski and Ernst Worrell Energy and materials conservation: applying...research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues Bruce Hannon...material production . The research of the Energy Research Group (ERG) at the University...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Tang Group Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(mostly natural gas, with some wind) in the People's Republic of China and other Asian markets. References: Tang Group (Energy) Ltd1 This article is a stub. You can help...

8

Data Intensive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data Intensive Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program In 2014 NERSC is conducting its second and last round of allocations to projects in data intensive science. This pilot aims to...

9

Analysis and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California Title Analysis and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors de la du Can, Stephane Rue, Ali Hasanbeigi, and Jayant A. Sathaye Journal Energy Policy Volume 46 Pagination 234-245 Keywords california, co2 emissions, energy intensity, energy use Abstract In 2008, the gross domestic product (GDP) of California industry was larger than GDP of industry in any other U.S. states. This study analyses the energy use of and output from seventeen industry subsectors in California and performs decomposition analysis to assess the influence of different factors on California industry energy use. The logarithmic mean Divisia index method is used for the decomposition analysis. The decomposition analysis results show that the observed reduction of energy use in California industry since 2000 is the result of two main factors: the intensity effect and the structural effect. The intensity effect has started pushing final energy use downward in 2000 and has since amplified. The second large effect is the structural effect. The significant decrease of the energy-intensive "Oil and Gas Extraction" subsector's share of total industry value added, from 15% in 1997 to 5% in 2008, and the increase of the non-energy intensive "Electric and electronic equipment manufacturing" sector's share of value added, from 7% in 1997 to 30% in 2008, both contributed to a decrease in the energy intensity in the industry sector

10

2011 Intensity -1 INTENSITY OF SOUND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the rate at which energy is passing a certain point. This concept involves sound intensity. Consider the sound intensity. Recall the time rate of energy transfer is called "power". Thus, sound intensity2011 Intensity - 1 INTENSITY OF SOUND The objectives of this experiment are: · To understand

Glashausser, Charles

11

Vibration intensity difference thresholds.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The intensity difference threshold is defined as ‘the difference in the intensity of two stimuli which is just sufficient for their difference to be detected’.… (more)

Forta, Nazim Gizem

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Light intensity compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

14

Le Bail Intensity Extraction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Le Bail Intensity Extraction Le Bail Intensity Extraction Presentation Goal Introduce the concepts behind LeBail fitting; why it is useful and how to perform a Le Bail fit with GSAS. Format: PDF slides or a RealPlayer video of the slides with accompanying audio and a demo video that shows how a Le Bail fit is performed. Presentation Outline What is the Le Bail method? Other approaches Why use the Le Bail method? Parameter fitting with Le Bail intensity extraction Le Bail refinement strategies Avoiding problems with background fitting: BKGEDIT Demo: an example Le Bail fit Links Le Bail lecture Slides (as PDF file) FlashMovie presentation with index (best viewed with 1024x768 or better screen resolution) FlashMovie file (800x600 pixels) Le Bail demo FlashMovie presentation with index (best viewed with 1024x768 or

15

Energy Intensity Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our presentation will cover how we began the journey of conserving energy at our facility. We’ll discuss a basic layout of our energy intensity plan and the impact our team has had on the process, what tools we’re using, what goals have been...

Rappolee, D.; Shaw, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Unlocking energy intensive habits  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy intensive habits energy intensive habits Presentation at LBL Oct 10, 2013 by Hal Wilhite Professor and Research Director University of Oslo Centre for Development and the Environment Source: WWF US EIA Outlook 2011 Conventional framing of the energy consumption and savings * Sovereign consumers * Economically rational and persistentely reflexive. * Uninfluenced by social and material conditions of everyday life * Focus on efficiency and not on size and volume which is for the most part treated as an indifferent variable Cognitive reductionism The change of frame * From individual to socio-material * From rational/reflexive experience-based (practical) knowledge * From efficiency to reduction A theory of habit * Acknowledges the role of lived experience (history, both cultural and personal) in forming

17

The intensity of motivation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rearranged before they were repeated in reverse sequence. Electrocardiographic T-wave amplitude (TWA) and changes were monitored during a 15-sec anticipatory phase, as well as during each 15-second mental manipulation phase. (This ensured that the measures..., and the subject was surreptitiously observed. The high-self-esteem subjects were observed to do more practice www.annualreviews.org/aronline Annual Reviews INTENSITY OF MOTIVATION 121 problems for the difficult- than for the easy-to-please experimenter...

Brehm, Jack W.; Self, E. A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

High intensity femtosecond enhancement cavities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To produce extreme ultraviolet radiation via high harmonic generation (HHG) in rare gases, light intensities in excess of 1014 W/cm 2 are required. Usually such high intensity are obtained by parametric amplification of ...

Abram, Gilberto

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

energy intensity | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

intensity intensity Dataset Summary Description Energy intensity data and documentation published by the U.S. DOE's office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Energy intensity is defined as: amount of energy used in producing a given level of output or activity; expressed as energy per unit of output. This is the energy intensity of the the electricity sector, which is an energy consuming sector that generates electricity. Data are organized to separate electricity-only generators from combined heat and power (CHP) generators. Data is available for the period 1949 - 2004. Source EERE Date Released May 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords Electricity Energy Consumption energy intensity fossil fuels renewable energy Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon electricity_indicators.xls (xls, 2.1 MiB)

20

Accelerators for Intensity Frontier Research  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel identified three frontiers for research in high energy physics, the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. In this paper, I will describe how Fermilab is configuring and upgrading the accelerator complex, prior to the development of Project X, in support of the Intensity Frontier.

Derwent, Paul; /Fermilab

2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

teChnologIes Program IntroduCtIon the research and development (r&d) portfolio for energy-Intensive Processes (eIP) addresses the top technology opportunities to save energy...

22

ENERGY USE AND CONSERVATION IN INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bear directly on energy use: the mix of non-energy goods andU.S. long haul mix is less energy intensive but total use isby consumers, and the mix of key energy intensive activities

Schipper, L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Neutral particle beam intensity controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

Dagenhart, W.K.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

24

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

25

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

26

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Changes in Energy Intensity 1985-1991  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Changes in Energy Intensity Changes in Energy Intensity 1985-1991 Overview Full Report The focus is on intensity of energy use measured by energy consumption relative to constant...

29

Intensive Skills Activities CAREERS SERVICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the state under the cover of night and in broad daylight, perhaps swimming in ship ballast water, tucked and the rest of the world focus more intensely on producing fuels and energy from grasses and other non to subscribe (it's free!), send a note to Futures Editor, 109 Agriculture Hall, Michigan State University, East

Bristol, University of

30

Neutral particle beam intensity controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Neutrino physics with an intense \  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study some of the physics potential of an intense $1\\,\\mathrm{MCi}$ $^{51}\\mathrm{Cr}$ source combined with the {\\sc Majorana Demonstrator} enriched germanium detector array. The {\\sc Demonstrator} will consist of detectors with ultra-low radioactive backgrounds and extremely low energy thresholds of~$\\sim 400\\,\\mathrm{eV}$. We show that it can improve the current limit on the neutrino magnetic dipole moment. We briefly discuss physics applications of the charged-current reaction of the $^{51}\\mathrm{Cr} neutrino with the $^{73}\\mathrm{Ge} isotope. Finally, we argue that the rate from a realistic, intense tritium source is below the detectable limit of even a tonne-scale HPGe experiment

R. Henning

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

32

Handbook of Pediatric Intensive Care  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...objectionable, but I found that it streamlined the text. This handbook is useful in at least two ways. First, it can serve as a mini-textbook on pediatric intensive care. It is not meant to be a substitute for any of the major works in the field, but it does provide enough information for the reader to gain more... In caring for critically ill children, the demands on one's time are great, and there is often little time left for reading. Although there are a number of excellent, comprehensive books on pediatric critical care that must be read by those in the field, ...

Trager J.D.K.

1996-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

33

Iron and Steel Energy Intensities  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home > >Energy Users > Energy Efficiency Page > Iron and Steel Energy Intensities First Use of Energy Blue Bullet First Use/Value of Production Blue Bullet First Use/Ton of steel End Uses of Consumption Blue Bullet Total End Use/Value of Production Blue Bullet Total End Use/Ton of Steel Boiler Fuel as End Use Blue Bullet Boiler Fuel /Value of Production Blue Bullet Boiler Fuel /Ton of Steel Process Heating as End Use Blue Bullet Process Heating Fuel /Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Process Heating /Value of Production Machine Drive as End Use Blue Bullet Machine Drive Fuel/Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Machine Drive Fuel /Value of Production Expenditures Blue Bullet Purchased Fuel /Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Purchased Fuel /Value of Production

34

Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance for the Better Buildings, Better Plants Program helps companies meet the program’s reporting requirements by describing the steps necessary to develop an energy consumption and energy intensity baseline and calculating consumption and intensity changes over time.

35

Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industry associations, energy and trade data from nationalof detailed energy, production, and trade data necessary for

Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Learn more at betterbuildings.energy.gov Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance i Preface The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program...

37

World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selected Industrial Sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

world best practice energy intensity values for productionWorld best practice energy intensity values for productionWorld Best Practice Final Energy Intensity Values for Aluminium Production (

Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky, Christina; Zhou, Nan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selected Industrial Sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Best Practice Final Energy Intensity Values for Stand-AloneBest Practice Final Energy Intensity Values for Stand-AloneBest Practice Primary Energy Intensity Values for Stand-

Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky, Christina; Zhou, Nan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Intense Muon Physics Working Group Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The intense muon beams which will be available at a neutrino factory provide a unique opportunity for searching for physics beyond the standard model, both in lepton flavor violation and in the search for a permanent electric dipole moment for the muon. Other experiments which can use intense muon beams will also be possible.

B. Lee Roberts; Marco Grassi; Akira Sato

2005-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

40

Description of Energy Intensity Tables (12)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Description of Energy Intensity Data Tables 3. Description of Energy Intensity Data Tables There are 12 data tables used as references for this report. Specifically, these tables are categorized as tables 1 and 2 present unadjusted energy-intensity ratios for Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy for 1985, 1988, 1991, and 1994; along with the percentage changes between 1985 and the three subsequent years (1988, 1991, and 1994) tables 3 and 4 present 1988, 1991, and 1994 energy-intensity ratios that have been adjusted to the mix of products shipped from manufacturing establishments in 1985 tables 5 and 6 present unadjusted energy-intensity ratios for Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy for 1988, 1991, and 1994; along with the percentage changes between 1988 and the two subsequent

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Impact Factors of Energy Intensity in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy intensity reflects energy usage efficiency in the production and consumption process, and leads to carbon dioxide emissions and the energy security of an economy. Liao et al. (2007) analyzed factors contribute to the fluctuation of China’s energy intensity from 1997 to 2006, and found that efficiency effects and structural effects are the major impacting factors. Therefore, they suggested that China should attach more importance to optimizing its sectoral structure, and lowering its investment ratio in the future. However, economic development and energy intensity are influenced by many factors. In their research, Liao et al. (2007) omitted some important contributing factors to energy intensities, and their suggestions also had some practical limitations. First of all, Liao et al. (2007) did not analyze impacts from energy prices in energy usage efficiency. In the existing literature, Birol and Keppler (2000) applied economics theory and suggested that higher energy prices can induce the improvements in energy usage efficiency, thereby lowering energy intensity. Hang and Tu (2007) studied the influence of energy price on the Chinese economy's energy intensity and their empirical results also showed that higher energy prices can lower energy intensity. Because energy prices have been regulated by the

unknown authors

42

Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter.

Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter. 18 figs.

Rushford, M.C.

1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

44

Building dependability arguments for software intensive systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method is introduced for structuring and guiding the development of end-to-end dependability arguments. The goal is to establish high-level requirements of complex software-intensive systems, especially properties that ...

Seater, Robert Morrison

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Computational phase imaging based on intensity transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light is a wave, having both an amplitude and a phase. However, optical frequencies are too high to allow direct detection of phase; thus, our eyes and cameras see only real values - intensity. Phase carries important ...

Waller, Laura A. (Laura Ann)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Modelling patient states in intensive care patients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extensive bedside monitoring in hospital Intensive Care Units (ICU) has resulted in a deluge of information on patient physiology. Consequently, clinical decision makers have to reason with data that is simultaneously large ...

Kshetri, Kanak Bikram

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Transport of elliptic intense charged -particle beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transport theory of high-intensity elliptic charged-particle beams is presented. In particular, the halo formation and beam loss problem associated with the high space charge and small-aperture structure is addressed, ...

Zhou, J. (Jing), 1978-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Technical Change, Investment and Energy Intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the role of different components of technical change on energy intensity by applying a Translog variable cost function setting to the new EU KLEMS dataset for 3 selected EU countries (Italy, Finland and ...

Kratena, Kurt

49

Sustaining Performance Improvements in Energy Intensive Industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experience has shown that significant opportunity for performance improvements exists in energy intensive operations. Often, efforts to improve efficiency focus on vendor-led initiatives to improve operations of particular equipment. This approach...

Moore, D. A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Absolute vs. intensity-based emission caps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cap-and-trade systems limit emissions to some pre-specified absolute quantity. Intensity-based limits, that restrict emissions to some pre-specified rate relative to input or output, are much more widely used in environmental ...

Ellerman, A. Denny.

51

Laser intensity effects in noncommutative QED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss a two-fold extension of QED assuming the presence of strong external fields provided by an ultra-intense laser and noncommutativity of spacetime. While noncommutative effects leave the electron's intensity induced mass shift unchanged, the photons change significantly in character: they acquire a quasi-momentum that is no longer light-like. We study the consequences of this combined noncommutative strong-field effect for basic lepton-photon interactions.

Thomas Heinzl; Anton Ilderton; Mattias Marklund

2010-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

52

ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES  

SciTech Connect

A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper limits that applies to all detection algorithms.

Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Connors, Alanna [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Freeman, Peter E. [Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: dvd@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: aconnors@eurekabayes.co, E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed, E-mail: azezas@cfa.harvard.ed [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

53

Future High-Intensity Proton Accelerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of currently planned high-intensity proton accelerators. While for high energies (>10GeV) synchrotrons remain the preferred tools to produce high-intensity beams, recent years have seen an impressive development of linac-based lower-energy (intensity proton drivers for spallation sources, accelerator driven systems (ADS), production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) and various neutrino applications (beta-beam, superbeam, neutrino factory). This paper discusses the optimum machine types for the various beam requirements and uses a range of projects, which are likely to be realised within the coming decade, to illustrate the different approaches to reach high average beam power with the application-specific time structure. Only machines with a beam power above 100kW are considered.

Gerigk, F

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Short rise time intense electron beam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A generator for producing an intense relativisitc electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

Olson, C.L.

1984-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

55

Analysis of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the aggregate energy-intensity of industry. Applied Energyindustries with final energy intensities of 12.3 Billion BtuAs mentioned, the energy intensity of this sector is much

Can, Stephane de la Rue du

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program 2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program Due December 10 November 18, 2013 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments)...

57

ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers biomass-firedboilers.pd...

58

ARM - Evaluation Product - MFRSR-Column Intensive Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Product : MFRSR-Column Intensive Properties The MFRSR-Column Intensive Properties (CIP) value-added product (VAP) has been developed for estimating the microphysical (e.g.,...

59

Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity-Reducing Technologies & Practices Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity-Reducing...

60

2nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular Processes - ISWAMP2 2nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular Processes - ISWAMP2...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Reducing Industrial Energy Intensity in the Southeast Project...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Energy Intensity in the Southeast Project Fact Sheet Reducing Industrial Energy Intensity in the Southeast Project Fact Sheet This fact sheet contains details regarding...

62

WHERE ARE THE MOST INTENSE THUNDERSTORMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

provided unparalleled information on the global distribution of intense convective storms. T he Tropical-alti- tude, non-sun-synchronous orbit permits sampling throughout the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The cloud-top temperature of storms has been measured using infrared (IR) bright- ness temperature (Tb

Nesbitt, Steve

63

Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu / real GDP in billion 2005 chained dollars)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",11.24893441,11.08565002,10.98332766,10.82852279,10.67400621,10.54170176,10.39583203,10.27184573,10.14478673,10.02575883,9.910410202,9.810812106,9.69894802,9.599821783,9.486985399,9.394733753,9.303329725,9.221322623 "AEO 1995",,10.86137373,10.75116461,10.60467959,10.42268977,10.28668187,10.14461664,10.01081222,9.883759026,9.759022105,9.627404949,9.513643295,9.400418762,9.311729546,9.226142899,9.147374752,9.071102491,8.99599906 "AEO 1996",,,10.71047701,10.59846153,10.43655044,10.27812088,10.12746866,9.9694713,9.824165152,9.714832565,9.621874334,9.532324916,9.428169355,9.32931308,9.232716414,9.170931044,9.086870061,9.019963901,8.945602337

64

Efficiency and Intensity in the AEO 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Session 9 Session 9 Energy Efficiency: Measuring Gains and Quantifying Opportunities April 7, 2010 2010 Energy Conference Washington, DC Steve Wade, Economist Efficiency and Intensity in the AEO 2010 Steve Wade, 2010 Energy Conference, April 7, 2010 2 * What are the sources of efficiency in the AEO 2010? * What is the contribution of energy efficiency to projected U.S. energy intensity? * How do AEO scenarios relate to technical potential? Overview Steve Wade, 2010 Energy Conference, April 7, 2010 3 * Technology - Stock turnover - Progress and learning * Mandates - CAFÉ, efficiency standards (NAECA, EPACT), building codes... - Renewable fuel standards * Incentives - Tax credits, loan guarantees, grants, ...  Energy efficiency and renewables - ACESA, ARRA (stimulus bill) ...  Investment tax credits

65

How intense quality control improves hydraulic fracturing  

SciTech Connect

Not unlike the subject of Forced Closure, Intense Quality Control is probably misnamed. What actually is discussed in this article is pilot testing of the fracturing fluids actually pumped at in-situ conditions of temperature and shear. Presented here is development of the need for onsite testing, equipment used, shear and viscosity curves from several jobs showing what went wrong that would otherwise not have been known, and a discussion of borate gel fluids.

Ely, J.W. [Ely and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Intensive Variables & Nanostructuring in Magnetostructural Materials  

SciTech Connect

Over the course of this project, fundamental inquiry was carried out to investigate, understand and predict the effects of intensive variables, including the structural scale, on magnetostructural phase transitions in the model system of equiatomic FeRh. These transitions comprise simultaneous magnetic and structural phase changes that have their origins in very strong orbital-lattice coupling and thus may be driven by a plurality of effects.

Lewis, Laura

2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

67

Correlated-Intensity velocimeter for Arbitrary Reflector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A velocimetry apparatus and method comprising splitting incoming reflected laser light and directing the laser light into first and second arms, filtering the laser light with passband filters in the first and second arms, one having a positive passband slope and the other having a negative passband slope, and detecting the filtered laser light via light intensity detectors following the passband filters in the first and second arms

Wang, Zhehui (Los Alamos, NM); Luo, Shengnian (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, Cris W. (Arlington, VA); Paul, Stephen F. (West Orange, NJ)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

68

Intense steady state electron beam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source.

Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY); Kovarik, Vincent J. (Bohemia, NY); Prelec, Krsto (Setauket, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

70

High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

Lapatovich, Walter P. (Hudson, MA); Keeffe, William M. (Rockport, MA); Liebermann, Richard W. (Danvers, MA); Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

High intensity specular reflectometry - first experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selene is the attempt to implement a new scheme for high-intensity specular reflectometry. Instead of a highly collimated beam one uses a convergent beam covering a large angular range. The angular resolution is then performed by a position-sensitive detector. Off-specular scattering in this set-up leads to some background, but for screening of wide parameter ranges (e.g. temperature, electric and magnetic fields) the intensity gain of at least one order of magnitude is essential. If necessary, the high precession measurements (even with off-specular components) then are performed with the conventional set-up. The heart of this new set-up is an elliptically focusing guide element of 2\\,m length. Though this guide is optimised for the use on the TOF reflectometer Amor at SINQ, it can be used as stand-alone device to check the possible application also for other neutron scattering techniques. The first measurements on AMOR confirmed the general concept and the various operation modes. A draw-back occurred due t...

Stahn, J; Panzner, T

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Probabilistic Multiple-Linear Regression Modeling for Tropical Cyclone Intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors describe the development and verification of a statistical model relating tropical cyclone intensity to the local large-scale environment. A multiple linear regression framework is used to estimate the expected intensity of a tropical ...

Chia-Ying Lee; Michael K. Tippett; Suzana J. Camargo; Adam H. Sobel

73

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1992 - Index...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Energy End-Use Intensities 1992 Energy End-Use Intensities Overview Tables National estimates of energy consumption by fuel (electricity and natural gas) and end use (heating,...

74

China's energy intensity and its determinants at the provincial level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy consumed per dollar of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). The People's Republic of China's (China's) energy intensity has been declining significantly since the late 1970s. ...

Zhang, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Laser-Matter Interaction Above the Plasma Ignition Threshold Intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter we present the process of laser-matter interaction above the plasma ignition threshold intensity. The physics of the pulsed laser ablation process at high intensities is very complex since it invo...

Mihai Stafe; Aurelian Marcu; Niculae N. Puscas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Laser-Matter Interaction Below the Plasma Ignition Threshold Intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter we present the process of laser-matter interaction below the plasma ignition threshold intensity. When the high power laser radiation characterized by electric field intensities around ...

Mihai Stafe; Aurelian Marcu; Niculae N. Puscas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Diversity–disturbance relationships: frequency and intensity interact  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...relationship depended on the frequency of disturbances by the...diversity as the response variable and frequency and intensity as factors...unequivocally that the frequency-intensity interaction drives the coexistence of ecologically...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerated hypofractionated intensity...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(IMRT) de- pendends on finding... technologies. I. INTRODUCTION Intensity modulated radiation ... Source: Censor, Yair - Department of Mathematics, University of Haifa...

79

PERI Auto-tuning Memory Intensive Kernels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PERI PERI - Auto-tuning Memory Intensive Kernels for Multicore Samuel Williams † , Kaushik Datta † , Jonathan Carter , Leonid Oliker † , John Shalf , Katherine Yelick † , David Bailey CRD/NERSC, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA † Computer Science Division, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA E-mail: SWWilliams@lbl.gov, kdatta@eecs.berkeley.edu, JTCarter@lbl.gov, LOliker@lbl.gov, JShalf@lbl.gov, KAYelick@lbl.gov, DHBailey@lbl.gov Abstract. We present an auto-tuning approach to optimize application performance on emerging multicore architectures. The methodology extends the idea of search-based performance optimizations, popular in linear algebra and FFT libraries, to application-specific computational kernels. Our work applies this strategy to Sparse Matrix Vector Multiplication

80

Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the U.S. Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

Ochoa, Ellen (Pleasanton, CA); Schils, George F. (San Ramon, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (Alamo, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Title of Dissertation: CONTROL AND TRANSPORT OF INTENSE ELECTRON BEAMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: CONTROL AND TRANSPORT OF INTENSE ELECTRON BEAMS Hui Li, Doctor Engineering The transport of intense beams for advanced accelerator applications with high-intensity beams of beam characteristics over long distances. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER), which uses

Anlage, Steven

82

AN INTENSE LOW ENERGY MUON SOURCE FOR THE MUON COLLIDER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AN INTENSE LOW ENERGY MUON SOURCE FOR THE MUON COLLIDER D. Taqqu Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH Abstract A scheme for obtaining an intense source of low energy muons is described. It is based of the decay muons an intense intermediate energy muon beam is obtained. For the specific case of negative

McDonald, Kirk

83

Quantitative Measurements of X-ray Intensity  

SciTech Connect

This chapter describes the characterization of several X-ray sources and their use in calibrating different types of X-ray cameras at National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The cameras are employed in experimental plasma studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The sources provide X-rays in the energy range from several hundred eV to 110 keV. The key to this effort is measuring the X-ray beam intensity accurately and traceable to international standards. This is accomplished using photodiodes of several types that are calibrated using radioactive sources and a synchrotron source using methods and materials that are traceable to the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The accreditation procedures are described. The chapter begins with an introduction to the fundamental concepts of X-ray physics. The types of X-ray sources that are used for device calibration are described. The next section describes the photodiode types that are used for measuring X-ray intensity: power measuring photodiodes, energy dispersive photodiodes, and cameras comprising photodiodes as pixel elements. Following their description, the methods used to calibrate the primary detectors, the power measuring photodiodes and the energy dispersive photodiodes, as well as the method used to get traceability to international standards are described. The X-ray source beams can then be measured using the primary detectors. The final section then describes the use of the calibrated X-ray beams to calibrate X-ray cameras. Many of the references are web sites that provide databases, explanations of the data and how it was generated, and data calculations for specific cases. Several general reference books related to the major topics are included. Papers expanding some subjects are cited.

Haugh, M. J., Schneider, M.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care Ii (Mimic-Ii): A Public-Access Intensive Care Unit Database  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objective: We sought to develop an intensive care unit research database applying automated techniques to aggregate high-resolution diagnostic and therapeutic data from a large, diverse population of adult intensive care ...

Saeed, Mohammed

85

ANALYSIS ON THE MAJOR INFLUENCE FACTORS OF ENERGY INTENSITY CHANGING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the energy intensity data of period 1990-2008, this paper uses impulse response function and variance decomposition model to empirical analysis the main influencing factors and effects of energy intensity,. The empirical results show that: the energy intensity of itself, and the proportion of secondary industry have a larger impact on energy intensity; the change of energy price and technological progress also play a certain impact on energy intensity; and the link with the internal relations and interaction mechanisms, which can play an active role in improving energy efficiency.

Xia Wang; Lu Tang

86

High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting provides the highest efficacy and longest service life of any lighting type. It can save 75%-90% of lighting energy when it replaces incandescent lighting. Illustration of a high-intensity discharge (HID) lIllustration amp. The lamp is a tall cylindrical shape, and a cutout of the outer tube shows the materials inside. A long, thin cylinder called the arc tube runs through the lamp between two electrodes. The space around the arc tube is labeled as a vacuum. In a high-intensity discharge lamp, electricity arcs between two electrodes, creating an intensely bright light. Mercury, sodium, or metal halide gas

87

Table 23. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu / $Billion Nominal GDP) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 20.1 18.5 16.9 15.5 14.4 13.2 AEO 1983 19.9 18.7 17.4 16.2 15.1 14.0 9.5 AEO 1984 20.1 19.0 17.7 16.5 15.5 14.5 10.2 AEO 1985 20.0 19.1 18.0 16.9 15.9 14.7 13.7 12.7 11.8 11.0 10.3 AEO 1986 18.3 17.8 16.8 16.1 15.2 14.3 13.4 12.6 11.7 10.9 10.2 9.5 8.9 8.3 7.8 AEO 1987 17.6 17.0 16.3 15.4 14.5 13.7 12.9 12.1 11.4 8.2 AEO 1989* 16.9 16.2 15.2 14.2 13.3 12.5 11.7 10.9 10.2 9.6 9.0 8.5 8.0 AEO 1990 16.1 15.4 11.7 8.6 6.4 AEO 1991 15.5 14.9 14.2 13.6 13.0 12.5 11.9 11.3 10.8 10.3 9.7 9.2 8.7 8.3 7.9 7.4 7.0 6.7 6.3 6.0 AEO 1992 15.0 14.5 13.9 13.3 12.7 12.1 11.6 11.0 10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.6 8.1 7.7 7.3 6.9 6.6 6.2 AEO 1993 14.7 13.9 13.4 12.8 12.3 11.8 11.2 10.7 10.2 9.6 9.2 8.7 8.3 7.8 7.4 7.1 6.7 6.4

88

Energy and materials conservation: applying pioneering research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...interest is in their low entropy content, the readily available energy in these materials. Clearly...reasons for the change in the energy content of the average GNP dollar, a kind of overall energy efficiency measure of the...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Data Intensive Architecture for Scalable Cyber Analytics  

SciTech Connect

Cyber analysts are tasked with the identification and mitigation of network exploits and threats. These compromises are difficult to identify due to the characteristics of cyber communication, the volume of traffic, and the duration of possible attack. In this paper, we describe a prototype implementation designed to provide cyber analysts an environment where they can interactively explore a month’s worth of cyber security data. This prototype utilized On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) techniques to present a data cube to the analysts. The cube provides a summary of the data, allowing trends to be easily identified as well as the ability to easily pull up the original records comprising an event of interest. The cube was built using SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS), with the interface to the cube provided by Tableau. This software infrastructure was supported by a novel hardware architecture comprising a Netezza TwinFin® for the underlying data warehouse and a cube server with a FusionIO drive hosting the data cube. We evaluated this environment on a month’s worth of artificial, but realistic, data using multiple queries provided by our cyber analysts. As our results indicate, OLAP technology has progressed to the point where it is in a unique position to provide novel insights to cyber analysts, as long as it is supported by an appropriate data intensive architecture.

Olsen, Bryan K.; Johnson, John R.; Critchlow, Terence J.

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

90

Commissioning of intensity modulated neutron radiotherapy (IMNRT)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Intensity modulated neutron radiotherapy (IMNRT) has been developed using inhouse treatment planning and delivery systems at the Karmanos Cancer Center/Wayne State University Fast Neutron Therapy facility. The process of commissioning IMNRT for clinical use is presented here. Results of commissioning tests are provided including validation measurements using representative patient plans as well as those from the TG-119 test suite. Methods: IMNRT plans were created using the Varian Eclipse optimization algorithm and an inhouse planning system for calculation of neutron dose distributions. Tissue equivalent ionization chambers and an ionization chamber array were used for point dose and planar dose distribution comparisons with calculated values. Validation plans were delivered to water and virtual water phantoms using TG-119 measurement points and evaluation techniques. Photon and neutron doses were evaluated both inside and outside the target volume for a typical IMNRT plan to determine effects of intensity modulation on the photon dose component. Monitor unit linearity and effects of beam current and gantry angle on output were investigated, and an independent validation of neutron dosimetry was obtained. Results: While IMNRT plan quality is superior to conventional fast neutron therapy plans for clinical sites such as prostate and head and neck, it is inferior to photon IMRT for most TG-119 planning goals, particularly for complex cases. This results significantly from current limitations on the number of segments. Measured and calculated doses for 11 representative plans (six prostate/five head and neck) agreed to within -0.8 {+-} 1.4% and 5.0 {+-} 6.0% within and outside the target, respectively. Nearly all (22/24) ion chamber point measurements in the two phantom arrangements were within the respective confidence intervals for the quantity [(measured-planned)/prescription dose] derived in TG-119. Mean differences for all measurements were 0.5% (max = 7.0%) and 1.4% (max = 4.1%) in water and virtual water, respectively. The mean gamma pass rate for all cases was 92.8% (min = 88.6%). These pass rates are lower than typically achieved with photon IMRT, warranting development of a planar dosimetry system designed specifically for IMNRT and/or the improvement of neutron beam modeling in the penumbral region. The fractional photon dose component did not change significantly in a typical IMNRT plan versus a conventional fast neutron therapy plan, and IMNRT delivery is not expected to significantly alter the RBE. All other commissioning results were considered satisfactory for clinical implementation of IMNRT, including the external neutron dose validation, which agreed with the predicted neutron dose to within 1%. Conclusions: IMNRT has been successfully commissioned for clinical use. While current plan quality is inferior to photon IMRT, it is superior to conventional fast neutron therapy. Ion chamber validation results for IMNRT commissioning are also comparable to those typically achieved with photon IMRT. Gamma pass rates for planar dose distributions are lower than typically observed for photon IMRT but may be improved with improved planar dosimetry equipment and beam modeling techniques. In the meantime, patient-specific quality assurance measurements should rely more heavily on point dose measurements with tissue equivalent ionization chambers. No significant technical impediments are anticipated in the clinical implementation of IMNRT as described here.

Burmeister, Jay; Snyder, Michael [Karmanos Cancer Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Spink, Robyn; Liang Liang; Bossenberger, Todd; Halford, Robert [Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Brandon, John [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48201 (United States); Delauter, Jonathan [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

BEAM INTENSITY AND ENERGY CONTROL FOR THE SPIRAL2 FACILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BEAM INTENSITY AND ENERGY CONTROL FOR THE SPIRAL2 FACILITY C. Jamet, T. Andre, B. Ducoudret, C to control both beam intensity and energy by non-interceptive methods at the linac exit. The beam current will range in intensity from a few 10 A to 1mA for ions, up to 5 mA for deuterons, and in energy from 0.75 up

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

ESMAP-China Energy Intensity Reduction Strategy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intensity Reduction Strategy Intensity Reduction Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name China-ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program Agency/Company /Organization Energy Sector Management Assistance Program of the World Bank Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Forestry, Agriculture Topics Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Website http://www.esmap.org/filez/pub Country China Eastern Asia References China Energy Intensity Reduction Strategy[1] Overview "The study involves the development of pragmatic "implementation" focused policy notes to support the Government of China's goal of reducing energy intensity in China focusing on: Reevaluation of renewable energy targets, growth path, and related

93

iterative regularization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the overall deliverable treatment is of high quality and obtained at less expense ...... Intensity modulated photon beams subject to a minimal surface smoothing.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Long Range Correlations of Light Intensity inside Photonic Nanostructures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We measured directly long range spatial intensity correlations inside quasi-two dimensional disordered photonic waveguides. Enhancement of long-range correlations is observed in...

Sarma, Raktim; Yamilov, Alexey G; Shapiro, Boris; Cao, Hui

95

Probing Long Range Intensity Correlations inside Disordered Photonic Waveguides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report direct measurements of long-range spatial intensity correlations and fluctuations inside quasi-two-dimensional random structures. Long-range correlations are enhanced by...

Sarma, Raktim; Yamilov, Alexey; Neupane, Pauf; Shapiro, Boris; Cao, Hui

96

User Training for Data Intensive Science Co-Chairs: Fernanda...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

User Training for Data Intensive Science Co-Chairs: Fernanda Foertter, Tim Fahey 1 Contributors * Blaise Barney, LLNL * Karen Haskell, SNL * Bob Balance, SNL * Fernanda Foertter,...

97

Transverse Focussing of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Chromatic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transverse Focussing of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Chromatic Effects for Heavy Ion Fusion Inventors..--.. James M. Mitrani, Igor D, Kaganovich, Ronald C, Davidson. A two...

98

China-Energy Intensity Reduction Strategy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Website http:www.esmap.orgfilezpub Country China Eastern Asia References China Energy Intensity Reduction Strategy1 Overview "The study involves the development of...

99

Reducing Industrial Energy Intensity in the Southeast Project...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Authority and its project partners will establish the Southeastern Center for Industrial Energy Intensity Reduction (the Center) to inform industrial facilities about the U.S....

100

Comparison of International Energy Intensities across the G7...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Comparison of International Energy Intensities across the G7 and other parts of Europe, including Ukraine Elizabeth Sendich November 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis...

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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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101

High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL); Knapp, Gordon S. (Cupertino, CA); Westbrook, Edwin M. (Chicago, IL); Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. Schaeffer, 1997, “Energy Intensity in the Iron and Steelwhich is the ratio of the actual energy intensity to thebest practice energy intensity, where the best practice

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Energy-Efficiency Technologies and Benchmarking the Energy Intensity for the Textile Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benchmarking the Energy Intensity for the Textile Industryand Comparing the Energy Intensity in the Textile Industrywere visited. The energy intensity of each plant was

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Analysis and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selectedworld-best-practice-energy-intensity-values- selected-2005. Changes in energy intensities of Thai industry between

Can, Stephane de la Rue de

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Cyclone Center Using Crowdsourcing to Determine Tropical Cyclone Intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cyclone Center Using Crowdsourcing to Determine Tropical Cyclone Intensity Almost all tropical cyclones are not directly observed. Agency estimates of storm position and intensity are not homogeneous in time and space. Cyclone Center uses crowdsourcing to collect data that will lead to a consistent

Hennon, Christopher C.

106

Interactive situation modelling in knowledge-intensive domains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper shows how knowledge from various sources in a knowledge intensive domain can be modelled using principles of ethnography. This is achieved by bridging the symmetry of ignorance gap that exists between process owners and system developers. ... Keywords: ethnography, knowledge intensive domains, requirement engineering, situation modelling, systems modelling

Kiran Jude Fernandes

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Knowledge-Intensive Case-Based Reasoning and Intelligent Tutoring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Knowledge-Intensive Case-Based Reasoning and Intelligent Tutoring Agnar Aamodt Department Norway agnar.aamodt@idi.ntnu.no Abstract. Knowledge-intensive CBR assumes that cases are enriched with general domain knowledge. In the system Creek, developed in our group, there is a strong coupling between

Aamodt, Agnar

108

Spectral Intensity Patterns and Vibrational Phase Space Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

91 Klamath Hall, Department of Chemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-1253 ... In ref 7, we examined energy patterns of molecules with a 2:1 Fermi resonance between the local stretch and bend of a C?H group. ... The goal is to analyze relative intensities within polyads; the actual experimental intensity falls off sharply with polyad number. ...

Vivian Tyng; Michael E. Kellman

2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

109

Optical absorption intensity of semiconductor single-wall carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical absorption intensity of semiconductor single-wall carbon nanotubes Y. Oyama1 , R. Saito1. The optical absorption intensity is inversely proportional to the diameter in the unit of per carbon atom of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) synthesized by alcohol CCVD (ACCVD) method and HiPco method [1

Maruyama, Shigeo

110

Response of GaAs to fast intense laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motivated by recent experiments, we have performed simulations which show in detail how the electrons and ions in GaAs respond to fast intense laser pulses (with durations of order 100 fs and intensities of order 1-10 TW/cm(2)). The method of tight...

Graves, JS; Allen, Roland E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Automated Checkpointing for Enabling Intensive Applications on Energy Harvesting Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Automated Checkpointing for Enabling Intensive Applications on Energy Harvesting Devices Azalia intensive computation on ultra-low power devices with discontinuous energy-harvesting supplies. We devise on a battery-less RF energy-harvester platform. Extensive experiments targeting applications in medical implant

112

The large-scale structure of software-intensive systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...necessary to explain the operation of a software-intensive system. If there is anything...software-intensive system that makes the operation of a Turing complete...all state-changing operations upon the system. 26 This is true of...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Memory Intensive Computing Shahar Kvatinsky, Avinoam Kolodny, and Uri C.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Memory Intensive Computing Shahar Kvatinsky, Avinoam Kolodny, and Uri C. Weiser Department, New York 14627, USA Abstract-- Over the past years, new memory technologies such as RRAM, STT present these emerging memory technologies as enablers to the era of memory- intensive computing, which

Friedman, Eby G.

114

Stochastic Local Intensity Loss Models with Interacting Particle Aurelien Alfonsi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by a unit increasing time inhomogeneous Markov process, whose deterministic jump intensity is called local (2008) allow to get a stochastic jump intensity while keeping the same marginal laws. These models)) and consider the following dynamics for the stock under a risk-neutral probability: dSt = rStdt + f(Yt)(t, St

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

EIA Energy Efficiency-Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities: 1992- 2003 Released Date: December 2004 Page Last Revised: August 2009 These tables provide estimates of commercial sector energy consumption and energy intensities for 1992, 1995, 1999 and 2003 based on the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). They also provide estimates of energy consumption and intensities adjusted for the effect of weather on heating, cooling, and ventilation energy use. Total Site Energy Consumption (U.S. and Census Region) Html Excel PDF bullet By Principal Building Activity (Table 1a) html Table 1a excel table 1a. pdf table 1a. Weather-Adjusted by Principal Building Activity (Table 1b) html table 1b excel table 1b pdf table 1b.

116

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations govCampaignsWater Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations 2002.04.01 - 2002.06.30 Lead Scientist : Marvin Wesely For data sets, see below. Description The U.S. DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) is a 3-year feasibility investigation focused on accurately evaluating the water cycle components and using stable isotopes as an effective tool in doing so. The study area is primarily the Whitewater subbasin in the Walnut River Watershed in southeastern Kansas. Two intensive observations periods are planned, this first one in April to June 2002 and a second currently scheduled for December 2002 to February 2003. Observations will be made of precipitation

117

Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes October 8, 2013 - 9:48am Addthis Many water using processes beyond the previously covered best management practices (BMPs) are found at Federal facilities, including vehicle wash systems, maintenance services, cleaning/laundry services, single pass air conditioners, water softening systems, and others. Identify and analyze all water intensive processes for potential efficiency improvements. Overview Laundry facilities are often found at Federal facilities. The laundry facility may be a self-serve laundry where residents and personnel wash their own clothing, a commercial-type laundry service where residents drop off laundry to be washed or dry cleaned, or an industrial laundry facility

118

Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity Frontier Intensity Frontier Experiments at the Intensity Frontier ArgoNeuT MINERvA MiniBooNE MINOS NOvA LBNE Cosmic Frontier Proposed Projects and Experiments ArgoNeuT ArgoNeut detector at Proton Assembly Building Intensity Frontier ArgoNeuT The Argon Neutrino Teststand or ArgoNeuT detector, nicknamed for Jason and the Argonauts of Greek mythology, is a liquid argon neutrino detector at Fermilab. Argon is a noble, non-toxic element that in its gaseous form constitutes about 1 percent of air. It exists as a colorless liquid only in the narrow temperature range of minus 186 to minus 189 degrees Celsius. Neutrinos passing through a large volume of argon can interact with an argon atom, producing secondary particles such as muons and protons, which then ionize other argon atoms. An electric field within the detector causes

119

Estimating material and energy intensities of urban areas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this thesis is to develop methods to estimate, analyze and visualize the resource intensity of urban areas. Understanding the resource consumption of the built environment is particularly relevant in cities ...

Quinn, David James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Magnesium-Intensive Front End Sub-Structure Development  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Project ID "LM077" USAMP AMP800 1 2013 DOE Merit Review Presentation Alan A. Luo General Motors Global Research and Development May 16, 2013 Magnesium-Intensive Front End...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

China energy issues : energy intensity, coal liquefaction, and carbon pricing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In my dissertation I explore three independent, but related, topics on China's energy issues. First, I examine the drivers for provincial energy-intensity trends in China, and finds that technology innovation is the key ...

Wu, Ning, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Intense Currents in the Deep Northeast Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations of deep currents in the northeast Pacific Ocean are reported that indicate that although the eddy kinetic energy level is, as expected, generally low, the deep northeast Pacific is subject to occasional intensely energetic events. ...

Howard J. Freeland

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, I examine the spatial and economic factors that influence energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector, namely industrial value added, renovation investment, coke consumption, and local coke supply. ...

Xu, Jingsi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Capacity planning and admission control policies for intensive care units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Poor management of the patient flow in intensive care units (ICUs) causes service rejections and presents significant challenges from the standpoint of capacity planning and management in ICUs. This thesis reports on the ...

Chaiwanon, Wongsakorn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Process and dataflow control in distributed data-intensive systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In dataflow architectures, each dataflow operation is typically executed on a single physical node. We are concerned with distributed data-intensive systems, in which each base (i.e., persistent) set of data has been declustered over many physical ...

W. Alexander; G. Copeland

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Segmentation and recovery of SHGCs from a real intensity image  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We address the problem of scene segmentation and shape recovery from a single real intensity image. Solving this problem is central to obtaining 3-D scene descriptions in realistic applications where perfect data...

Mourad Zerroug; Ramakant Nevatia

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Probabilistic PGA and Arias Intensity maps of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New probabilistic seismic hazard and Arias Intensity maps have beendeveloped for the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic and bordering regions.Data were mainly taken from the seismic catalogue of Kyrgyzstan and p...

K. Abdrakhmatov; H.-B. Havenith; D. Delvaux; D. Jongmans…

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Intensity targets: implications for the economic uncertainties of emissions trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intensity targets that adjust to economic growth are discussed as one option to control greenhouse gas emissions without strongly affecting economic growth and with less uncertain economic cost than absolute t...

Sonja Peterson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

High energy density physics generated by intense heavy ion beams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intense ion beams from accelerators are now available to generate high energy density matter and to study astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory under controlled and reproducible conditions. A detailed unde...

D. H. H. Hoffmann; V. E. Fortov; M. Kuster; V. Mintsev…

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Transverse spreading of electrons in high-intensity laser fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that for collisions of electrons with a high-intensity laser, discrete photon emissions introduce a transverse beam spread which is distinct from that due to classical (or beam shape) effects. Via numerical simulations, we show that this quantum induced transverse momentum gain of the electron is manifest in collisions with a realistic laser pulse of intensity within reach of current technology, and we propose it as a measurable signature of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

D. G. Green; C. N. Harvey

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

131

Low-intensity beam diagnostics with particle detectors  

SciTech Connect

The measure of low intensity beams at low-medium energy is one of the major challenge in beam diagnostics. This subject is of great interest for the design of accelerator-based medical and radioactive beam facilities. In this paper we discuss new developments in image-based devices to measure low-intensity beams. All the investigated devices must guarantee measurement of the total beam current and its transverse distribution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Rovelli, A.; Ciavola, G.; Cuttone, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Raia, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 44/A Catania, 95125 (Italy); De Martinis, C.; Giove, D. [INFN-LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201 Segrate (Midway Islands), 20090 (Italy)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

MATERIAL STUDIES FOR PULSED HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON BEAM TARGETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PLAN MATERIAL STUDIES FOR PULSED HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON BEAM TARGETS Nicholas Simos, Harold Kirk and removal from the target system ·Target thermo-mechanical response from energetic, high intensity protons are: ·Inconel-718 ·Aluminum-3000 ·Havar ·Ti-6Al-6V ·Graphite (ATJ) ·Carbon-Carbon ·SuperInvar #12

McDonald, Kirk

133

Vacuum self-focussing of very intense laser beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We argue that long-range photon-photon attraction induced by the dipole interaction of two electron-positron loops can lead to "vacuum self-focussing" of very intense laser beams. The focussing angle theta(F) is found to increase with the beam intensity I as theta(F) I^(4/3); for the laser beams available at present or in the near future, theta(F) 10^(-10)--10^(-7).

Dmitri Kharzeev; Kirill Tuchin

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

134

EIA - AEO2010 - Energy intensity trends in AEO2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

intensity trends in AEO2010 intensity trends in AEO2010 Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Figure 17. Trends in U.S. oil prices, energy consumption, and economic output, 1950-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Energy intensity trends in AEO2010 Energy intensity—energy consumption per dollar of real GDP—indicates how much energy a country uses to produce its goods and services. From the early 1950s to the early 1970s, U.S. total primary energy consumption and real GDP increased at nearly the same annual rate (Figure 17). During that period, real oil prices remained virtually flat. In contrast, from the mid-1970s to 2008, the relationship between energy consumption and real GDP growth changed, with primary energy consumption growing at less than one-third the previous average rate and real GDP growth continuing to grow at its historical rate. The decoupling of real GDP growth from energy consumption growth led to a decline in energy intensity that averaged 2.8 percent per year from 1973 to 2008. In the AEO2010 Reference case, energy intensity continues to decline, at an average annual rate of 1.9 percent from 2008 to 2035.

135

Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy quality problem may be left to enterprise-level thermoeconomic optimization.

L. Proskuryakova; A. Kovalev

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1992  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Overview > Tables Overview > Tables 1992 Energy End-Use Intensities Tables Energy Consumption by End Use, 1992 Figure on Energy Consumption By End Use, 1992 Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A through F of the 1992 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. divider line To View and/or Print Reports (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - Download Adobe Acrobat Reader If you experience any difficulties, visit our Technical Frequently Asked Questions. divider line Tables - (file size 31,655 bytes), pages 6. - requires Adobe Acrobat Reader Consumption of All Major Fuels by End Uses, 1992 Energy End-Use Intensities for All Major Fuels, 1992 Consumption of Electricity by End Uses, 1992 Energy End-Use Intensities for Electricity, 1992

137

Inertial Fusion Driven by Intense Heavy-Ion Beams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS * W. M. Sharp # , A. Friedman, D. P. Grote, J. J. Barnard, R. H. Cohen, M. A. Dorf, S. M. Lund, L. J. Perkins, M. R. Terry, LLNL, Livermore, CA, USA B. G. Logan, F. M. Bieniosek, A. Faltens, E. Henestroza, J.-Y. Jung, J. W. Kwan, E. P. Lee, S. M. Lidia, P. A. Ni, L. L. Reginato, P. K. Roy, P. A. Seidl, J. H. Takakuwa, J.-L. Vay, W. L. Waldron, LBNL, Berkeley, CA, USA R. C. Davidson, E. P. Gilson, I. D. Kaganovich, H. Qin, E. Startsev, PPPL, Princeton, NJ, USA I. Haber, R. A. Kishek, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA A. E. Koniges, NERSC, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial

138

B. Appendix: Scaling of Cost with Energy and Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

B. Appendix: Scaling of Cost with Energy and Intensity B. Appendix: Scaling of Cost with Energy and Intensity With the two ongoing studies, one for the physics program, [1] and one for the accelerator and facilities [2] on the "Neutrino Factory Based on a Muon Storage Ring", a number of interesting suggestions and ideas came up. Almost immediately the question of scaling cost with the storage ring energy and with intensity came up. Nevertheless, it was impossible to explore all those questions in great detail, either in the report or in the preliminary cost estimate that is presented in Appendix A. During the study it became more and more clear, that one of the unique features of a neutrino source, namely the possibility to balance the cost of the accelerator with the cost of the detector, would urge the accelerator people to find an answer to this

139

Intense Muon Beams for Experiments at Project X  

SciTech Connect

A coherent approach for providing muon beams to several experiments for the intensity-frontier program at Project X is described. Concepts developed for the front end of a muon collider/neutrino factory facility, such as phase rotation and ionization cooling, are applied, but with significant differences. High-intensity experiments typically require high-duty-factor beams pulsed at a time interval commensurate with the muon lifetime. It is challenging to provide large RF voltages at high duty factor, especially in the presence of intense radiation and strong magnetic fields, which may preclude the use of superconducting RF cavities. As an alternative, cavities made of materials such as ultra-pure Al and Be, which become very good –but not super– conductors at cryogenic temperatures, can be used.

C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, C. Y. Yoshikawa, V.S. Kashikhin, D.V. Neuffer, J. Miller, R.A. Rimmer

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Selection of minimum earthquake intensity in calculating pipe failure probabilities  

SciTech Connect

In a piping reliability analysis, it is sometimes necessary to specify a minimum ground motion intensity, usually the peak acceleration, below which the ground motions are not considered as earthquakes and, hence, are neglected. The calculated probability of failure of a piping system is dependent on this selected minimum earthquake intensity chosen for the analysis. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the minimum earthquake intensity on the probability of pipe failure. The results indicated that the probability of failure of the piping system is not very sensitive to the variations of the selected minimum peak ground acceleration. However, it does have significant effects on various scenarios that make up the system failure.

Lo, T.Y.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Spatial Intensity Profiles of Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Heliosphere  

SciTech Connect

We study the spatial intensity profiles of galactic cosmic ray protons (H) and {alpha}-particles (He) during the solar minimum periods of 1987 (the so-called negative drift state) and 1977/1997 (both positive drift states) of the heliosphere. These intensities were measured with the Pioneer, Voyager and IMP spacecraft. The 1997 intensities were so low that one cannot readily explain them, even with the acceleration at the solar wind termination shock (SWTS) and modulation in the heliosheath included. Our heliospheric model is azimuthally symmetric with a spherical shock and heliopause, however, and we infer from its results that more realistic geometries may produce modulation effects that will explain the observations better.

Moraal, H. [School of Physics, Northwest University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Caballero-Lopez, R.A.; McDonald, F.B. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

2004-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989 -- Executive  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Energy End-Use Intensities > Executive Summary 9 Energy End-Use Intensities > Executive Summary Executive Summary Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A through F of the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. divider line The demand for energy in U.S. stores, offices, schools, hospitals, and other commercial buildings has been increasing. This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and "other." The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand.

143

ARM - Field Campaign - Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsShortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation govCampaignsShortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods 1998.08.03 - 1998.08.28 Lead Scientist : Warren Wiscombe For data sets, see below. Summary Wednesday, August 5, 1998: IOP Opening Activities: The IOP updates for the Shortwave/Aerosol/BDRF will be composed from notes taken during briefing sessions lead by Don Cahoon and company each night at the Marland Mansion in Ponca City. IOP Status as of 8/4/98 Weather forecasts indicate that cloudy conditions will prevail for the next few days. The Helicopter is on standby for clear sky conditions. Model output indicates clear sky's may move in later this week.

144

Calculations of population transfer during intense laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments by several groups have examined the question of population transfer to resonantly excited states during intense short laser pulses, in particular the amount of population that remains ``trapped`` in excited states at the end of a laser pulse. In this chapter we present calculations of population transfer and resonant ionization in xenon at both 660 and 620 nm. At the longer wavelength, the seven photon channel closes at 2.5{times}10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. Pulses with peak intensities higher than this result in ``Rydberg trapping``, the resonant transfer of population to a broad range of high-lying states. The amount of population transferred depends on both the peak intensity and pulse duration. At 620 mm there are numerous possible six photon resonances to states with p or f angular momentum. We have done a large number of calculations for 40 fs pulses at different peak intensities and have examined the population transferred to these low-lying resonant states as a function of the peak laser intensity. We do not have room to comment upon the resonantly enhanced ionized electron energy spectra that we also determine in the same calculations. Our calculations involve the direct numerical integration of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for an atom interacting with a strong laser field. The time-dependent wave function of a given valence electron is calculated on a spatial grid using a one-electron pseudo potential. This single active electron approximation (SAE) has been shown to be a good approximation for the rare gases at the intensities and wavelengths that we will consider. The SAE potential we use has an explicit angular momentum dependence which allows us to reproduce all of the excited state energies for xenon quite well.

Schafer, K.J.; Kulander, K.C.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Stress intensity factors for small fatigue cracks in tubular joints  

SciTech Connect

Some simple fracture mechanics models are presented for estimating stress intensity factors for small surface fatigue cracks in welded tubular joints. Model predictions are compared with large-scale experimental results for the cases of in-plane and out-of-plane bending in multi-brace tubular nodes. It is demonstrated that reasonably accurate predictions of the stress intensity factor are possible using a modified flat plate solution if the effects of weld geometry, load shedding and crack shape are adequately accounted for.

Monahan, C.C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. Johns, Newfoundland (Canada). Centre for Cold Ocean Resources Engineering; Dover, W.D. [University College, London (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

146

High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex  

SciTech Connect

With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes}, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle.

Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A. [and others

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Evaluation of expanded uncertainties in luminous intensity and illuminance calibrations  

SciTech Connect

Detector-based calibrating methods and expressions for calculation of photometric uncertainties related to uncertainties in the calibrations of luminous intensity of a light source, illuminance responsivity of a photometer head, and calibration factors of an illuminance meter are discussed. These methods permit luminous intensity calibrations of incandescent light sources, luminous responsivity calibrations of photometer heads, and calibration factors of illuminance meters to be carried out with relative expanded uncertainties (with a level of confidence of 95.45%) of 0.4%, 0.4%, and 0.6%, respectively.

Sametoglu, Ferhat

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Data-intensive computing laying foundation for biological breakthroughs  

SciTech Connect

Finding a different way is the goal of the Data-Intensive Computing for Complex Biological Systems (Biopilot) project—a joint research effort between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research. The two national laboratories, both of whom are world leaders in computing and computational sciences, are teaming to support areas of biological research in urgent need of data-intensive computing capabilities.

Hachigian, David J.

2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

149

Use of computers in hospitals: An analysis of intensive and nonintensive users  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Differences between “Intensive” and non-intensive users of computers among hospitals are analyzed using step wise discriminant analysis. Hospitals are classified into “Intensive” and “Nonintensive” users of co...

Satya N. Prattipati

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) distinguishes valence and intensity of musical emotions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) distinguishes valence and intensity of musical emotions (i.e., positive vs. negative) and intensity (i.e., intense vs. calm) in a group of under- graduates

Trainor, Laurel J.

151

Light Intensity-Dependent Modulation of Chlorophyll b Biosynthesis and Photosynthesis by Overexpression of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

limiting and saturating light intensities. Although the quantum yield of carbon dioxide fixation remained carbon dioxide assimilation, starch content, and dry matter accumulation. Light intensity is a majorLight Intensity-Dependent Modulation of Chlorophyll b Biosynthesis and Photosynthesis

Govindjee

152

Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

projections of energy and intensity for the 12 th FYP werelevel projections of energy and intensity for the 12 th FYPth APPENDIX Table A-2 Energy Intensity Target Allocation

Ohshita, Stephanie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

23 5.3 Energy Use and Energy Intensity of Chlorine44314 Energy Use and Energy Intensity of the U.S. ChemicalEnergy Use and Energy Intensity of the U.S. Chemical

Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian; Einstein, Dan; Martin, Nathan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the U.S  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and theGJ/t crude steel Primary Energy Intensity* kgce/t GJ/t crudeChina U.S. Final Energy Intensity No. 5b Scenarios Country

Price, Lynn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the U.S  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensityof Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China andof Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and

Price, Lynn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental...

157

E-Print Network 3.0 - airglow intensities measured Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

where the airglow intensity is relatively low. Mendillo et al. (1997) reported a bubble structure... . The bubble structures (tree-like depletions of airglow intensity)...

158

Relationship between heat transfer intensity and absolute vorticity flux intensity in flat tube bank fin channels with Vortex Generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The heat transfer enhancement can be achieved through the secondary flow. It is found that absolute vorticity flux along the main flow can describe the secondary flow intensity and correspond to the heat transfer enhancement averaged in span wise direction. Investigations to verify this phenomenon are reported. The results show that there has a similar distribution for absolute vorticity flux in the main flow direction compared with that for span averaged Nusselt number. The conformance of Nusselt number and absolute vorticity flux shows that absolute vorticity flux can reflect the intensity of heat transfer produced by the secondary flow.

Ke-Wei Song; Liang-Bi Wang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Optimization of Power-Intensive Energy Systems with Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optimization of Power-Intensive Energy Systems with Carbon Capture ... Three concepts for capturing CO2 from natural gas-fired combined gas/steam turbine power plants are evaluated and compared in this paper: (A) sepn. of CO2 from exhaust gas coming from a std. ...

Xuesong Zheng; Jin-Kuk Kim

2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

160

Electron-ion collisions in intensely illuminated plasmas G. Shvetsa)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron-ion collisions in intensely illuminated plasmas G. Shvetsa) and N. J. Fisch Princeton, the collisions of electrons with ions can be made more frequent or less frequent, depending on the polarization to the size of the electron oscillation in the hf field. The stimulated bremsstrahlung emission is calculated

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

China targets 20% reduction in energy intensity by 2010  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Though China has made great achievement in energy conservation in the last two decades, its energy consumption is increasing rapidly. In March 2006, China's government set a target for reducing its energy intensity by 20% by 2010 compared to the 2005 value. In this paper, we analyse China's current energy efficiency situations, and put forward some policy implications on energy saving.

Hua Liao; Ying Fan; Yi-Ming Wei

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

PNNL Data-Intensive Computing for a Smarter Energy Grid  

SciTech Connect

The Middleware for Data-Intensive Computing (MeDICi) Integration Framework, an integrated platform to solve data analysis and processing needs, supports PNNL research on the U.S. electric power grid. MeDICi is enabling development of visualizations of grid operations and vulnerabilities, with goal of near real-time analysis to aid operators in preventing and mitigating grid failures.

Carol Imhoff; Zhenyu (Henry) Huang [Henry; Daniel Chavarria

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

PNNL Data-Intensive Computing for a Smarter Energy Grid  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Middleware for Data-Intensive Computing (MeDICi) Integration Framework, an integrated platform to solve data analysis and processing needs, supports PNNL research on the U.S. electric power grid. MeDICi is enabling development of visualizations of grid operations and vulnerabilities, with goal of near real-time analysis to aid operators in preventing and mitigating grid failures.

Carol Imhoff; Zhenyu (Henry) Huang; Daniel Chavarria

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

165

Gamma Ray Bursts Sudden, intense flashes of gamma rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gamma Ray Bursts #12;The Case Sudden, intense flashes of gamma rays come from nowhere and disappear with out a trace. Incredibly powerful: A single gamma ray burst is hundreds of times brighter a supernova #12;Who Vela (1960's) Looking for arms testing, found gamma ray bursts Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

166

Research Strategies for Increasing Productivity of Intensively Managed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fiber production from a smaller land base and provides market incentives to keep these lands under, plantation forestry, intensive silviculture, biomass T raditional and emerging markets for wood products and bioenergy are likely to increase pressure on forests and create incentives for enhancing their pro

167

PNNLs Data Intensive Computing research battles Homeland Security threats  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys (PNNL's) approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architecture, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

David Thurman; Joe Kielman; Katherine Wolf; David Atkinson

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

Liska, Donald J. (Los Alamos, NM); Schamaun, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Donald C. (Los Alamos, NM); Potter, R. Christopher (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Joseph A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

ICGrid: Enabling Intensive Care Medical Research on the EGEE Grid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, by utilizing the EGEE infrastructure. ICGrid is based on a hybrid architecture that combines i) a heterogeneous and data. In recent years, Grids have emerged as wide-scale distributed infrastructures that supportICGrid: Enabling Intensive Care Medical Research on the EGEE Grid Harald Gjermundrød a , Marios D

Pallis, George

170

Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues Megan Mc of these changes. Some scientists believe that global warming and increased sea surface temperatures are to blame, global warming and increased sea surface temperatures do appear to have influenced hurricane frequency

Kareem, Ahsan

171

PNNL pushing scientific discovery through data intensive computing breakthroughs  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architectures, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

Deborah Gracio; David Koppenaal; Ruby Leung

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

Optimized Pre-Copy Live Migration for Memory Intensive Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimized Pre-Copy Live Migration for Memory Intensive Applications Khaled Z. Ibrahim, Steven Hofmeyr, Costin Iancu, Eric Roman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Email: {kzibrahim, shofmeyr and fault tolerance. KVM and Xen use iterative pre-copy approaches which work well in practice

173

PNNLs Data Intensive Computing research battles Homeland Security threats  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys (PNNL's) approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architecture, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

David Thurman; Joe Kielman; Katherine Wolf; David Atkinson

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

advantage of being able to convert sunlight into clean energy. After the glass is coated, we install clean electricity. Advantages · Building-integratable. · Contributes to EU targets towards energySolar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to where they can be integrated

Langendoen, Koen

175

Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

1980-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

176

High–intensity lasers: interactions with atoms, molecules and clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...tra from around 2500-atom xenon clusters irradiated by 2 1016...charge states up to 12+ in xenon and 8+ in krypton at an intensity...process converts the coherent oscillation energy of the electron cloud...result of a resonantly driven oscillation of the entire cluster elec...

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

High-power, high-intensity laser propagation and interactions  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents overviews of a number of processes and applications associated with high-power, high-intensity lasers, and their interactions. These processes and applications include: free electron lasers, backward Raman amplification, atmospheric propagation of laser pulses, laser driven acceleration, atmospheric lasing, and remote detection of radioactivity. The interrelated physical mechanisms in the various processes are discussed.

Sprangle, Phillip [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Electrical and Computer Engineering and Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Hafizi, Bahman [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Temperatures Indicated by Intensity Distributions in Band Spectra  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is generally supposed that the intensity of any particular line in a band spectrum may be calculated from the Maxwell-Boltzmann law, assuming the gas to be in temperature equilibrium. From the results of this experimental work, it appears that under some conditions of excitation other factors than the temperature of the gas govern the intensity distribution. Measurements on the negative bands of N2+ excited in low voltage arcs in the pure gas show that at 1100°K and 2800°K the distribution of intensities among the rotational lines is exactly the same, whilst the admixture of helium with nitrogen alters the distribution completely and gives a much lower indicated temperature. Similar results are found with the first negative bands of CO+. The differences are accounted for by the conversion of translational energy of the electrons into rotational energy of the molecules when the bands are excited by electron impacts in the pure gas. When the bands are excited by impacts of the second kind in gas mixtures, no change in rotational energy occurs and thus the indicated temperature is much lower. The distribution of intensity among the vibrational states of the molecules has been examined for the complete system of negative bands of N2+. While almost all of the energy is concentrated in the low vibration states when the bands are excited by electron impacts, the energy is spread out towards the higher vibration states when the excitation is by collisions of the second kind with metastable helium atoms.

O. S. Duffendack; R. W. Revans; A. S. Roy

1934-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Title of Document: LONGITUDINAL CONTROL OF INTENSE CHARGED PARTICLE BEAMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Title of Document: LONGITUDINAL CONTROL OF INTENSE CHARGED PARTICLE BEAMS Brian Louis, accelerator facilities are demanding beams with higher quality. Applications such as Free Electron Lasers energy spread throughout the accelerator. Fluctuations in beam energy or density at the low-energy side

Anlage, Steven

180

Some Intensive and Extensive Quantities in High-Energy Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the evolution of some statistical and thermodynamical quantities measured in difference sizes of high-energy collisions at different energies. We differentiate between intensive and extensive quantities and discuss the importance of their distinguishability in characterizing possible critical phenomena of nuclear collisions at various energies with different initial conditions.

A. Tawfik

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Energy Intensity of Federal Buildings Slashed 25% in Past Decade  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), which builds and manages federal buildings, recently announced that it cut federal energy spending by $65.5 million in fiscal year (FY) 2012 by reducing the energy use intensity levels in its buildings by nearly 25% since FY 2003.

182

Thesis Oral Energy-efficient Data-intensive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thesis Oral Energy-efficient Data-intensive Computing with a Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes Vijay has raised datacenter energy demand and created an increasingly large financial burden and scaling challenge: Peak energy requirements today are a significant cost of provisioning

183

Metal reflectivity under high?intensity optical radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single high?intensity (106?109 W/cm2) pulses of 1.06?? radiation emitted from a Q?switched Nd : YAG laser have been used to study reflectivity behavior of single?crystal copper and tantalum samples. Metalreflectivity during irradiation undergoes a significant drop to values much lower than can be attributed to high?temperature effects. This reflectivity drop under high radiation intensity has two characteristic features. First if vaporization is avoided then during the rising portion of the laser pulse the reflectivity drops continuously until it reaches a constant low value. For copper this occurs at an intensity of 3×108 W/cm2 and has a reflectivity value of ?0.64. The corresponding values for tantalum are I?2.5×107 W/cm2 and R?0.41. For still higher intensities a further drop in reflectivity beyond the plateau region is observed. This drop in reflectivity is always accompanied by heavy melting and followed by some vaporization. As suggested by Prokhorov e t a l. this further drop in reflectivity could be associated with dielectriclike behavior of the molten zone.

T. E. Zavecz; M. A. Saifi; M. Notis

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob

185

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

world-best-practice-energy- intensity-values-selected-World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selectedof the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity Intensities, per Square  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Commercial Buildings Home > Sq Ft Tables > Table 2a. Electricity Consumption per Sq Ft Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity Intensities, per Square Foot, Specific to Occupied and Vacant Floorspace, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Electricity (thousand) Total Electricity Consumption (trillion Btu) Electricity Intensities (thousand Btu) In Total Floor space In Occupied Floor space In Vacant Floor space Per Square Foot Per Occupied Square Foot Per Vacant Square Foot All Buildings 4,590 2,600 2,563 37 39 42 8 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,532 334 331 3 48 51 6 5,001 to 10,000 946 250 247 3 36 38 6 10,001 to 25,000

187

Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals March 2006 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Service Reports are prepared by the Energy Information Administration upon special request and are based on assumptions specified by the requester. Energy Information Administration / Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

188

Table 6. Energy intensity by state (2000 - 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy intensity by state (2000 - 2010)" Energy intensity by state (2000 - 2010)" "thousand Btu per dollar of GDP" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"Change" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"2000 to 2010" "State",2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percent","Absolute" "Alabama",18.27258197,17.12573602,17.40982338,17.21199023,16.87274619,16.36600572,16.26201029,16.16667416,15.88996309,15.31511861,15.97051076,-0.1259849985,-2.302071213 "Alaska",21.74118991,20.61708506,19.78031734,20.18143227,20.28953911,21.09573287,18.72961653,17.79373817,15.85124571,14.13669694,14.24461661,-0.3448097058,-7.496573297 "Arizona",8.723022426,8.474435286,8.399371812,7.993493579,8.274516227,7.602521438,7.232690272,7.328159916,7.62679414,7.507000095,7.628169778,-0.1255129924,-1.094852647

189

Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity Frontier Intensity Frontier MiniBooNE Researchers initiated the Booster Neutrino Experiment, BooNE, to verify definitively the results of the Los Alamos Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector experiment. In 1995, the Los Alamos experiment presented strong evidence for the oscillation of muon anti-neutrinos into electron anti-neutrinos. Jasmine Ma inspects one of the phototubes that detects light from neutrino interactions. (Courtesy: Peter Ginter) Jasmine Ma inspects one of the phototubes that detects light from neutrino interactions. (Courtesy: Peter Ginter) The 800-ton detector, called MiniBooNE, searches for neutrino oscillations. The detector is located 500 meters from Fermilab's second neutrino source, the Booster Neutrino Beam or BNB. The presence of neutrinos can only be inferred by detecting the charged

190

For Physicists | Fellowships & Awards | Intensity Frontier Fellows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Application Info Application Info Applications must include a curriculum vitae, and a selected publication list. In addition we request a two-page proposal describing the major contribution that will be made to the Intensity Frontier during the Fellowship, current compensation, and requested dates of support. Applicants holding postdoctoral positions should supply two letters of reference. Applications for awards beginning in 2014 will be accepted until 22 November, 2013. It is anticipated that a second round of applications will be solicited in spring 2014. Applicants should be notified by 20 December 2013. Applications should be made via: Online Application Further queries should be sent to: send email Related Links Fermilab Intensity Frontier Department NOvA Experiment

191

The decline of the world’s energy intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy intensity of the total primary energy supply (TPES), total final energy consumption (TFC) and LOSSES in the conversion from TPES to TFC were analyzed for the World, OECD and Rest of the World (ROW) countries. LOSSES increased significantly for all groups of countries due to the increase of electricity production from coal in the period studied (1971–2008). Electricity share final consumption almost doubled, increasing from 8.8% to 17.2% in the period studied. However the energy intensity of LOSSES remained practically constant, which reflects the fact that the efficiency of electricity generation from coal (the main source of electricity) remained practically constant in that period. Despite the attractiveness of end-use devices running on electricity such as computers, which is typical of modern societies, the CO2 emissions are bound to increase unless coal is replaced by less carbon emitting sources such as natural gas, renewables and nuclear energy.

José Goldemberg; Luiz Tadêo Siqueira Prado

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Environmental Design for Patient Families in Intensive Care Unites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Open Access to this article benefits you. 2010 Multi-Science Publishing ISSN 1756-8250 Environmental Design for Patient Families in Intensive Care Units by Mahbub Rashid Reprinted from Journal of Healthcare Engineering Vol. 1 · No. 3 · 2010 Journal... wayfinding systems can be extremely costly piecemeal. The ED of a well-integrated in terms of both patient and family wayfinding system should include satisfaction and hard dollars. external building cues, functional • People tend to move along routes...

Rashid, Mahbub

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Reproductive response of gray and fox squirrels to intensive harvesting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the changes observed. Mast production indices indicated a poor acorn crop during the fall that experimental hunting pressure treatments began, implying that both species of squirrels responded more strongly to mast production than to intensive hunting... 15, 648 in 1957 to 7, 564 in 1958. Mosby ( 1969) compared life tables of 2 woodlot populations of gray squirrels in Virginia, only l of which was hunted. The average rate of exploitation in the hunted study area was 37. 4& of the fall population...

Davis, Charles Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

194

A microsecond-pulsewidth, intense, light-ion beam accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A relatively long-pulsewidth (0.1-1 {mu}s) intense ion beam accelerator has been built for materials processing applications. An applied-B{sub r}, magnetically-insulated extraction ion diode with dielectric flashover ion source is installed directly onto the output of a 1.2-MV, 300-kJ Marx generator. Initial operation of the accelerator at 0.4 MV indicates satisfactory performance without the need for additional pulse-shaping.

Rej, D.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Davis, H.A.; Greenly, J.B.; Waganaar, W.J.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

CHALLENGES IN DATA INTENSIVE ANALYSIS AT SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTAL USER FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect

This chapter will discuss the critical data intensive analysis and visualiza-tion challenges faced by the experimental science community at large scale and laboratory based facilities. The chapter will further highlight initial solutions under development through community efforts and lay out perspectives for the future, such as the potential of more closely linked experimental and computational science approaches, methods to achieve real time analysis capabilities and the challenges and opportunities of data integration across experimental scales, levels of theory and varying techniques.

Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Li, Dongsheng; Miller, Stephen D.; Cobb, John W.; Green, Mark L.; Ruby, Catherine L.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

196

Device for imaging scenes with very large ranges of intensity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for imaging scenes with a very large range of intensity having a pair of polarizers, a primary lens, an attenuating mask, and an imaging device optically connected along an optical axis. Preferably, a secondary lens, positioned between the attenuating mask and the imaging device is used to focus light on the imaging device. The angle between the first polarization direction and the second polarization direction is adjustable.

Deason, Vance Albert (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF HIGH INTENSITY HADRON SYNCHROTRONS.  

SciTech Connect

Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as stand alone or as part of the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) package.

LUCCIO, A.; D'IMPERIO, N.; MALITSKY, N.

2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

198

Systematic intensity errors caused by spectral truncation: origin and remedy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray absorption by the monochromator determines the wavelength dispersion in the monochromated X-ray beam and explains the values of 0.03, 0.14 and 0.16 for graphite(002)-monochromated Cu, Mo and Rh radiation. To eliminate the systematic intensity truncation errors, caused by the large wavelength dispersion, a correction is proposed based on the applied scan angle and the real beam spectrum.

Lenstra, A.T.H.

2001-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

199

Electron-ion collisions in intensely illuminated plasmas  

SciTech Connect

In the presence of a high-frequency intense uniform electric field, the collisions of electrons with ions can be made more frequent or less frequent, depending on the polarization of the hf field, the direction and magnitude of particle velocity, and the ratio of the plasma Debye length to the size of the electron oscillation in the hf field. The stimulated bremsstrahlung emission is calculated for both circularly and linearly polarized fields. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Shvets, G.; Fisch, N.J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, T-149, Forrestal Center, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, T-149, Forrestal Center, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Molecules in intense laser fields: Beyond the dipole approximation  

SciTech Connect

The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved for a Born-Oppenheimer (static nuclei) three-dimensional H{sub 2}{sup +} in super intense laser fields (I=4x10{sup 18}, 10{sup 19}, and 4x10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) at wavelength {lambda}{sub L}=45 nm and 25 nm to assess the influence of nondipolar (magnetic) effects on high order harmonic generation spectra in molecules. It is found that even harmonics appear due to the magnetic field component direction perpendicular to the electric field polarization with intensities about two orders of magnitude less than the odd harmonics emitted along the electric field polarization. The even harmonics exhibit plateaus with cutoffs which exceed in intensity the odd harmonic plateaus and maximum energies predicted by semiclassical electron recollision models. Although the spectra are weak, the wavelength of the recollision electron in the maximum energy regions correspond to subatomic dimensions and the corresponding emitted photons have subnanometer wavelengths.

Bandrauk, A. D.; Lu, H. Z. [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que, J1K 2R1 (Canada)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Corpuscular theory of intensity noise with gain compression  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When light from a laser is fully absorbed by an ideal detector, the detected current exhibits a fluctuation called here ‘‘photonic noise.’’ The spectral density of Iintensity noiseR, defined as the difference of the photonic-noise spectral density and a term corresponding to the shot-noise level, is negative for sub-Poissonian statistics. The usefulness of the relative-intensity-noise concept is that it is independent of any linear attenuation. A simple circuit theory of intensity noise based only on energy conservation and the Nyquist formula (zero-point fluctuation) leads to expressions of the spectral densities that agree with quantum theory even for sub-Poissonian photon statistics. When the optical gain and loss are frequency independent, the circuit theory reduces to a corpuscular theory that keeps track of the time rates of change of electron and photon numbers treated as continuous variables. Consideration is given to laser diodes in which the rate of electron-photon conversion depends nonlinearly on both the carrier and photon densities. The cross-spectral density between electrical-voltage and relative photonic fluctuations is independent of internal or external optical losses. Standard rate equations are inaccurate in the case of gain compression. Very general yet simple formulas for intensity noise are applied to room-temperature GaAs laser diodes, using recently calculated optical parameters.

J. Arnaud

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Cosmology with a SKA HI intensity mapping survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HI intensity mapping (IM) is a novel technique capable of mapping the large-scale structure of the Universe in three dimensions and delivering exquisite constraints on cosmology, by using HI as a biased tracer of the dark matter density field. This is achieved by measuring the intensity of the redshifted 21cm line over the sky in a range of redshifts without the requirement to resolve individual galaxies. In this chapter, we investigate the potential of SKA1 to deliver HI intensity maps over a broad range of frequencies and a substantial fraction of the sky. By pinning down the baryon acoustic oscillation and redshift space distortion features in the matter power spectrum -- thus determining the expansion and growth history of the Universe -- these surveys can provide powerful tests of dark energy models and modifications to General Relativity. They can also be used to probe physics on extremely large scales, where precise measurements of spatial curvature and primordial non-Gaussianity can be used to test in...

Santos, Mario G; Alonso, David; Camera, Stefano; Ferreira, Pedro G; Bernardi, Gianni; Maartens, Roy; Viel, Matteo; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Abdalla, Filipe B; Jarvis, Matt; Metcalf, R Benton; Pourtsidou, A; Wolz, Laura

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Cosmology with a SKA HI intensity mapping survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HI intensity mapping (IM) is a novel technique capable of mapping the large-scale structure of the Universe in three dimensions and delivering exquisite constraints on cosmology, by using HI as a biased tracer of the dark matter density field. This is achieved by measuring the intensity of the redshifted 21cm line over the sky in a range of redshifts without the requirement to resolve individual galaxies. In this chapter, we investigate the potential of SKA1 to deliver HI intensity maps over a broad range of frequencies and a substantial fraction of the sky. By pinning down the baryon acoustic oscillation and redshift space distortion features in the matter power spectrum -- thus determining the expansion and growth history of the Universe -- these surveys can provide powerful tests of dark energy models and modifications to General Relativity. They can also be used to probe physics on extremely large scales, where precise measurements of spatial curvature and primordial non-Gaussianity can be used to test inflation; on small scales, by measuring the sum of neutrino masses; and at high redshifts where non-standard evolution models can be probed. We discuss the impact of foregrounds as well as various instrumental and survey design parameters on the achievable constraints. In particular we analyse the feasibility of using the SKA1 autocorrelations to probe the large-scale signal.

Mario G. Santos; Philip Bull; David Alonso; Stefano Camera; Pedro G. Ferreira; Gianni Bernardi; Roy Maartens; Matteo Viel; Francisco Villaescusa-Navarro; Filipe B. Abdalla; Matt Jarvis; R. Benton Metcalf; A. Pourtsidou; Laura Wolz

2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

204

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Industrial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The NEMS Industrial Demand Module estimates energy consumption by energy source (fuels and feedstocks) for 9 manufacturing and 6 nonmanufacturing industries. The manufacturing industries are further subdivided into the energy-intensive manufacturing industries and nonenergy-intensive manufacturing industries. The distinction between the two sets of manufacturing industries pertains to the level of modeling. The energy-intensive industries are modeled through the use of a detailed process flow accounting procedure, whereas the nonenergy-intensive and the nonmanufacturing industries are modeled with substantially less detail (Table 14). The Industrial Demand Module forecasts energy consumption at the four Census region levels; energy consumption at the Census Division level is allocated by using the SEDS24 data.

205

Population trapping in Kr and Xe in intense laser fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have observed trapping of population in Rydberg states of atoms and ions exposed to intense laser radiation. The trapping occurs in nonstationary ‘‘wave-packet’’ superposition states, created, via ac Stark-shifted multiphoton resonances during the laser pulse. The formation of these highly excited bound states requires the nonresonant absorption of up to 20 or more photons; some of the ionic Rydberg states lie nearly 32 eV above the ionic ground state. All of the trapped states having binding energies much less than the photon energy but remain stable against ionization even when the multiphoton ionization probability of the atom is saturated.

R. R. Jones; D. W. Schumacher; P. H. Bucksbaum

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Economic potential of intensive culture of Penaeus vannamei in Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, with its subtropical-tropical climate and extensive coastlines, would seem to have great potential for shrimp farming. Large tracts of land suitable for shrimp culture do exist in several states on the Pacific coast of this country. However, not all... the Pacific-coast states are so favored: Some of them do not have the kind of land needed for shrimp farming, or appropriate land is scarce, or there are ownership problems. Intensive systems developed for the culture of Penaeus vannamei in the continental...

De La Mora Perez-Arce, Jose Bernardo

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

Mason, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Fultz, B. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science] [and others

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

208

Data-intensive computing on numerically-insensitive supercomputers  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of the era of petascale supercomputing, via the delivery of the Roadrunner supercomputing platform at Los Alamos National Laboratory, there is a pressing need to address the problem of visualizing massive petascale-sized results. In this presentation, I discuss progress on a number of approaches including in-situ analysis, multi-resolution out-of-core streaming and interactive rendering on the supercomputing platform. These approaches are placed in context by the emerging area of data-intensive supercomputing.

Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fasel, Patricia K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Heitmann, Katrin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lo, Li - Ta [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patchett, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Sean J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Woodring, Jonathan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Joshua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Chung - Hsing [ONL

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

209

Calibrating X-ray Imaging Devices for Accurate Intensity Measurement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project presented is to develop methods to accurately calibrate X-ray imaging devices. The approach was to develop X-ray source systems suitable for this endeavor and to develop methods to calibrate solid state detectors to measure source intensity. NSTec X-ray sources used for the absolute calibration of cameras are described, as well as the method of calibrating the source by calibrating the detectors. The work resulted in calibration measurements for several types of X-ray cameras. X-ray camera calibration measured efficiency and efficiency variation over the CCD. Camera types calibrated include: CCD, CID, back thinned (back illuminated), front illuminated.

Haugh, M. J.

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

210

Absorption Intensities of Ethylenes and Acetylenes in the Vacuum Ultraviolet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The spectra of three octenes cyclohexene and 2 3?dihydropyrane and of octyne?1 and ?2 were obtained in n?heptane solution to 1700A. Intensity measurements on ethylene vapor to 1550A enable the contribution of the Rydberg bands to be separated from that of the continuum. The f?values in ethylene and the octenes are about 0.30 agreeing with Mulliken and Rieke's theoretical prediction within the experimental uncertainty of about 20 percent. The f?values of the octynes are about the same but those of cyclohexene and dihydropyrane are about 0.20.

J. R. Platt; H. B. Klevens; W. C. Price

1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries  

SciTech Connect

A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Effects of pulp consistency and mixing intensity on ozone bleaching  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom holds that ozone bleaching is feasible only at low or high pulp consistencies. However, recent research suggests that ozone bleaching at medium consistency is possible under conditions of high-intensity mixing. This article presents experimental results for softwood and hardwood pulps that were ozone-bleached over a range of consistencies (3-40%) and mixing conditions. Ozone was pressurized and delivered by a proprietary automated system. Results indicate that ozone bleaching at medium consistency can be as effective as bleaching at high consistency. Medium-consistency bleaching has the advantage of greater selectivity, resulting in higher pulp viscosity.

Hurst, M.M. (Quantum Technologies, Inc., Twinsburg, OH (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration  

SciTech Connect

A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 ..mu.. x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10/sup 4/) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail.

Thoe, R.S.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Injection and capture simulations for a high intensity proton synchrotron  

SciTech Connect

The injection and capture processes in a high intensity, rapid cycling, proton synchrotron are simulated by numerical integration. The equations of motion suitable for rapid numerical simulation are derived so as to maintain symplecticity and second-order accuracy. By careful bookkeeping, the authors can, for each particle that is lost, determine its initial phase space coordinates. They use this information as a guide for different injection schemes and rf voltage programming, so that a minimum of particle losses and dilution are attained. A fairly accurate estimate of the space charge fields is required, as they influence considerably the particle distribution and reduce the capture efficiency. Since the beam is represented by a relatively coarse ensemble of macro particles, the authors study several methods of reducing the statistical fluctuations while retaining the fine structure (high intensity modulations) of the beam distribution. A pre-smoothing of the data is accomplished by the cloud-in-cell method. The program is checked by making sure that it gives correct answers in the absence of space charge, and that it reproduces the negative mass instability properly. Results of simulations for stationary distributions are compared to their analytical predictions. The capture efficiency for the rapid-cycling synchrotron is analyzed with respect to variations in the injected beam energy spread, bunch length, and rf programming.

Cho, Y.; Lessner, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Symon, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Turbulence intensity pulse propagation with self-consistent nonlinear noise  

SciTech Connect

A model of turbulence intensity spreading with self-consistent nonlinear noise is derived systematically for the simple dynamical model of resistivity gradient driven turbulence. Local effective drive, thermal conduction damping, nonlinear coupling, and spatial scattering effects are included. As a consequence of nonlinear mode coupling processes (i.e., triad mode interactions), turbulence energy can be spatially scattered, leading to turbulence propagation and spreading. However, the range of any nonlinear mode interactions of the background with a test mode is restricted to within a few mode scale widths from the test mode rational surface. The speed of a turbulent spreading front is calculated. This front speed is effectively constant on macroscopic scales. We show that the effect of self-consistent nonlinear noise on the intensity front speed is modest, as a consequence of the ordering {Delta}{sub c}

Wang, Z. H. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Physics and Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States); Diamond, P. H. [Department of Physics and Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Guercan, Oe. D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Garbet, X. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Wang, X. G. [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Predicted intensities for new Raman transitions in solid HD  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The scattering efficiencies for the zero-phonon and phonon branches associated with predicted new Raman transitions in solid HD are calculated. These transitions arise from the interaction-induced polarizability of a pair of molecules expressed in terms of the vector separation between the centers of mass and satisfy different rotational selection rules from those of allowed Raman transitions. For single transitions in which only one molecule of the pair is excited by the incoming photon, one expects an R branch, while, for double transitions in which both molecules are excited, one expects R+S and T+S branches with progressively less intensity. A previously obtained experimental Raman spectrum of solid HD does have spectral features similar in shape and intensity to those predicted for the RR phonon branch, although this feature was tentatively assigned as a two-phonon Raman-active transition. We conclude that a new Raman study of solid HD carried out with higher sensitivity and over a greater frequency region would be of interest to determine the correct assignment of this feature and to look for other predicted transitions resulting from the interaction-induced polarizability.

M. Attia; M. Ali; R. H. Tipping; J. D. Poll

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Improved growth and water use efficiency of cherry saplings under reduced light intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cherry (Prunus avium...L.) saplings were grown under natural sunlight (controls) or moderate shading (up to 30%, depending on the incident light intensity and the hour of the day). Reduced light intensity increas...

Mauro Centritto; Francesco Loreto; Angelo Massacci…

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

J Med Ethics . Author manuscript Ethically complex decisions in the neonatal intensive care unit: impact of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J Med Ethics . Author manuscript Page /1 6 Ethically complex decisions in the neonatal intensive Personnel ; Decision Making ; ethics ; Euthanasia ; ethics ; legislation & jurisprudence ; psychology ; Female ; France ; Humans ; Infant, Newborn ; Intensive Care Units, Neonatal ; ethics ; legislation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Changes in MRI signal intensity during hypercapnic challenge under conscious and anesthetized conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Changes in MRI signal intensity during hypercapnic challenge under conscious and anesthetized were exposed to different concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) while conscious and anesthetized. Hypercapnia produced significantly greater increases in MRI signal intensity in fully conscious animals (6

Duong, Timothy Q.

220

Fact #554: January 19, 2009 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: January 19, 2009 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems Fact 554: January 19, 2009 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems According to the 2007 National Transit...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Quantifying Regional Economic Impacts of CO2 Intensity Targets in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To address rising energy use and CO2 emissions, China’s leadership has enacted energy and CO2 intensity

Zhang, Da

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon tax, mandate, intensity standard JEL classi?cations: Q42; Q48 Introduction Governments throughout the world

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Department of Energy Commercial Building Benchmarks (New Construction): Energy Use Intensities, May 5, 2009  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This file contains the energy use intensities (EUIs) for the benchmark building files by building type and climate zone.

224

Working Group Report: Computing for the Intensity Frontier  

SciTech Connect

This is the report of the Computing Frontier working group on Lattice Field Theory prepared for the proceedings of the 2013 Community Summer Study ("Snowmass"). We present the future computing needs and plans of the U.S. lattice gauge theory community and argue that continued support of the U.S. (and worldwide) lattice-QCD effort is essential to fully capitalize on the enormous investment in the high-energy physics experimental program. We first summarize the dramatic progress of numerical lattice-QCD simulations in the past decade, with some emphasis on calculations carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Lattice-QCD Collaboration, and describe a broad program of lattice-QCD calculations that will be relevant for future experiments at the intensity and energy frontiers. We then present details of the computational hardware and software resources needed to undertake these calculations.

Rebel, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Wolbers, S.

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

225

Performance of multilayers in intense synchrotron x-ray beams  

SciTech Connect

The use of multilayer reflectors under intense synchroton x-ray beams requires to develop a new generation of multilayered materials that can withstand a high-power load in excess of 100 W/mm/sup 2/. Multilayers with the high-/ital Z/ layer consisting either of a pure element or of compounds such as carbides, nitrides, or silicides have been produced. Because the fabrication conditions are not yet optimized, thin films with satisfactory layer were not obtained leading to poor reflectivities. Such multilayers have been both thermally annealed in a furnace and exposed to a synchrotron beam with a power density of about 1 W/mm/sup 2/. The resulting damage ranges from the total destruction of the layering to a reduction of the reflectivity by typically 40%--60%. In some cases an only 1%--15% loss in reflectivity has been observed.

Ziegler, E.; Lepetre, Y.; Joksch, S.; Saile, V.; Mourikis, S.; Viccaro, P. J.; Rolland, G.; Laugier, F.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

HIGH INTENSITY LOW-ENERGY POSITRON SOURCE AT JEFFERSON  

SciTech Connect

We present a novel concept of a low-energy e{sup +} source with projected intensity on the order of 10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s. The key components of this concept are a continuous wave e{sup -} beam, a rotating positron-production target, a synchronized raster/anti-raster, a transport channel, and extraction of e{sup +} into a field-free area through a magnetic plug for moderation in a cryogenic solid. Components were designed in the framework of GEANT4-based (G4beamline) Monte Carlo simulation and TOSCA magnetic field calculation codes. Experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the magnetic plug is presented.

Serkan Golge, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Branislav Vlahovic

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

The effect of local geologic conditions on observed seismic intensities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. O I. S 7. 0 5. ~. 0 4. 5-S 0 3~0 1. 5-3. 0 2, 0 5 0 12 13 22 li 22 1S 39 $6 55 5$ 49 67 14 12 4$ 8 7 12 $2 39 89 0 7 1 47 13 64 42 172 64 23$ SO 108 17 54 121 281 3 0 1 1$ d 4 13 16 10 20 28 29 5D 36 41 56 $7 52 il 24 $2 91 59... \\ I I I I V1I' euv osCoanvm VVI V I /O V /Q FEBRUARY EB, 1BB1 BAIP E FIGURE 5. Isoseismal contours of M Intensity for the February 25, 1981 on a Gul f of Corinth area map. 33 VI VI I V STV N SIAIICH i. 1081 2lo E FIGURE 6...

Moran, David Rick

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

228

Sting jets in intense winter North-Atlantic windstorms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact due to the strong surface winds and associated storm surges in coastal areas. Here we show that sting jets are a common feature of windstorms; up to a third of the 100 most intense North-Atlantic winter windstorms over the last two decades satisfy conditions for sting jets. The sting jet is a mesoscale descending airstream that can cause strong near-surface winds in the dry slot of the cyclone, a region not usually associated with strong winds. Despite their localized transient nature, these sting jets can cause significant damage, a prominent example being the storm that devastated southeast England on 16 October 1987. We present the first regional climatology of windstorms with sting jets. Previously analysed sting-jet cases appear to have been exceptional in their track over northwest Europe rather than in their strength.

Oscar Martínez-Alvarado; Suzanne L Gray; Jennifer L Catto; Peter A Clark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Dynamics of intense laser propagation in underdense plasma: Polarization dependence  

SciTech Connect

We present a comprehensive numerical study of the dynamics of an intense laser pulse as it propagates through an underdense plasma in two and three dimensions. By varying the background plasma density and the polarization of the laser beam, significant differences are found in terms of energy transport and dissipation, in agreement with recently reported experimental results. Below the threshold for relativistic self-focusing, the plasma and laser dynamics are observed to be substantially insensitive to the initial laser polarization, since laser transport is dominated by ponderomotive effects. Above this threshold, relativistic effects become important, and laser energy is dissipated either by plasma heating (p-polarization) or by trapping of electromagnetic energy into plasma cavities (s-polarization) or by a combination of both (circular polarization). Besides the fundamental interest of this study, the results presented are relevant to applications such as plasma-based accelerators, x-ray lasers, and fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion.

Singh, D. K.; Fiuza, F.; Silva, L. O. [GoLP, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Davies, J. R. [Fusion Science Center, Laboratory for Laser Energetics and Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Sarri, G. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Late-time cosmology with 21cm intensity mapping experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a framework for forecasting cosmological constraints from future neutral hydrogen intensity mapping experiments at low to intermediate redshifts. In the process, we establish a simple way of comparing such surveys with optical galaxy redshift surveys. We explore a wide range of experimental configurations and assess how well a number of cosmological observables (the expansion rate, growth rate, and angular diameter distance) and parameters (the densities of dark energy and dark matter, spatial curvature, the dark energy equation of state, etc.) will be measured by an extensive roster of upcoming experiments. A number of potential contaminants and systematic effects are also studied in detail. The overall picture is encouraging - Phase I of the SKA should be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state about as well as a DETF Stage IV galaxy redshift survey like Euclid or LSST, in roughly the same timeframe.

Bull, Philip; Patel, Prina; Santos, Mario G

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma  

SciTech Connect

I. Grant Objective The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereasthefficient generation of electric current in low-­?energy-­? density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-­?energy-­? density plasma the ideas for steady-­?state current drive developed for low-­?energy-­? density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-­?energy-­?density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

Fisch, Nathaniel J

2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

232

Excitonic effects and chirality dependence of photoluminescence intensity of single wall carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Excitonic effects and chirality dependence of photoluminescence intensity of single wall carbon characterization of semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) because the PL intensity and PL energy of the PL intensity and the energy shift of the PL peak position [3,4]. In the previous theoretical work [2

Maruyama, Shigeo

233

Present and future perspectives for high energy density physics with intense heavy ion and laser beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Present and future perspectives for high energy density physics with intense heavy ion and laser18, deliver an intense uranium beam that deposit about 1 kJ0g specific energy in solid matter. Using 2004! Abstract Intense heavy ion beams from the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung ~GSI, Darmstadt

234

A2E: Adaptively Aggressive Energy Efficient DVFS Scheduling for Data Intensive Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A2E: Adaptively Aggressive Energy Efficient DVFS Scheduling for Data Intensive Applications Li Tan strategy to achieve energy efficiency for data intensive applications, and further save energy via five memory and disk access intensive benchmarks with imbalanced branches against another two energy

235

A STAGED MUON-BASED FACILITY TO ENABLE INTENSITY AND ENERGY FRONTIER SCIENCE IN THE US*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A STAGED MUON-BASED FACILITY TO ENABLE INTENSITY AND ENERGY FRONTIER SCIENCE IN THE US* Jean. It requires facilities at both high energy and high intensity frontiers. Neutrino oscillations are irrefutable precision flavour physics at the high intensity frontier. At the high energy frontier, a multi-TeV lepton

McDonald, Kirk

236

Multi-energy CT Based on a Prior Rank, Intensity and Sparsity Model (PRISM)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multi-energy CT Based on a Prior Rank, Intensity and Sparsity Model (PRISM) Hao Gao1 , Hengyong Yu2 spectrum. Besides, the energy-dependent intensity information can be incorporated into the PRISM in terms on the generalized rank and sparsity of a multi-energy image, and intensity/spectral characteristics of base

Soatto, Stefano

237

Physics of neutralization of intense high-energy ion beam pulses by electronsa...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physics of neutralization of intense high-energy ion beam pulses by electronsa... I. D. Kaganovich beams,13 the physics of solar flares,14 high-intensity high- energy particle beam propagation Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons form the basis for a wide range

Kaganovich, Igor

238

Energy Policy 35 (2007) 52675286 The implications of the historical decline in US energy intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Policy 35 (2007) 5267­5286 The implications of the historical decline in US energy intensity 2007 Abstract This paper analyzes the influence of the long-run decline in US energy intensity change) and adjustments in the energy demand of individual industries (intensity change), and identifies

239

Energy Integration Describes Sound-Intensity Coding in an Insect Auditory System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Integration Describes Sound-Intensity Coding in an Insect Auditory System Tim Gollisch receptor; hearing; sound intensity; energy; model; locust Auditory receptor cells are commonly measurements of intensity-duration tradeoffs sug- gest that the stimulus energy is the crucial variable (Garner

Benda, Jan

240

Effect of pulse intensity distributions on fragment internal energy in the infrared multiphoton dissociation of vinyl  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of pulse intensity distributions on fragment internal energy in the infrared multiphoton of laser intensity on the production of fragment energy distribu- tions. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF pumping is pro- portional to the light intensity, the final energy of the parent molecule

Zare, Richard N.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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241

DC response of hot carriers under circularly polarized intense microwave fields and intense magnetic fields in quantum wells  

SciTech Connect

Hot carrier dynamics under intense microwave and crossed magnetic fields are investigated theoretically for the case that the dominant scattering process is inelastic collision, especially intersubband and intrasubband transition in Quantum wells. If the applied electric fields are circularly polarized, the equation of motion forms symmetric on the x-y plane. But the carrier motions are complicated to accumulate because of acceleration and emission process. This situation makes possible to create a variation of the carrier motion, typically the carrier bunching is occurred. This state is a sort of population inversion. The DC response of this system attains strongly negative at appropriate field conditions. Through the simulation for the real case described below, it may include a type of induced emission.

Ishida, Norihisa, E-mail: ishida-norihisa@hotmail.com [Japan Electronics College, 1-25-5 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8522 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

242

Intensity Frontier: More Information | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity Intensity Frontier » Intensity Frontier: More Information High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Snowmass / P5 Planning Process Intensity Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theoretical Physics Advanced Technology R&D Accelerator R&D Stewardship Research Highlights .pdf file (13.1MB) Questions for the Universe Accomplishments Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees News & Resources Contact Information High Energy Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-25/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3624 F: (301) 903-2597 E: sc.hep@science.doe.gov More Information » Intensity Frontier Intensity Frontier: More Information Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Experiments at the Intensity Frontier aim to transform our understanding of

243

Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu / real GDP in billion 2005 chained dollars) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 11.2 11.1 11.0 10.8 10.7 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 AEO 1995 10.9 10.8 10.6 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.1 9.0 AEO 1996 10.7 10.6 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 AEO 1997 10.3 10.3 10.2 10.1 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 AEO 1998 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 AEO 1999 9.6 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.4 9.3 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.5 AEO 2000 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.4 AEO 2001 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.4 8.3 8.1 8.0 7.9 7.8 7.6 7.5 7.4

244

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

committed to reduce its carbon intensity (CO 2 per unit ofcommitted to reduce its carbon intensity (CO 2 per unit of2 emissions, and the 40-45% carbon intensity reduction goals

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

23 5. Comparison of Energy Intensity of Iron and Steelthe U.S. . 27 5.1. Energy Intensity of Iron and27 5.2. Energy Intensity of Iron and Steel Production in

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Contributions of weather and fuel mix to recent declines in U.S. energy and carbon intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the decrease in energy intensity during the study period,trends in U. S. energy intensity: An index number analysis,industry structure and energy intensity, Energy Economics

Davis, W. Bart; Sanstad, Alan H.; Koomey, Jonathan G.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Contributions of weather and fuel mix to recent declines in U.S. energy and carbon intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a lower energy-and-carbon-intensive mix of economicintensity into fuel mix and energy intensity terms. Thisof fuel mix and weather on energy and carbon intensity using

Davis, W. Bart; Sanstad, Alan H.; Koomey, Jonathan G.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Solar?energy conversion at high solar intensities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concentration of sunlight offers distinct advantages for solar–electrical generation either by thermal conversion or by photovoltaics. A large variety of concentration techniques are available with concentration ratios of 1–1000. Concentration is required for thermal conversion systems to attain the high temperatures needed for efficiencies in the desired range of about 25%–35%. The projected costs for some of the solar thermal systems (especially the central receiver and the fixed mirror) indicate that they could be economically competitive in the southwestern states. The southwest may be required for these high?concentration systems to overcome the main disadvantage of concentration which is the use of the direct component of sunlight only. Other concerns of high?intensity systems are in tracking requirements reflective surface accuracy and material lifetimes of both the reflecting and absorbing components. Selective surface absorbers will be required for systems with concentration ratios below a few hundred. The present high cost of solar?cell?generated electricity can be reduced considerably by using concentrators. Cells can be used with any of the concentrator designs and the major concern is keeping them at acceptable operating temperatures. Planar silicon cells vertical multijunction and gallium–aluminum–arsenide cells all look attractive for concentrating systems.

Charles E. Backus

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ni XVII  

SciTech Connect

Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ni XVII. We include in the calculations the 23 lowest configurations, corresponding to 159 fine-structure levels: 3l3l', 3l4l'', and 3s5l''', with l, l' = s, p, d, l'' = s, p, d, f, and l''' = s, p, d. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions at varying energies above the threshold of each transition. One additional energy, very close to the threshold of each transition, has also been included. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code in the distorted wave approximation. Additional calculations have been performed with the University College London suite of codes for comparison. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates of the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10{sup 8} - 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} and at an electron temperature of log T{sub e}(K) = 6.5, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ni XVII. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed. This dataset will be made available in the next version of the CHIANTI database.

Bhatia, A.K. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Landi, E., E-mail: elandi@umich.ed [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Relations among Intensity, Time, and Temporary Threshold Shift  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of a series of studies using normal ears on the effects of broad?band noise (equal energy in all octave bands from 75 to 10 000 cps) can be summarized by the equation TTS ?=?1.06R(S?85)?( log 10 ?T/1.7)?(1–0.37? log 10 ?t/2) where TTS is the threshold shift at 4000 cps in db t minutes after cessation of a T?minute exposure to the noise;S is the sound?pressure level of the noise and R is the fraction of time that the noise is on. This equation is shown to hold for 05 min t>2 min and all values of R provided that the noise pulses are 1 sec to 1 min long. Thus the relation between intensity and duration for constant TTS is much more complicated than predicted by the equation IT = K of classical psychophysics or the I 2 T = k recently suggested although both are approximately true in particular regions. Furthermore it is evident that a noise on only part of the time is much less dangerous than one on continuously. (This research was supported in part by a grant from the National Institutes of Health.)

W. D. Ward; A. Glorig; D. L. Sklar

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Possibilities for Nuclear Photo-Science with Intense Lasers  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of intense laser light with relativistic electrons can produce unique sources of high-energy x rays and gamma rays via Thomson scattering. ''Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-ray'' (T-REX) sources with peak photon brightness (photons per unit time per unit bandwidth per unit solid angle per unit area) that exceed that available from world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude are possible from optimally designed systems. Such sources offer the potential for development of ''nuclear photo-science'' applications in which the primary photon-atom interaction is with the nucleons and not the valence electrons. Applications include isotope-specific detection and imaging of materials, inverse density radiography, transmutation of nuclear waste and fundamental studies of nuclear structure. Because Thomson scattering cross sections are small, < 1 barn, the output from a T-REX source is optimized when the laser spot size and the electron spot size are minimized and when the electron and laser pulse durations are similar and short compared to the transit time through the focal region. The principle limitation to increased x-ray or gamma-ray brightness is ability to focus the electron beam. The effects of space charge on electron beam focus decrease approximately linearly with electron beam energy. For this reason, T-REX brightness increases rapidly as a function of the electron beam energy. As illustrated in Figure 1, above 100 keV these sources are unique in their ability to produce bright, narrow-beam, tunable, narrow-band gamma rays. New, intense, short-pulse, laser technologies for advanced T-REX sources are currently being developed at LLNL. The construction of a {approx}1 MeV-class machine with this technology is underway and will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in variety of materials. Nuclear resonance fluorescent spectra are unique signatures of each isotope and provide an ideal mechanism for identification of nuclear materials. With TREX it is possible to use NRF to provide high spatial resolution (micron scale) images of the isotopic distribution of all materials in a given object. Because of the high energy of the photons, imaging through dense and/or thick objects is possible. This technology will have applicability in many arenas including the survey of cargo for the presence of clandestine nuclear materials. It is also possible to address the more general radiographic challenge of imaging low-density objects that are shielded or placed behind high density objects. In this case, it is the NRF cross section and not the electron density of the material that provides contrast. Extensions of T-REX technology will be dependent upon the evolution of short pulse laser technology to high average powers. Concepts for sources that would produce 10's of kWs of gamma-rays by utilizing MW-class average-power, diode-pumped, short pulse lasers and energy recovery LINAC technology have been developed.

Barty, C J; Hartemann, F V; McNabb, D P; Messerly, M; Siders, C; Anderson, S; Barnes, P; Betts, S; Gibson, D; Hagmann, C; Hernandez, J; Johnson, M; Jovanovic, I; Norman, R; Pruet, J; Rosenswieg, J; Shverdin, M; Tremaine, A

2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

252

Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ni XI  

SciTech Connect

Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ni XI. We include in the calculations the 12 lowest configurations, corresponding to 180 fine-structure levels: 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}, s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}3d, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 4}3d{sup 2}, 3s3p{sup 6}3d, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}4l, and 3s3p{sup 6}4l with l = s, p, d, f. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions: 7.45, 17.6, 31.4, 50.1, and 75.2 Ry above the threshold of each transition. An additional energy, very close to the transition threshold, has been added, whose value is between 0.0007 Ry and 0.25 Ry depending on the levels involved. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code. The scattering problem is solved in the distorted wave approximation. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates of the present work, combined with close coupling collision excitation rate coefficients available in the literature for the lowest 17 levels, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} and at an electron temperature of logT{sub e}K=6.1, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ni XI. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed. This dataset will be made available in the next version of the CHIANTI database.

Bhatia, A.K. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Landi, E., E-mail: Landi@nrl.navy.mi [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ni XV  

SciTech Connect

Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ni XV. We include in the calculations the 9 lowest configurations, corresponding to 126 fine structure levels: 3s{sup 2} 3p{sup 2}, 3s3p{sup 3}, 3s{sup 2} 3p3d, 3p{sup 4}, 3s3p{sup 2} 3d, and 3s{sup 2} 3p4l with l=,s,p,d,f. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions: 7.8, 18.5, 33.5, 53.5, and 80.2 Ry above the threshold of each transition. An additional energy, very close to the transition threshold, has been added, whose value is between 0.004 and 0.28 Ry depending on the levels involved. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code and the distorted-wave approximation. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates calculated in the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the 10{sup 8}-10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} range and at an electron temperature of logT{sub e}(K)=6.4, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ni XV. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed. This dataset will be made available in the next version of the CHIANTI database.

Landi, E., E-mail: elandi@umich.edu [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bhatia, A.K. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Dose Painting to Treat Rhabdomyosarcoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine local control and patterns of failure in rhabdomyosarcoma patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (RT) with dose painting (DP-IMRT). Patients and Methods: A total of 41 patients underwent DP-IMRT with chemotherapy for definitive treatment. Nineteen also underwent surgery with or without intraoperative RT. Fifty-six percent had alveolar histologic features. The median interval from beginning chemotherapy to RT was 17 weeks (range, 4-25). Very young children who underwent second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT received reduced doses of 24-36 Gy in 1.4-1.8-Gy fractions. Young adults received 50.4 Gy to the primary tumor and lower doses of 36 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to at-risk lymph node chains. Results: With 22 months of median follow-up, the actuarial local control rate was 90%. Patients aged {<=}7 years who received reduced overall and fractional doses had 100% local control, and young adults had 79% (P=.07) local control. Three local failures were identified in young adults whose primary target volumes had received 50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Conclusions: DP-IMRT with lower fractional and cumulative doses is feasible for very young children after second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT. DP-IMRT is also feasible in adolescents and young adults with aggressive disease who would benefit from prophylactic RT to high-risk lymph node chains, although dose escalation might be warranted for improved local control. With limited follow-up, it appears that DP-IMRT produces local control rates comparable to those of sequential IMRT in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

Yang, Joanna C.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H. [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); La Quaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Happersett, Laura [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Energy end-use intensities in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and other. The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand. The source of data for the analysis is the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption survey (CBECS), which collected detailed data on energy-related characteristics and energy consumption for a nationally representative sample of approximately 6,000 commercial buildings. The analysis used 1989 CBECS data because the 1992 CBECS data were not yet available at the time the study was initiated. The CBECS data were fed into the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system, a building energy simulation program developed by the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to derive engineering estimates of end-use consumption for each building in the sample. The FEDS estimates were then statistically adjusted to match the total energy consumption for each building. This is the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) first report on energy end-use consumption in commercial buildings. This report is part of an effort to address customer requests for more information on how energy is used in buildings, which was an overall theme of the 1992 user needs study. The end-use data presented in this report were not available for publication in Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1989 (DOE/EIA-0318(89), Washington, DC, April 1992). However, subsequent reports on end-use energy consumption will be part of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures series, beginning with a 1992 data report to be published in early 1995.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release)-Energy Intensity Section  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Intensity Intensity Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release) Energy Intensity Figure 7. Energy use per capita and per dollar of gross domestic product, 1980-2030 (index, 1980 = 1). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Energy intensity, measured as energy use (in thousand Btu) per dollar of GDP (in 2000 dollars), is projected to decline at an average annual rate of 1.6 percent from 2006 to 2030 in the AEO2008 reference case (Figure 7). Although energy use generally increases as the economy grows, continuing improvement in the energy efficiency of the U.S. economy and a shift to less energy-intensive activities are projected to keep the rate of energy consumption growth lower than the rate of GDP growth. Since 1992, the energy intensity of the U.S. economy has declined on

257

Experiments at the Intensity Frontier | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity Frontier Intensity Frontier High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Facilities Facility Ops Experiments at the Energy Frontier Experiments at the Intensity Frontier Experiments at the Cosmic Frontier Projects, Missions, and Status HEP User Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees News & Resources Contact Information High Energy Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-25/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3624 F: (301) 903-2597 E: sc.hep@science.doe.gov More Information » Facilities Experiments at the Intensity Frontier Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page The Intensity Frontier, accessed with a combination of intense particle beams and highly sensitive detectors, offers a second, unique investigation

258

Dopant induced ignition of helium nanodroplets in intense few-cycle laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate ultrafast resonant energy absorption of rare-gas doped He nanodroplets from intense few-cycle (~10 fs) laser pulses. We find that less than 10 dopant atoms "ignite" the droplet to generate a non-spherical electronic nanoplasma resulting ultimately in complete ionization and disintegration of all atoms, although the pristine He droplet is transparent for the laser intensities applied. Our calculations at those intensities reveal that the minimal pulse length required for ignition is about 9 fs.

Krishnan, S R; Kremer, M; Sharma, V; Fischer, B; Camus, N; Jha, J; Krishnamurthy, M; Pfeifer, T; Moshammer, R; Ullrich, J; Stienkemeier, F; Mudrich, M; Mikaberidze, A; Saalmann, U; Rost, J -M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

E-Print Network 3.0 - abscess requiring intensive Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensive Care Units. This step requires that all... , be sensitive enough to detect small variations in the occurrence rate and should not require too much effort... then be...

260

The Science DMZ: A Network Design Pattern for Data-Intensive Science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

light source with a science dmz. http://www.globusworld.org/The Science DMZ: A Network DesignPattern for Data-Intensive Science Eli Dart Lauren Rotman

Rotman, Lauren

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Practices, Trends, and Recommendations in Technical Appendix Usage for Selected Data-Intensive Disciplines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN TECHNICAL APPENDIX USAGE FOR SELECTED DATA?INTENSIVEIN TECHNICAL APPENDIX USAGE FOR SELECTED DATA?INTENSIVEIN TECHNICAL APPENDIX USAGE FOR SELECTED DATA?INTENSIVE

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Improved Heat Transfer and Performance of High Intensity Combustion Systems for Reformer Furnace Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the above premise. The application of vortex stabilized high intensity burners for reformer furnaces in the petrochemical industry is then reviewed and emphasized....

Williams, F. D. M.; Kondratas, H. M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult intensive care Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Medical Center Program Summary: in the adult surgical intensive care units at Harper Hospital (approx 20 beds, focused on general surgery... Adult Surgical Critical Care...

264

High-frequency intensity noise of lead-salt diode lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The high-frequency intensity noise spectra of mid-infrared diode lasers have been investigated. Theoretical estimates are compared with experimental results of spectral noise...

Fischer, H; Tacke, M

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

E-Print Network 3.0 - argonne intense pulsed Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

laboratory with both types of facilities: the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) for neutron scattering... Argonne Update 1 Hardest, strongest materials combined UPDATE The...

266

E-Print Network 3.0 - angular intensity distribution Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

height (z z ) 2 o z --1 2 is so only particles intense wave region... minority ion-cyclotron heating, even though process introduces negligible angular momentum....

267

An Analysis of Residential Energy Intensity in Iran, A System Dynamics Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: substantial development of counties needs to use the resources in an efficient way. One indicator that shows the degree of efficient use of energy resources is energy intensity. Statistics show that Iran’s energy intensity was in a bad situation during past years and if this manner of using energy resources continues, it will get worse.In this study a system dynamics approach is used to model changes of energy intensity in residential sector in Iran. By implementation and simulation of this model we found some reasons of this problem in Iran. Then we tried to introduce some policies to make steady improvement in energy intensity in the future. Keywords:

Mohamed M. Jamshidi

268

Incoherent-light temporal stretching of high-speed intensity waveforms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose and demonstrate experimentally the first incoherent-light scheme for temporal imaging (magnification) of intensity waveforms. The scheme is based on a time-domain equivalent...

Li, Bo; Azaña, José

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Intensity modulated neutron radiotherapy optimization by photon proxy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Introducing intensity modulation into neutron radiotherapy (IMNRT) planning has the potential to mitigate some normal tissue complications seen in past neutron trials. While the hardware to deliver IMNRT plans has been in use for several years, until recently the IMNRT planning process has been cumbersome and of lower fidelity than conventional photon plans. Our in-house planning system used to calculate neutron therapy plans allows beam weight optimization of forward planned segments, but does not provide inverse optimization capabilities. Commercial treatment planning systems provide inverse optimization capabilities, but currently cannot model our neutron beam. Methods: We have developed a methodology and software suite to make use of the robust optimization in our commercial planning system while still using our in-house planning system to calculate final neutron dose distributions. Optimized multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions for segments designed in the commercial system using a 4 MV photon proxy beam are translated into static neutron ports that can be represented within our in-house treatment planning system. The true neutron dose distribution is calculated in the in-house system and then exported back through the MATLAB software into the commercial treatment planning system for evaluation. Results: The planning process produces optimized IMNRT plans that reduce dose to normal tissue structures as compared to 3D conformal plans using static MLC apertures. The process involves standard planning techniques using a commercially available treatment planning system, and is not significantly more complex than conventional IMRT planning. Using a photon proxy in a commercial optimization algorithm produces IMNRT plans that are more conformal than those previously designed at our center and take much less time to create. Conclusions: The planning process presented here allows for the optimization of IMNRT plans by a commercial treatment planning optimization algorithm, potentially allowing IMNRT to achieve similar conformality in treatment as photon IMRT. The only remaining requirements for the delivery of very highly modulated neutron treatments are incremental improvements upon already implemented hardware systems that should be readily achievable.

Snyder, Michael; Hammoud, Ahmad; Bossenberger, Todd; Spink, Robyn; Burmeister, Jay [Karmanos Cancer Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Parallel In Situ Indexing for Data-intensive Computing  

SciTech Connect

As computing power increases exponentially, vast amount of data is created by many scientific re- search activities. However, the bandwidth for storing the data to disks and reading the data from disks has been improving at a much slower pace. These two trends produce an ever-widening data access gap. Our work brings together two distinct technologies to address this data access issue: indexing and in situ processing. From decades of database research literature, we know that indexing is an effective way to address the data access issue, particularly for accessing relatively small fraction of data records. As data sets increase in sizes, more and more analysts need to use selective data access, which makes indexing an even more important for improving data access. The challenge is that most implementations of in- dexing technology are embedded in large database management systems (DBMS), but most scientific datasets are not managed by any DBMS. In this work, we choose to include indexes with the scientific data instead of requiring the data to be loaded into a DBMS. We use compressed bitmap indexes from the FastBit software which are known to be highly effective for query-intensive workloads common to scientific data analysis. To use the indexes, we need to build them first. The index building procedure needs to access the whole data set and may also require a significant amount of compute time. In this work, we adapt the in situ processing technology to generate the indexes, thus removing the need of read- ing data from disks and to build indexes in parallel. The in situ data processing system used is ADIOS, a middleware for high-performance I/O. Our experimental results show that the indexes can improve the data access time up to 200 times depending on the fraction of data selected, and using in situ data processing system can effectively reduce the time needed to create the indexes, up to 10 times with our in situ technique when using identical parallel settings.

Kim, Jinoh; Abbasi, Hasan; Chacon, Luis; Docan, Ciprian; Klasky, Scott; Liu, Qing; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Wu, Kesheng

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

271

Ultlra-intense laser-matter interactions at extreme parameters  

SciTech Connect

The field of shortpulse lasers has seen rapid growth in the recent years with the three major boundaries of energy, pulse duration and repetition rate being pushed in ever extremer regions. At peak powers, already exceeding 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}, in virtually every experiment in relativistic laser physics, the laser pulse interacts with a more or less extended and heated plasma, due to prepulses and ASE-like pedestals on ps - ns time scales. By developing a new technique for ultrahigh contrast, we were able to initiate the next paradigm shift in relativistic laser-matter interactions, allowing us to interact ultrarelativistic pulses volumetrically with overdense targets. This becomes possible by using target and laser parameters that will turn the target relativistically transparent during the few 10s-100s femtoseconds fo the interaction. Specifically, we interact an ultraintese, ultrahigh contrast pulse with solid density, free standing, nanometer diamond target. This paradigm change towards a volumetric overdense interaction in turn enables new particle acceleration mechanisms for both electrons and ions, as well as forward directed relativistic surface harmonics. We report here on first experiments done on those topics at the 200 TW Trident laser at Los Alamos as well as at the Ti:Sapphire system at MBI. We will compare the experimental data to massive large scale 3D simulations done on the prototype of LANL's new Petafiop supercomputer Roadrunner, which is leading the current top 500 list. Specifically, we developed a shortpulse OPA based pulse cleaning technique. Fielding it at the Trident 200 TW laser at Los Alamos, we were able to improve the pulse contrast by 6 orders of magnitude to better than 2 x 10{sup -12} at less than a ps. This enabled for the first time the interaction of a 100J, 200TW laser pulse with a truly solid target with virtually no expansion before the main pulse - target interaction, making possible the use of very thin targets, The thinnest of these at less than 3nm, i.e. 1/300 of the laser wavelength, are even thinner than the plasma skin depth. This drastically changes the laser-matter interaction physics leading to the emergence of new particle acceleration mechanisms, like Break-Out Afterburner (BOA) Acceleration, driven by a relativistic, kinetic plasma instability or Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA), driven by stabilized charge separation. Furthermore, these interactions also produce relativistic high harmonics in forward direction as well as mono-en,ergetic electron pulses which might lend itself as a source for fully coherent Thomson scattering in the mulit-keV regime. In this talk I will present an overview over the laser developments leading to this paradigm change as well as over the theoretical and experimental results following from it. Specifically we were able for the first time to demonstrate BOA acceleration of Carbon ions to up to 0.5 GeV using a laser pulse with {approx}10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} intensity and showing the scalability of this mechanism into regimes relevant for Hadron Therapy. We were further able to demonstrate mono-energetic electron break-out from ultrathin targets, as a first step towards a flying mirror.

Hegellich, Bjorn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

272

Floquet–Liouville supermatrix approach. II. Intensity?dependent generalized nonlinear optical susceptibilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a practical n o n p e r t u r b a t i v e method for e x a c t treatment of i n t e n s i t y?d e p e n d e n t generalized nonlinear optical susceptibilities ?(?) in intense polychromatic fields, valid for arbitrary laser intensities...

Chu, Shih-I; Wang, Kwanghsi

1987-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Relationship between SERS Intensity and Both Surface Coverage and Morphology for Pyrazine Adsorbed on a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relationship between SERS Intensity and Both Surface Coverage and Morphology for Pyrazine Adsorbed (SERS) of pyrazine (pz), adsorbed on polycrystalline gold electrodes ("smooth" and rough), on both of the enhancement factor for gold spheres. The SERS intensities from pz adsorbed on an "unroughened" gold electrode

Brolo, Alexandre G.

274

The dynamics of knowledge-intensive sectors' knowledge base: Evidence from Biotechnology and Telecommunications1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Telecommunications1 Jackie Kraffta , Francesco Quatraroa,b , Pier Paolo Saviottic a) University of Nice Sophia for the knowledge base and its evolution in two knowledge intensive sectors: biotechnology and telecommunications and telecommunications, two knowledge intensive sectors. Extending the recombinant knowledge theoretical framework

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Engineering of Software-Intensive Systems: State of the Art and Research Challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Software-intensive systems become more and more important in our everyday lives. But their increasing complexity makes it difficult to develop and maintain them. This chapter gives an overview of the state of the art of building software-intensive systems ...

Matthias Hölzl; Axel Rauschmayer; Martin Wirsing

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas intensity by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame. For the purposes of the initiative, greenhouse gas intensity is defined as the ratio of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions to economic output.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Issues and R&D Required for the Intensity Frontier Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Operation, upgrade and development of accelerators for Intensity Frontier face formidable challenges in order to satisfy both the near-term and long-term Particle Physics program. Here we discuss key issues and R&D required for the Intensity Frontier accelerators.

Shiltsev, V.; Henderson, S.; Hurh, P.; Kourbanis, I.; Lebedev, V.

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

278

Knowledge-Intensive Case-Based Reasoning in CREEK Agnar Aamodt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Knowledge-Intensive Case-Based Reasoning in CREEK Agnar Aamodt Department of Computer.aamodt@idi.ntnu.no Abstract. Knowledge-intensive CBR assumes that cases are enriched with general domain knowledge. In CREEK, there is a very strong coupling between cases and general domain knowledge, in that cases are embedded within

Aamodt, Agnar

279

SCENARIOS WITH AN INTENSIVE CONTRIBUTION OF NUCLEAR ENERGY TO THE WORLD ENERGY SUPPLY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 SCENARIOS WITH AN INTENSIVE CONTRIBUTION OF NUCLEAR ENERGY TO THE WORLD ENERGY SUPPLY H of primary energy demand by 250% in 2050 we find that a nuclear intensive scenario assuming the development level. Electricity production amounts to almost 40% of the primary energy supplyi , mostly i Here

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

Excitonic effects on radial breathing mode intensity of single wall carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Excitonic effects on radial breathing mode intensity of single wall carbon nanotubes Kentaro Satoa Abstract We develop exciton-photon and exciton-phonon interaction matrix elements for sin- gle wall carbon- culate resonance Raman intensity for radial breathing mode as a function of diameter and chiral angle

Maruyama, Shigeo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Effects of grazing intensity on soil carbon stocks following deforestation of a Hawaiian dry tropical forest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of grazing intensity on soil carbon stocks following deforestation of a Hawaiian dry carbon (SOC) along gradients of grazing intensity and elevation in pastures converted from dry tropical of forest-to-pasture conversion on soil carbon (C) stocks depend on a combination of climatic and management

Elmore, Andrew J.

282

FLUORESCENCE CHANGES IN PORPHYRIDIUM EXPOSED TO GREEN LIGHT OF DIFFERENT INTENSITY: A NEW EMISSION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FLUORESCENCE CHANGES IN PORPHYRIDIUM EXPOSED TO GREEN LIGHT OF DIFFERENT INTENSITY: A NEW EMISSION supposed to require two light reactions for the transfer of one hydrogen atom from water to carbon dioxide the existence of this second trap. With increase in intensity of green light, I,, the differential fluorescence

Govindjee

283

Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir Sebastian. Wehrli (2012), Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir; revised 25 November 2011; accepted 30 November 2011; published 4 January 2012. [1] Organic carbon (OC

Wehrli, Bernhard

284

Excitonic effects of photoluminescence and resonance Raman intensity of single wall carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Excitonic effects of photoluminescence and resonance Raman intensity of single wall carbon been widely used for the optical characterization of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) since the intensity and energy of PL and RRS depend on the diameter and chirality of SWNTs. The optical absorption

Maruyama, Shigeo

285

Seismic Intensity Estimation of Tall Buildings in Earthquake Early Warning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seismic Intensity Estimation of Tall Buildings in Earthquake Early Warning System M. H. Cheng & T warning system is currently being tested through the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) (http: earthquake early warning system, tall buildings, seismic intensity 1. INTRODUCTION In California, United

Greer, Julia R.

286

Modeling proton intensity gradients and radiation dose equivalents in the inner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling proton intensity gradients and radiation dose equivalents in the inner heliosphere using a significant radiation hazard for manned and unmanned interplanetary (IP) space missions. In order to estimate intensities, event fluences, and radiation dose equivalents of 27­31 May 2003 SEP events at eight different

Pringle, James "Jamie"

287

Intensely white bark on a dull winter's day AndreaKiewitt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- Intensely white bark on a dull winter's day ©AndreaKiewitt No. 45 January 2009 Eco birch (Betula utilis var. jacquemontii). On the grey winter day, its intensely white bark stood out revealing the strikingly white inner layers. The bark is strewn with creamy grey lenticels in the shape

288

Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient Networking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient) 854 2900, e-mail: howard@ee.columbia.edu ABSTRACT The relentless rise of data-intensive cloud will either be prohibitively costly, overly complex, or result in unsustainable energy requirements. Network

Bergman, Keren

289

Mapping the Energy Distribution of SERRS Hot Spots from Anti-Stokes to Stokes Intensity Ratios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mapping the Energy Distribution of SERRS Hot Spots from Anti- Stokes to Stokes Intensity Ratios in the anti-Stokes to Stokes intensity ratios in single-molecule surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering-enhanced Raman scattering. Moreover, a methodology to estimate the distribution of resonance energies

Brolo, Alexandre G.

290

CHEM 740: ENERGIES, INTENSITIES AND POTENTIALS: CONCEPTS AND TOOLS IN SPECTROSCOPY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 CHEM 740: ENERGIES, INTENSITIES AND POTENTIALS: CONCEPTS AND TOOLS IN SPECTROSCOPY Fall 2001 Instructor: R.J. Le Roy Wednesday Evenings The patterns of energy levels and transition intensities observed energy curves or surfaces characterizing the forces between the component atoms. This course will discuss

Le Roy, Robert J.

291

Third harmonic order imaging as a focal spot diagnostic for high intensity laser-solid interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

intensity inter- actions, i.e., fast ignition fusion, laser based ion acceleration etc., where fluctuationsThird harmonic order imaging as a focal spot diagnostic for high intensity laser-solid interactions, Glasgow, UK 4 Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Chilton, Didcot, Didcot, UK 5

Strathclyde, University of

292

Optimization Intensive Energy Harvesting Mahsan Rofouei, Mohammad Ali Ghodrat, Miodrag Potkonjak  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization Intensive Energy Harvesting Mahsan Rofouei, Mohammad Ali Ghodrat, Miodrag Potkonjak of primary limiting factors of MSs is their energy sensitivity. In order to overcome this limitation, we have developed an optimization intensive approach for energy harvesting. Our goal is to size and position

Potkonjak, Miodrag

293

FEATURE ARTICLE Photoexcitation, Ionization, and Dissociation of Molecules Using Intense Near-Infrared  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FEATURE ARTICLE Photoexcitation, Ionization, and Dissociation of Molecules Using Intense Near-Infrared The coupling mechanism between an intense (1013 W cm-2, 780 nm) near-infrared radiation field of duration 50 above threshold dissociation,3 multiple electron emission,4 and mo- lecular ionization using near-infrared

Levis, Robert J.

294

Fabrication of nano-structural arrays by channeling pulsed atomic beams through an intensity-modulated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fabrication of nano-structural arrays by channeling pulsed atomic beams through an intensity-dimensional nano-structure arrays by passing a pulsed atomic beam through an intensity-modulated continuous of ``cooling'' along the longitudinal direction. This enables fabrication of vertically heterogeneous nano

Zhu, Xiangdong

295

Lagrangian Formulation of Relativistic Particle Average Motion in a Laser Field of Arbitrary Intensity  

SciTech Connect

The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing average motion of a relativistic particle under the action of intensive high-frequency electromagnetic radiation are obtained. In weak, low-frequency background fields, such a particle on average drifts with an effective, relativistically invariant mass, which depends on the intensity of the electromagnetic field.

I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch; G.M. Fraiman

2003-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

296

Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985-1994  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985 - 1994 Full Report Introduction Summary of Data Data Tables Data Summaries All (20-39) Food (20) Textiles (22) Apparel (23) Lumber (24) Furniture (25) Paper (26) Printing (27) Chemicals (28) Refineries (29) Rubber (30) Stone (32) Metals (33) Fab. Metals (34) Machinery (35) El. Equip.(36) Instruments (38) Misc. (39) Appendices Survey Design Quality of Data Sector Description Nonobservation Errors Glossary Intensity Sites Commercial Residential Transportation International Manufacturing Energy Intensity Changes in Energy Intensity Click for Full Graph Manufacturing Energy Consumption Consumption of Energy Click for Full Graph Manufacturing Shipments History of Shipments Click for Full Graph The focus of this data report is on intensity of energy use, measured by energy consumption relative to constant dollar shipments of manufactured products -- commonly called energy intensities (EI) by energy analysts. This report explicitly relates changes in two energy measures of energy intensity to efficiency, while being cognizant that there are structural and behavioral effects enmeshed in those measures of energy efficiency. Reporting EI serves to continue the Intensity Change report series.

297

Target Material Irradiation Studies for High-Intensity Accelerator Beams , H. Ludewig1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, an intensive search has been under way for both "smart" target designs and target materials that exhibit and "smart" materials have recently become available to serve the needs of special industries and someTarget Material Irradiation Studies for High-Intensity Accelerator Beams N. Simos1* , H. Kirk1 , H

McDonald, Kirk

298

Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse Xiaofang Wang filamentation and beam breakup. These results suggest an approach for generating a beam of femtosecond, Me-intensity lasers has made it pos- sible to study extreme physics on a tabletop. Among the studies, the generation

Umstadter, Donald

299

MOVEMENT OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND INTENSIVE ROW-CROP AGRICULTURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1099 MOVEMENT OF FEMALE WHITE-TAILED DEER: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND INTENSIVE ROW-CROP AGRICULTURE in intensively (>80%) cultivated areas. From January 2001 to August 2002, we monitored movements of 77 (61 adult of seasonal migration, whereas crop emergence and harvest had minimal effects. Four deer (8%) dispersed a mean

300

Fundamental physics on natures of the macroscopic vacuum under high intense electromagnetic fields with accelerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High intense electromagnetic fields can be unique probes to study natures of macroscopic vacua by themselves. Combining accelerators with the intense field can provide more fruitful probes which can neither be achieved by only intense fields nor only high energy accelerators. We will overview the natures of vacua which can be accessible via intense laser-laser and intense laser-electron interactions. In the case of the laser-laser interaction, we propose how to observe nonlinear QED effects and effects of new fields like light scalar and pseudo scalar fields which may contribute to a macroscopic nature of our universe such as dark energy. In the case of the laser-electron interaction, in addition to nonlinear QED effects, we can further discuss the nature of accelerating field in the vacuum where we can access physics related with event horizons such as Hawking-Unruh radiations. We will introduce a recent experimental trial to search for this kind of odd radiations.

Kensuke Homma

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Modelling of CO2 content in the atmosphere until 2300: influence of energy intensity of gross domestic product and carbon intensity of energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study provides a model of CO2 content in the atmosphere based on the global carbon cycle and the Kaya identity. The influences of: 1) energy intensity of GDP; 2) carbon intensity of energy on CO2 trajectories are given under four scenarios. The results from the most optimistic and technologically challenging scenario show that the atmospheric CO2 concentration can stabilise at 610 ppmv. It is also shown that the annual growth rates of atmospheric CO2 peak for all the scenarios before 2100 due to the expected world population peak in 2075 and the large share of fossil fuel energy.

Wojciech M. Budzianowski

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S. Title A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S. Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2011 Authors Hasanbeigi, Ali, Lynn K. Price, Nathaniel T. Aden, Zhang Chunxia, Li Xiuping, and Shangguan Fangqin Date Published June/2011 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Iron & Steel Research Institute, Iron and Steel Industry Keywords energy intensity, energy use, Low Emission & Efficient Industry Abstract Production of iron and steel is an energy-intensive manufacturing process. In 2006, the iron and steel industry accounted for 13.6% and 1.4% of primary energy consumption in China and the U.S., respectively (U.S. DOE/EIA, 2010a; Zhang et al., 2010). The energy efficiency of steel production has a direct impact on overall energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity (energy use per unit of steelproduced) of steel production. The methodology is applied to the steel industry in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and indicators in order industry energy use to develop a common framework for comparing steel intensity energy use.

303

Carbon dioxide emissions intensity of Portuguese industry and energy sectors: A convergence analysis and econometric approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Given the relevance of energy and pollution issues for industrialised countries and the importance of industry and energy sectors to the achievement of their economic and environmental goals, it is important to know if there is a common pattern of emissions intensity, fuel intensity and energy intensity, between industries, to know if it justifies a more specific application of energy policies between sectors, which sectors have the greatest potential for reducing energy use and which are the long term effects of those specific variables on the mitigation of emissions. We found that although there is literature on decomposition of effects that affect emissions, the study of the convergence and of the relationships between these variables does not include ratios or effects that result from the decomposition analysis. Thus, the above questions are not answered, much less for the Portuguese reality. The purpose of this paper is to study: (i) the existence of convergence of some relevant ratios as Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions intensity, CO2 emissions by fossil fuel consumption, fossil fuel intensity, energy intensity and economic structure, between industry and energy sectors in Portugal, and (ii) the influence that the consumption of fossil fuels, the consumption of aggregate energy and GDP have on CO2 emissions, and the influence that the ratios in which CO2 emissions intensity decomposes can affect that variable, using an econometric approach, namely Panel corrected standard errors estimator. We concluded that there is sigma convergence for all ratios with exception of fossil fuel intensity. Gamma convergence verifies for all ratios, with exception of CO2 emissions by fossil fuel. From the econometric approach we concluded that the considered variables have a significant importance in explaining CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions intensity.

Victor Moutinho; Margarita Robaina-Alves; Jorge Mota

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Generation of high intensity rf pulses in the ionosphere by means of in situ compression  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate, using a simple model, that high intensity pulses can be generated from a frequency-chirped modifier of much lower intensity by making use of the dispersive properties of the ionosphere. We show that a frequency-chirped pulse can be constructed so that its various components overtake each other at a prescribed height, resulting in large (up to one hundred times) transient intensity enhancements as compared to those achievable from a steady modifier operating at the same power. We examine briefly one possible application: the enhancement of plasma wave amplitudes which occurs as a result of the interaction of such a compressed pulse with pre-generated turbulence.

Cowley, S.C.; Perkins, F.W.; Valeo, E.J.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Quantum Key Ditribution Based on Quantum Intensity Correlation of Twin Beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new and simple quantum key distribution scheme based on the quantum intensity correlation of optical twin beams and the directly local measurements of intensity noise of single optical beam is presented and experimentally demonstrated. Using the twin beams with the quantum intensity correlation of 5dB the effective bit rate of $2\\times 10^7bits/s$ is completed. The noncloning of quantum systems and the sensitivity of the existing correlations to losses provide the physical mechamism for the security against eavesdropping. In the presented scheme the signal modulation and homodyne detection are not needed.

Xiaojun Jia; Xiaolong Su; Qing Pan; Kunchi Peng; Changde Xie

2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

306

Bragg cell laser intensity modulation: effect on laser Doppler velocimetry measurements  

SciTech Connect

In most laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) systems, the frequency of one of the two laser beams that intersect to create the probe volume is shifted with an acousto-optic element. It is shown here that Bragg shifting can impose a problematic fluctuation in intensity on the frequency-shifted beam, producing spurious velocity measurements. This fluctuation occurs at twice the Bragg cell frequency, and its relative amplitude to the time average intensity is a function of the ratio of the laser beam diameter to the Bragg cell acoustic wavelength. A physical model and a configuration procedure to minimize adverse effects of the intensity modulations are presented.

Mychkovsky, Alexander G.; Chang, Natasha A.; Ceccio, Steven L.

2009-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

307

Refining intensity, energy consumption, and pulp quality in two-stage chip refining  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on thermomechanical pulps produced in two pilot plant installations. Both installations were conventional two-stage systems in which the first stage was pressurized and the second was atmospheric. At a given specific energy, pulp quality was improved. Alternatively, for a given pulp quality, the energy consumption was reduced when refining in the first stage was carried out at a high refining intensity. High refining intensity was reached by operating the first stage either at a high rotational speed or low consistency. There were indications that these benefits could be enhanced if the second stage were operated at a low refining intensity.

Miles, K.B.; May, W.D.; Karnis, A. (Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, 570 St. John's Boulevard, Pointe Claire, Quebec H9R 3J9 (CA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

EIA Energy Efficiency-Residential Sector Energy Intensities, 1978-2001  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Sector Energy Intensities Residential Sector Energy Intensities RESIDENTIAL SECTOR ENERGY INTENSITIES: 1978-2005 Released Date: August 2004 Page Last Modified:June 2009 These tables provide estimates of residential sector energy consumption and energy intensities for 1978 -1984, 1987, 1990, 1993, 1997, 2001 and 2005 based on the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Total Site Energy Consumption (U.S. and Census Region) Html Excel PDF By Type of Housing Unit (Table 1a) html Table 1a excel table 1a. excel table 1a. Weather-Adjusted by Type of Housing Unit (Table 1b) html table 1b excel table 1b excel table 1b Total Primary Energy Consumption (U.S. and Census Region) By Type of Housing Unit (Table 1c) html Table 1c excel table 1c excel table 1c Weather-Adjusted by Type of Housing Unit (Table 1d)

309

Two-color phase control of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a time-independent generalized Floquet approach for nonperturbative treatment of high-order harmonic generation (HG) in intense onea (i) determination of the complex quasienergy eigenvalue and eigenfunction by means of the non...

Telnov, Dmitry A.; Wang, Jingyan; Chu, Shih-I

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Recognizing targets from infrared intensity scan patterns using artificial neural networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recognizing targets from infrared intensity scan patterns using artificial neural networks Tayfun complicating the localization and recognition process. We employ artificial neural networks to deter- mine differentiation; artificial neural networks; optimal brain surgeon; pattern recognition. Paper 080450R received

Barshan, Billur

311

Latent heating contribution from precipitation systems with different sizes, depths and intensities in the tropics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Latent Heating (LH) from precipitation systems with different sizes, depths and convective intensities are quantified with 15 years of LH retrievals from Version 7 Precipitation Radar (PR) products of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)...

Chuntao Liu; Shoichi Shige; Yukari N. Takayabu; Edward Zipser

312

Water Intensity Assessment of Shale Gas Resources in the Wattenberg Field in Northeastern Colorado  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water Intensity Assessment of Shale Gas Resources in the Wattenberg Field in Northeastern Colorado ... Efficient use of water, particularly in the western U.S., is an increasingly important aspect of many activities including agriculture, urban, and industry. ...

Stephen Goodwin; Ken Carlson; Ken Knox; Caleb Douglas; Luke Rein

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

313

Capital budgeting methods, management control systems and the R&D intensity of the firm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effect of the Research and Development (R&D) intensity of the firm on the use of management control systems, capital budgeting methods and the methods to determine the cost of capital. Based on earlier literature, we develop several hypotheses that we test empirically, using survey data of the 101 Finnish firms operating in the capital area. The results indicate that the use of management control systems such as control and bonus systems, budgeting and strategic alliances increases with the degree of the R&D intensity of the firm. The results also indicate that high-R&D-intensity firms use formal capital budgeting methods within large and strategic projects. Finally, our results show that the use of sophisticated capital budgeting methods such as Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) methods increases with the R&D intensity of the firm. Our results remain materially the same after controlling for several firm characteristics.

Hanna Silvola

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Economics at the FTC: Data Intensive Mergers and Policy R&D  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Economics at the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) supports both the competition and consumer protection missions of the agency. In this year’s essay we discuss a range of activities focusing on data-intensive an...

Michael A. Salinger; Keith B. Anderson…

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Erratum to: Decreasing Indian summer monsoon intensity after 1860 AD in the global warming epoch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the original publication of the article title has been published incorrectly. The correct title should read as “Decreasing Indian summer monsoon intensity after 1860 AD in the global warming epoch”.

Hai Xu; Yetang Hong; Bin Hong

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Energy prices and energy intensity in China : a structural decomposition analysis and econometric study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the start of its economic reforms in 1978, China's energy prices relative to other prices have increased. At the same time, its energy intensity, i.e., physical energy consumption per unit of Gross Domestic Product ...

Shi, Xiaoyu, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Adaptive Divisible Load Model for Scheduling Data-Intensive Grid Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In many data grid applications, data can be decomposed into multiple independent sub ... schedule for parallel execution and analysis. Divisible Load Theory (DLT) is a powerful tool for modelling data-intensive g...

M. Othman; M. Abdullah; H. Ibrahim; S. Subramaniam

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Could energy-intensive industries be powered by carbon-free electricity?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Gutowski and Ernst Worrell Could energy-intensive industries be powered...MacKay, DJC . 2008 Sustainable energy-without the hot air. Cambridge...com . 3 Gallman, PG . 2011 Green alternatives and national energy strategy: the facts behind the...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclone Feedback on the Intensity of Western Pacific Subtropical High to Microphysics Scheme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Advanced Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model is used to examine the sensitivity of simulated tropical cyclone (TC) track and associated intensity of western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) to microphysical parameterization (MP) scheme. It is ...

Yuan Sun; Zhong Zhong; Wei Lu

320

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell performance degradation at different synchrotron beam intensities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dependency of beam intensity on the performance degradation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells during X-ray imaging experiments at the Tomcat beamline of the Swiss Light Source is reported and the underlying degradation mechanisms are identified.

Eller, J.

2013-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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321

The role of energy intensity improvement in the AR4 GHG stabilization scenarios  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study analyzes the role of energy intensity improvement in the short term (to the year 2020) and midterm (to the year 2050) in the context of long-term greenhouse gases (GHG) stabilization scenarios. The dat...

Tatsuya Hanaoka; Mikiko Kainuma; Yuzuru Matsuoka

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Mul$-scale Demand-Side Management for Con$nuous Power-intensive Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Mul$-scale Demand-Side Management for Con$nuous Power-intensive Processes Response Energy Efficiency Demand-Side Management (DSM)1 Integra on Demand-Side Management, with an emphasis on price responsive programs", CRA No

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

323

INVESTIGATION OF THERAPY IMPROVEMENT USING REAL-TIME PHOTOACOUSTIC IMAGING GUIDED HIGH INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are a lot of risks in cancer treatment by invasive surgery, such as bleeding, wound infection, and long recovery time, etc. Therefore, there is great need for minimally- or non-invasive treatment. High intensity ...

Cui, Huizhong

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

Enhancement of spectral intensities of mercury triplet lines in longitudinal magnetic field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The variation of intensity of the spectral lines of the triplet series of mercury namely...3 S 1 ? 63 P 012) (?5461 Å,? 4358 Å,?...4047 Å) in the pr...

S N Sen; S K Sadhya

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

The Role of Atmospheric Conditions in Determining Intensity of Crepuscular and Anticrepuscular Rays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the summer of 2006, daily observations of crepuscular and anticrepuscular rays were made around sunset from central Oklahoma. A relative scale of ray intensity was developed and used to relate the rays to concurrent meteorological ...

Matthew S. Van Den Broeke; William H. Beasley; Michael B. Richman

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Oceanic Heat Content Variability in the Eastern Pacific Ocean for Hurricane Intensity Forecasting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent evidence supports the premise that the subsurface ocean structure plays an important role in modulating air–sea fluxes during hurricane passage, which in turn, affects intensity change. Given the generally sparse in situ data, it has been ...

Lynn K. Shay; Jodi K. Brewster

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Short-period variation of cosmic-ray intensity observed in the stratosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To investigate the variation of the cosmic-ray intensity in the Earth atmosphere, stratospheric balloon soundings are performed weekly at Campinas (Brazil...2 and 173 g/cm2. Apparently these oscillations are not ...

N. A. Van Bui; I. M. Martin; A. Turtelli jr.; Yu. I. Stozhkov…

328

Distinguishing the Cold Conveyor Belt and Sting Jet Airstreams in an Intense Extratropical Cyclone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Strong winds equatorward and rearward of a cyclone core have often been associated with two phenomena: the cold conveyor belt (CCB) jet and sting jets. Here, detailed observations of the mesoscale structure in this region of an intense cyclone are ...

Oscar Martínez-Alvarado; Laura H. Baker; Suzanne L. Gray; John Methven; Robert S. Plant

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

The energy required to produce materials: constraints on energy-intensity improvements, parameters of demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...processes. Data for iron energy intensity are adapted...are adapted from Choate Green-[16]. Production...15 Smil, V . 2008 Energy in nature and society...Choate, WT , and JAS Green. 2003 US energy requirements for aluminum...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Energy prices and energy intensity in China : a structural decomposition analysis and econometrics study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the start of its economic reforms in 1978, China's energy prices relative to other prices have increased. At the same time, its energy intensity, i.e., energy consumption per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), has ...

Shi, Xiaoyu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Molecular-bond hardening and dynamics of molecular stabilization and trapping in intense laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stabilization and population trapping of high-lying vibrational states and chemical bond hardening are predicted for both continuous-wave (cw) lasers and short laser pulses. While the intensity dependences of the laser-induced stabilization are essentially...

Yao, Guanhua; Chu, Shih-I

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Absolute vs. Intensity Limits for CO2 Emission Control: Performance Under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We elucidate the differences between absolute and intensity-based limits of CO2 emission when there is uncertainty about the future. We demonstrate that the two limits are identical under certainty, and rigorously establish ...

Sue Wing, Ian.

333

Zone folding effect in Raman G-band intensity of twisted bilayer graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The G-band Raman intensity is calculated for twisted bilayer graphene as a function of laser excitation energy based on the extended tight binding method. Here we explicitly consider the electron-photon and electron-phonon ...

Dresselhaus, Mildred

334

Robust parameter extraction for decision support using multimodal intensive care data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Digital information flow within the intensive care unit (ICU) continues to grow, with advances in technology and computational biology. Recent developments in the integration and archiving of these data have resulted in ...

Clifford, Gari D.

335

E-Print Network 3.0 - absolute rovibrational intensities Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the Summer Program 2008 Summary: the agreement in terms of the initial rise, absolute intensity level and fall-off rates. This is due to each... of the rovibrational energy...

336

Determinants of energy intensity in industrialized countries : a comparison of China and India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The amount of final energy per unit of economic output (usually in terms of gross domestic product, or GDP), known as energy intensity, is often used to measure the effectiveness of energy use and the consumption patterns ...

Huang, Feiya

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy intensity (energy per unit GDP) in the 11 th FYP. Forintensity (total energy per unit GDP)  industrial energyof total (primary) energy per unit GDP in fixed 2005 RMB [

Ohshita, Stephanie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Apparatus and process for active pulse intensity control of laser beam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optically controlled laser pulse energy control apparatus and process is disclosed wherein variations in the energy of a portion of the laser beam are used to vary the resistance of a photodetector such as a photoresistor through which a control voltage is fed to a light intensity controlling device through which a second portion of the laser beam passes. Light attenuation means are provided to vary the intensity of the laser light used to control the resistance of the photodetector. An optical delay path is provided through which the second portion of the beam travels before reaching the light intensity controlling device. The control voltage is supplied by a variable power supply. The apparatus may be tuned to properly attenuate the laser beam passing through the intensity controlling device by adjusting the power supply, the optical delay path, or the light attenuating means.

Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Understanding sawtooth activity during intense electron cyclotron heating experiments on TCV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding sawtooth activity during intense electron cyclotron heating experiments on TCV I sawteeth and `humpback' oscillations occur when heating close to the sawtooth inversion surface model which describes the evolution of the electron temperature in the presence of localized heat

Rossi, Enrico

340

Nutrient element accumulation and distribution in an intensively cultured American sycamore plantation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) plantations were intensively cultured on floodplain and terrace sites near the Ohio River in western Kentucky. Biomass and nutrient uptake under various spacing and fe...

Bruce W. Wood; Robert F. Wittwer; Stanley B. Carpenter

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Impact of varying storm intensity and consecutive dry days on grassland soil moisture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intra-annual precipitation patterns are expected to shift toward more intense storms and longer dry periods due to changes in climate within the next decades. Using satellite-derived estimates of plant growth data combined with in situ ...

John D. Hottenstein; Guillermo E. Ponce-Campos; Julio Moguel-Yanes; M. Susan Moran

342

The Influence of Hadley Circulation Intensity Changes on Extratropical Climate in an Idealized Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments have been performed using a simple global model with idealized physics and zonally symmertrical forcings to investigate the influence of Hadley circulation intensity changes on extratropical climate. The heating within the Tropics is ...

Edmund K. M. Chang

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Cost Minimization in an Energy-Intensive Plant Using Mathematical Programming Approaches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cost Minimization in an Energy-Intensive Plant Using Mathematical Programming Approaches ... This creates a potential opportunity to reduce average operating costs by changing the operating mode and production rates depending on the power costs. ...

M. G. Ierapetritou; D. Wu; J. Vin; P. Sweeney; M. Chigirinskiy

2002-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

344

Improved Product Energy Intensity Benchmarking Metrics for Thermally Concentrated Food Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Improved Product Energy Intensity Benchmarking Metrics for Thermally Concentrated Food Products ... Sogut, Z.; Ilten, N.; Oktay, Z.Energetic and exergetic performance evaluation of the quadruple-effect evaporator unit in tomato paste evaporation Energy 2010, 35, 3821– 3826 ...

Michael E. Walker; Craig S. Arnold; David J. Lettieri; Margot J. Hutchins; Eric Masanet

2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

345

Data Grids: a new computational infrastructure for data-intensive science  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Goodfellow, Dominic Tildesley and Maggie Wilson Data Grids: a new computational infrastructure for data-intensive science Paul Avery Department of...geographic dispersion and their reliance on large data archives. These characteristics bring with...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Land–Sea Thermal Contrast and Intensity of the North American Monsoon under Climate Change Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hypothesis that global warming during the twenty-first century will increase the land–sea thermal contrast (LSTC) and therefore the intensity of early season precipitation of the North American monsoon (NAM) is examined. To test this ...

Abraham Torres-Alavez; Tereza Cavazos; Cuauhtemoc Turrent

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the U.S Title A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the U.S Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2011 Authors Price, Lynn K., Ali Hasanbeigi, Nathaniel T. Aden, Zhang Chunxia, Li Xiuping, and Shangguan Fangqin Conference Name ACEEE Industrial Summer Study Date Published 07/2011 Publisher American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy Conference Location New York Keywords china, energy intensity, iron and steel, Low Emission & Efficient Industry, united states Abstract The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity of steel production in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and industry structure. In addition to the base case analysis, six scenarios were developed to assess the effect of different factors such as the share of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel production, conversion factors for the embodied energy of imported and exported intermediary and auxiliary products, and the differences in net calorific values of the fuels. The results of the analysis show that for the whole iron and steel production process, the final energy intensity in 2006 was equal to 14.90 GJ/tonne crude steel in the U.S. and 23.11 GJ/tonne crude steel in China in the base scenario. In another scenario that assumed the Chinese share of electric arc furnace production in 2006 (i.e. 10.5%) in the U.S., the energy intensity of steel production in the U.S. increased by 54% to 22.96GJ/tonne crude steel. Thus, when comparing the energy intensity of the U.S and Chinese steel industry,the structure of the industry should be taken into account.

348

A Device for Search of Gamma-Radiation Intensive Sources at the Radiation Accident Condition  

SciTech Connect

The procedure designed for measuring angular distributions of gamma radiation and for search of gamma radiation intensive sources is described. It is based on application of the original multidetector device ShD-1, for measuring an angular distribution in a complete solid angle (4 pi). The calibration results and data on the angular distributions of intensity of gamma radiation at the roof of Chornobyl NPP ''Shelter'' are presented.

Batiy, Valeriy; Klyuchnykov, A; Kochnev, N; Rudko, Vladimir; shcherbin, vladimir; Yegorov, V; Schmieman, Eric A.

2005-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

349

Assessment of intensive silvicultural practices and livestock grazing on watershed parameters, Kisatchie National Forest, Louisiana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ASSESSMENT OF INTENSIVE SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES AND LIVESTOCK GRAZING ON WATERSHED PARAMETERS, KISATCHIE NATIONAL FOREST, LOUISIANA A Thesis by THOMAS KENNETH HUNTER JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Range Science ASSESSMENT OF INTENSIVE SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES AND LIVESTOCK GRAZING ON WATERSHED PARAMETERS, KISATCHIE NATIONAL FOREST, LOUISIANA A Thesis...

Hunter, Thomas Kenneth

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

The effects of high intensity continuous auditory stimulation on the perception of visual display information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY CONTINUOUS AUDITORY STIMULATION ON THE PERCEPTION OF VISUAL DISPLAY INFORMATION A Thesis by WILLIAM HAROLD PERSKY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AS M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY CONTINUOUS AUDITORY STIMULATION ON THE PERCEPTION OF VISUAL DISPLAY INFORMATION A Thesis by WILLIAM HAROLD PERSKY Approved...

Persky, William Harold

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Nonlinear dynamics of ionization stabilization of atoms in intense laser fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We revisit the stabilization of ionization of atoms subjected to a superintense laser pulse using nonlinear dynamics. We provide an explanation for the lack of complete ionization at high intensity and for the decrease of the ionization probability as intensity is increased. We investigate the role of each part of the laser pulse (ramp-up, plateau, ramp-down) in this process. We emphasize the role of the choice for the ionization criterion, energy versus distance criterion.

Michael Norman; C. Chandre; T. Uzer; Peijie Wang

2014-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

352

Gregorian optical system with non-linear optical technology for protection against intense optical transients  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.

Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Diels, Jean-Claude M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

353

A High Intensity Linear e+ e- Collider Facility at Low Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I discuss a proposal for a high intensity $e^+e^-$ linear collider operated at low center of mass energies $\\sqrt{s}intensity beams. Such a facility would provide high statistics samples of (charmed) vector mesons and would permit searches for LFV with unprecedented precision in decays of $\\tau$ leptons and mesons. Implications on the design of the linear accelerator are discussed together with requirements to achieve luminosities of $10^{35}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ or more.

A. Schoning

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

354

Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 2: Intensity Frontier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 2, on the Intensity Frontier, discusses the program of research with high-intensity beams and rare processes. This area includes experiments on neutrinos, proton decay, charged-lepton and quark weak interactions, atomic and nuclear probes of fundamental symmetries, and searches for new, light, weakly-interacting particles.

J. L. Hewett; H. Weerts; K. S. Babu; J. Butler; B. Casey; A. de Gouvea; R. Essig; Y. Grossman; D. Hitlin; J. Jaros; E. Kearns; K. Kumar; Z. Ligeti; Z. -T. Lu; K. Pitts; M. Ramsey-Musolf; J. Ritchie; K. Scholberg; W. Wester; G. P. Zeller

2014-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

355

Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 2: Intensity Frontier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 2, on the Intensity Frontier, discusses the program of research with high-intensity beams and rare processes. This area includes experiments on neutrinos, proton decay, charged-lepton and quark weak interactions, atomic and nuclear probes of fundamental symmetries, and searches for new, light, weakly-interacting particles.

Hewett, J L; Babu, K S; Butler, J; Casey, B; de Gouvea, A; Essig, R; Grossman, Y; Hitlin, D; Jaros, J; Kearns, E; Kumar, K; Ligeti, Z; Lu, Z -T; Pitts, K; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ritchie, J; Scholberg, K; Wester, W; Zeller, G P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Improvement in surface fatigue life of hardened gears by high-intensity shot peening  

SciTech Connect

Two groups of carburized, hardened, and ground spur gears that were manufactured from the same heat vacuum induction melted vacuum arc melted (VIM VAR) AISI 9310 steel were endurance tested for surface fatigue. Both groups were manufactured with a standard ground 16 rms surface finish. One group was subjected to a shot peening (SP) intensity of 7 to 9A, and the second group was subjected to a SP intensity of 15 to 17A. All gears were honed after SP to a surface finish of 16 rms. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. Test conditions were a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa, a gear temperature of 350 K, and a speed of 10000 rpm. The lubricant used for the tests was a synthetic paraffinic oil with an additive package. The following results were obtained: The 10 pct. surface fatigue (pitting) life of the high intensity (15 to 17A) SPed gears was 2.15 times that of the medium intensity (7 to 9A) SPed gears, the same as that calculated from measured residual stress at a depth of 127 microns. The measured residual stress for the high intensity SPed gears was 57 pct. higher than that for the medium intensity SPed gears at a depth of 127 microns and 540 pct. higher at a depth of 51 microns.

Townsend, D.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Relationships between Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Eyewall Structure as Determined by Radial Profiles of Inner-Core Infrared Brightness Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radial profiles of infrared brightness temperature for 2405 different satellite observations from 14 western North Pacific tropical cyclones (TCs) from the 2012 season were analyzed and compared to intensity and changes in intensity. Four critical ...

Elizabeth R. Sanabia; Bradford S. Barrett; Caitlin M. Fine

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Saturation of Photoluminescence from Carbon Nanotubes at High Laser Intensities: Exciton-Exciton Annihilation near the Mott Density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Saturation of Photoluminescence from Carbon Nanotubes at High Laser Intensities: Exciton) spectroscopy of individualized carbon nanotube ensembles has been carried out using wavelength completely flat, where the PL intensity became independent of the excitation wavelength (Fig. 1). Through

Maruyama, Shigeo

359

Project of Rotating Carbon High-Power Neutron Target. Research of Graphite Properties for Production of High Intensity Neutron Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Project of Rotating Carbon High-Power Neutron Target. Research of Graphite Properties for Production of High Intensity Neutron Source

Gubin, K V; Bak, P A; Kot, N K; Logatchev, P V

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Energy Intensity Development of the German Iron and Steel Industry between 1991 and 2007 Marlene Arensa), 1)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Energy Intensity Development of the German Iron and Steel Industry between 1991 and 2007 Marlene industry, energy intensity 1) Corresponding Author. Tel: +49 721 6809 408, fax: +49 721 6809 272, marlene a decomposition method [25]. Kim and Worrell (2002) compared energy and CO2intensity in the steel sector among

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Energy Intense Equipment Purchasing Behaviour: A Review of the Literature i How do consumers and firms purchase equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Intense Equipment Purchasing Behaviour: A Review of the Literature i CIEEDAC How do, 2007 #12;Energy Intense Equipment Purchasing Behaviour: A Review of the Literature ii Executive Summary Energy intense equipment purchasing behaviour: A review of the literature. CIEEDAC has been charged

362

Laser-Energy Transfer and Enhancement of Plasma Waves and Electron Beams by Interfering High-Intensity Laser Pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser-Energy Transfer and Enhancement of Plasma Waves and Electron Beams by Interfering High-Intensity) The effects of interference due to crossed laser beams were studied experimentally in the high- intensity regime. Two ultrashort (400 fs), high-intensity (4 1017 and 1:6 1018 W=cm2) and 1 m wavelength laser

Umstadter, Donald

363

Investigation of contact acoustic nonlinearities on metal and composite airframe structures via intensity based health monitoring  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonlinear structural intensity (NSI) and nonlinear structural surface intensity (NSSI) based damage detection techniques were improved and extended to metal and composite airframe structures. In this study the measurement of NSI maps at sub-harmonic frequencies was completed to provide enhanced understanding of the energy flow characteristics associated with the damage induced contact acoustic nonlinearity mechanism. Important results include NSI source localization visualization at ultra-subharmonic (nf/2) frequencies and damage detection results utilizing structural surface intensity in the nonlinear domain. A detection metric relying on modulated wave spectroscopy was developed and implemented using the NSSI feature. The data fusion of the intensity formulation provided a distinct advantage as both the single interrogation frequency NSSI and its modulated wave extension (NSSI-MW) exhibited considerably higher sensitivities to damage than using single-sensor (strain or acceleration) nonlinear detection metrics. The active intensity based techniques were also extended to composite materials and results show both NSSI and NSSI-MW can be used to detect damage in the bond line of an integrally stiffened composite plate structure with high sensitivity. Initial damage detection measurements made on an OH-58 tailboom (Penn State Applied Research Laboratory State College PA) indicate the techniques can be transitioned to complex airframe structures achieving high detection sensitivities with minimal sensors and actuators.

P. Q. Romano; S. C. Conlon; E. C. Smith

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

On the description of the GCR intensity in the last three solar minima  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the main characteristic features in the heliospheric parameters important for the GCR intensity modulation for the last three solar minima (1986--1987, 1996--1997 and 2008--2009). The model for the GCR intensity modulation is considered and the set of the model parameters is chosen which allows the description of the observed GCR intensity distributions at the moments of the maximum GCR intensity in two solar minima (1987 and 1997) normal for the second half of the last century. Then we try to describe with the above model and set of parameters the unusually soft GCR energy spectra at the moments of the maximum GCR intensity in the last solar minimum between cycles 23 and 24 (2009). Our main conclusion is that the most simple way to do so is to reduce the size of the modulation region and, probably, change the rigidity dependence of the diffusion coefficient. The change of both parameters is substantiated by the observations of the solar wind and heliospheric magnetic field.

Kalinin, M S; Krainev, M B; Svirzhevskaya, A K; Svirzhevsky, N S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989 data -- Publication  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End-Use Intensities Executive Summary > Publication and Tables End-Use Intensities Executive Summary > Publication and Tables Publication and Tables Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Figure on Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A through F of the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Divider Bar To View and/or Print Reports (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - Download Adobe Acrobat Reader If you experience any difficulties, visit our Technical Frequently Asked Questions. Divider Bar You have the option of downloading the entire report or selected sections of the report. Full Report - Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings (1989 data) (file size .89 MB) pages: 140

366

Climate Policy Design for Energy-Intensive Industries - And The Rest of Us  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate Policy Design for Energy-Intensive Industries - And The Rest of Us Climate Policy Design for Energy-Intensive Industries - And The Rest of Us Speaker(s): Holmes Hummel Date: January 8, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Richard Diamond Driving the U.S. energy system toward climate stabilization requires integration of multiple policy instruments in a staged series of legislative and regulatory policy vehicles. Qualifying the limitations of a cap-and-trade approach, Dr. Hummel will present a framework for orienting and organizing a multi-faceted policy development process. After surveying key design recommendations for specific sectors, the presentation will drill deeper into the specific challenge of engaging energy-intensive industries subject to global competition. After briefly discussing some of

367

Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Overview Of The Data, Regional Patterns Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Overview Of The Data, Regional Patterns Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Roving Automated Rare Gas Analysis (RARGA) lab of Berkeley's Physics Department was deployed in Yellowstone National Park for a 19 week period commencing in June, 1983. During this time 66 gas and water samples representing 19 different regions of hydrothermal activity within and around the Yellowstone caldera were analyzed on site. Routinely, the abundances of five stable noble gases and the isotopic compositions of He,

368

Intense proton beam source for ITER neutral-beam spectroscopy diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

An intense proton beam has been developed to evaluate a gas-cell neutralizer for use in an intense-neutral beam source for Tokomak Spectroscopy diagnostics. The allowed energy range of the proton stream is determined to be 50 to 70 keV from neutralization and reionization cross-sections and from the alpha particle charge exchange recombination intensity as a function of energy (baseline diagnostic). The neutralization evaluation source uses a flashover anode, magnetized, ion-diode. Neutral probes sensitive to energetic atomic and molecular hydrogen, developed to evaluate neutralizer performance, show neutral fluence from the ion-diode during the beam pulse. An array of Rogowski current probes, used to study the evolution of the current path, suggests that expansion of the anode plasma along the radial insulating magnetic field leads to impedance collapse.

Bartsch, R.R.; Davis, H.A.; Henins, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Greenly, J.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Technique for compressing light intensity ranges utilizing a specifically designed liquid crystal notch filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten metal in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. To accomplish this, the assembly utilizes the combination of interference filter and a liquid crystal notch filter. The latter which preferably includes a cholesteric liquid crystal arrangement is configured to pass light at all wavelengths, except a relatively narrow wavelength band which defines the filter's notch, and includes means for causing the notch to vary to at least a limited extent with the intensity of light at its light incidence surface.

Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Intensity enhancement of O VI ultraviolet emission lines in solar spectra due to opacity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Opacity is a property of many plasmas, and it is normally expected that if an emission line in a plasma becomes optically thick, its intensity ratio to that of another transition that remains optically thin should decrease. However, radiative transfer calculations undertaken both by ourselves and others predict that under certain conditions the intensity ratio of an optically thick to thin line can show an increase over the optically thin value, indicating an enhancement in the former. These conditions include the geometry of the emitting plasma and its orientation to the observer. A similar effect can take place between lines of differing optical depth. Previous observational studies have focused on stellar point sources, and here we investigate the spatially-resolved solar atmosphere using measurements of the I(1032 A)/I(1038 A) intensity ratio of O VI in several regions obtained with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (...

Keenan, F P; Madjarska, M S; Rose, S J; Bowler, L A; Britton, J; McCrink, L; Mathioudakis, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Using the Intensity Modulation Index to Test Pulsar Radio Emission Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This letter explores the possibility of testing pulsar radio emission models by observing pulse-to-pulse intensity modulation. It is shown that a relationship between a pulsar's period, period derivative, and intensity modulation is a natural consequence of at least one theoretical model of radio pulsar emission. It is proposed that other models may also predict a similar correlation. The exact form of the relationship will depend on the model in question. Hence, observations of intensity modulation should be able to determine the validity of the various emission models. In an attempt to search for the predicted dependencies, the modulation properties of a set of 12 pulsars are studied. These data are suggestive, but they are unable to differentiate between three possibilities for the emission process. Future observations will be able to confirm these results and determine whether or not specific emission models are viable.

F. A. Jenet; J. A. Gil

2003-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

372

Narrowband inverse Compton scattering x-ray sources at high laser intensities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Narrowband x- and gamma-ray sources based on the inverse Compton scattering of laser pulses suffer from a limitation of the allowed laser intensity due to the onset of nonlinear effects that increase their bandwidth. It has been suggested that laser pulses with a suitable frequency modulation could compensate this ponderomotive broadening and reduce the bandwidth of the spectral lines, which would allow to operate narrowband Compton sources in the high-intensity regime. In this paper we, therefore, present the theory of nonlinear Compton scattering in a frequency modulated intense laser pulse. We systematically derive the optimal frequency modulation of the laser pulse from the scattering matrix element of nonlinear Compton scattering, taking into account the electron spin and recoil. We show that, for some particular scattering angle, an optimized frequency modulation completely cancels the ponderomotive broadening for all harmonics of the backscattered light. We also explore how sensitive this compensation ...

Seipt, D; Surzhykov, A; Fritzsche, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Energy Use and Energy Intensity of the U.S. Chemical Industry | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity of the U.S. Chemical Industry Intensity of the U.S. Chemical Industry Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories

374

Replica Symmetry Breaking in the Intensity Fluctuation Overlap of Random Laser Emission Spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report about a newly introduced overlap parameter of intensity fluctuations of waves in random media with arbitrary amount of disorder and non-linearity and its relationship to the replica theory overlap in the $2+4$ spherical complex spin-glass model. Symmetry breaking in the intensity fluctuation overlap is shown to be equivalent to the one occurring in the complex amplitude overlap, providing an easily verifiable test in typical experimental setups. The relevance of this order parameter is considered in describing the laser transition in random media and in explaining its glassy nature in terms of emission spectra data. The theoretical analysis is compared to recent measurements.

Antenucci, Fabrizio; Leuzzi, Luca

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Analytical Solutions for the Nonlinear Longitudinal Drift Compression (Expansion) of Intense Charged Particle Beams  

SciTech Connect

To achieve high focal spot intensities in heavy ion fusion, the ion beam must be compressed longitudinally by factors of ten to one hundred before it is focused onto the target. The longitudinal compression is achieved by imposing an initial velocity profile tilt on the drifting beam. In this paper, the problem of longitudinal drift compression of intense charged particle beams is solved analytically for the two important cases corresponding to a cold beam, and a pressure-dominated beam, using a one-dimensional warm-fluid model describing the longitudinal beam dynamics.

Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

2004-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

376

Intense slow positron production at the 15 MeV LINAC at Argonne National Laboratory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An intense slow positron beam using a 15 MeV LINAC (average current 1.25 × 1015 e?/s) at the Radiation and Photochemistry Group, Chemistry Division of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been proposed and studied. Computer simulated results optimizing the positron yield and distribution of energy and angle show that a slow positron production at 1010 e+/s is possible. A proposed design of an intense slow positron beam with optimal conditions of incident electron, converter/moderator configurations, and extraction/transportation is presented.

H.M. Chen; Y.C. Jean; C.D. Jonah; S. Chemerisov; A.F. Wagner; D.M. Schrader; A.W. Hunt

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Assessing Resource Intensity and Renewability of Cellulosic Ethanol Technologies Using Eco-LCA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Assessing Resource Intensity and Renewability of Cellulosic Ethanol Technologies Using Eco-LCA ... Recognizing the contributions of ecosystem services and the lack of their comprehensive accounting in life cycle assessment (LCA), an in-depth analysis of their contribution in the life cycle of cellulosic ethanol derived from five different feedstocks was conducted, with gasoline and corn ethanol as reference fuels. ... The relative use intensity of natural resources encompassing land and ecosystem goods and services by cellulosic ethanol was estimated using the Eco-LCA framework. ...

Anil Baral; Bhavik R. Bakshi; Raymond L. Smith

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

378

Manipulation of the Raman process via incoherent pump, tunable intensity, and phase control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Manipulation of the Raman process via incoherent pump, tunable intensity, and phase control Li-Gang Wang,1,2,3 Sajid Qamar,1 Shi-Yao Zhu,1,2,3 and M. Suhail Zubairy1,4,5 1Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology..., Texas 77845, USA 5Texas A&M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Education City, Doha, Qatar #1;Received 14 May 2007; published 18 March 2008#2; We present a proposal to manipulate the Raman process via incoherent pump, tunable intensity, and phase...

Wang, Li-Gang; Qamar, Sajid; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Conditional transfer of quantum correlation in the intensity of twin beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A conditional protocol of transferring quantum-correlation in continuous variable regime was experimentally demonstrated. The quantum-correlation in two pairs of twin beams, each characterized by intensity-difference squeezing of 7.0 dB, was transferred to two initially independent idler beams. The quantum-correlation transfer resulted in intensity-difference squeezing of 4.0 dB between two idler beams. The dependence of preparation probability and transfer fidellity on the selection bandwidth was also studied.

Yun Zhang; Kazuhiro Hayasaka; Katsuyuki Kasai

2005-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

380

Intensity and temperature-dependent photoluminescence of tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the recombination of excitons in tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films by intensity and temperature dependent time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). At low temperature (15 K) and elevated excitation intensity the radiative emission is quenched by singlet-singlet annihilation processes. With rising temperature the PL quenching is strongly reduced resulting in a PL efficiency maximum at ?170 K. The reduced exciton annihilation is attributed to thermally activated occupation of non-quenchable trapped exciton states. Above 170 K the PL efficiency decreases due to thermal de-trapping of radiative states and subsequent migration to non-radiative centers.

Ajward, A. M.; Wang, X.; Wagner, H. P. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Combined effects of nitrogen fertilization and biochar on the net global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity and net ecosystem economic budget in intensive vegetable agriculture in southeastern China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization and biochar addition on the net global warming potential (net GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) and net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB). These experiments were conducted in an intensive vegetable field with 4 consecutive vegetable crops in 2012 and 2013 in southeastern China. The experiment was conducted with a 32 factorial design in triplicate at N fertilizer rates of 0, 1475, 1967 kg N ha?1 and biochar rates of 0, 20, and 40 t ha?1. Although CH4 emissions were not obviously affected by N fertilization, N2O emissions increased by 27.2–116.2% and the net GWP increased by 30.6–307.2%. Consequently, the GHGI increased significantly, but vegetable yield and the NEEB did not improve. Furthermore, biochar amendments did not significantly influence CH4 emissions, but significantly decreased the N2O emissions by 1.7–25.4%, the net GWP by 89.6–700.5%, and the GHGI by 89.5–644.8%. In addition, vegetable yields significantly increased by 2.1–74.1%, which improved the NEEB. Thus, N fertilization did not increase vegetable yields or the NEEB. However, N fertilization did increase the net GWP and GHGI. In contrast, biochar additions resulted in lower N2O emissions and net GWP and GHGI, but increased vegetable yield and the NEEB in the intensive vegetable production system. Therefore, appropriate biochar amendment should be studied to combat changing climate and to improve the economic profits of vegetable production.

B. Li; C.H. Fan; H. Zhang; Z.Z. Chen; L.Y. Sun; Z.Q. Xiong

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

A Systems-Theoretic Approach to Safety in Software-Intensive Nancy G. Leveson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and for non-technical aspects of safety such as organizational culture and human decision-making. This paperA Systems-Theoretic Approach to Safety in Software-Intensive Systems Nancy G. Leveson Abstract of the approach. Keywords: software safety, system safety, accident models, software engineering 1 Introduction

Leveson, Nancy

383

Electron acceleration by a self-diverging intense laser pulse K. P. Singh,1,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron acceleration by a self-diverging intense laser pulse K. P. Singh,1, * D. N. Gupta,1 V. K, India 2 Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi, New Delhi-110021, India (Received 23 October 2003; published 28 April 2004) Electron acceleration by a laser pulse having a Gaussian radial

Singh, Kunwar Pal

384

Intense Geodesic Acousticlike Modes Driven by Suprathermal Ions in a Tokamak Plasma R. Nazikian,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intense Geodesic Acousticlike Modes Driven by Suprathermal Ions in a Tokamak Plasma R. Nazikian,1 G for the energetic-particle-driven geodesic acoustic mode. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.185001 PACS numbers: 52.35.Bj of strong beam ion redistribution and/or loss. The mode fre- quency is $50% below the ideal geodesic

385

Power Consumption Estimation of a C Program for Data-Intensive Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Consumption Estimation of a C Program for Data-Intensive Applications Eric Senn, Nathalie://lester.univ-ubs.fr:8080/ Abstract. A method for estimating the power consumption of an al- gorithm is presented.2 % at the C-level, and 1.8 % at the assembly level. 1 Introduction Power consumption is currently a critical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

Experimental Observation of Electrons Accelerated in Vacuum to Relativistic Energies by a High-Intensity Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Free electrons have been accelerated in vacuum to MeV energies by a high-intensity subpicosecond laser pulse ( 1019 W/cm2, 300 fs). The experimental data are in good agreement with the relativistic motion of electrons in a spatially and temporally finite electromagnetic field, both in terms of maximum energy and scattering angle.

G. Malka; E. Lefebvre; J. L. Miquel

1997-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

387

Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel knock intensity and its mechanism  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an experimental study of the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on diesel knock intensity, which is defined and discussed. In a previous paper, it was reported that particulate emission can be decreased by applying EGR under certain operating conditions; and the possible mechanism of the effect of EGR was presented. In the present study, the effect of EGR on diesel knock is examined under a variety of operating conditions. Diesel knock intensity is decreased considerably by EGR under the same operating conditions as when the particulate emission is decreased. A quantitative relationship between the diesel knock intensity and the maximum rate of cylinder pressure rise is obtained. The effect of EGR on diesel knock intensity is determined by both the chemical reaction rate of the initial premixed combustion (spontaneous ignition) and the fuel mass fraction prepared and burned in this stage. This is verified by measuring the ignition lag and classifying it into chemical and physical lags by a statistical technique.

Shiga, S.; Ehara, H.; Karasawa, T.; Kurabayashi, T.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of cold negative ions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for selectively neutralizing H/sup -/ ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H/sup -/ ions that are

Hershcovitch, A.

1984-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

389

Two-time intensity correlation in a driven three-level system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from the lower transition, exhibit different behaviors. In addition to the an oscillation similar to the two-level intensity correlation we find an additional oscillation for the upper transition only. This is shown to be due to the spontaneous decay...

Huang, H.; Zhu, S. Y.; Zubairy, M. Suhail; Scully, Marlan O.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Dirty Little Secrets: Inferring Fossil-Fuel Subsidies from Patterns in Emission Intensities1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, its GDP per capita and its relative emission intensity to measure and disentangle the two distortions an indirect method of inferring these subsidies by examining country-specific patterns in carbon emission-to-GDP is indicative of distortions within that economy - either in energy prices or in non-agricultural productivity

Spino, Claude

391

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity-defined as the ratio of total U.S. GHG emissions to economic output-by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

CIR versus CME drivers of the ring current during intense magnetic storms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Laboratory, , New Mexico, USA Ninety intense...than nT) from solar cycle 23 (1996-2005...simulated total energy content of the...geoeffectiveness of the solar wind driver...statistical study of energy partitioning in...Emery2009Geoefficiency and energy partitioning in...stormsJ. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

area) are not well established, either globally or within strong source areas such as near Coal OilThe spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil hydrocarbon seepage from marine environments is an important source of methane and other gases

Washburn, Libe

394

MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND FARM SITES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND for conditions important for offshore wind energy utilisation are compared and tested: Four models tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rødsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

Heinemann, Detlev

395

Systems for controlling the intensity variations in a laser beam and for frequency conversion thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In order to control the intensity of a laser beam so that its intensity varies uniformly and provides uniform illumination of a target, such as a laser fusion target, a broad bandwidth laser pulse is spectrally dispersed spatially so that the frequency components thereof are spread apart. A disperser (grating) provides an output beam which varies spatially in wavelength in at least one direction transverse to the direction of propagation of the beam. Temporal spread (time delay) across the beam is corrected by using a phase delay device (a time delay compensation echelon). The dispersed beam may be amplified with laser amplifiers and frequency converted (doubled, tripled or quadrupled in frequency) with nonlinear optical elements (birefringent crystals). The spectral variation across the beam is compensated by varying the angle of incidence on one of the crystals with respect to the crystal optical axis utilizing a lens which diverges the beam. Another lens after the frequency converter may be used to recollimate the beam. The frequency converted beam is recombined so that portions of different frequency interfere and, unlike interference between waves of the same wavelength, there results an intensity pattern with rapid temoral oscillations which average out rapidly in time thereby producing uniform illumination on target. A distributed phase plate (also known as a random phase mask), through which the spectrally dispersed beam is passed and then focused on a target, is used to provide the interference pattern which becomes nearly modulation free and uniform in intensity in the direction of the spectral variation.

Skupsky, Stanley (Rochester, NY); Craxton, R. Stephen (Rochester, NY); Soures, John (Pittsford, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Render four channel data sets and allow real-time changes of colors and intensities.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University who work with images from confocal laser scanning microscopes (CLSM). · CLSM generate stacks of images (z-stacks) from specimen that had been stained with up to four different fluorescent proteins Table 1. · By using maximum intensity projection (MIP) we do not need to calculate opacity: multi

Schulze, Jürgen P.

397

Spatial-temporal mesoscale modelling of rainfall intensity using gage and radar data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spatial-temporal mesoscale modelling of rainfall intensity using gage and radar data Montserrat fields. Doppler radar data offer better spatial and temporal coverage, but Doppler radar measures values. We use spatial logistic regression to model the probability of rain for both sources of data

Reich, Brian J.

398

MATERIAL R&D FOR HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON BEAM PROGRESS REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MATERIAL R&D FOR HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON BEAM TARGETS PROGRESS REPORT Nicholas Simos, BNL January 4 strength, very low thermal expansion or high ductility #12;Experimentation with Graphite & Carbon-Carbon Targets (BNL E951) #12;Graphite vs. Carbon-Carbon ­ A Clear Choice ..... really? BNL E951 Target

McDonald, Kirk

399

Researchers develop bistable nano switch Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been under intense study by scientists all  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers develop bistable nano switch Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been under intense study for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). A type of one-dimensional structure with high-aspect ratio, carbon nanotubes have properties. Now scientists from Northwestern University have demonstrated a novel carbon nanotube

Espinosa, Horacio D.

400

Raman intensity measurements of single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions as a quantitative technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Raman intensity measurements of single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions as a quantitative, Biological and Materials Engineering, Carbon Nanotube Technology Center (CANTEC), University of Oklahoma, 100 the purity of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bulk samples based on Raman spectroscopy is reported

Resasco, Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Northwestern Researchers Develop Bistable Nanoswitch Science Daily --Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been under intense study by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Northwestern Researchers Develop Bistable Nanoswitch Science Daily -- Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been under intense study by scientists all over the world for more than a decade and are being thought with high-aspect ratio, carbon nanotubes have emerged as a promising material because of their many

Espinosa, Horacio D.

402

The energy required to produce materials: constraints on energy-intensity improvements, parameters of demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...data for embodied energy comes from Ashby-[10], for material prices for metals from the...10]. Plastic prices are for year 2011...2009. Figure 7. Energy intensity e versus...Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107, 20 905-20...an environmental history of the twentieth-century...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Superlinear growth of Rayleigh scattering-induced intensity noise in single-mode fibers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rayleigh scattering generates intensity noise close to an optical carrier that propagates in a single-mode optical fiber. This noise degrades the performance of optoelectronic oscillators and RF-photonic links. When using a broad linewidth laser, we previously found that the intensity noise power scales linearly with optical power and fiber length, which is consistent with guided entropy mode Rayleigh scattering (GEMRS), a third order nonlinear scattering process, in the spontaneous limit. In this work, we show that this behavior changes significantly with the use of a narrow linewidth laser. Using a narrow linewidth laser, we measured the bandwidth of the intensity noise plateau to be 10 kHz. We found that the scattered noise power scales superlinearly with fiber length up to lengths of 10 km in the frequency range of 500 Hz to 10 kHz, while it scales linearly in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 100 Hz. These results suggest that the Rayleigh-scattering-induced intensity noise cannot be explained by third-ord...

Cahill, James P; Zhou, Weimin; Menyuk, Curtis R; Carter, Gary M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Non-invasive corticosterone treatment changes foraging intensity in red-eyed vireos Vireo olivaceus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-invasive corticosterone treatment changes foraging intensity in red-eyed vireos Vireo olivaceus on feeding behaviour in migratory active red-eyed vireos Vireo olivaceus was investigated. We hypothesized of corticosterone on feeding behaviour in migratory active red-eyed vireos. The experimental birds consumed one

Moore, Frank R.

405

The structure and intensity of energy use: Trends in five OECD nations  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines trends in the structure and intensity of final energy demand in five OECD nations between 1973 and 1988. Our focus is on primary energy use, which weights fuels by their thermal content and multiplies district heat and electricity by factors of 1.15 and 3.24 to approximate the losses that occur in the conversion and distribution of these energy carriers. Growth in the level of energy-using activities, given 1973 energy intensities (energy use per unit of activity), would have raised primary energy use by 47% in the US, 44% in Norway, 33% in Denmark, 37% in West Germany, and 54% in Japan. Reductions in end-use energy intensities, given 1973 activity levels, would have reduced primary energy use by 20% in the US, 3% in Norway, 20% in Denmark, 17% in West Germany, and 14% in Japan. Growth in national income parallelled increases in a weighted index of energy-using activities in the US, West Germany, and Denmark but substantially outstripped activity growth in Norway and Japan. We conclude that changes in the structure of a nation's economy may lead to substantial changes in its energy/GDP ratio that are unrelated to changes in the technical efficiency of energy utilization. Similarly, changes in energy intensities may be greater or less than the aggregate change in the energy/GDP ratio of a given country, a further warning that this ratio may be an unreliable indicator of technical efficiency.

Howarth, R.B.; Schipper, L.; Andersson, B.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

The structure and intensity of energy use: Trends in five OECD nations  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines trends in the structure and intensity of final energy demand in five OECD nations between 1973 and 1988. Our focus is on primary energy use, which weights fuels by their thermal content and multiplies district heat and electricity by factors of 1.15 and 3.24 to approximate the losses that occur in the conversion and distribution of these energy carriers. Grouch in the level of energy-using activities, given 1973 energy intensities (energy use per unit of activity), would have raised primary energy use by 46% in the US, 42% in Norway, 33% in Denmark, 37% in West Germany, and 53% in Japan. Reductions in end-use energy intensities, given 1973 activity levels, would have reduced primary energy use by 19% in the US, 3% in Norway, 20% in Denmark, 15% in West Germany, and l4% in Japan. Growth in national income parallelled increases in a weighted index of energy-using activities in the US, West Germany, and Denmark but substantially outstripped activity growth in Norway and Japan. We conclude that changes in the structure of a nation's economy may lead to substantial changes in its energy/GDP ratio that are unrelated to changes in the technical efficiency of energy utilization. Similarly, changes in energy intensities may be greater or less than the aggregate change in the energy/GDP ratio of a given country, a further warning that this ratio may be an unreliable indicator of technical efficiency.

Howarth, R.B.; Schipper, L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Andersson, B. (Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

The structure and intensity of energy use: Trends in five OECD nations  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines trends in the structure and intensity of final energy demand in five OECD nations between 1973 and 1988. Our focus is on primary energy use, which weights fuels by their thermal content and multiplies district heat and electricity by factors of 1.15 and 3.24 to approximate the losses that occur in the conversion and distribution of these energy carriers. Growth in the level of energy-using activities, given 1973 energy intensities (energy use per unit of activity), would have raised primary energy use by 47% in the US, 44% in Norway, 33% in Denmark, 37% in West Germany, and 54% in Japan. Reductions in end-use energy intensities, given 1973 activity levels, would have reduced primary energy use by 20% in the US, 3% in Norway, 20% in Denmark, 17% in West Germany, and 14% in Japan. Growth in national income parallelled increases in a weighted index of energy-using activities in the US, West Germany, and Denmark but substantially outstripped activity growth in Norway and Japan. We conclude that changes in the structure of a nation`s economy may lead to substantial changes in its energy/GDP ratio that are unrelated to changes in the technical efficiency of energy utilization. Similarly, changes in energy intensities may be greater or less than the aggregate change in the energy/GDP ratio of a given country, a further warning that this ratio may be an unreliable indicator of technical efficiency.

Howarth, R.B.; Schipper, L.; Andersson, B.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

The structure and intensity of energy use: Trends in five OECD nations. Revision  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines trends in the structure and intensity of final energy demand in five OECD nations between 1973 and 1988. Our focus is on primary energy use, which weights fuels by their thermal content and multiplies district heat and electricity by factors of 1.15 and 3.24 to approximate the losses that occur in the conversion and distribution of these energy carriers. Grouch in the level of energy-using activities, given 1973 energy intensities (energy use per unit of activity), would have raised primary energy use by 46% in the US, 42% in Norway, 33% in Denmark, 37% in West Germany, and 53% in Japan. Reductions in end-use energy intensities, given 1973 activity levels, would have reduced primary energy use by 19% in the US, 3% in Norway, 20% in Denmark, 15% in West Germany, and l4% in Japan. Growth in national income parallelled increases in a weighted index of energy-using activities in the US, West Germany, and Denmark but substantially outstripped activity growth in Norway and Japan. We conclude that changes in the structure of a nation`s economy may lead to substantial changes in its energy/GDP ratio that are unrelated to changes in the technical efficiency of energy utilization. Similarly, changes in energy intensities may be greater or less than the aggregate change in the energy/GDP ratio of a given country, a further warning that this ratio may be an unreliable indicator of technical efficiency.

Howarth, R.B.; Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Andersson, B. [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Experimental measurements of multiphoton enhanced air breakdown by a subthreshold intensity excimer laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

laser Jesse Way,a Jason Hummelt, and John Scharer Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering measurements of laser induced breakdown plasma in atmospheric air by subthreshold intensity 5.5 109 W/cm2 193 nm laser radiation. Using molecular spectroscopy and two-wavelength interferometry, it is shown

Scharer, John E.

410

Energy intensity and the energy mix: What works for the environment?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the absence of carbon sequestration, mitigating carbon emissions can be achieved through a mix of two broad policy approaches: (i) reducing energy intensity by improving energy efficiency and conservation, and (ii) changing the fuel mix. This paper investigates the long-run relationship between energy intensity, the energy mix, and per capita carbon emissions; while controlling for the level of economic activity, the economic structure measured by the relative size of the manufacturing sector, and the differences in institutional qualities across countries. We aim to answer two particularly important policy questions. First, to what extent these policy approaches are effective in mitigating emissions in the long-run? Second, which institutional qualities significantly contribute to better long-run environmental performance? We use historical data for 131 countries in a heterogeneous panel framework for the period 1972–2010. We find that less dependence on fossil fuel and lower energy intensity reduce emissions in the long run. A goal of 10% reduction in CO2 levels in the long-run requires reducing the share of fossil fuel in total energy use by 11%, or reducing energy intensity by 13%. In addition, specific institutional qualities such as better corruption control and judiciary independence contribute to mitigating levels of emissions.

Amany A. El Anshasy; Marina-Selini Katsaiti

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-ultraviolet to X-ray region. Recently, injection of a single-pass FEL by the third laser harmonic of a TiLETTERS Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense-electron lasers promise to extend this down to femtosecond timescales. The process by which free-electron lasers

Loss, Daniel

412

Ultrahigh-intensity optical slow-wave structure for direct laser electron acceleration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WAVEGUIDE Ultraintense laser­plasma interaction applications in- cluding x-ray lasers, coherentUltrahigh-intensity optical slow-wave structure for direct laser electron acceleration Andrew G of corrugated slow-wave plasma guiding structures with application to quasi- phase-matched direct laser

Milchberg, Howard

413

Intensity of competition and market structure in the Italian banking industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

variables. As argued by Sutton for industries with exogenous sunk costs, a stronger and negative relationship is found as the market becomes larger. Keywords: exogenous sunk costs, intensity of competition the strategic choice of sunk costs in a very general framework, focusing on the relationship between market

Nesterov, Yurii

414

Changes in the Distribution of Rain Frequency and Intensity in Response to Global Warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Changes in the frequency and intensity of rainfall are an important potential impact of climate change. Two modes of change, a shift and an increase, are applied to simulations of global warming with models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model ...

Angeline G. Pendergrass; Dennis L. Hartmann

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Towards data-intensive testing of a broad-coverage LFG grammar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, broad-coverage LFG grammars for English, French and German have been developed with this platform (ButtTowards data-intensive testing of a broad-coverage LFG grammar Jonas Kuhn This paper addresses and optimizing a broad-coverage grammar of German). 1 A method of TArget Speci cation and regression TEsting

Reyle, Uwe

416

The interaction of daily lighting period and light intensity on growth of some greenhouse plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of lighting period and light intensity on the growth of Begonia, Chrysanthemum, Hedera, Kalanchoe and Pelargonium was investigated. The growth of the plants usually increased more when the lighting period was extended from 12 to 18 h or 16 to 20 h than from 18 to 24 or 20 to 24 h when using a constant flux density. When using the same daily (photosynthetic active radiation) PAR the growth was best when the light was given in 20 h, instead of 16 or 24 h. Increasing the light intensity from 14 to 42 or 70 ?mol m?2 s?1 the plant growth increased and usually more when it was increased from 14 to 42 than when it was increased to 70 ?mol m?2 s?1. There was for Begonia and Kalanchoe a significant interaction between lighting period and light intensity on the dry-matter production, but not for the other plants. For Begonia there was a significant increase in number of buds and flowers when increasing the lighting period from 16 to 20 or 24 h a day, while this had no influence on number of days to flowering for either Begonia or Pelargonium. Number of days to flowering and number of buds for Begonia was significantly affected with increasing light intensity from 14 to 42 ?mol m?2 s?1, but there was no effect with a further increase.

H.R. Gislerød; I.M. Eidsten; L.M. Mortensen

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Title of Document: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SOLITONS ON INTENSE ELECTRON BEAMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Title of Document: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SOLITONS ON INTENSE ELECTRON BEAMS Yichao Mo such as condensed matter physics, plasma physics, beam physics, optics, biology and medicine. Whereas solitons in electron beams have been predicted on theoretical grounds decades ago, they have been observed

Anlage, Steven

418

A Novel Detector Design for Imaging Low-Intensity Diffuse Ion Beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Novel Detector Design for Imaging Low- Intensity Diffuse Ion Beams J. Schmidt, R. de Souza, S for signal processing To image the beam scintillating fibers are used. Ionizing particles, when incident readouts for each dimension. Right: example of a beam profile. Above: EZ10EN drive electronics to control

de Souza, Romualdo T.

419

Energy Policy 30 (2002) 151163 Aggregating physical intensity indicators: results of applying the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

indicators measure the energy used per dollar of GDP produced by some sector, sub-sector, industry or productEnergy Policy 30 (2002) 151­163 Aggregating physical intensity indicators: results of applying School of Resource and Environmental Management, Energy Research Group, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby

420

Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated Tropical Cyclone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0 Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated) viewed as a heat engine converts heat energy extracted from the ocean to kinetic energy of the TC, which is eventually dissipated due to surface friction. Since the energy production rate is a linear function while

Wang, Yuqing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated Tropical Cyclone*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated as a heat engine converts heat energy extracted from the ocean into the kinetic energy of the TC, which is eventually dissipated due to surface friction. Since the energy production rate is a linear function while

Wang, Yuqing

422

Explaining Long-Run Changes in the Energy Intensity of the U.S. Economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent events have revived interest in explaining the long-run changes in the energy intensity of the U.S. economy. We use a KLEM dataset for 35 industries over 39 years to decompose changes in the aggregate energy-GDP ...

Sue Wing, Ian.

423

Light intensity and image visualization of GDI injector sprays according to nozzle hole arrangements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The light intensity measurement and image visualization of multi-hole injection spray due to different hole arrangements and hole numbers were investigated. The light intensities and behavior characteristics of the GDI spray were analyzed through the axial and diagonal spray penetration, cone angle, and spray area from the spray images by using the image visualization system and image analysis system. The atomization performance of GDI injectors was analyzed by the local and overall Sauter mean diameter (SMD) measurement. It is revealed that the higher injection pressure shows higher light intensity levels due to the strong vortices and collision by a high injection pressure. The light intensity level at the outer and end region of the spray shows lower value compared to that at the center spray region. In all of test injectors, the increased injection pressure leads to the decrease of the droplet size distribution in the initial spray. But, there is little difference of the droplet size at low and high injection pressure in middle and latter period after the injection. The overall SMD of GDI injectors showed from 14 to 23.14 ?m.

Hyung Jun Kim; Su Han Park; Chang Sik Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Ignition of Doped Helium Nanodroplets in Intense Few-Cycle Laser Pulses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ultra-fast dynamics of He nanodroplets (103–105 atoms) in intense (1…7 ×1014 W/cm2...), few-cycle (?10 fs), infrared (?790 nm) laser pulses has been investigated as a function ... number of dopant rare-gas at...

S. R. Krishnan; L. Fechner; M. Kremer…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Dense plasma heating and Gbar shock formation by a high intensity flux of energetic electrons  

SciTech Connect

Process of shock ignition in inertial confinement fusion implies creation of a high pressure shock with a laser spike having intensity of the order of a few PW/cm{sup 2}. However, the collisional (Bremsstrahlung) absorption at these intensities is inefficient and a significant part of laser energy is converted in a stream of energetic electrons. The process of shock formation in a dense plasma by an intense electron beam is studied in this paper in a planar geometry. The energy deposition takes place in a fixed mass target layer with the areal density determined by the electron range. A self-similar isothermal rarefaction wave of a fixed mass describes the expanding plasma. Formation of a shock wave in the target under the pressure of expanding plasma is described. The efficiency of electron beam energy conversion into the shock wave energy depends on the fast electron energy and the pulse duration. The model is applied to the laser produced fast electrons. The fast electron energy transport could be the dominant mechanism of ablation pressure creation under the conditions of shock ignition. The shock wave pressure exceeding 1 Gbar during 200–300 ps can be generated with the electron pulse intensity in the range of 5–10 PW/cm{sup 2}. The conclusions of theoretical model are confirmed in numerical simulations with a radiation hydrodynamic code coupled with a fast electron transport module.

Ribeyre, X.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Tikhonchuk, V. T. [University Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France)] [University Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France); Gus'kov, S. [University Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France) [University Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53, Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Production dynamics of intensively managed loblolly pine stands in the southern United States: a synthesis of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biomass; Wood specific gravity; Fertilization; Competition control Forest Ecology and Management 192 (2004 of intensively managed loblolly pine plantations. Replicated studies that spanned a wide range of soil biomass at age 15 years varied among sites and ranged from 70 Mg haÃ?1 (NC) to 180 Mg haÃ?1 (GA). All sites

Martin, Timothy

427

The influence of Hadley circulation intensity changes on extratropical climate in an idealized model  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed using a simple global model with idealized physics and zonally symmetrical forcings to investigate the influence of Hadley circulation intensity changes on extratropical climate. The heating within the Tropics is latitudinally concentrated, while the heating in the extratropics is kept unchanged. This leads to an increase in the intensity of the Hadley circulation. As found earlier by Hou, along with the increase in the intensity of the Hadley circulation, there is a statistically significant temperature increase in the winter high latitudes. Zonal-mean diagnostics have been performed in order to identify the link between the changes in the Tropics and the extratropics. Detailed diagnostics of the heat budget shows that warming in the winter high latitudes is induced by changes in the mean meridional circulation, over the opposing cooling effects caused by changes in the eddy heat fluxes. Such a change is consistent with an equatorward shift of the jet stream and its associated heating pattern. It is suggested that the equatorward shift in jet position is caused by an increase in westerly acceleration within the Tropics associated with the enhancement in the intensity of the Hadley circulation. Limitations of the model are also discussed. 28 refs., 16 figs.

Chang, E.K.M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

SOLVING BY PARALLEL COMPUTATION THE POISSON PROBLEM FOR HIGH INTENSITY BEAMS IN CIRCULAR ACCELERATORS.  

SciTech Connect

Simulation of high intensity accelerators leads to the solution of the Poisson Equation, to calculate space charge forces in the presence of acceleration chamber walls. We reduced the problem to ''two-and-a-half'' dimensions for long particle bunches, characteristic of large circular accelerators, and applied the results to the tracking code Orbit.

LUCCIO,A.U.; DIMPERIO,N.L.; SAMULYAK,R.; BEEB-WANG,J.

2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

429

On the relationship between farmland biodiversity and land-use intensity in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...not only at the small spatial scale (e.g. by the use of agrochemicals, grazing intensity, crop rotation), but also at larger...estimated as plant species richness. In 2003, plant species composition was surveyed on arable fields in Germany (cereal fields...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Time Structure of Particle Production in the MERIT High-Intensity Liquid Mer-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experiment is a proofofprinciple test of a target system for a high power proton beam to be used as frontend target size and velocity study jet disruption (cavitation ?) by varying the PS spill structure extracted from PS max. Intensity : 30Ã?1012 protons/pulse 115 kJ of beam power--an PS machine record beam

McDonald, Kirk

431

Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985-1994  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Introduction Rankeda EI Numbers of Total Inputs of Energy SIC Codeb Intensity for 1985c Intensity for 1994c 29 18.11 25.85 26 17.82 17.71 33 19.57 16.27 32 14.75 14.69 28 11.09 12.14 All 5.34 5.77 24 5.24 5.05 22 4.07 3.82 20 2.41 2.72 30 2.81 2.22 34 1.91 1.98 25 1.37 1.16 39 1.14 1.16 38 0.92 1.10 36 1.11 0.90 35 1.14 0.86 27 0.62 0.74 23 0.47 0.38 c For this report, all energy-intensity ratios are presented in units of thousands of Btu per 1992 constant dollars. Source: Table 12 of this report. The focus of this data report is on energy consumption relative to constant dollar shipments of manufactured products -- commonly called energy intensities (EI) by energy analysts. This report presents two measures of energy consumption, Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy,

432

Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985-1994  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Introduction Rankeda EI Numbers of Total Inputs of Energy SIC Codeb Intensity for 1985c Intensity for 1994c 29 18.11 25.85 26 17.82 17.71 33 19.57 16.27 32 14.75 14.69 28 11.09 12.14 All 5.34 5.77 24 5.24 5.05 22 4.07 3.82 20 2.41 2.72 30 2.81 2.22 34 1.91 1.98 25 1.37 1.16 39 1.14 1.16 38 0.92 1.10 36 1.11 0.90 35 1.14 0.86 27 0.62 0.74 23 0.47 0.38 c For this report, all energy-intensity ratios are presented in units of thousands of Btu per 1992 constant dollars. Source: Table 12 of this report. The focus of this data report is on energy consumption relative to constant dollar shipments of manufactured products -- commonly called energy intensities (EI) by energy analysts. This report presents two measures of energy consumption, Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy,

433

Real Time Biomedical Data Streaming Platform (RIMES): a data-intensive virtual environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Real Time Biomedical Data Streaming Platform (RIMES): a data-intensive virtual environment Kejun@ucsd.edu Abstract - In this paper we present Real tIme bioMEdical data Streaming platform (RIMES), a data of California, San Diego. RIMES extends scientists' desktops to biomedical grid computation resources and mass

Schulze, Jürgen P.

434

Laser Induced Nuclear Fusion, LINF, In Muonic Molecules With Ultrashort Super Intense Laser Fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Muonium molecules where muons replace electrons increase the stability of molecules to ionization at superhigh intensities I >10 20 ? W / cm 2 . We show furthermore from numerical simulations that in the nonsymmetric series pdu dtu ptu the permanent dipole moments can be used to enhance LINF Laser Induced Nuclear Fusion by laser induced recollision of the light nucleus with the heavier nucleus.

Andre D. Bandrauk; Gennady K. Paramonov

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

T T he NEMS Industrial Demand Module estimates energy consumption by energy source (fuels and feedstocks) for 21 manufacturing and 6 nonmanufacturing industries. The manufacturing industries are further subdivided into the energy-intensive manufacturing industries and nonenergy-intensive manufacturing industries. The manufacturing industries are modeled through the use of a detailed process flow or end use accounting procedure, whereas the nonmanufacturing industries are modeled with substantially less detail (Table 17). The Industrial Demand Module forecasts energy consumption at the four Census region level (see Figure 5); energy consumption at the Census Division level is estimated by allocating the Census region forecast using the SEDS 25 data.

436

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2002 - Industrial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Industrial Demand Module Industrial Demand Module The NEMS Industrial Demand Module estimates energy consumption by energy source (fuels and feedstocks) for 9 manufacturing and 6 nonmanufacturing industries. The manufacturing industries are further subdivided into the energy-intensive manufacturing industries and nonenergy-intensive manufacturing industries. The distinction between the two sets of manufacturing industries pertains to the level of modeling. The manufacturing industries are modeled through the use of a detailed process flow or end use accounting procedure, whereas the nonmanufacturing industries are modeled with substantially less detail (Table 19). The Industrial Demand Module forecasts energy consumption at the four Census region levels; energy consumption at the Census Division level is allocated

437

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China Title National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5253E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Zhou, Nan, Lynn K. Price, Nina Zheng, Jing Ke, and Ali Hasanbeigi Date Published 10/2011 Publisher Lawrence Berkerley National Laboratory ISBN Number LBNL-5253E Keywords china, china energy, co-control, energy intensity, industrial energy efficiency, iron and steel industry, Low Emission & Efficient Industry, policy studies, sulfur dioxide Abstract Since 2006, China has set goals of reducing energy intensity, emissions, and pollutants in multiple guidelines and in the Five Year Plans. Various strategies and measures have then been taken to improve the energy efficiency in all sectors and to reduce pollutants. Since controlling energy, CO2 emissions, and pollutants falls under the jurisdiction of different government agencies in China, many strategies are being implemented to fulfill only one of these objectives.Co-controls or integrated measures could simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions and criteria air pollutant emissions. The targets could be met in a more cost effective manner if the integrated measures can be identified and prioritized. This report provides analysis and insights regarding how these targets could be met via co-control measures focusing on both CO2 and SO2 emissions in the cement, iron & steel, and power sectors to 2030 in China. An integrated national energy and emission model was developed in order to establish a baseline scenario that was used to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and expected actions. In addition, CO2 mitigation scenarios and SO2 control scenarios were also established to evaluate the impact of each of the measures and the combined effects.

438

Smart Grid as a Driver for Energy-Intensive Industries: A Data Center Case  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Smart Grid as a Driver for Energy-Intensive Industries: A Data Center Case Smart Grid as a Driver for Energy-Intensive Industries: A Data Center Case Study Title Smart Grid as a Driver for Energy-Intensive Industries: A Data Center Case Study Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-6104E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Ganti, Venkata, and Girish Ghatikar Conference Name Grid-Interop 2012 Date Published 12/2012 Conference Location Irving, TX Keywords data centers, market sectors, technologies Abstract The Smart Grid facilitates integration of supply- and demand-side services, allowing the end-use loads to be dynamic and respond to changes in electricity generation or meet localized grid needs. Expanding from previous work, this paper summarizes the results from field tests conducted to identify demand response opportunities in energy-intensive industrial facilities such as data centers. There is a significant opportunity for energy and peak-demand reduction in data centers as hardware and software technologies, sensing, and control methods can be closely integrated with the electric grid by means of demand response. The paper provides field test results by examining distributed and networked data center characteristics, end-use loads and control systems, and recommends opportunities and challenges for grid integration. The focus is on distributed data centers and how loads can be "migrated" geographically in response to changing grid supply (increase/decrease). In addition, it examines the enabling technologies and demand-response strategies of high performance computing data centers. The findings showed that the studied data centers provided average load shed of up to 10% with short response times and no operational impact. For commercial program participation, the load-shed strategies must be tightly integrated with data center automation tools to make them less resource-intensive.

439

Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fermilab Main Injector (MI) for the High Intensity Neutrinofor the Fermilab maininjector (MI) show the existence of amitance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an

Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Venturini, Marco; Celata, Christine; Grote, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Axial Distributions of Spectral Line Intensities in the Arc Under the Influence of External Rotating Magnetic Field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of external rotating magnetic field (RMF) on the electric arc plasma, and therefore the axial distributions of the spectral line intensities and the atomic...

Pavlovic, B V; Mihailidi, T A

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

ISSUANCE 2015-01-26: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period

442

Table 8. Carbon intensity of the economy by state (2000 - 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Carbon intensity of the economy by state (2000 - 2010)" Carbon intensity of the economy by state (2000 - 2010)" "metric tons energy-related carbon dioxide per million dollars of GDP" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"Change" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"2000 to 2010" "State",2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percent","Absolute" "Alabama",1058.711976,985.9830444,997.7398528,980.4829779,950.0822539,936.4496611,935.6825335,938.4848601,889.0206564,785.4772247,861.2952959,-0.1864687321,-197.4166798 "Alaska",1298.328591,1216.063856,1175.487563,1199.290881,1223.852261,1270.682404,1148.488204,1084.165172,961.0592359,850.2898059,859.7252518,-0.337821521,-438.6033395 "Arizona",479.5818378,474.991173,460.4738058,446.205915,465.2665852,433.7092206,418.4239106,416.7348091,426.892719,409.9336342,419.7764202,-0.1247032579,-59.80541762

443

EIA Energy Efficiency-Iron and Steel Energy Intensity, 1998-2002  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Iron and Steel Manufacturing Energy Intensities, 1998, 2002, and 2006 Below are data for iron and steel industry from the 1998, 2002, and 2006 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). The tables provide estimates for energy consumed for all purposes, end uses of fuel consumption, offsite-produced fuel consumption, expenditures for purchased energy, as well as energy intensities per value of production and per ton of steel. Energy Consumption 1998, 2002, and 2006 Table 1. Consumption of Energy for All Purposes (First Use) html Table 1 excel table 1. pdf table 1. Table 2. End Uses of Fuel Consumption html table 2. excel table 2. pdf table 2. Table 3. Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption html table 3. excel table 3. pdf table 3. Table 4. Expenditures for Purchased Energy

444

Investigation of laser-driven proton acceleration using ultra-short, ultra-intense laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

We report optimization of laser-driven proton acceleration, for a range of experimental parameters available from a single ultrafast Ti:sapphire laser system. We have characterized laser-generated protons produced at the rear and front target surfaces of thin solid targets (15 nm to 90 {mu}m thicknesses) irradiated with an ultra-intense laser pulse (up to 10{sup 20} W Dot-Operator cm{sup -2}, pulse duration 30 to 500 fs, and pulse energy 0.1 to 1.8 J). We find an almost symmetric behaviour for protons accelerated from rear and front sides, and a linear scaling of proton energy cut-off with increasing pulse energy. At constant laser intensity, we observe that the proton cut-off energy increases with increasing laser pulse duration, then roughly constant for pulses longer than 300 fs. Finally, we demonstrate that there is an optimum target thickness and pulse duration.

Fourmaux, S.; Gnedyuk, S.; Lassonde, P.; Payeur, S.; Pepin, H.; Kieffer, J. C. [INRS-EMT, Universite du Quebec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Buffechoux, S.; Albertazzi, B. [INRS-EMT, Universite du Quebec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); LULI, UMR 7605, CNRS - CEA - Universite Paris 6 - Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Capelli, D.; Antici, P. [LULI, UMR 7605, CNRS - CEA - Universite Paris 6 - Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Dipartimento SBAI, Sapienza, Universita di Roma, Via Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Levy, A.; Fuchs, J. [LULI, UMR 7605, CNRS - CEA - Universite Paris 6 - Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Lecherbourg, L.; Marjoribanks, R. S. [Department of Physics and Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Nonsequential double ionization below laser-intensity threshold: Anticorrelation of electrons without excitation of parent ion  

SciTech Connect

Two-electron correlated spectra of nonsequential double ionization below laser-intensity threshold are known to exhibit back-to-back scattering of the electrons, i.e., the anticorrelation of the electrons. Currently, the widely accepted interpretation of the anticorrelation is recollision-induced excitation of the ion plus subsequent field ionization of the second electron. We argue that another mechanism, namely, simultaneous electron emission, when the time of return of the rescattered electron is equal to the time of liberation of the bounded electron (i.e., the ion has no time for excitation), can also explain the anticorrelation of the electrons in the deep, below laser-intensity threshold regime. Our conclusion is based on the results of the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a model system of two one-dimensional electrons, as well as on an adiabatic analytic model that allows for a closed-form solution.

Bondar, D. I. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Yudin, G. L. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada); Liu, W.-K. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Ivanov, M. Yu. [Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Bandrauk, A. D. [Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

446

Intensity correlations and entanglement by frequency doubling in a dual ported resonator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that non-classical intensity correlations and quadrature entanglement can be generated by frequency doubling in a resonator with two output ports. We predict twin-beam intensity correlations 6 dB below the coherent state limit, and that the product of the inference variances of the quadrature fluctuations gives an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation coefficient of V_EPR = 0.6 ported resonator provides stronger entanglement at lower levels of individual beam squeezing. Calculations are performed using a self-consistent propagation method that does not invoke a mean field approximation. Results are given for physically realistic parameters that account for the Gaussian shape of the intracavity beams, as well as intracavity losses.

Oo-Kaw Lim; Mark Saffman

2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

447

Calculation of synchrotron radiation from high intensity electron beam at eRHIC  

SciTech Connect

The Electron-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (eRHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab is an upgrade project for the existing RHIC. A 30 GeV energy recovery linac (ERL) will provide a high charge and high quality electron beam to collide with proton and ion beams. This will improve the luminosity by at least 2 orders of magnitude. The synchrotron radiation (SR) from the bending magnets and strong quadrupoles for such an intense beam could be penetrating the vacuum chamber and producing hazards to electronic devices and undesired background for detectors. In this paper, we calculate the SR spectral intensity, power density distributions and heat load on the chamber wall. We suggest the wall thickness required to stop the SR and estimate spectral characteristics of the residual and scattered background radiation outside the chamber.

Jing Y.; Chubar, O.; Litvinenko, V.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

448

A diagnosis of intense ion beam by CR-39 detectors analyzing the back scattered particles  

SciTech Connect

A new diagnosis method has been developed utilizing back scattered particles for high energy intense ion beams. The CR-39 detector mounted on the uniform back-scatterer was irradiated with {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ions with an energy 25 MeV/n, which is never recorded as etchable track in CR-39. We found that it is possible to diagnose by analyzing the etch pits on the rear surface of CR-39 that directly contacted on the back-scatterers. It turns out that most of etch pits in the rear surface are made by the backscattered particles by investigating the growth pattern of each etch pit with multi-step etching technique. This method allows simple diagnosis of the ion beam profile and intensity distribution in mixed radiation field such as laser-driven ion acceleration experiments.

Kanasaki, Masato; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Fukuda, Yuji; Sakaki, Hironao; Hori, Toshihiko; Tampo, Motonobu; Kurashima, Satoshi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Oda, Keiji; Kondo, Kiminori [Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 658-0022, Japan and Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 658-0022 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 658-0022 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

449

Electric dipole-forbidden nuclear transitions driven by super-intense laser fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric dipole-forbidden transitions of nuclei interacting with super-intense laser fields are investigated considering stable isotopes with suitable low-lying first excited states. Different classes of transitions are identified, and all magnetic sublevels corresponding to the near-resonantly driven nuclear transition are included in the description of the nuclear quantum system. We find that large transition matrix elements and convenient resonance energies qualify nuclear M1 transitions as good candidates for the coherent driving of nuclei. We discuss the implications of resonant interaction of intense laser fields with nuclei beyond the dipole approximation for the controlled preparation of excited nuclear states and important aspects of possible experiments aimed at observing these effects.

Adriana Pálffy; Jörg Evers; Christoph H. Keitel

2008-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

450

An Estimate of the Spectral Intensity Expected from the Molecular Bremsstrahlung Radiation in Extensive Air Showers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detection technique of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, complementary to the fluorescence technique, would be the use of the molecular Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted by low-energy electrons left after the passage of the showers in the atmosphere. The emission mechanism is expected from quasi-elastic collisions of electrons produced in the shower by the ionisation of the molecules in the atmosphere. In this article, a detailed calculation of the spectral intensity of photons at ground level originating from the transitions between unquantised energy states of free ionisation electrons is presented. In the absence of absorption of the emitted photons in the plasma, the obtained spectral intensity is shown to be 5 10^{-26} W m^{-2}Hz^{-1} at 10 km from the shower core for a vertical shower induced by a proton of 10^{17.5} eV.

Samarai, I Al; Lebrun, D; Letessier-Selvon, A; Salamida, F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Reduced Treatment Intensity in Patients with Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...chemotherapy cycles and the radiation therapy dose. Comparison of Groups 1 and 4. As shown in Figure 2, no significant difference in the rate of freedom from treatment failure was seen between groups 1 and 4 according to the stratified log-rank test (P=0.79). The 5-year estimate for the group difference... Investigators examined whether the intensity of treatment can be reduced in patients with early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma without compromising antitumor efficacy. In a comparison of two with four cycles of ABVD chemotherapy plus either 20 or 30 Gy of involved-field radiation therapy, no significant differences were noted in disease-free or overall survival between the most and the least intensive regimens.

Engert A.; Plütschow A.; Eich H.T.

2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

452

Optical apparatus using liquid crystals for shaping the spatial intensity of optical beams having designated wavelengths  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The spatial intensity profile of an optical beam of designated wavelengths, such as a laser beam, is shaped (the beam is apodized) by means of cholesteric liquid crystals of opposite chirality disposed successively along the path of the beam. The crystals have curved surfaces, which may be defined by a lens which defines the thickness of the liquid crystal fluid gap in a liquid crystal cell, so as to vary the selective reflection of the designated wavelength across the aperture of the beam. In this way, a soft aperture is provided. By using tandem cell pairs having liquid crystals of opposite chirality, but of different pitch, and with lenses of different curvature, beams of different wavelengths which are projected colinearly along the path may be individually tailored in spatial intensity profile.

Jacobs, Stephen D. (Pittsford, NY); Cerqua, Kathleen A. (Rochester, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Progress toward a microsecond duration, repetitive, intense-ion beam for active spectroscopic measurements on ITER  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the design of an intense, pulsed, repetitive, neutral beam based on magnetically insulated diode technology for injection into ITER for spectroscopic measurements of thermalizing alpha particle and thermal helium density profiles, ion temperature, plasma rotation, and low Z impurity concentrations in the confinement region. The beam is being developed to enhance low signal-to-noise ratios expected with conventional steady-state ion beams because of severe beam attenuation and intense bremstrahlung emission. A 5 GW (e.g., 100 keV, 50 kA) one-microsecond-duration beam would increase the signal by 10{sup 3} compared to a conventional 5 MW beam with signal-to-noise ratios comparable to those from a chopped conventional beam in one second.

Davis, H.A.; Bartsch, R.R.; Barnes, C.W. [and others

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Energy intensities and CO2 emissions in Catalonia: a SAM analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we estimate sectoral energy intensities and CO2 emissions for the Catalonian economy. In order to evaluate energy intensities, we use the SAM (Social Accounting Matrix) multiplier analysis applied to a SAM of the economy. CO2 emissions are estimated by means of the Leontief input-output submodel of the SAM, together with a table of coefficients of emissions per unit of monetary expenditures. This new methodology allows us to dispense with energy input-output tables for the base period. Our results are of the same order of magnitude as others obtained by physical measurement methods. We also simulate how changes in demand and energy energy efficiency parameters may affect CO2 emissions for the economy.

Antonio Manresa; Ferran Sancho

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Breaking of relativistically intense longitudinal space charge waves: A description using Dawson sheet model  

SciTech Connect

Spatio-temporal evolution of relativistically intense longitudinal space charge waves in a cold homogeneous plasma is studied analytically as well as numerically, as an initial value problem, using Dawson sheet model. It is found that, except for very special initial conditions which generates the well known longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin mode, for all other initial conditions, the waves break through a novel mechanism called phase mixing at an amplitude well below the Akhiezer-Polovin limit. An immediate consequence of this is, that Akhiezer-Polovin waves break when subjected to arbitrarily small longitudinal perturbations. We demonstrate this by performing extensive numerical simulations. This result may be of direct relevance to ultrashort, ultraintense laser/beam pulse-plasma interaction experiments where relativistically intense waves are routinely excited.

Sengupta, Sudip, E-mail: sudip@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat , Gandhinagar - 382428 (India)

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

456

Calibration of a gated flat field spectrometer as a function of x-ray intensity  

SciTech Connect

We present an experimental determination of the response of a gated flat-field spectrometer at the Shenguang-II laser facility. X-rays were emitted from a target that was heated by laser beams and then were divided into different intensities with a step aluminum filter and collected by a spectrometer. The transmission of the filter was calibrated using the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The response characteristics of the spectrometer were determined by comparing the counts recorded by the spectrometer with the relative intensities of the x-rays transmitted through the step aluminum filter. The response characteristics were used to correct the transmission from two shots of an opacity experiment using the same samples. The transmissions from the two shots are consistent with corrections, but discrepant without corrections.

Xiong, Gang; Yang, Guohong; Li, Hang; Zhang, Jiyan, E-mail: zhangjiyanzjy@sina.com; Zhao, Yang; Hu, Zhimin; Wei, Minxi; Qing, Bo; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P. O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P. O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

Electric-dipole-forbidden nuclear transitions driven by super-intense laser fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electric-dipole-forbidden transitions of nuclei interacting with super-intense laser fields are investigated by considering stable isotopes with suitable low-lying first excited states. Different classes of transitions are identified, and all magnetic sublevels corresponding to the near-resonantly driven nuclear transition are included in the description of the nuclear quantum system. We find that large transition matrix elements and convenient resonance energies qualify nuclear M1 transitions as good candidates for the coherent driving of nuclei. We discuss the implications of resonant interaction of intense laser fields with nuclei beyond the dipole approximation for the controlled preparation of excited nuclear states and important aspects of possible experiments aimed at observing these effects.

Adriana Pálffy, Jörg Evers, and Christoph H. Keitel

2008-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

458

Radiative lifetime of barbell excitons in semiparabolic double quantum wells under intense laser fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The binding energy and optical properties of barbell excitons in GaAs–Ga1?xAlxAs semiparabolic double quantum wells under intense laser fields are investigated. Calculations are performed within the effective mass and envelope-function approximations, including the conduction band nonparabolicity. The dependence of the binding energy, oscillator strength and exciton absorption spectrum on the laser field in symmetric and asymmetric quantum wells is studied by using a finite difference method. It is shown that the exciton radiative lifetime can be tuned to a large extent by a proper choice of the structure design (double well size, middle barrier position and its thickness) as well as by varying the laser field intensity.

E.C. Niculescu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Hollow screw like drill in plasma using an intense Laguerre Gaussian laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the development of ultra intense laser technology, MeV ions from the laser foil interaction have been obtained by different mechanisms, such as target normal sheath acceleration, radiation pressure acceleration, collisionless shock acceleration, breakout afterburner, and a combination of different mechanisms. These energetic ion beams can be applied in fast ignition for inertial confinement fusion, medical therapy, and proton imaging. However, these ions are mainly accelerated in the laser propagation direction, and the ion acceleration in an azimuthal orientation is scarcely mentioned. Here, a doughnut Laguerre Gaussian LG laser is used for the first time to study the laser plasma interaction in the relativistic intensity regime in three dimensional particle in cell simulations. Studies have shown that a novel rotation of the plasma is produced from the hollow screw like drill of a LG mode laser. The angular momentum of the protons in the longitudinal direction produced by the LG laser is remarkably enh...

Wang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Lingang; Shi, Yin; Xu, Zhizhan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Hole boring in a DT pellet and fast ion ignition with ultra-intense laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently achieved high intensities of short laser pulses open new prospects in their application to hole boring in inhomogeneous overdense plasmas and for ignition in precompressed DT fusion targets. A simple analytical model and numerical simulations demonstrate that pulses with intensities exceeding 1022 W/cm2 may penetrate deeply into the plasma as a result of efficient ponderomotive acceleration of ions in the forward direction. The penetration depth as big as hundreds of microns depends on the laser fluence, which has to exceed a few tens of GJ/cm2. The fast ions, accelerated at the bottom of the channel with an efficiency of more than 20%, show a high directionality and may heat the precompressed target core to fusion conditions.

Naumova, N; Tikhonchuk, V T; Labaune, C; Sokolov, I V; Mourou, G; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.025002

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "groups-energy intensive nonenergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Ionization behavior of molecular hydrogen in intense laser fields: Influence of molecular vibration and alignment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The alignment- and internuclear-distance dependent ionization of H$_2$ exposed to intense, ultrashort laser fields is studied by solving the time-dependent two-electron Schr\\"odinger equation. In the regime of perturbative few-photon ionization, a strong dependence of the ionization yield on the internuclear distance is found. While this finding confirms a previously reported breakdown of the fixed-nuclei approximation for parallel alignment, a simpler explanation is provided and it is demonstrated that this breakdown is not due to vibrational dynamics during the laser pulse. The persistence of this effect even for randomly aligned molecules is demonstrated. Furthermore, the transition from the multiphoton to the quasi-static (tunneling) regime is investigated considering intense 800 nm laser pulses. While the obtained ionization yields differ significantly from the prediction of Ammosov-Delone-Krainov rates, we find a surprisingly good quantitative agreement after introducing a simple frequency-dependent cor...

Förster, Johann; Saenz, Alejandro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Experimental Parameters for a Cerium 144 Based Intense Electron Antineutrino Generator Experiment at Very Short Baselines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The standard three-neutrino oscillation paradigm, associated with small squared mass splittings > 0.01 eV^2, and being insensitive to standard weak interactions. Precision measurements at very short baselines (5 to 15 m) with intense MeV electronic antineutrino emitters can be used to probe these anomalies. In this article, the expected antineutrino signal and backgrounds of a generic experiment which consists of deploying an intense beta minus radioactive source inside or in the vicinity of a large liquid scintillator detector are studied. The technical challenges to perform such an experiment are identified, along with quantifying the possible source and detector induced systematics, and their impact on the sensitivity to the observation of neutrino oscillations at short baselines.

Gaffiot, J; Mention, G; Vivier, M; Cribier, M; Durero, M; Fischer, V; Letourneau, A; Dumonteil, E; Saldikov, I S; Tikhomirov, G V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Optical apparatus using liquid crystals for shaping the spatial intensity of optical beams having designated wavelengths  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The spatial intensity profile of an optical beam of designated wavelengths, such as a laser beam, is shaped (the beam is apodized) by means of cholesteric liquid crystals of opposite chirality disposed successively along the path of the beam. The crystals have curved surfaces, which may be defined by a lens which defines the thickness of the liquid crystal fluid gap in a liquid crystal cell, so as to vary the selective reflection of the designated wavelength across the aperture of the beam. In this way, a soft aperture is provided. By using tandem cell pairs having liquid crystals of opposite chirality, but of different pitch, and with lenses of different curvature, beams of different wavelengths which are projected colinearly along the path may be individually tailored in spatial intensity profile. 11 figs.

Jacobs, S.D.; Cerqua, K.A.

1987-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

464

CBECS 1989 - Energy End-use Intensities in Commercial Buildings -- Detailed  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Publication > Detailed Tables Publication > Detailed Tables 1989 Energy End-Use Intensities Detailed Tables Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A through F of the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Table Organization The following 13 tables present detailed energy end-use consumption data from the 1989 CBECS. Summary tables for all major fuels (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district heat) appear first, followed by separate tables for each of the four major fuels. Within each energy source’s group of tables, there is a table showing end-use consumption, a table showing end-use intensities (consumption per square foot), and a table (except for fuel oil and district heat) showing the end-use shares of total consumption.

465

ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION OF X-RAY HAZARD GENERATED FROM HIGH INTENSITY LASER-TARGET INTERACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of a high intensity laser with matter may generate an ionizing radiation hazard. Very limited studies have been made, however, on the laser-induced radiation protection issue. This work reviews available literature on the physics and characteristics of laser-induced X-ray hazards. Important aspects include the laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency, electron angular distribution, electron energy spectrum and effective temperature, and bremsstrahlung production of X-rays in the target. The possible X-ray dose rates for several femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser systems used at SLAC, including the short pulse laser system for the Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument (peak power 4 TW and peak intensity 2.4 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) were analysed. A graded approach to mitigate the laser-induced X-ray hazard with a combination of engineered and administrative controls is also proposed.

Qiu, R.; Liu, J.C.; Prinz, A.A.; Rokni, S.H.; Woods, M.; Xia, Z.; /SLAC; ,

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

466

Laser Induced Nuclear Fusion, LINF, In Muonic Molecules With Ultrashort Super Intense Laser Fields  

SciTech Connect

Muonium molecules where muons replace electrons increase the stability of molecules to ionization at superhigh intensities, I>10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. We show furthermore from numerical simulations that in the nonsymmetric series, pdu, dtu, ptu, the permanent dipole moments can be used to enhance LINF, Laser Induced Nuclear Fusion by laser induced recollision of the light nucleus with the heavier nucleus.

Bandrauk, Andre D. [Faculte des sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Paramonov, Gennady K. [Institut fur Chemie, FU Berlin-14195 Berlin (Germany)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

467

Intensity-resolved Above Threshold Ionization Yields of Atoms with Ultrashort Laser Pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Electron ionization yields of xenon were measured for a set of laser pulse intensities using a time of flight (TOF) setup. Horizontally polarized, unchirped, pulses were used in the ionization process. All laser parameters other than the radiation... Tiezer, I am grateful for all their time and help. I would like to thank Dr. James Strohaber for detailed discussions and assistance related to this experiment. I acknowledge the Department of Physics at Texas A&M and the US Air Force...

Hart, Nathan Andrew

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

468

EXTINCTION AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON INTENSITY VARIATIONS ACROSS THE H II REGION IRAS 12063-6259  

SciTech Connect

The spatial variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band intensities are normally attributed to the physical conditions of the emitting PAHs, however in recent years it has been suggested that such variations are caused mainly by extinction. To resolve this question, we have obtained near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), and radio observations of the compact H II region IRAS 12063-6259. We use these data to construct multiple independent extinction maps and also to measure the main PAH features (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 {mu}m) in the MIR. Three extinction maps are derived: the first using the NIR hydrogen lines and case B recombination theory; the second combining the NIR data with radio data; and the third making use of the Spitzer/IRS MIR observations to measure the 9.8 {mu}m silicate absorption feature using the Spoon method and PAHFIT (as the depth of this feature can be related to overall extinction). The silicate absorption over the bright, southern component of IRAS 12063-6259 is almost absent while the other methods find significant extinction. While such breakdowns of the relationship between the NIR extinction and the 9.8 {mu}m absorption have been observed in molecular clouds, they have never been observed for H II regions. We then compare the PAH intensity variations in the Spitzer/IRS data after dereddening to those found in the original data. It was found that in most cases, the PAH band intensity variations persist even after dereddening, implying that extinction is not the main cause of the PAH band intensity variations.

Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.; Otaguro, J. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Bik, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Standoff detection of hidden objects using backscattered ultra-intense laser-produced x-rays  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-intense laser-produced sub-ps X-ray pulses can detect backscattered signals from objects hidden in aluminium containers. Coincident measurements using primary X-rays enable differentiation among acrylic, copper, and lead blocks inside the container. Backscattering reveals the shapes of the objects, while their material composition can be identified from the modification methods of the energy spectra of backscattered X-ray beams. This achievement is an important step toward more effective homeland security.

Kuwabara, H. [IHI Corporation, 1, Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan)] [IHI Corporation, 1, Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan); Mori, Y.; Kitagawa, Y. [The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsucho, Nishiku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)] [The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsucho, Nishiku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

470

The effects of stocking density on two Tilapia species raised in an intensive culture system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. , SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert R. Stickney ~Tile ia auras and T. mossambica fry were stocked in a flowing system at varying stocking densities (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 fish/tank... in 60 liters of water) in an intensive tank culture system. The fish were maintained for 101 days on commercial pelleted feed. In terms of length increase, weight gain, condition, total yi. eld, and food conversion rates, T. sures performed...

Henderson-Arzapalo, Anne

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray intensity changes, preceding the cyclone appearances around Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently it has been suggested that there exist specific changes in the cosmic ray intensity and some solar and geomagnetic parameters during the days, preceding the hurricane appearances over the North Atlantic Ocean. To understand better these phenomena, data for all hurricanes born not only over the Atlantic but also over the Pacific waters in the last 55 years that hit the Mexican borders were elaborated. As basic hurricane parameters the maximum rotational velocity and the estimated total energy were used. To avoid any interference all hurricanes, overlapping the preceding ones with more than 20 days were not included. Then the behavior of the cosmic ray (CR) intensity, the sunspot (SS) numbers, and the geomagnetic parameters (AP) and (KP) in 35 days prior and 20 days after the cyclone start were investigated. The CR, SS, AP and KP showed much more intensive disturbances in the periods preceding and following the hurricane appearance. For SS this disturbance gradually increase with the hurricane strength. A characteristic peak in the CR intensity appears before the hurricane start. But its place varies between 5 and 20 days before that start. Specific changes were observed in the SS. For major hurricanes they begins sometimes more than 20 days in advance. The AP and the KP show series of bursts, spread over the whole period of 30 preceding days. The obtained results from the performed correlational analysis are enough interesting to motivate a further statistical analysis with more precise techniques: in particular a common periodicity of 30 years found in the number of tropical storms landing into Mexico, the averaged rotational wind velocity and the ACE must be studied in connection with the solar Hale cycle. Using coherence wavelet spectral analysis we present a comparative study between one terrestrial and one cosmophysical phenomena that presumable influence hurricanes development: African dust outbreaks versus cosmic rays for all North Atlantic tropical cyclones. It is shown that the cosmophysical influence cannot be considered as a negligible effect.

J. Pérez-Peraza; S. Kavlakov; V. Velasco; A. Gallegos-Cruz; E. Azpra-Romero; O. Delgado-Delgado; F. Villicaña-Cruz

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

GAMUT: A computer code for. gamma. -ray energy and intensity analysis  

SciTech Connect

GAMUT is a computer code to analyze {gamma}-ray energies and intensities. It does a linear least-squares fit of measured {gamma}-ray energies from one or more experiments to the level scheme. GAMUT also performs a non-linear least-squares analysis of branching intensities. For both energy and intensity data, a statistical Chi-square analysis is performed with an iterative uncertainty adjustment. The uncertainties of outlying measured values and sets of measurements with x{sup 2}/f>1 are increased, and the calculation is repeated until the uncertainties are consistent with the fitted values. GAMUT accepts input from standard or special-format ENSDF data sets. The special-format ENSDF data sets were designed to permit analysis of more than one set of measurements associated with a single ENSDF data set. GAMUT prepares a standard ENSDF format output data set containing the adjusted values. If more than one input ENSDF data set is provided, GAMUT creates an ADOPTED LEVELS, GAMMAS data set containing the adjusted level and {gamma}-ray energies and branching intensities from each level normalized to 100 for the strongest {gamma}-ray. GAMUT also provides a summary of the results and an extensive log of the iterative analysis. GAMUT is interactive prompting the user for input and output file names and for default calculation options. This version of GAMUT has adjustable dimensions so that any maximum number of data sets, levels, and {gamma}-rays can be established at the time of implementation. 6 refs.

Firestone, R.B.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Accurate measurement of K x-ray intensities of elements with Z=79–82  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using high-resolution and high-efficiency high-purity Ge Gamma-X detectors, relative intensities of K x rays of elements with Z=79–82 have been very accurately (uncertainty ?1%) determined. Comparison of the data with other experimental works and theoretical calculations have been done. It is seen that a theory with the exchange effect taken into consideration is quite adequate to explain the radiative transition rates for the elements measured in the present work.

Binay Dasmahapatra and Anjali Mukherjee

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Downward Muon Intensity at Surface dI 0 (E 0 ; cos )  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Downward Muon Intensity at Surface dI #22;0 (E #22;0 ; cos #18;) dE #22;0 = 0:14 #1; E #22;0 #1; 0, Review of Particle Physics, 2000, p.150 Track Muons Through Rock: #15; Vertical depth 6010 metres water equivalent #15; Track with Muon Simulation Code (MUSIC) Ref: P. Antonioli, C. Ghetti, E. V. Korolkova, V. A

Learned, John

475

HIGH INTENSITY LINAC DRIVER FOR THE SPIRAL-2 PROJECT : DESIGN OF SUPERCONDUCTING 88 MHZ QUARTER WAVE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HIGH INTENSITY LINAC DRIVER FOR THE SPIRAL-2 PROJECT : DESIGN OF SUPERCONDUCTING 88 MHZ QUARTER to the required energy. · Capability to accelerate ion beams of q/A=1/6 (up to 1 mA) in the future. The initial Abstract A superconducting linac driver, delivering deuterons with an energy up to 40 MeV (5 mA) and heavy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

476

Managing Hardware Configurations and Data Products for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is an ambitious new radio telescope project for measuring cosmic expansion and investigating dark energy. Keeping good records of both physical configuration of its 1280 antennas and their analogue signal chains as well as the ~100 TB of data produced daily from its correlator will be essential to the success of CHIME. In these proceedings we describe the database-driven software we have developed to manage this complexity.

Hincks, Adam D

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Intense photoluminescence from dried double-stranded DNA and single-walled carbon nanotube hybrid  

SciTech Connect

Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) show near-infrared photoluminescence (PL) when they are individually isolated. This was an obstacle to use photonic properties of SWNTs on a solid surface. We show that SWNTs wrapped with DNA maintain intense PL under the dry conditions. SWNTs are well isolated individually by DNA even when the DNA-SWNT hybrids are agglomerated. This finding opens up application of SWNTs to photonic devices.

Ito, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Ito, Y.; Hayashida, T.; Nii, D.; Umemura, K.; Homma, Y. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

478

In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

Kugel, Henry W. (Somerset, NJ); Kaita, Robert (Englishtown, NJ)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Dynamical Schwinger effect and high-intensity lasers. Realising nonperturbative QED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the possibility of experimental verification of vacuum e^+e^- pair creation at the focus of two counter-propagating optical laser beams with intensities 10^{20}-10^{22} W/cm^2, achievable with present-day petawatt lasers, and approaching the Schwinger limit: 10^{29} W/cm^2 to be reached at ELI. Our approach is based on the collisionless kinetic equation for the evolution of the e^+ and e^- distribution functions governed by a non-Markovian source term for pair production. As possible experimental signals of vacuum pair production we consider e^+e^- annihilation into gamma-pairs and the refraction of a high-frequency probe laser beam by the produced e^+e^- plasma. We discuss the dependence of the dynamical pair production process on laser wavelength, with special emphasis on applications in the X-ray domain (X-FEL), as well as the prospects for \\mu^+\\mu^- and \\pi^+\\pi^- pair creation at high-intensity lasers. We investigate perspectives for using high-intensity lasers as ``boosters'' of ion beams in the few-GeV per nucleon range, which is relevant, e.g., to the exploration of the QCD phase transition in laboratory experiments.

D. B. Blaschke; A. V. Prozorkevich; G. Roepke; C. D. Roberts; S. M. Schmidt; D. S. Shkirmanov; S. A. Smolyansky

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

480

Removal of intensive agriculture from the landscape improves aquatic ecosystem health  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The 20th century witnessed substantial increases in the intensity of agricultural land management. Increased agricultural intensity leads to degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Removal of intensive agriculture from the landscape is rare; however this occurred in the Ovens Valley, Victoria, Australia when its 150-year-old tobacco industry was closed in 2006. The present study examined stress in aquatic biota in the Ovens River and associated wetlands and dams before (1988–89) and after (2010) the tobacco closure. The endpoint observed was incidence of morphological deformities in chironomid (“non-biting midge”) larvae. A significant reduction in deformity incidence, particularly in the mentum (teeth), was observed in larvae collected from waters near or adjacent to tobacco cultivation, between 1988/89 and 2010. Similarly, there is a significant decline in the incidence of deformities in the pecten epipharyngis between 1988/89 and 2010. Ninety-six pesticides were also measured in sediments in 2010, of which only the persistent organochlorines DDT, DDE, DDD and dieldrin were detected. Some analysis of pesticides in sediments was conducted in 1988 but the results were inconclusive because the detection limits were inadequate and not all pesticides being used in tobacco cultivation at that time were analysed. The decline in morphological deformities correlates with the cessation of tobacco cultivation and indicates a recovery in ecosystem health.

Bryant Gagliardi; Vincent Pettigrove

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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481

A search for the sulphur hexafluoride cation with intense, few cycle laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

It is well established that upon ionization of sulphur hexafluoride, the SF{sub 6}{sup +} ion is never observed in mass spectra. Recent work with ultrashort intense laser pulses has offered indications that when strong optical field are used, the resulting “bond hardening” can induce changes in the potential energy surfaces of molecular cations such that molecular ions that are normally unstable may, indeed, become metastable enough to enable their detection by mass spectrometry. Do intense, ultrashort laser pulses permit formation of SF{sub 6}{sup +}? We have utilized intense pulses of 5 fs, 11 fs, and 22 fs to explore this possibility. Our results are negative: no evidence is discovered for SF{sub 6}{sup +}. However, multiply charged sulphur and fluorine ions from highly charged SF{sub 6}{sup q+} ions are observed that enable us to resolve the controversy regarding the kinetic energy release accompanying formation of F{sup +} fragment ions. Quantum chemical computations of field-distorted potential energy curves of SF{sub 6} and its molecular ion enable us to rationalize our non-observation of SF{sub 6}{sup +}. Our findings have implications for high harmonic generation from SF{sub 6} in the few-cycle regime.

Dota, Krithika; Mathur, Deepak, E-mail: atmol1@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India) [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Dharmadhikari, Aditya K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)] [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A. [Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India)] [Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Patra, Kaustuv; Tiwari, Ashwani K. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research - Kolkata, Mohanpur 741 252 (India)] [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research - Kolkata, Mohanpur 741 252 (India)

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

482

Color intensity projections: A rapid approach for evaluating four-dimensional CT scans in treatment planning  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Four-dimensional computerized tomography scans (4DCT) enable intrafractional motion to be determined. Because more than 1500 images can be generated with each 4DCT study, tools for efficient data visualization and evaluation are needed. We describe the use of color intensity projections (CIP) for visualizing mobility. Methods: Four-dimensional computerized tomography images of each patient slice were combined into a CIP composite image. Pixels largely unchanged over the component images appear unchanged in the CIP image. However, pixels whose intensity changes over the phases of the 4DCT appear in the CIP image as colored pixels, and the hue encodes the percentage of time the tissue was in each location. CIPs of 18 patients were used to study tumor and surrogate markers, namely the diaphragm and an abdominal marker block. Results: Color intensity projections permitted mobility of high-contrast features to be quickly visualized and measured. In three selected expiratory phases ('gating phases') that were reviewed in the sagittal plane, gating would have reduced mean tumor mobility from 6.3 {+-} 2.0 mm to 1.4 {+-} 0.5 mm. Residual tumor mobility in gating phases better correlated with residual mobility of the marker block than that of the diaphragm. Conclusion: CIPs permit immediate visualization of mobility in 4DCT images and simplify the selection of appropriate surrogates for gated radiotherapy.

Cover, Keith S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.senan@vumc.nl

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Experimental verification of a model describing the intensity distribution from a single mode optical fiber  

SciTech Connect

The intensity distribution of a transmission from a single mode optical fiber is often approximated using a Gaussian-shaped curve. While this approximation is useful for some applications such as fiber alignment, it does not accurately describe transmission behavior off the axis of propagation. In this paper, another model is presented, which describes the intensity distribution of the transmission from a single mode optical fiber. A simple experimental setup is used to verify the model's accuracy, and agreement between model and experiment is established both on and off the axis of propagation. Displacement sensor designs based on the extrinsic optical lever architecture are presented. The behavior of the transmission off the axis of propagation dictates the performance of sensor architectures where large lateral offsets (25-1500 {micro}m) exist between transmitting and receiving fibers. The practical implications of modeling accuracy over this lateral offset region are discussed as they relate to the development of high-performance intensity modulated optical displacement sensors. In particular, the sensitivity, linearity, resolution, and displacement range of a sensor are functions of the relative positioning of the sensor's transmitting and receiving fibers. Sensor architectures with high combinations of sensitivity and displacement range are discussed. It is concluded that the utility of the accurate model is in its predicative capability and that this research could lead to an improved methodology for high-performance sensor design.

Moro, Erik A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Puckett, Anthony D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael D [UCSD

2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

484

Proceedings of the workshop on the science of intense radioactive ion beams  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the proceedings of a 2-1/2 day workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams which was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on April 10--12, 1990. The workshop was attended by 105 people, representing 30 institutions from 10 countries. The thrust of the workshop was to develop the scientific opportunities which become possible with a new generation intense Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, currently being discussed within North America. The workshop was organized around five primary topics: (1) reaction physics; (2) nuclei far from stability/nuclear structure; (3) nuclear astrophysics; (4) atomic physics, material science, and applied research; and (5) facilities. Overview talks were presented on each of these topics, followed by 1-1/2 days of intense parallel working group sessions. The final half day of the workshop was devoted to the presentation and discussion of the working group summary reports, closing remarks and a discussion of future plans for this effort.

McClelland, J.B.; Vieira, D.J. (comps.)

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Experimental measurements of multiphoton enhanced air breakdown by a subthreshold intensity excimer laser  

SciTech Connect

This work presents density, spectroscopic temperature, and shockwave measurements of laser induced breakdown plasma in atmospheric air by subthreshold intensity (5.5x10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}) 193 nm laser radiation. Using molecular spectroscopy and two-wavelength interferometry, it is shown that substantial ionization (>10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) occurs that is not predicted by collisional cascade (CC) breakdown theory. While the focused laser irradiance is three orders of magnitude below the theoretical collisional breakdown threshold, the substantial photon energy at 193 nm (6.42 eV/photon) compared with the ionization potential of air (15.6 eV) significantly increases the probability of multiphoton ionization effects. By spectroscopically monitoring the intensity of the N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative system (B {sup 2}SIGMA{sub u}{sup +}-X {sup 2}SIGMA{sub g}{sup +}) vibrational bandhead (v{sup '}=0,v{sup ''}=0) at low pressure (20 Torr) where multiphoton effects are dominant, it is shown that two photon excitation, resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization is the primary mechanism for quantized ionization of N{sub 2} to the N{sub 2}{sup +}(B {sup 2}SIGMA{sub u}{sup +}) state. This multiphoton effect then serves to amplify the collisional breakdown process at higher pressures by electron seeding, thereby reducing the threshold intensity from that required via CC processes for breakdown and producing high density laser formed plasmas.

Way, Jesse; Hummelt, Jason; Scharer, John [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

486

Analyzing intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution via the overlap intensity-level velocity correlator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerous experimental and theoretical studies have established that intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) in isolated molecules has a heirarchical tier structure. The tier structure implies strong correlations between the energy level motions of a quantum system and its intensity-weighted spectrum. A measure, which explicitly accounts for this correaltion, was first introduced by one of us as a sensitive probe of phase space localization. It correlates eigenlevel velocities with the overlap intensities between the eigenstates and some localized state of interest. A semiclassical theory for the correlation is developed for systems that are classically integrable and complements earlier work focusing exclusively on the chaotic case. Application to a model two dimensional effective spectroscopic Hamiltonian shows that the correlation measure can provide information about the terms in the molecular Hamiltonian which play an important role in an energy range of interest and the character of the dynamics. Moreover, the correlation function is capable of highlighting relevant phase space structures including the local resonance features associated with a specific bright state. In addition to being ideally suited for multidimensional systems with a large density of states, the measure can also be used to gain insights into the phase space transport and localization. It is argued that the overlap intensity-level velocity correlation function provides a novel way of studying vibrational energy redistribution in isolated molecules. The correlation function is ideally suited to analyzing the parametric spectra of molecules in external fields.

Srihari Keshavamurthy; Nicholas R. Cerruti; Steven Tomsovic

2002-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

487

REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.  

SciTech Connect

The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

2001-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

488

Report of the Snowmass M6 Working Group on high intensity proton sources  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. high-energy physics program needs an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver (PD), by the end of this decade. This machine will serve as a stand-alone facility that will provide neutrino superbeams and other high intensity secondary beams such as kaons, muons, neutrons, and anti-protons (cf. E1 and E5 group reports) and also serve as the first stage of a neutrino factory (cf. M1 group report). It can also be a high brightness source for a VLHC. Based on present accelerator technology and project construction experience, it is both feasible and cost-effective to construct a 1-4 MW Proton Driver. Two recent PD design studies have been made, one at FNAL and the other at the BNL. Both designed PD's for 1 MW proton beams at a cost of about U.S. $200M (excluding contingency and overhead) and both designs were upgradeable to 4 MW. An international collaboration between FNAL, BNL and KEK on high intensity proton facilities is addressing a number of key design issues. The superconducting (sc) RF cavities, cryogenics, and RF controls developed for the SNS can be directly adopted to save R&D efforts, cost, and schedule. PD studies are also actively being pursued at Europe and Japan.

Weiren Chou and J. Wei

2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

489

Energetic proton generation from intense Coulomb explosion of large-size ethane clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental investigation is performed on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses at the intensity of 6?×?1017?W/cm2 (55 fs 160?mJ at 800?nm) with ethane cluster (C2H6) N jets prepared under the backing pressure of 30 bars at room temperature (298?K). The experiment results indicate the generation of energetic protons whose average and maximum kinetic energies are 12.2 and 138.1?keV respectively by Coulomb explosion of (C2H6) N clusters. (C2H6) N clusters of 5?nm in radius are generated in the experiment which are 1.7 times larger than that of (CH4) N clusters prepared in the same conditions. Empirical estimation suggests that (C2H6) N clusters with radius of about 9.6?nm can be prepared at 80-bars backing pressure at 308?K. While (C2H6) N clusters of so large size are irradiated by sufficiently intense laser pulses the average energy of protons will be increased up to 50?keV. It is inferred that such large-size deuterated ethane clusters (C2D6) N will favor more efficient neutron generation due to the significant increase of the D-D nuclear reaction cross section in laser-driven cluster nuclear fusion.

Song Li; Zili Zhou; Ye Tian; Haiyang Lu; Wentao Wang; Jingjing Ju; Hongyu Li; Yi Xu; Yuxin Leng; Guoquan Ni; Cheng Wang; Jiansheng Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Intensities of the Raman-active modes in single and multiwall nanotubes S. Reich and C. Thomsen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of recent experiments on aligned nanotubes we calculate the relative intensities for the high-energy modes of the nanotubes and on the excitation energy. As was shown by Milnera et al.3 the radial breathing modeIntensities of the Raman-active modes in single and multiwall nanotubes S. Reich and C. Thomsen

Nabben, Reinhard

491

Intense emission of cluster anions from gold targets under impact of keV/u gold clusters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intense emission of cluster anions from gold targets under impact of keV/u gold clusters. M the emission yield of anionic clusters increases much faster with n than expected from simple proportionality. Accordingly, the most intense emission is observed for Au7 - : under Au9 + impact the Au7 - yield per incident

Boyer, Edmond

492

ORIGINAL PAPER Short-term effect of tillage intensity on N2O and CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ORIGINAL PAPER Short-term effect of tillage intensity on N2O and CO2 emissions Pascal Boeckx negative to positive. We studied the short-term effect of tillage intensity on N2O and CO2 emissions. We site, an intermediately aerated Luvisol in Belgium, were similar. Nitrous oxide and CO2 emissions were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

493

Multiphoton detachment of H-. II. Intensity-dependent photodetachment rates and threshold behavior—complex-scaling generalized pseudospectral method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

intensity considered ranges from 1 to 40 GW/cm2 and the laser frequency covers 0.20–0.42 eV (in the c.m. frame). Finally we perform a simulation of intensity-averaged multiphoton detachment rates by considering the experimental conditions of the laser and H...

Chu, Shih-I; Wang, Jingyan; Laughlin, Cecil

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

SpatialIntensity Variations in Extreme Precipitation in the Contiguous United States and the MaddenJulian Oscillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(MJO) are investigated. Daily gridded precipitation is used to define two types of contiguous regionsSpatial­Intensity Variations in Extreme Precipitation in the Contiguous United States form 23 January 2012) ABSTRACT The spatial­intensity variability of extreme precipitation over

California at Santa Barbara, University of

495

Ultra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields R. C. Issac,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

drives a fast ignition wave.15 Prop- erties of the cluster media as well as the incident laser paUltra hard x rays from krypton clusters heated by intense laser fields R. C. Issac,a) G. Vieux, B of ultrashort laser pulses with krypton clusters at intensity up to 1.3 1018 Wcm 2 has been investigated

Strathclyde, University of

496

Near-infrared sideband generation induced by intense far-infrared radiation in GaAs quantum wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near-infrared sideband generation induced by intense far-infrared radiation in GaAs quantum wells J illuminated with near-infrared NIR radiation at frequency nir and intense far-infrared FIR radiation from and quenching of photoluminescence PL .8,9 The nonlinear interaction of FIR and near-infrared NIR radiation

Kono, Junichiro

497

Electronic and structural response of InSb to ultra-short and ultra-intense laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

intensity of Ac 2. 00 gauss. cm. lrn(&(l'1)) for lnSb for a field intensity of A&i ? 2. 23 gauss cm. Im(e(E)) for InSb for a field intensity of A&i -- 2. 40 gauss cm. hn(e(E)) for InSb for a field intensity of A&i 2. 82 gauss cm. Im(&(E)) for InSb for a...-correlation function for InSb for a field intcnsit, y of Ac ? 2. 00 gauss cin. 21 Tiiiic. cvoluti&m of thc pair-correlation function for lnSb for a field intensity of As = 2. 46 gauss cm. 44 Time evolution of the pair-correlation function for InSb for a field...

Burzo, Andrea Mihaela

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

A Comprehensive System of Energy Intensity Indicators for the U.S.: Methods, Data and Key Trends  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a comprehensive system of energy intensity indicators for the United States that has been developed for the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) over the past decade. This system of indicators is hierarchical in nature, beginning with detailed indexes of energy intensity for various sectors of the economy, which are ultimately aggregated to an overall energy intensity index for the economy as a whole. The aggregation of energy intensity indexes to higher levels in the hierarchy is performed with a version of the Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. Based upon the data and methods in the system of indicators, the economy-wide energy intensity index shows a decline of about 14% in 2010 relative to a 1985 base year. Discussion of energy intensity indicators for each of the broad end-use sectors of the economy—residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation—is presented in the report. An analysis of recent changes in the efficiency of electricity generation in the U.S. is also included. A detailed appendix describes the data sources and methodology behind the energy intensity indicators for each sector.

Belzer, David B.

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

499

Energetic proton generation from intense Coulomb explosion of large-size ethane clusters  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation is performed on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses at the intensity of 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} (55 fs, 160 mJ at 800 nm) with ethane cluster (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} jets prepared under the backing pressure of 30 bars at room temperature (298 K). The experiment results indicate the generation of energetic protons, whose average and maximum kinetic energies are 12.2 and 138.1 keV, respectively, by Coulomb explosion of (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters. (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters of 5 nm in radius are generated in the experiment, which are 1.7 times larger than that of (CH{sub 4}){sub N} clusters prepared in the same conditions. Empirical estimation suggests that (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters with radius of about 9.6 nm can be prepared at 80-bars backing pressure at 308 K. While (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters of so large size are irradiated by sufficiently intense laser pulses, the average energy of protons will be increased up to 50 keV. It is inferred that such large-size deuterated ethane clusters (C{sub 2}D{sub 6}){sub N} will favor more efficient neutron generation due to the significant increase of the D-D nuclear reaction cross section in laser-driven cluster nuclear fusion.

Li Song; Zhou Zili; Tian Ye; Lu Haiyang; Wang Wentao; Ju Jingjing; Xu Yi; Leng Yuxin; Ni Guoquan; Wang Cheng; Liu Jiansheng [State Key Laboratory of High Filed Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li Hongyu [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

500

Production of hybrid poplar under short-term, intensive culture in Western Colorado  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An irrigated study was conducted at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita for 6 years to evaluate eight hybrid poplar clones under short-term, intensive culture. The eight clones included in the study were Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii (NM6), P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides (52225, OP367), and P. deltoides x P. nigra (Norway, Noreaster, Raverdaus, 14274, 14272). Data were collected for growth, aerial biomass yield, dry matter partitioning, carbon sequestration, and insect and disease infestation. OP367 and 52225 consistently had larger tree diameters than other hybrids for each of the 6 years. Averaged across clones, yield was 58.4 Mg ha?1. OP367 had the highest yield at 72.2 Mg ha?1 and 14274 had the lowest yield at 41.0 Mg ha?1. The yield of OP367 was 1.8 times greater than that of 14274. Carbon yield over the 6 years of testing was highest for OP367 at 33.4 Mg C ha?1 and lowest for 14274 at 18.8 Mg C ha?1. Of the eight clones tested, OP367 was the most adapted and productive clone in this short-term, intensive culture system in the arid environment of the Grand Valley of western Colorado as evidenced by its productive growth, yield, insect resistance, winterhardiness, and tree architecture. Several insect species infested the poplar clones over the course of the rotation. Best management practices for growers who produce hybrid poplar under short-term, intensive culture should include the following: (1) plant highly productive clones, (2) poplar clones with suitable tree architecture for production and market objectives should be used, (3) if carbon sequestration is an important production objective, plant a suitable clone, (4) some poplar clones develop chlorosis when planted in high pH soils and should be avoided, and (5) use poplar clones that have been shown to exhibit resistance to specific insect species.

C.H. Pearson; A.D. Halvorson; R.D. Moench; R.W. Hammon

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z