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1

X-ray Science Division: Groups  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Division: Groups Division: Groups Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (AMO) Primary Contact: Stephen Southworth Work focuses on understanding how strong optical and x-ray fields interact with matter, with an emphasis on photonic control of electronic, atomic and molecular motion. Chemical and Materials Science (CMS) Primary Contact: Randy Winans Research Disciplines: Chemistry, Materials Science Detectors (DET) Primary Contact: Antonino Miceli GMCA Structural Biology Facility (MX) Primary Contact: Robert Fischetti Research Disciplines: Biology, Life Sciences Imaging (IMG) Primary Contact: Francesco DeCarlo Research Disciplines: Materials Science, Biology, Physics, Life Sciences Inelastic X-ray & Nuclear Resonant Scattering (IXN) Primary Contact: Thomas Gog Research Disciplines: Condensed Matter Physics, Geophysics, Materials

2

Core Level Spectroscopies Surface Science and X-Ray Spectroscopy Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Core Level Spectroscopy Creation and Decay of Core Holes Spectroscopic Techniques X-ray Photoelectron (XPS) X-ray Absorption (XAS) X-ray Emission (XES) Auger Electron (AES) Core holes are created by the ionization of a core electron in XPS and by excitation in XAS . The XPS and XAS final states are highly unstable and the core hole decays by non-radiant Auger relaxation (AES) or by radiant x-ray emission processes (XES). XPS and AES probe the unoccupied electronic stru cture, while XAS projects the unoccupied valence states of the system onto a particular atom. A brief description of the each of the different spectroscopies illustrated by schematic pictures of the creation and decay with data measured for N2 adsorbed on Ni(100) can be found by scrolling

3

Frontiers in X-Ray Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The year 2010 marked the fiftieth anniversary of the optical laser and the first anniversary of the world's first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. This exciting, new accelerator-based source of x-rays provides peak brilliances roughly a billion times greater than currently available from synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, and thus explores a qualitatively different parameter space. This talk will describe the first experiments at the LCLS aimed at understanding the nature of high intensity x-ray interactions, related applications in ultrafast imaging on the atomic scale and sketch nascent plans for the extension of both linac and storage-ring based photon sources.

Linda Young

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

4

Linda Young Named to Head X-ray Science Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to the APS Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Earns an R&D 100 Award Winans of XSD Elected to ACS Fellowship Gluskin of Photon Sciences named Argonne Distinguished Fellow UChicago...

5

Science Challenges & Opportunities for an Advanced X-ray Free...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Challenges & Opportunities for an Advanced X-ray Free-electron Laser Wednesday, October 2, 2013 - 3:00pm SLAC, Kavli 3rd Floor Conference Room Robert Schoenlein, Lawrence...

6

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | SRX: Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SRX: Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy SRX: Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope Scientific communities such as environmental sciences, life sciences, and material sciences have identified the need to develop analytical resources to advance the understanding of complex natural and engineered systems that are heterogeneous on the micron to nanometer scale. These needs for high intensity x-ray nanoprobes resulted in the commitment of the NSLS-II Project to build the Submicron Resolution X-ray (SRX) Spectroscopy beamline showing a unique combination of high spectral resolution over a very broad energy range and very high beam intensity in a sub-micrometer spot. NSLS-II will provide one of the best sources in the world for such an instrument.

7

X-ray Science Division: Mission and Goals | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-ray Science Division: Mission and Goals The mission of the X-ray Science Division (XSD) is to enable and perform world class research using x-rays. This mission is accomplished...

8

Workshop on Time Domain Science Using X-ray Techniques  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time-Resolved Beamlines Time-Resolved Beamlines Advisory Committee Workshop Home Workshop Chairs: Lin Chen (Argonne National Laboratory) Steve Milton (Advanced Photon Source) David Reis (University of Michigan) Linda Young (Argonne National Laboratory) Workshop on Time Domain Science Using X-ray Techniques August 29 September 1, 2004, The Abbey, Fontana, Lake Geneva Area, Wisconsin A workshop on "Time Domain Science Using X-ray Techniques" was held from August 29 September 1, 2004 , welcoming both experts and beginners in the field. This is one of the concurrently held workshops in the series on "Future Scientific Directions for the Advanced Photon Source." The goal of the workshop was to identify future directions in scientific research using time resolved x-ray techniques and to address possiblities to produce ps

9

Opportunities for X-ray Science in Future Computing Architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The world of computing continues to evolve rapidly. In just the past 10 years, we have seen the emergence of petascale supercomputing, cloud computing that provides on-demand computing and storage with considerable economies of scale, software-as-a-service methods that permit outsourcing of complex processes, and grid computing that enables federation of resources across institutional boundaries. These trends show no sign of slowing down. The next 10 years will surely see exascale, new cloud offerings, and other terabit networks. This talk reviews various of these developments and discusses their potential implications for x-ray science and x-ray facilities.

Foster, Ian [Argonne National Laboratory

2011-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

10

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY Beamline X1A2 - Soft x-ray diffraction and nano-imaging Beamline X17 - X-ray powder diffraction Beamline X22C - Resonant x-ray...

11

Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics  

SciTech Connect

Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R. [and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Synchrotron x-ray sources and new opportunities in the soil and environmental sciences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains the following papers: characteristics of the advanced photon source and comparison with existing synchrotron facilities; x-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS and XANES -- A versatile tool to study the atomic and electronic structure of materials; applications of x-ray spectroscopy and anomalous scattering experiments in the soil and environmental sciences; X-ray fluorescence microprobe and microtomography.

Schulze, D. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA)); Anderson, S. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (USA)); Mattigod, S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proceedings of the 12th International Clay Conference, Bahia Blanca, Argentina, July 22-28, 2001. Gibbs, D. X-ray magnetic scattering. Synchrotron Radiation News...

14

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | HXN: Hard X-ray Nanoprobe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HXN: Hard X-ray Nanoprobe HXN: Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe beamline and endstation instruments (HXN) will be designed and constructed to explore new frontiers of hard x-ray microscopy applications with the highest achievable spatial resolution. Currently the available spatial resolution for scientific applications, provided by scanning x-ray microscopes in the hard x-ray regime, is limited to ~50nm, which is still insufficient for probing the nanoscale interfacial structures critical in determining properties and functionalities of material and biological systems. The HXN beamline aims to enable x-ray experiments at spatial resolutions ranging from 10 to 30 nm with an ultimate goal of ~1 nm. Beamline Description

15

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope Many hot topics related to the high frequency dynamics of condensed matter require both a narrower and steeper resolution function and access to a broader dynamic range than what are currently available. This represents a sort of "no man's land" that falls right in the dynamic gap lying between the high frequency spectroscopies, such as inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), and the low frequency ones. New IXS spectrometers with improved energy and momentum resolutions would be required to fill this gap. To achieve this goal, a new x-ray optics concept for both the monochromatization and energy analysis of x-rays will be implemented at the NSLS-II Inelastic X-ray Scattering beamline. This solution exploits the

16

4D Functional Materials Science with X-ray Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultrafast Electron Diffraction Studies of Lattice Dynamics in Thin Bismuth Films · Understanding Fatigue and Corrosion-Fatigue Behavior by In Situ 3D X-ray ...

17

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy technologies. SLAC's unique X-ray facilities - the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) - attract thousands of...

18

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocko, B.M., Wen, K., Maoz, R., Cohen, H., and Sagiv, J. Non-destructive chemical modification of a preassembled silane multilayer: structural study by combined FTIR, x-ray...

19

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

D.F. Inelastic x-ray scattering investigations of lattice dynamics in SmFeAsO1-xFy superconductors. Proceedings of The 9th International Conference on Spectroscopies in Novel...

20

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | XPD: X-ray Powder Diffraction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

XPD: X-ray Powder Diffraction XPD: X-ray Powder Diffraction Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope XPD is a tunable facility with the ability to collect diffraction data at high x-ray energies (40keV-80keV), offering rapid acquisition (millisecond) and high angular resolution capabilities on the same instrument. XPD addresses future scientific challenges in, for example, hydrogen storage, CO2 sequestration, advanced structural ceramics, catalysis, and materials processing. Such materials of high technological value often are complex, nanostructured and heterogeneous. The scientific grand challenge is to obtain robust and quantitative (micro)structural information, not only in the ground state at ambient conditions, but also in situ or in operando with varying temperature, pressure, magnetic/electric/stress

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The Use of X-Ray Microbeams in Materials Science  

SciTech Connect

Most materials are heterogeneous on mesoscopic length scales (tenths-to-tens of microns), and materials properties depend critically on mesoscopic structures such as grain sizes, texture, and impurities. The recent availability of intense, focused x-ray microbeams at synchrotron facilities has enabled new techniques for mesoscale materials characterization. We describe instrumentation and experiments on the MHATT-CAT and UNICAT undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source which use micron and submicron-size x-ray beams to investigate the grain orientation, local strain and defect content in a variety of materials of technological interest. Results from a combinatorial study on epitaxial growth of oxide films on textured metal substrates will be described to illustrate x-ray microbeam capabilities.

Budai, J.D.; Chung, J.-S.; Ice, G.E.; Larson, B.C.; Lowe, W.P.; Norton, D.P.; Tamura, N.; Tischler, J.Z.; Williams, E.L.; Yoon, M.; Zschack, P.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

22

Workshop: Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate | Stanford  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate Saturday, October 22, 2011 - 8:30am SSRL Conference Room 137-322 In conjunction with the 2011 LCLS/SSRL User Meeting, SSRL and the APS will jointly host a two-day workshop focused on opportunities with short-pulse, high-repetition rate X-ray Science. The workshop will feature international speakers and panel experts presenting the scientific basis, preliminary results and future potential of high rep-rate picosecond x-rays beams from storage rings. The workshop will be broadly focused on topics in materials science, chemistry, biology and catalysis. The workshop agenda will also include presentations on accelerator operational modes, precision timing issues, detector challenges and the relation of storage ring science with

23

'Science on Saturday' lecture examines the extreme X-ray universe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Printer-friendly NASA's NuSTAR spacecraft. "The Extreme X-ray Universe: Discovery Science with NASA's NuSTAR Mission," by Lab scientists Michael Pivovaroff and Bill Craig, and...

24

X Ray Scattering | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

X Ray Scattering X Ray Scattering Materials Sciences and Engineering (MSE) Division MSE Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation Hubs BES Funding Opportunities The Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network (CMCSN) Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Scientific Highlights Reports and Activities Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Research Areas X Ray Scattering Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page This activity supports basic research on the fundamental interactions of photons with matter to achieve an understanding of atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures and excitations and their relationships to materials properties. The main emphasis is on x-ray scattering, spectroscopy, and imaging research, primarily at major BES-supported user facilities.

25

X-Ray Light Sources | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

X-Ray Light Sources X-Ray Light Sources Scientific User Facilities (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers Electron-Beam Microcharacterization Centers Accelerator & Detector Research & Development Principal Investigators' Meetings Scientific Highlights Construction Projects BES Home User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page This activity supports the operation of five DOE light sources. The unique properties of synchrotron radiation include its continuous spectrum, high flux and brightness, and in the case of the Linac Coherent Light Source, high coherence, which makes it an indispensable tool in the exploration of matter. The wavelengths of the emitted photons span a range of dimensions

26

The Next Challenge in X-Ray Science: Control of Resonant Electronic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Next Challenge in X-Ray Science: Control of Resonant Electronic The Next Challenge in X-Ray Science: Control of Resonant Electronic Processes Wednesday, September 11, 2013 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Joachim Stöhr, LCLS My talk will give a historic perspective of the revolutionary science that was enabled by the advent of high power sources of coherent electromagnetic radiation and the implications for future scientific opportunities with x-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs). The historical journey starts with the development of radar microwave sources in the 1940s that fueled the development of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques which by now have led to 6 Nobel Prizes. The theoretical description of NMR as coherent processes between nuclear states by Rabi and Bloch also provided the theoretical basis for the optical laser and its applications. Over the last

27

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Groningen Josh Turner LCLS Mary Upton Argonne National Lab Julian Baumert Yuguang Cai University of Kentucky Antonio Checco Soft Matter Group, BNL Scott Coburn NSLSII, BNL...

28

3-D Materials Science using Polychromatic Synchrotron X-Ray ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... beamline with submicron spatial resolution at the Advanced Photon Source. ... Sciences and Engineering Division; UNI-XOR support at APS by DOE-BES.

29

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Group Photos August 2013: John with the Beamline Advisory Team for the SIX project at NSLS-II. The preparations for the external building for SIX can be seen in the background....

30

Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy development for materials science at the Advanced Light Source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several third generation synchrotron radiation facilities are now operational and the high brightness of these photon sources offers new opportunities for x-ray microscopy. Well developed synchrotron radiation spectroscopy techniques are being applied in new instruments capable of imaging the surface of a material with a spatial resolution smaller than one micron. There are two aspects to this. One is to further the field of surface science by exploring the effects of spatial variations across a surface on a scale not previously accessible to x-ray measurements. The other is to open up new analytical techniques in materials science using x-rays, on a spatial scale comparable to that of the processes or devices to be studied. The development of the spectromicroscopy program at the Advanced Light Source will employ a variety of instruments, some are already operational. Their development and use will be discussed, and recent results will be presented to illustrate their capabilities.

Warwick, T.; Padmore, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Ade, H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Hitchcock, A.P. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Rightor, E.G. [Dow Texas Polymer Center, Freeport, TX (United States); Tonner, B.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Subsurface Science (The Molecular Environmental Science Group) |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Subsurface Science Subsurface Science BIO Home Page About BIO News Releases Research Publications People Contact Us Organization Chart Site Index Inside BIO BIO Safety About Argonne arrow Subsurface Science The Molecular Environmental Science Group (MESG) The MESG is part of the Biosciences Division at Argonne National Laboratory. One of the main foci during the creation and growth of the MESG has been the development of an internationally recognized integrated multidisciplinary scientific team focused on the investigation of fundamental biogeochemical questions. Presently, expertise that is represented by members of the MES Group includes x-ray Physics, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Microbiology, (Bio)geochemistry, and radiolimnology. Additional expertise in electron microscopy, x-ray microscopy, Microbial Ecology, and Bioinformatics often is provided by collaborations with scientists outside of our group.

32

SOFT INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING (SIX) Group Leader: Ignace Jarrige  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING (SIX) INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING (SIX) Group Leader: Ignace Jarrige 1 Proposal Team: D. Arena 1 , A. Baron 2 , Y. Cai 1 , Y.-D. Chuang 3 , F. de Groot 4 , J. Guo 3 , J.P. Hill 1 , S. Hulbert 1 , C. McGuinness 5 , R. Reininger 9 , J.E. Rubenson 6 , C. Sanchez-Hanke 1 , T. Schmitt 7 , K. Smith 8 1 Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2 SPring-8, 3 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 4 Utrecht University, 5 Trinity College Dublin, 6 Uppsala University, 7 Paul Scherrer Institute, 8 Boston University, 9 Argonne National Laboratory TECHNIQUE AND CAPABILITIES APPLICATIONS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION * Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at unprecedented resolution (10 meV @ 1000 eV) to revolutionize study of low energy excitations in many important materials. * Continuously tunable momentum transfer (q) to study the

33

Workshops on Science Enabled by a Coherent, CW, Synchrotron X-ray Source, June 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In June of 2011 we held six two-day workshops called "XDL-2011: Science at the Hard X-ray Diffraction Limit". The six workshops covered (1) Diffraction-based imaging techniques, (2) Biomolecular structure from non-crystalline materials, (3) Ultra-fast science, (4) High-pressure science, (5) Materials research with nano-beams and (6) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS), In each workshop, invited speaker from around the world presented examples of novel experiments that require a CW, diffraction-limited source. During the workshop, each invited speaker provided a one-page description of the experiment and an illustrative graphic. The experiments identified by the workshops demonstrate the broad and deep scientific case for a CW coherent synchrotron x-ray source. The next step is to perform detailed simulations of the best of these ideas to test them quantitatively and to guide detailed x-ray beam-line designs. These designs are the first step toward developing detailed facility designs and cost estimates.

Brock, Joel

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

34

Staff at sector 30, inelastic x-ray scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Status and Schedule Safety and Training Divisions APS Engineering Support Division AES Groups Accelerator Systems Division ASD Groups X-ray Science Division XSD Groups...

35

2011 X-Ray Science Gordon Research Conference (August 7-12, 2011, Colby, College. Waterville, ME)  

SciTech Connect

The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on X-ray Science will feature forefront x-ray-based science enabled by the rapid improvements in synchrotron and x-ray laser sources. Across the world, x-ray sources are playing an increasingly important role in physics, materials, chemistry, and biology, expanding into ever broadening areas of science and engineering. With the first hard x-ray free electron laser source beginning operation and with other advanced x-ray sources operational and planned, it is a very exciting and pivotal time for exchange ideas about the future of x-ray science and applications. The Conference will provide the forum for this interaction. An international cast of speakers will illuminate sessions on ultrafast science, coherence, imaging, in situ studies, extreme conditions, new developments in optics, sources, and detectors, inelastic scattering, nanoscience, life science, and energy sciences. The Conference will bring together investigators at the forefront of these areas, and will provide a venue for young scientists entering a career in x-ray research to present their research in poster format, hold discussions in a friendly setting, and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. Some poster presenters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with ample time for discussion as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, will provide an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to exchange ideas about forefront x-ray techniques and will promote cross-fertilization between the various research areas represented.

Gregory Stephenson

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

36

A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR X-RAY CAVITIES IN THE HOT GAS OF GALAXY GROUPS  

SciTech Connect

We have performed a systematic search for X-ray cavities in the hot gas of 51 galaxy groups with Chandra archival data. The cavities are identified based on two methods: subtracting an elliptical beta-model fitted to the X-ray surface brightness, and performing unsharp masking. Thirteen groups in the sample ({approx}25%) are identified as clearly containing cavities, with another 13 systems showing tentative evidence for such structures. We find tight correlations between the radial and tangential radii of the cavities, and between their size and projected distance from the group center, in quantitative agreement with the case for more massive clusters. This suggests that similar physical processes are responsible for cavity evolution and disruption in systems covering a large range in total mass. We see no clear association between the detection of cavities and the current 1.4 GHz radio luminosity of the central brightest group galaxy, but there is a clear tendency for systems with a cool core to be more likely to harbor detectable cavities. To test the efficiency of the adopted cavity detection procedures, we employ a set of mock images designed to mimic typical Chandra data of our sample, and find that the model-fitting approach is generally more reliable than unsharp masking for recovering cavity properties. Finally, we find that the detectability of cavities is strongly influenced by a few factors, particularly the signal-to-noise ratio of the data, and that the real fraction of X-ray groups with prominent cavities could be substantially larger than the 25%-50% suggested by our analysis.

Dong Ruobing [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Rasmussen, Jesper; Mulchaey, John S., E-mail: rdong@princeton.ed [Observatories of Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Science with Micro-X: the TES Microcalorimeter X-ray Imaging Rocket  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Micro-X is a proposed sounding rocket experiment that will combine a transition-edge-sensor X-ray-microcalorimeter array with a conical imaging mirror to obtain high-spectral-resolution images of extended and point X-ray sources. We describe the payload and the science targeted by this mission including the discussion of three possible Micro-X targets: the Puppis A supernova remnant, the Virgo Cluster, and Circinus X-1. For example, a Micro-X observation of the bright eastern knot of Puppis A will obtain a line-dominated spectrum with 90,000 counts collected in 300 seconds at 2 eV resolution across the 0.3-2.5 keV band. Micro-X will utilize plasma diagnostics to determine the thermodynamic and ionization state of the plasma, to search for line shifts and broadening associated with dynamical processes, and seek evidence of ejecta enhancement. For clusters of galaxies, Micro-X can uniquely study turbulence and the temperature distribution function. For binaries, Micro-X's high resolution spectra will separate the different processes contributing to the Fe K lines at 6 keV and give a clear view of the geometry of the gas flows and circumstellar gas.

Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Bandler, S R; Bautz, M; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Deiker, S; Doriese, W B; Flanagan, K; Galeazzi, M; Hilton, G C; Hwang, U; Irwin, K D; Kallman, T; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Kissel, S; Levine, A; Loewenstein, M; Martinez-Galarce, D; McCammon, D; Mushotzky, R; Petre, R; Porter, F S; Reistema, C D; Saab, T; Serlemitsos, P; Schulz, N; Smith, R; Ullom, J N

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

38

Bioanalytical Science Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bioanalytical Science Group. Welcome. We provide the measurement science, standards, technology, and data required ...

2013-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

39

The Next Challenge in X-Ray Science: Control of Resonant Electronic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and the implications for future scientific opportunities with x-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs). The historical journey starts with the development of radar microwave...

40

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | CSX: Coherent Soft X-ray Scattering and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CSX: Coherent Soft X-ray Scattering and polarization CSX: Coherent Soft X-ray Scattering and polarization X-Ray 1 Poster | X-Ray 2 Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope The Coherent Soft X-ray Scattering and Polarization (CSX) beamline design (source and optics) has been optimized to the NSLS-II parameters to provide the highest possible flux for experiments requiring either high coherence or full control of the polarization. Beamline Description The CSX beamline will be served by two identical EPU49 sources. Both EPUs are planned to operate in a canted geometry with opposite circular polarization for fast polarization switching experiments at the full polarization control (PC) branch. The EPUs will also be able to operate "phased" as a single device for high coherent flux experiments at the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

A recirculating linac-based facility for ultrafast X-ray science  

SciTech Connect

We present an updated design for a proposed source of ultra-fast synchrotron radiation pulses based on a recirculating superconducting linac, in particular the incorporation of EUV and soft x-ray production. The project has been named LUX - Linac-based Ultrafast X-ray facility. The source produces intense x-ray pulses with duration of 10-100 fs at a 10 kHz repetition rate, with synchronization of 10 s fs, optimized for the study of ultra-fast dynamics. The photon range covers the EUV to hard x-ray spectrum by use of seeded harmonic generation in undulators, and a specialized technique for ultra-short-pulse photon production in the 1-10 keV range. High-brightness rf photocathodes produce electron bunches which are optimized either for coherent emission in free-electron lasers, or to provide a large x/y emittance ration and small vertical emittance which allows for manipulation to produce short-pulse hard x-rays. An injector linac accelerates the beam to 120 MeV, and is followed by four passes through a 600-720 MeV recirculating linac. We outline the major technical components of the proposed facility.

Corlett, J.N; Barletta, W.A.; DeSantis, S.; Doolittle, L.; Fawley, W.M.; Green, M.A.; Heimann, P.; Leone, S.; Lidia, S.; Li, D.; Ratti, A.; Robinson, K.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Wan, W.; Wells, R.; Wolski, A.; Zholents, A.; Placidi, M.; Pirkl, W.; Parmigiani, F.

2003-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

42

HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR THE STUDY OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON X-RAY COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY.  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) is a non-destructive method for examination of rock, soil, and other types of samples studied in the earth and environmental sciences. The high x-ray intensities of the synchrotron source make possible the acquisition of tomographic volumes at a high rate that requires the application of high-performance computing techniques for data reconstruction to produce the three-dimensional volumes, for their visualization, and for data analysis. These problems are exacerbated by the need to share information between collaborators at widely separated locations over both local and tide-area networks. A summary of the CMT technique and examples of applications are given here together with a discussion of the applications of high-performance computing methods to improve the experimental techniques and analysis of the data.

FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.; MCGUIGAN,M.; SMITH,G.J.; SPILETIC,J.

2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

43

[Research at and operation of the material science x-ray absorption beamline (X-11) at the National Synchrotron Light Source]. Progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses three projects at the Material Science X-Ray Absorption Beamline. Topics discussed include: XAFS study of some titanium silicon and germanium compounds; initial XAS results of zirconium/silicon reactions; and low angle electron yield detector.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

(Research at and operation of the material science x-ray absorption beamline (X-11) at the National Synchrotron Light Source)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses three projects at the Material Science X-Ray Absorption Beamline. Topics discussed include: XAFS study of some titanium silicon and germanium compounds; initial XAS results of zirconium/silicon reactions; and low angle electron yield detector.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Multiplexed Biomolecular Science Group Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiplexed Biomolecular Science Group. Welcome. The Multiplexed Biomolecular Science Group conducts research in ...

2012-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

46

Controls Group  

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Status and Schedule Safety and Training Divisions APS Engineering Support Division AES Groups Accelerator Systems Division ASD Groups X-ray Science Division XSD Groups...

47

X-ray science taps bug biology to design better materials and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Reports Summer Science Writing Internship Caddiesflies spin an adhesive silk underwater to build nets to capture food and build protective shelter. Pictured is that silk...

48

X-ray Interface Science at Advanced Photon Source: New Sector...  

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will serve a diverse community with interests in catalysis, oxide film growth, geochemistry, surface physics, nano-science, tribology, electrochemistry and so on. Attendees,...

49

Materials Analysis by Soft x-ray Scanning Transmission X-ray ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization.

50

Multiplexed Biomolecular Science Group Staff  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Members of the Multiplexed Biomolecular Science Group. Dr. Marc Salit (Group Leader). Autumn ...

2012-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

51

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Kinetic Study: Pt-Group Metals and Bimetallic Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pt-group metals were some of the first metals to be studied as catalysts for industrial use. The goal of these studies was to ascertain a fundamental understanding of CO oxidation and acetylene cyclotrimerization reactions on Ptgroup metals. A further goal was to determine the optimal conditions for each reaction. CO oxidation on Rh(111),Pt(100), and Pd(100) was scrutinized on various oxide surfaces from chemisorbed to bulk metal oxides. Low pressure reactions on Rh(111) reveal the highest activity was a CO uninhibited surface with oxidation revealed that only oxidation reactions on Pd(100) show oxygen penetration after CO has been consumed; however, during the highest activity XPS found only chemisorbed species. The cyclotrimerization of acetylene to benzene is another reaction found in industry typically carried out on Pd. The active site is considered to be a 7 atom configuration with 6 atoms surrounding a central atom. By adding relatively catalytically inert Au atoms to the active Pd(111) surface the acetylene coupling activity is enhanced. Cyclization activity is a function of the surface composition and the surface structure. A single Pd atom surrounded by six Au atoms is found to have the highest activity at 300K for acetylene cyclotrimerization.

Gath, Kerrie K.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

X-ray science taps bug biology to design better materials and reduce  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News News Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Experts Guide Media Contacts Social Media Photos Videos Fact Sheets, Brochures and Reports Summer Science Writing Internship Caddiesflies spin an adhesive silk underwater to build nets to capture food and build protective shelter. Pictured is that silk magnified. Courtesy: Bennett Addison. Click to enlarge. Caddiesflies spin an adhesive silk underwater to build nets to capture food and build protective shelter. Pictured is that silk magnified. Courtesy: Bennett Addison. Click to enlarge. "(Caddisfly silk) is really not much stronger than super glue, but try to put super glue in your bathtub without it ever getting a chance to dry," says Jeff Yarger, professor of chemistry, biochemistry and physics at Arizona State University. Courtesy: Bennett Addison. Click to enlarge.

53

Cell Systems Science Group Staff  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Members of the Cell Systems Science Group. Dr. John T. Elliott (Group Leader). Dr. Donald H. Atha ...

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

54

Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pressure transformations of CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev.structural transformation in CdSe nanocrystals under highto rock salt transformation in CdSe nanocrystals,” Science,

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering  

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Beamlines Divisions Argonne Home > Advanced Photon Source > Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering The Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering group...

56

SSRL School 2008 on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in MES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

May 20-22, 2008 SSRL School on Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Techniques in Environmental and Materials Sciences: Theory and Application Group photo from the 2008 SSRL...

57

For Prospective Users: Learn about x-ray research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

research in the fields of materials science; biological science; physics; chemistry; environmental, geophysical, and planetary science; and innovative x-ray instrumentation....

58

X-ray Microscopy and Imaging (XSD-XMI)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Imaging (XMI) Imaging (XMI) About XMI Science and Research Beamlines Highlights Software and Tools Intranet Search APS... Argonne Home > Advanced Photon Source > Contacts FAQs Beamlines News Publications APS Email Portal APS Intranet APS Phonebook APS Quick Links for Users APS Safety and Training Welcome to the X-ray Microscopy and Imaging group (XMI)! X-ray Microscopy and Imaging is part of the X-ray Science Division at the Advanced Photon Source. We develop and support a diverse and multidisciplinary user research program at Sectors 2 and 32 of the APS, with the overall goal to image and study materials structures at spatial and temporal resolutions that are most scientifically relevant to the cutting-edge advances in materials, biological, environmental, and biomedical sciences. To achieve this goal, we actively engage in various research activities including

59

future science group  

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61 61 ISSN 1759-7269 10.4155/BFS.11.150 © 2012 Future Science Ltd In 1950 Reese et al. proposed a mechanism for cel- lulose hydrolysis, which involved two general com- ponents, C 1 and C x , acting in sequence [1]. According to the model, the C 1 component first disrupted and swelled the crystalline cellulose, possibly releasing soluble oligo saccharides into solution. The C x compo- nent, which was shown to have endoglucanase activity, was then able to effectively hydrolyze the previously inaccessible substrate along with the soluble oligo- saccharides. Furthermore, the activity of the mixture was found to be higher than the activity of each com- ponent acting alone, indicating that the components were acting synergistically. In the following years, a number of groups began to identify and characterize

60

SRS -Structural Science Home Page  

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Safety and Training Divisions APS Engineering Support Division AES Groups Accelerator Systems Division ASD Groups X-ray Science Division XSD Groups Industry Argonne Home ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

HIGH BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR LIFE SCIENCES (LIX) Group Leader: Lin Yang Proposal Team: O. Bilsel 1 , B. Hsiao 2 , H. Huang 3 , T. Irving 4 , A. Menzel 5 , L. Pollack 6 , C. Riekel 7 , J. Rubert 8 , H. Tsuruta 9 , L. Yang 10 1 University of Massachusetts, 2 Stony Brook University, 3 Rice University, 4 IIT, 5SLS, 6 Cornell University, 7 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 8 NEU, 9 Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, 10 Brookhaven National Laboratory TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES APPLICATIONS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION * Energy range 2-20keV using undulator source. Simultaneous SAXS/WAXS to cover 0.003-3Å -1 at 12keV with 1 micron spot size * Time-resolved solution scattering with resolution of (1) microseconds to milliseconds using continuous-flow mixing (5µm x 10µm spot size) and (2) milliseconds using stopped-

62

GRPANL: a program for fitting complex peak groupings for gamma and x-ray energies and intensities  

SciTech Connect

GRPANL is a general-purpose peak-fitting program that calculates gamma-ray and x-ray energies and intensities from a given spectral region. The program requires that the user supply input information such as the first and last channels of the region, the channels to be used as pre- and post-region background, the system gain and zero-intercept, and a list of approximate energy values at which peaks occur in the region. Because the peak position and peak-shape parameters enter nonlinearly into the peak-fitting algorithm, an iterative least-square procedure is used in the fitting process. The program iterates until either all convergence criteria are met or ten iterations have elapsed. The code described here allows for twenty free parameters and a region as large as 240 data channels. This code runs on an LSI-11 computer with 32K memory and disk-storage capability.

Gunnink, R.; Ruhter, W.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

64

X-Ray Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 17, 2009 ... Stress Mapping Analysis by Ray Tracing (SMART): A New Technique ... technique of synchrotron X-ray topography, where a grid made out of ...

65

RHIC II Science Working Groups  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshops Workshops The series of RHIC II Science Workshops began in November 2004, at which time seven Working Groups were initiated. These groups met in workshops through 2005, with the purpose of providing an organized forum for the community to address and describe quantitatively the most important science issues for the proposed RHIC II luminosity upgrade, and corresponding detector upgrades. Each Working Group was led by three convenors representing theory and experiment, and each has produced a detailed report (except for the "New Directions" group, which provided a sounding board and input to the other groups). The Working Group reports are linked below. The summary "white paper" document, "Future Science at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider" (PDF), is based on these reports, and was prepared by a Writing Committee that included at least one convenor from each of the Working Groups.

66

X-ray beamsplitter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel S. (Mountain View, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

future science group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

35 35 ISSN 1759-7269 10.4155/BFS.13.56 © 2013 Future Science Ltd While lignocellulosic feedstocks represent a promising renewable and sustainable alternative to petroleum- based fuels, high production costs associated with con- version processes currently prevent them from being economically viable for large-scale implementation [1]. The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks requires the depolymerization of cell wall carbohydrates into simple sugars that can be utilized during fermentation. However, the desired cellulose microfibrils are surrounded by a matrix of lignin and hemicellulose, which greatly inhibits their accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes [1,2]. Lignin is a phenolic polymer that reinforces the secondary cell wall, confers struc-

68

X-ray generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

Dawson, John M. (Los Angeles, CA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Neutron and X-Ray Scattering - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Home Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering Science Recent advances in neutron and x-ray scattering instrumentation at major DOE facilities such as the Spallation Neutron Source and Advanced Photon Source provide unprecedented insights into complex phenomena in bulk and interfacial materials. The vision of our group is to harness the complementarity of neutrons and x-rays to study how materials respond on a range of length and time scales to phase competition, so that we can learn to control emergent behavior and generate functional properties in energy-related materials. We use neutrons and x-rays to investigate the structure and dynamics of bulk and interfacial materials with properties that are useful for energy applications, such as superconductivity, magnetism and thermoelectricity. Phase competition can generate or enhance such properties, but it is extremely challenging to characterize fluctuations in the competing order, whether in bulk disordered materials, or artificial heterostructures. Our goal is to utilize efficient techniques that we have been developing for measuring nanoscale phase fluctuations, both static and dynamic, to enable the rational design of new materials for energy within MSD.

70

X-Ray Data from the X-Ray Data Booklet Online  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The original X-Ray Data Booklet, published in 1985, became a classic reference source. The online version has been significantly revised and updated to reflect today's science. Hundreds of pages of authoritative data provide the x-ray properties of elements, information on synchrotron radiation, scattering processes, optics and detectors, and other related calculations, formulas, and data tables.

Thompson, Albert C.; Attwood, David T.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Underwood, James H.; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kirz, Janos; Lindau, Ingolf; Pianetta, Piero; Winick, Herman; Williams, Gwyn P.; Scofield, James H.

71

NIST, Sensor Science Division, Ultraviolet Radiation Group ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Physicist Sensor Science Division Ultraviolet Radiation Group. ... Ph.D. Optical Sciences and Engineering ... Orlando, FL MS Electrical Engineering, The ...

2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

72

Gamma Radiation & X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations...

73

Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hyperspectral CARS Microscopy in the Fingerprint Region · In Situ X-ray ... Opportunities for Multimodal CARS Microscopy in Materials Science · Photoemission ...

74

X-ray microtomography  

SciTech Connect

In this tutorial, we describe X-ray microtomography as a technique to nondestructively characterize material microstructure in three dimensions at a micron level spatial resolution. While commercially available laboratory scale instrumentation is available, we focus our attention on synchrotron-based systems, where we can exploit a high flux, monochromatic X-ray beam to produce high fidelity three-dimensional images. A brief description of the physics and the mathematical analysis behind the technique is followed by example applications to specific materials characterization problems, with a particular focus on the utilization of three-dimensional image processing that can be used to extract a wide range of useful information.

Landis, Eric N., E-mail: landis@maine.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maine, 5711 Boardman Hall, Orono, Maine 04469 (United States); Keane, Denis T., E-mail: dtkeane@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University (United States); DND-CAT, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Bldg. 432/A002, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Ultra-short wavelength x-ray system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus to generate a beam of coherent light including x-rays or XUV by colliding a high-intensity laser pulse with an electron beam that is accelerated by a synchronized laser pulse. Applications include x-ray and EUV lithography, protein structural analysis, plasma diagnostics, x-ray diffraction, crack analysis, non-destructive testing, surface science and ultrafast science.

Umstadter, Donald (Ann Arbor, MI); He, Fei (Ann Arbor, MI); Lau, Yue-Ying (Potomac, MD)

2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

76

The Center for X-ray Optics - Now hiring engineers. Apply Today.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Database Nanomagnetism X-Ray Microscopy EUV Lithography EUV Mask Database Nanomagnetism X-Ray Microscopy EUV Lithography EUV Mask Imaging Reflectometry Zoneplate Lenses Coherent Optics Nanofabrication Optical Coatings Engineering Education Careers Publications Contact LBNL-Logo The Center for X-Ray Optics is a multi-disciplined research group within Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) Materials Sciences Division (MSD). Notice to users. Precision Engineering Building the tools that make nanoscience possible. A high-precision stage fabricated by CXRO's Instrument Fabrication Facility Zone plates Diffractive lenses for a new generation of x-ray beamlines. SEM image of a zoneplate fabricated by CXRO Interferometry Wavefront control with sub-angstrom sensitivity Null interferogram, in preparation for EUV metrology of the SEMATECH Berkeley Microfield Exposure Tool (MET)

77

High Flux Water Window X-rays Driven by Ultrashort 1.8mm Laser ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization.

78

In Situ X-ray Nanocharacterization of Defects in Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization.

79

SSRL School 2007 on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in MES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

May 15-17, 2007 SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences Group photo taken at the SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences. A large, printable version of this group image is available via clicking on the image. Overview: Modern synchrotron-based X-ray scattering (SR-XRS) techniques offer the ability to probe nano- and atomic-scale structures and order/disorder relationships that critically govern the properties of advanced technological and environmental materials. The high collimation, intensity, and tunability of SR allow the investigation of a wide range of materials, including thin films and interfaces, nanoparticles, amorphous materials, solutions, hydrated and disordered bacteriogenic minerals,

80

Definition: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a laboratory-based technique commonly used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. One of two primary types of XRD analysis (X-ray powder diffraction and single-crystal XRD) is commonly applied to samples to obtain specific information about the crystalline material under investigation. X-ray powder diffraction is widely used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline substances (typically in less than 20 minutes). A pure, finely ground, and homogenized sample is required for determination of the bulk composition. Additional uses include detailed

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect

The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

82

X-ray Security Screening  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

National and International Standards for X-ray Security Screening Applications. Summary: The primary objective of this ...

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

83

Tunable X-ray source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

Boyce, James R. (Williamsburg, VA)

2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

84

Soft Matter Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science Department,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Information (pdf) Research Information (pdf) Publications Seminars Journal Club Staff Information Other Information Basic Energy Sciences Directorate Related Sites BNL Site Index Can't View PDFs? Soft Matter Group Confinement and Template Directed Assembly in Chemical and Biomolecular Materials We use synchrotron x-ray scattering, scanning probe and optical microscopy techniques to study fundamental properties of complex fluids, simple liquids, macromolecular assemblies, polymers, and biomolecular materials under confinement and on templates. The challenges are: To understand liquids under nano-confinement. How templates and confinement can be used to direct the assembly. To understand the fundamental interactions which give rise to similar self-assembly behavior for a wide variety of systems.

85

Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Yong [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Hutt, Julie A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Padilla, Mabel T. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Gott, Katherine M. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

SSRL School on Synchrotron X-ray Spectroscopy Techniques in Environmental  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Home Agenda Location Visitor Information Transportation Tourism & Dining SSRL School on Synchrotron X-ray Spectroscopy Techniques in Environmental and Materials Sciences: Theory and Application June 2-5, 2009 Group photo of the attendees at the SSRL School on X-ray Spectropscopy Techniques in Environmental and Materials Sciences: Theory and Application held June 2-5, 2009 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. » View photos from XAS 2009 Overview: Modern synchrotron radiation based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS) techniques offer the ability to probe local molecular scale physical and electronic structures that govern key properties of technological and environmental materials and molecular complexes. The high collimation, intensity, and tunability of SR allow the investigation of a wide range of materials, including thin films and interfaces, nanoparticles, amorphous materials, solutions, hydrated and disordered bacteriogenic minerals, soils, interfaces, and dissolved species.

87

Scanning x-ray microscope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scanning x-ray microscope is described including: an x-ray source capable of emitting a beam of x-rays; a collimator positioned to receive the beam of x-rays and to collimate this beam, a focusing cone means to focus the beam of x-rays, directed by the collimator, onto a focal plane, a specimen mount for supporting a specimen in the focal plane to receive the focused beam of x-rays, and x-ray beam scanning means to relatively move the specimen and the focusing cone means and collimator to scan the focused x-ray beam across the specimen. A detector is disposed adjacent the specimen to detect flourescent photons emitted by the specimen upon exposure to the focused beam of x-rays to provide an electrical output representative of this detection. Means are included for displaying and/or recording the information provided by the output from the detector, as are means for providing information to the recording and/or display means representative of the scan rate and position of the focused x-ray beam relative to the specimen whereby the recording and/or display means can correlate the information received to record and/or display quantitive and distributive information as to the quantity and distribution of elements detected in the specimen. Preferably there is provided an x-ray beam modulation means upstream, relative to the direction of emission of the xray beam, of the focusing cone means.

Wang, C.

1982-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

88

X-ray lithography source  

SciTech Connect

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary (Sunnyvale, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

X-ray lithography source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

91

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

92

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

93

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

94

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

95

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

96

Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Skulina, Kenneth M. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.

Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

98

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

99

Sixth International Conference on X-ray Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

More than 180 participants from around the world crowded the Clark Kerr Campus of the University of California, Berkeley, from August 1-6, 1999 for the Sixth International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (XRM99). Held every three years since 1983, the XRM conferences have become the primary international forum for the presentation and discussion of advances in high-spatial-resolution x-ray imaging and applications (including the use of x-ray spectroscopic and analytical techniques) in biological and medical sciences, environmental and soil sciences, and materials and surface sciences.

Robinson, Arthur L.

1999-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

100

Combined use of hard X-ray phase contrast imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy for sub-cellular metal quantification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combined use of hard X-ray phase contrast imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy for subSurface Science Laboratory at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France Abstract Hard X of the details of cells are undetectable in hard X-ray microscopy due to the weak absorption contrast between

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Rock Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Rock Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rapid and unambiguous identification of unknown minerals.[1] Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png X-Ray Diffraction (XRD): X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a laboratory-based technique commonly used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. One of two primary types of XRD analysis (X-ray powder diffraction and single-crystal XRD) is commonly applied to samples to

102

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Rock Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Rock Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Bulk and trace element analysis of rocks, minerals, and sediments. Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF): X-Ray Fluorescence is a lab-based technique used for bulk chemical analysis of rock, mineral, sediment, and fluid samples. The technique depends on the fundamental principles of x-ray interactions with solid materials, similar

103

Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Data Collection and Mapping Parent Exploration Technique: Data Collection and Mapping Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rapid and unambiguous identification of unknown minerals.[1] Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD): Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a field-based technique that can be used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. Portable XRD analysis is similar to X-ray powder diffraction,

104

Miniature x-ray source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Forensic Science Scientific Working Groups  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forensic ScienceHomeResearchNIST Forensic PublicationsConferences and EventsReference Materials and StandardsReference DataForensic ...

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

106

Synchrotron X-ray Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy; (3) variable kinetic energy X-ray ... advanced materials is critical to the development and optimization of products ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

107

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

2009-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

108

NIST, Sensor Science Division, Ultraviolet Radiation Group ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uwe Arp. Dr. Uwe Arp is a physicist in the Ultraviolet Radiation Group of the Sensor Science Division in the Physical Measurement Laboratory. ...

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

109

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Research Ranks...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

selected science "Breakthrough of the Year": the discovery of what appears to be the Higgs boson. Scientists aimed the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser at thousands of tiny...

110

Refractive optical elements and optical system for high energy x-ray microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In material science, X-ray radiation with photon energies above 25 keV is used because of its penetration into high density materials. Research of the inner structure of novel materials, such as electrodes in high power batteries for engines, require X-ray microscopes operating in the hard X-ray energy range. A flexible X-ray microscope for hard X-rays with photon energies higher than 25 keV will be realized at the synchrotron source ANKA in Karlsruhe, Germany. The device will use refractive X-ray lenses as condenser as well as objective lenses.

Simon, M.; Altapova, V.; Baumbach, T.; Kluge, M.; Last, A.; Marschall, F.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Vogt, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Microstructure Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation, Engesser Strasse 15, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Microstructure Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

111

Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in Material Science Thursday, September 6, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Yijin Liu Seminar There was a revolutionary development of X-ray imaging over the past few decades. The most substantial advancements in this field are closely related to the availability of the new generation of X-ray sources and the advanced X-ray optics. The advanced X-ray Optics along with novel methodology has made it possible to extract information that is related to different interactions between the X-rays and the specimen at very fine spatial resolution. The energy tunability of the X-rays has made it possible to combine the energy scan with imaging technique. And the brilliance of the X-ray source has made it practical for many sophisticated

112

X-ray Imaging Workshop  

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Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory October 8-9, 2002 Organizers: John Miao & Keith Hodgson A workshop on "X-ray Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future" was held on October 8-9, 2002. This workshop, organized by John Miao (SSRL) and Keith Hodgson (SSRL) provided a forum to discuss the scientific applications of a variety of imaging and spectro-microscopic techniques, including photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), coherent diffraction imaging, x-ray microscopy, micro-tomography, holographic imaging, and x-ray micro-probe. Twelve invited speakers discussed the important scientific applications of these techniques, and also predicted the future scientific directions with the advance of instrumentation and x-ray sources. The workshop was well attended with over fifty registered attendees.

113

Miniature x-ray source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/..delta..E is greater than 10/sup 4/ and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

Hill, K.W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, L.C.; Liew, S.L.; McGuire, K.; Pare, V.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Definition: Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a field-based technique that can be used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. Portable XRD analysis is similar to X-ray powder diffraction, which has traditionally been used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline substances. Portable XRD analysis allows for simpler sample preparation, faster analytical times than traditional methods (less than 2 minutes), and can be performed at the sampling site in the field. A pure, finely ground

116

X-ray Transition Energies Search Form  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

[skip navigation] X-ray Transition Energies Database Main Page Search for X-ray transition energies by element(s), transition ...

117

Radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches: Coherent terahertz and femtosecond X-rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Science, vol. 298,generated from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Appl.monochromatic x-rays in the laser synchrotron source

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

X-ray Fluorescence Analysis of a Dirty Discrete White Spot in a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3D Orientation Contrast Microscopy Characterization of Thermo-mechanical Fatigue ... Challenges in Data Intensive Science at Synchrotron Based 3D X-ray ...

119

Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee on Radionuclide Metrology. ... Metrology Program – What do you need for Life Sciences? ...

120

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Femtosecond Time-Delay X-ray Holography  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time-Delay X-ray Holography Time-Delay X-ray Holography X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) will produce photon pulses with a unique and desirable combination of properties. Their short X-ray wavelengths allow penetration into materials and the ability to probe structure at and below the nanometer scale. Their ultra-short duration gives information about this structure at the fundamental time-scales of atoms and molecules. The extreme intensity of the pulses will allow this information to be acquired in a single shot, so that these studies can be carried out on non-repeatable processes or on weakly-scattering objects that will be modified by the pulse. A fourth property of XFEL pulses is their high transverse coherence, which brings the promise of decades of innovation in visible optics to the X-ray regime, such as holography, interferometry, and laser-based imaging. Making an effective use of XFEL pulses, however, will benefit from innovations that are new to both X-ray science and coherent optics. One such innovation is the new method of time-delay X-ray holography [i], recently demonstrated at the FLASH FEL at DESY in Hamburg, to measure the evolution of objects irradiated by intense pulses.

122

Lighting Science Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Science Group Science Group Jump to: navigation, search Name Lighting Science Group Place Dallas, Texas Zip 75201 Product LED design company, with multiple patents pending in power management, bulb design and manufacturing processes which it collectively refers to as ODL (Optimized Digital Lighting) technology. Coordinates 32.778155°, -96.795404° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.778155,"lon":-96.795404,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

123

Compact x-ray source and panel  

SciTech Connect

A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

124

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Chest x-Rays | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chest x-Rays Chest x-Rays Chest x-Rays Chest X-ray B-Reading The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica. The B-reading is considered a special reading because doctors who are certified by NIOSH to perform B-readings use a specific protocol to read and record the findings as developed by the International Labour Organization (ILO). The ILO's protocol provides rules for systematically examining the x-ray in a step-by-step method and recording certain abnormalities or changes on the chest x-ray that can be attributable to

126

Spectral analysis of X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I present work from three separate research projects associated with observations of X-ray binaries. Two of those revolve around spectral characteristics of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), ...

Fridriksson, Joel Karl

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

X-Ray Diffraction on NIF  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently a 192 beam, 1.6 MJ laser. NIF Ramp-Compression Experiments have already made the relevant exo-planet pressure range from 1 to 50 Mbar accessible. We Proposed to Study Carbon Phases by X-Ray Diffraction on NIF. Just a few years ago, ultra-high pressure phase diagrams for materials were very 'simple'. New experiments and theories point out surprising and decidedly complex behavior at the highest pressures considered. High pressures phases of aluminum are also predicted to be complex. Recent metadynamics survey of carbon proposed a dynamic pathway among multiple phases. We need to develop diagnostics and techniques to explore this new regime of highly compressed matter science. X-Ray Diffraction - Understand the phase diagram/EOS/strength/texture of materials to 10's of Mbar. Strategy and physics goals: (1) Powder diffraction; (2) Begin with diamond; (3) Continue with metals etc.; (4) Explore phase diagrams; (5) Develop liquid diffraction; and (6) Reduce background/improve resolution.

Eggert, J H; Wark, J

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

129

Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report  

SciTech Connect

This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light. However, it has been unclear whether similar optical control schemes could be used to modify how x rays interact with matter. In a dramatic breakthrough demonstration at the ALS, a Berkeley Lab-Argonne National Laboratory group has now used powerful visible-light lasers to render a nominally opaque material transparent to x rays. While x-ray transparency will have immediate applications at x-ray light sources, the important result is that the findings lay a foundation for a broader spectrum of applications.

131

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light. However, it has been unclear whether similar optical control schemes could be used to modify how x rays interact with matter. In a dramatic breakthrough demonstration at the ALS, a Berkeley Lab-Argonne National Laboratory group has now used powerful visible-light lasers to render a nominally opaque material transparent to x rays. While x-ray transparency will have immediate applications at x-ray light sources, the important result is that the findings lay a foundation for a broader spectrum of applications.

132

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light. However, it has been unclear whether similar optical control schemes could be used to modify how x rays interact with matter. In a dramatic breakthrough demonstration at the ALS, a Berkeley Lab-Argonne National Laboratory group has now used powerful visible-light lasers to render a nominally opaque material transparent to x rays. While x-ray transparency will have immediate applications at x-ray light sources, the important result is that the findings lay a foundation for a broader spectrum of applications.

133

THE NUCLEAR SPECTROSCOPIC TELESCOPE ARRAY (NuSTAR) HIGH-ENERGY X-RAY MISSION  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission, launched on 2012 June 13, is the first focusing high-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 to 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the {approx}10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X-ray satellites. The inherently low background associated with concentrating the X-ray light enables NuSTAR to probe the hard X-ray sky with a more than 100-fold improvement in sensitivity over the collimated or coded mask instruments that have operated in this bandpass. Using its unprecedented combination of sensitivity and spatial and spectral resolution, NuSTAR will pursue five primary scientific objectives: (1) probe obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity out to the peak epoch of galaxy assembly in the universe (at z {approx}< 2) by surveying selected regions of the sky; (2) study the population of hard X-ray-emitting compact objects in the Galaxy by mapping the central regions of the Milky Way; (3) study the non-thermal radiation in young supernova remnants, both the hard X-ray continuum and the emission from the radioactive element {sup 44}Ti; (4) observe blazars contemporaneously with ground-based radio, optical, and TeV telescopes, as well as with Fermi and Swift, to constrain the structure of AGN jets; and (5) observe line and continuum emission from core-collapse supernovae in the Local Group, and from nearby Type Ia events, to constrain explosion models. During its baseline two-year mission, NuSTAR will also undertake a broad program of targeted observations. The observatory consists of two co-aligned grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes pointed at celestial targets by a three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Deployed into a 600 km, near-circular, 6 Degree-Sign inclination orbit, the observatory has now completed commissioning, and is performing consistent with pre-launch expectations. NuSTAR is now executing its primary science mission, and with an expected orbit lifetime of 10 yr, we anticipate proposing a guest investigator program, to begin in late 2014.

Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, W. Rick; Forster, Karl; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Mao, Peter H.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Craig, William W.; Pivovaroff, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J.; Koglin, Jason E.; Mori, Kaya [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Boggs, Steven E. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stern, Daniel; Kim, Yunjin [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Giommi, Paolo; Perri, Matteo [ASI Science Data Center, c/o ESRIN, via G. Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Kitaguchi, Takao, E-mail: fiona@srl.caltech.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); and others

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

134

The First Angstrom X-Ray Free-Electron Laser  

SciTech Connect

The Linac Coherent Light Source produced its first x-ray laser beam on 10 April 2009. Today it is routinely producing x-ray pulses with energy >2 mJ across the operating range from 820-8,200 eV. The facility has begun operating for atomic/molecular/optical science experiments. Performance of the facility in its first user run (1 October - 21 December) and current machine development activities will be presented. Early results from the preparations for the start of the second user run is also reported.

Galayda, John; /SLAC

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

135

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

Spielman, R.B.

1996-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

136

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

The soft x-ray instrument for materials studies at the linac coherent light source x-ray free-electron laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The soft x-ray materials science instrument is the second operational beamline at the linac coherent light source x-ray free electron laser. The instrument operates with a photon energy range of 480-2000 eV and features a grating monochromator as well as bendable refocusing mirrors. A broad range of experimental stations may be installed to study diverse scientific topics such as: ultrafast chemistry, surface science, highly correlated electron systems, matter under extreme conditions, and laboratory astrophysics. Preliminary commissioning results are presented including the first soft x-ray single-shot energy spectrum from a free electron laser.

Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Rowen, M.; Holmes, M.; Messerschmidt, M.; Moeller, S.; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, S.; Coffee, R.; Hays, G. [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Heimann, P. [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Krupin, O. [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); European XFEL GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Soufli, R.; Fernandez-Perea, M.; Hau-Riege, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kelez, N. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Beye, M.; Gerken, N.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Wurth, W. [Institute for Experimental Physics and CFEL, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); and others

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

138

X-ray movies reveal insect flight, muscle motion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BioCAT BioCAT X-ray movies reveal insect flight, muscle motion Photo credit: Michael Dickinson Watching flies fly may not seem like high-tech science, but for researchers using the Western Hemisphere's most brilliant X-rays, from the Advanced Photon Source located at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, it not only helps explain how insects fly but also may someday aid in understanding human heart function. The researchers, from the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Caltech and the University of Vermont, merged two distinct technologies, intense X-ray beams and electronic flight simulators, to study how insect muscles can generate such extraordinary levels of power. The results are published in the the January 20,. 2005, issue of the journal Nature.

139

NEUTRON AND SYNCHROTRON X-RAY FIBER DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF CELLULOSE POLYMORPHS.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although the crystalline nature of cellulose has been one of most studied structural problems in polymer science there remain many open questions. Cellulose is a polymer formed by (1-4)-linked {beta}-D-glucosyl residues that are alternately rotated by 180o along the polymer axis to form flat ribbon-like chains. Each glucosyl unit bears three hydroxyl groups, one an hydroxymethyl group. It has been long recognized that these hydroxyl groups and their ability to bond via hydrogen bonding not only play a major role in directing how the crystal structure of cellulose forms but also in governing important physical properties of cellulose materials. Through the development of new techniques we have been able to prepare fiber samples of cellulose with exceptionally high order. The quality of these samples is allowing us to exploit the unique properties of synchrotron X-ray and neutron sources in order to collect diffraction data to near atomic resolution. Synchrotron X-rays are used to provide accurate crystallographic parameters for C and O atoms. However, because of the relatively weak scattering power of H atoms for X-rays, neutrons are used to determine H atom parameters. We have developed methods for replacing labile H atoms with D, without any loss in crystalline perfection. Deuterated fibers can diffract neutrons with intensities that are substantially different from the intensities diffracted from hydrogenated fibers. These differences, along with the phases calculated from the C and O positions determined in our X-ray studies, are used to calculate Fourier difference syntheses in which density associated with labile hydrogen atoms is imaged. The unprecedented high resolution of these data is revealing new information on cellulose structure and hydrogen bonding.

Los Alamos National Laboratory

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

X-ray data booklet. Revision  

SciTech Connect

A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

Vaughan, D. (ed.)

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

NIST X-Ray Transition Energies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... with the International System of measurement ... titled "X-ray transition energies: new approach ... and by NIST's Systems Integration for Manufacturing ...

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

143

X-ray Line Profile Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Magnetic Composite Materials · X-Ray Studies of Structural Effects Induced by Pulsed (30 Tesla), High Magnetic Fields at the Advanced Photon Source ...

144

NIST: X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST reserves the right to charge for these data in the ... ?/? and the mass energy-absorption coefficient ... The tables cover energies of the photon (x-ray ...

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

145

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray...

146

Hard X-Ray Quad Collimator  

Technology Development and Commercialization Division One of the best ways to obtain small?size x?ray beams for structural biology research is to ...

147

X?ray Fluorescence (XRF) Assay Using Laser Compton Scattered (LCS) X?rays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Compton Scattered (LCS) X?rays are produced as a result of the interaction between accelerated electrons and a laser beam. The yield of LCS X?rays is dependent on the laser power

Syed F. Naeem; Khalid Chouffani; Douglas P. Wells

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

X-ray spectroscopy of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I present work spanning a variety of topics relating to neutron star lowmass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and utilize spectral information from X-ray observations to further our understanding of these sources. ...

Krauss, Miriam Ilana

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

X-Ray Multilayer Database from the LBL Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

An important activity of the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) is research on x-ray mirrors and their use in optical devices to focus and deflect x-ray beams. The two kinds of mirrors most widely used are glancing incidence reflectors and multilayer coatings. The X-Ray Multilayer Database is based on the results of surveys taken at the biennial Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures conferences. It contains measured x-ray reflectances reported for various multilayers. The database is provided as a service to the x-ray and multilayer research communities and is intended to reflect the state-of-the-art in multilayer x-ray mirrors. (Specialized Interface)

150

X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution One Giant Leap for Radiation Biology? What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials Novel Experiments on Cement Yield Concrete Results Watching a Glycine Riboswitch "Switch" Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism MAY 11, 2007 Bookmark and Share By observing changes in coherent x-ray speckle pattern, such as the one shown above, researchers are able for the first time to investigate nanoscale dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls, and observe a cross over from classical to quantum behavior. (Credit: O. Shpyrko)

151

LCLS - The X-ray Laser Has Turned On  

SciTech Connect

On April 10, 2009 the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world's first hard x-ray free electron laser, was brought to lasing. Producing an x-ray beam with over a billion times higher peak brightness that then most powerful existing syncrotron sources, it marked the beginning of a new era of science. The LCLS pulses arrive at a rate of 60 - 120 Hz in an energy range from 480 eV to 10 keV, with pulse lengths as short as a few fs to about 300 fs. Since October 2009, users have been performing experiments at the LCLS, and currently three of the six planned instruments are available. Although we stand only at the beginning of LCLS science, there is no doubt about the strong sense of early excitement.

Bergmann, Uwe [Linac Coherent Light Source

2010-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

152

Coordinator's Report: ICRM Life Science Working Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... radionuclide metrology issues as they relate to the life sciences. ... in nuclear medicine, measurement of decay properties (half-lives, decay energies ...

153

Materials Small-angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) | Stanford Synchrotron  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Small-angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Materials Small-angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Materials Science Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a well-established characterization method for microstructure investigations in various materials. It probes electron density differences to give information about structural inhomogeneities from the near atomic scale (1 nm) to the micron scale (1 000 nm). The method involves measuring the scattered X-ray intensity as a function of (typically small) scattering angles and is generally performed in transmission. SAXS is used to characterize the size scale of inhomogeneities (e.g. pores, inclusions, second phase regions) in polymer blends, micro-emulsions, geological materials, bones, cements and ceramics. Instrumentation

154

New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Wednesday, 31 August 2005 00:00 Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure magnetic and other properties as well. Now a new method for creating optical devices with nanoscale accuracy has allowed researchers in Berkeley Lab's Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO), which built and operates the XM-1, to achieve an extraordinary resolution of better than 15 nm, with the promise of even higher resolution in the near future.

155

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

156

Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Data Collection and Mapping Parent Exploration Technique: Data Collection and Mapping Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Bulk and trace element analysis of rocks, minerals, and sediments. Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF): Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence is a portable analytical technique derived from the instrumentation used in traditional lab-based XRF analysis. The technique is used for bulk chemical analysis of rock, mineral, and sediment

157

APS Bending Magnet X-rays and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation of Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with Irradiation of Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with APS Bending Magnet X-rays and 60 Co Îł-rays J. Alderman and P.K. Job APS Operations Division Advanced Photon Source J. Puhl Ionizing Radiation Division National Institute of Standards and Technology June 2000 Table of Contents Introduction Radiation-Induced Demagnetization of Permanent Magnets Resources Required Îł-ray Irradiation Results and Analysis of Îł-ray Irradiation X-ray Irradiation Results and Analysis of X-ray Irradiation Summary and Conclusions Acknowledgements References Tables and Figures Introduction The Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as other third-generation synchrotron light sources, uses permanent magnets in the insertion devices to produce x-rays for scientific

158

High-Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... In support of these efforts, we also maintain laboratory x-ray sources from 1 keV to 300 keV, energy and intensity calibration facilities, and a vacuum ...

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

159

X-ray image intensifier phosphor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Y/sub 1-x/Gd/sub x/.PO$sub 4$:Tb$sup 3+$ is an effective phosphor for use in X-ray intensifier screens and in nuclear radiation detection systems.

D' Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Kaonic Atom X?ray Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In kaonic atoms energy displacement and broadening of states result from the strong interaction. The most simple kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen and deuterium open the possibility to measure this strong interaction induced shift and width by x?ray spectroscopy. In the SIDDHARTA experiment al LNF (Frascati) the DA?NE electron?positron collider delivers nearly mono?energetic negatively charged kaons from ? meson decay. This unique kaon source is used to form kaonic atoms. New high performance x?ray detectors (silicon drift detectors) arranged in an array allow x?ray spectroscopy with high energy resolution combined with timing capability. High precision x?ray measurements like SIDDHARTA at LNF will open the way to study the low energy regime of the strong force in the antikaon?nucleon interaction. The experiment and its current status is presented in this talk.

J. Marton; on behalf of the SIDDHARTA Collaboration

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

World's First Hard X-ray Laser  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LCLS is the world's most powerful X-ray laser. Its highly focused beam, which arrives in staccato bursts a few quadrillionths of a second long, allows researchers to probe complex,...

162

X-ray grid-detector apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

Boone, John M. (Folsom, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA)

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

163

X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http:spie.orgOP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA...

164

An X-ray Polarimeter for Constellation-X  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polarimetry remains a largely unexploited technique in observational X-ray astronomy which could provide insight in the study of the strong gravity and magnetic fields at the core of the Constellation-X observational program. Adding a polarization capability to the Constellation-X instrumentation would be immensely powerful. It would make Constellation the first space observatory to simultaneously measure all astrophysically relevant parameters of source X-ray photons; their position (imaging), energy (spectroscopy), arrival time (timing), and polarization. Astrophysical polarimetry requires sensitive well-calibrated instruments. Many exciting objects are extra-galactic (i.e. faint) and may have small polarization. Recent advances in efficiency and bandpass make it attractive to consider a polarimetry Science Enhancement Package for the Constellation-X mission.

K. Jahoda; K. Black; P. Deines-Jones; J. E. Hill; T. Kallman; T. Strohmayer; J. H. Swank

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

165

X-Ray Emission from Compact Sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review of the physical parameters of neutron stars and black holes that have been derived from X-ray observations. I then explain how these physical parameters can be used to learn about the extreme conditions occurring in regions of strong gravity, and present some recent evidence for relativistic effects seen in these systems. A glossary of commonly used terms and a short tutorial on the names of X-ray sources are also included.

Cominsky, L

2004-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

166

Data System Sciences & Engineering Group - Contact Us  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contact Us Contact Us If you have any questions or comments regarding any of our research and development activities, how to work with the Data Systems Sciences & Engineering Group, or the content of this website, please contact: Robert R. Burleson Richard M. Lusk Group Leader, Data Systems Sciences & Engineering Group Computational Sciences and Engineering Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008, MS-6085 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6085 Office: (865) 574-8864 E-mail: luskrm@ornl.gov If you need to contact individuals in the Group or need general information, contact: Rochelle Coats Data Systems Sciences & Engineering Group Secretary, Computational Sciences and Engineering Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008, MS-6085 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6085

167

Argonne CNM: X-Ray Microscopy Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Microscopy Facilities X-Ray Microscopy Facilities The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) facility provides scanning fluorescence, scanning diffraction, and full-field transmission and tomographic imaging capabilities with a spatial resolution of 30 nm over a spectral range of 6-12 keV. Modes of Operation Full-Field Transmission Imaging and Nanotomography X-ray transmission imaging uses both the absorption and phase shift of the X-ray beam by the sample as contrast mechanisms. Absorption contrast is used to map the sample density. Elemental constituents can be located by using differential edge contrast in this mode. Phase contrast can be highly sensitive to edges and interfaces even when the X-ray absorption is weak. These contrast mechanisms are exploited to image samples rapidly in full-field transmission mode under various environmental conditions, or combined with nanotomography methods to study the three-dimensional structure of complex and amorphous nanomaterials with the HXN.

168

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

169

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

170

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

171

Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source  

SciTech Connect

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source  

SciTech Connect

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

174

George Ostrouchov Statistics and Data Sciences Group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical Association, 2010 Certificate of Appreciation from US Undersecretary of Energy "For exemplary on behalf of the Department of Energy's Office of Science", 2007 Martin Marietta Energy Systems government, DC, June 16-18, 2003. 2 #12;Program Committee: 6th International Workshop on High Performance Data

175

Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BL6-2c / Transmission X-ray Microscopy BL6-2c / Transmission X-ray Microscopy Home Researchers Publications Science Highlights Department of Energy Office of Science Search form Search Search TXM Search Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy Capabilities Full-field TXM is an excellent method to examine nanoscale heterogeneties in many materials, including complex hierarchical systems such as catalysts, fuel cells and battery electrodes, and biological and environmental samples, at 30 nm resolution.The transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) on beam line 6-2c at SSRL is capable of 2D imaging and tomography, as well as spectroscopic imaging for 2D and 3D elemental mapping and chemical mapping over tens of microns (up to mm in 2D). The field of view (FOV) is 30 microns, but mosaic images can be collected to

176

Schmahl, Kirz Receive Compton Award for Contributions to X-ray Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Schmahl, Kirz Received Compton Award for Contributions to X-ray Microscopy Schmahl, Kirz Received Compton Award for Contributions to X-ray Microscopy Image of Compton Award The Advanced Photon Source (APS) and APS Users Organization (APSUO) are very pleased to announce that the 2005 Arthur H. Compton Award was given to GĂĽnter Schmahl and Janos Kirz for pioneering and developing the field of x-ray microscopy using Fresnel zone plates. Because of their leadership over the last 30 years, x-ray microscopy has evolved into a powerful method for the study of nanoscale structures and phenomena in many areas of science. Their achievements have opened up productive research avenues in biology, polymers, electronic nanostructures, magnetic materials, meteoritics, and environmental sciences. " GĂĽnter Schmahl and Janos Kirz have created a

177

The Road to Ultrahigh-Resolution X-ray Spectrometers | Advanced Photon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Atoms Behave: Characteristics of Microstructural Avalanches How Atoms Behave: Characteristics of Microstructural Avalanches Iodate Refuses to Intimidate Creating the Heart of a Planet in the Heart of a Gem How a Powerful Antibody Neutralizes HIV Taking a Page from Nature to Build Better Nanomaterials Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed The Road to Ultrahigh-Resolution X-ray Spectrometers NOVEMBER 22, 2011 Bookmark and Share Basic phenomena underlying the AD&AT x-ray optics. In x-ray Bragg diffraction from atomic planes composing nonzero angle η to the crystal entrance face, the crystal acts (a) like an optical prism dispersing the photons into a divergent x-ray fan with photons of different energies E

178

Copper Ridges Nearly Double X-ray Sensor Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Physics Letters,* can measure X-ray energies with an ... X-rays and measure the energy based on ... by NASA and the NIST Office of Microelectronics ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

179

Sandia National Laboratories X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron ...  

... for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National ... high average power large area X-ray tube provides increased X-ray generation efficiency through ...

180

LUSI :: LCLS Ultrafast Science Instruments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Go Home Project Pages LUSI Instruments Uniqueness of FEL X-rays X-ray FEL Science About LCLS Science with LCLS Calendar & Meetings Contact Us Office of ScienceU.S. DOE Current...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Physica B 283 (2000) 75}78 Phase-sensitive surface X-ray scattering study of a crystalline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physica B 283 (2000) 75}78 Phase-sensitive surface X-ray scattering study of a crystalline organic}organic An X-ray study of a crystalline organic}organic heterostructure, consisting of a "lm of PTCDA (3 the determination of d with great sensitivity. 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PACS: 61.66.Hq; 68

Schreiber, Frank

182

Radiographic X-Ray Pulse Jitter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources. Major components of the machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 60-ns. Each source has the following x-ray parameters: 1-mm-diameter spot size, 4-rad at 1 m, 50-ns full width half max. The x-ray pulse is measured with PIN diode detectors. The sources were developed to produce high resolution images on single-shot, high-value experiments. For this application it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. X-ray pulse jitter is a key metric for analysis of reproducibility. We will give measurements of x-ray jitter for each machine. It is expected that x-ray pulse jitter is predominantly due to PFL switch jitter, and therefore a correlation of the two will be discussed.

Mitton, C. V., Good, D. E., Henderson, D. J., Hogge, K. W.

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure magnetic and other properties as well. Now a new method for creating optical devices with nanoscale accuracy has allowed researchers in Berkeley Lab's Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO), which built and operates the XM-1, to achieve an extraordinary resolution of better than 15 nm, with the promise of even higher resolution in the near future.

184

New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure magnetic and other properties as well. Now a new method for creating optical devices with nanoscale accuracy has allowed researchers in Berkeley Lab's Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO), which built and operates the XM-1, to achieve an extraordinary resolution of better than 15 nm, with the promise of even higher resolution in the near future.

185

Probing Material Reactivity Using X-ray Pair Distribution Function Methods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Material Reactivity Using X-ray Pair Distribution Material Reactivity Using X-ray Pair Distribution Function Methods Karena W. Chapman X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA Understanding how advanced functional materials react and transform, at an atomic scale, is a characterization challenge with many diverse phenomena possible; components with varying particle size, morphology, and microstructure can evolve from multi-atom clusters to multi-million atom crystals. The pair distribution function (PDF) method shows great promise for providing quantitative insight such reactions. Recent advances in experimental methods, have improved the efficiency of X-ray PDF measurements, to allow time-resolved experiments with sufficient resolution to study reactions in solid

186

New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure magnetic and other properties as well. Now a new method for creating optical devices with nanoscale accuracy has allowed researchers in Berkeley Lab's Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO), which built and operates the XM-1, to achieve an extraordinary resolution of better than 15 nm, with the promise of even higher resolution in the near future.

187

The Soft-X-Ray Spectral Shape of X-Ray-Weak Seyferts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(I) We observed eight Seyfert~2s and two X--ray--weak Seyfert~1/QSOs with the ROSAT PSPC, and one Seyfert~2 with the ROSAT HRI. These targets were selected from the Extended 12\\um\\ Galaxy Sample. (II) Both Seyfert~1/QSOs vary by factors of 1.5---2. The photon indices steepen in the more luminous state, consistent with the variability being mainly due to the softest X--rays, which are confined to a size of less than a parsec. (III) Both the Seyfert~2s and Seyfert~1/QSOs are best fit with a photon index of $\\Gamma\\sim3$, which is steeper than the canonical value of $\\Gamma\\sim1.7$ measured for X--ray--strong Seyferts by ROSAT and at higher energies. Several physical explanations are suggested for the steeper slopes of X--ray--weak objects. (IV) We observed one Seyfert~2, NGC~5005, with the ROSAT HRI, finding about 13\\% of the soft X--rays to come from an extended component. This and other observations suggest that different components to the soft X--ray spectrum of some, if not all, X--ray--weak Seyferts may come from spatially distinct regions.

Brian Rush; Matthew A. Malkan

1995-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

188

Sharper Focusing of Hard X-rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sharper Focusing of Hard X-rays FROM: Physics News Update Number 773 #1, April 12, 2006, by Phil Schewe and Ben Stein Note: This text has been slightly modified from the original. Sharper focusing of hard x-rays has been achieved with a device developed at Argonne National Lab. Because of their high energy, x-rays are hard to focus: they can be reflected from a surface but only at a glancing angle (less than a tenth of a degree); they can be refracted but the index of refraction is very close to 1, so that making efficient lenses becomes a problem; and they can be diffracted, but the relatively thick, variable pitch grating required for focusing is tricky to achieve. The Argonne device is of the diffraction type, and it consists of a stack of alternating layers of metal and silicon, made by depositing progressively thicker layers. When the x-rays fall on such a structure, nearly edge-on, what they see is a grating (called a linear zone plate) consisting of a sort of bar-code pattern.

189

Multiple wavelength x-ray monochromators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

Steinmeyer, P.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Multiple wavelength x-ray monochromators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

Steinmeyer, P.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

Massively parallel X-ray scattering simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although present X-ray scattering techniques can provide tremendous information on the nano-structural properties of materials that are valuable in the design and fabrication of energy-relevant nano-devices, a primary challenge remains in the analyses ...

Abhinav Sarje; Xiaoye S. Li; Slim Chourou; Elaine R. Chan; Alexander Hexemer

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2010 ... Advanced X-Ray Scattering Techniques for Multi-Length Scale ... ?-Ti using the 3DXRD station 34-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. ... Research at APS 34-ID-E, partly funded by BES/DOE.

193

Soft x-ray laser microscope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL's 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

Suckewer, P.I.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

Hessler, Jan P.

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

Microstructure of B2 CoTi and CoZr Determined by 3D X-Ray ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials VI: Centennial and ... was used at the 1-ID beamline of APS, Argonne National Laboratory to extract the ... Materials Science Enabled by the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade.

196

X-Ray Interactions with Matter  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented. (Taken from the abstract in OSTI Record 6131765) (Specialized Interface)

Henke, B.L.; Gullikson, E.M.; Davis, J.C.

197

Photon Sciences Directorate | 2010 Annual Report | EHS Group Expands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photon Sciences EHS Group Expands, Photon Sciences EHS Group Expands, Evolves in 2010 Steve Hoey "We're proud of the excellent safety record we earned in 2010. It would not have been possible without the hard work, dedication, and experience of the EHS staff and the continuing efforts of our contractors to work more safely." - Steve Hoey Manager, Environment, Safety and Health Fiscal year 2010 was busy for Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) staff in the Photon Sciences Directorate, due in no small part to the year-long strategic planning leading up to the reorganization of the directorate at year's end and the continuing rapid growth of NSLS-II. Photon Sciences ESH already has an excellent safety record under its belt. In 2010, as was the case with the Laboratory as a whole, a strong emphasis

198

Coherent X-ray Imaging Data Bank (CXIDB): An Open Repository for CXI Experimental Data  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Nowadays there are several groups around the world doing excellent work using different kinds of techniques all based on the physics of coherent X-ray imaging (CXI). Due to several reasons, including lack of a standard file format, there has been limited sharing of data which severely limits possible synergies inside the community. At the same time there is a population of researchers who do not have access to the facilities required to make such kinds of experiments, or do not have the expertise and resources necessary to carry them out. But many of them would be able to test new ideas and techniques if they would have access to the experimental data. The main goal of the Coherent X-ray Imaging Data Bank is to address these problems by creating an open repository for CXI experimental data. Such a repository provides several important benefits including: Expansion of the CXI community directly leading to an increase in the science output, the existence of an archival place for all the experimental data would ensure that such data does not gets lost forever when the group that did the experiment is no longer interested in the data, the availability of the experimental data to the entire community greatly facilitates reproducibility, leading to higher quality and more transparent science, the development of a well documented file format for CXI data facilitates data sharing and might one day lead to its emergence as a de facto standard. Current free electron laser facilities such as the LCLS are capable of producing very large amounts of data (20TB a day) and the coming European FEL is expected to increase this rate a factor of 500. The analyzes of such large bodies of data will have to be distributed through a large community to make it manageable, and this repository could be an important facilitator in this process.

199

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Environmental Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Environmental Interface Science at SSRL Environmental Remediation Science at SSRL Science Focus Area: SSRL Environmental Remediation Program X-ray Science at SLAC...

200

Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); Weber, Franz A. (Oakland, CA); Moon, Stephen J. (Tracy, CA)

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

202

X-ray flashes and X-ray rich gamma ray bursts. Memorie della Societa’ Astronomica Italiana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. X-ray flashes are detected in the Wide Field Cameras on BeppoSAX in the energy range 2-25 keV as bright X-ray sources lasting of the order of minutes, but remaining undetected in the Gamma Ray Bursts Monitor on BeppoSAX. They have properties very similar to the x-ray counterparts of GRBs and account for some of the Fast X-ray Transient events seen in almost every x-ray satellite. We review their X-ray properties and show that x-ray flashes are in fact very soft, x-ray rich, untriggered gamma ray bursts, in which the peak energy in 2-10 keV x-rays could be up to a factor of 100 larger than the peak energy in the 50-300 keV gamma ray range. The frequency is ? 100 yr ?1. 1 Fast X-ray Transients/High-latitude X-ray Transients Fast X-ray Transients have been observed with many x-ray satellites. In particular they are seen with x-ray instruments that scan the entire sky on a regular basis. Such events are detected in one sky scan and disappeared in the next, typically limiting the duration to be longer than a minute and shorter than a few hours. For this reason they are called Fast Transients. The first transients

John Heise; Jean In ’t Z; Peter M. Woods

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Related Links: Related Links: May 2005 Headlines TIP Article Press Release Walters Art Museum SSRL Home Page SLAC Home Page Stanford Home Page Tuesday, 31 May 2005 X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text (contact: Uwe Bergmann, bergmann@slac.stanford.edu) Archimedes Figure Image provided by Will Noel, The Walters Art Museum An early transcription of Archimedes' mathematical theories has been brought to light through the probing of high-intensity x-rays at SSRL's BL6-2. The text contains part of the Method of Mechanical Theorems, one of Archimedes' most important works, which was probably copied out by a scribe in the tenth century. The parchment on which it was written was later scraped down and reused as pages in a twelfth century prayer book, producing a document known as a palimpsest (which comes from the Greek,

204

High resolution x-ray microscope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present x-ray images of grid meshes and biological material obtained using a microspot x-ray tube with a multilayer optic and a 92-element parabolic compound refractive lens (CRL) made of a plastic containing only hydrogen and carbon. Images obtained using this apparatus are compared with those using an area source with a spherical lens and a spherical lens with multilayer condenser. The authors found the best image quality using the multilayer condenser with a parabolic lens, compared to images with a spherical lens and without the multilayer optics. The resolution was measured using a 155-element parabolic CRL and a multilayer condenser with the microspot tube. The experiment demonstrates about 1.1 {mu}m resolution.

Gary, C. K.; Park, H.; Lombardo, L. W.; Piestrup, M. A.; Cremer, J. T.; Pantell, R. H.; Dudchik, Y. I. [Adelphi Technology, Inc. 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, California 94070 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Institute of Applied Physics Problems, Kurchatova 7, Minsk 220064 (Belarus)

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

205

A New Multilayer-Based Grating for Hard X-ray Grating Interferometry |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Most Detailed Picture Yet of a Key AIDS Protein The Most Detailed Picture Yet of a Key AIDS Protein Superconductivity with Stripes How HIV Infects Cells Simulating Deep Earthquakes in the Laboratory A "Sponge" Path to Better Catalysts and Energy Materials Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A New Multilayer-Based Grating for Hard X-ray Grating Interferometry November 20, 2013 Bookmark and Share An image of the phase shift in the mouse kidney from a Bonse-Hart interferometer built utilizing the new micro-multilayer grating provides a projection view of the blood vessels. A new kind of x-ray multilayer grating that could open a pathway for high-sensitivity, hard x-ray phase contrast full-field imaging of large

206

Microscale X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy on the GSECARS Sector 13 at the APS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GeoSoilEnviroCARS (GSECARS) is a national user facility for frontier research in the earth sciences using synchrotrons radiation at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. GSECARS provides earth scientists with access to the high-brilliance hard x-rays from this third-generation synchrotrons light source. The research conducted at this facility will advance our knowledge of the composition, structure and properties of earth materials, the processes they control and the processes that produce them. All principal synchrotron-based analytical techniques in demand by earth scientists are being brought to bear on earth science problems: (1) high-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and spectroscopy using the diamond anvil cell; (2) high-pressure/high-temperature crystallography using the large-volume press; (3) powder, single crystal and interface diffraction; (4) x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy; (5) x-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis and microspectroscopy; and (6) mic...

Stephen-Sutto

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

X-ray emission from the plasma is used as a proxy for the amount  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-ray emission from the plasma is used as a proxy for the amount X-ray emission from the plasma is used as a proxy for the amount of driven current. The solid line indicates the amount of x-ray emission predicted by a computer simulation if edge losses are not included, while the dashed line represents the computer simulation including edge losses. The colored points are experimental data from Alcator C-Mod. Contact: Gregory Wallace MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center 175 Albany St. Cambridge, MA 02139 wallaceg@mit.edu Post deadline invited talk: Lower hybrid current drive at high density in the multi-pass regime A post-deadline invited talk explains how experiments on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center are making important steps towards learning how to keep future fusion power plants running 24/7.

208

X-ray inspection systems [Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Testing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering > Facilities > Non-Destructive Engineering > Facilities > Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Testing Facilities > X-ray inspection systems Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Testing Facilities Overview MTS Table Top Load Frame X-ray Inspection Systems Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Testing Facilities X-ray inspection systems Bookmark and Share PDF version [140KB] The Non-destructive Evaluation group operates two, industrial, x-ray inspection systems that are used primarily to characterize internal features of one-of-a-kind engineering samples and/or high-value components. Both systems utilize commercial, solid-state, imaging detectors to produce electronic/digital images of the components under test.

209

Sample holder for x-ray diffractometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sample holder for use with x-ray diffractometers with the capability to rotate the sample, as well as to adjust the position of the sample in the x, y, and z directions. Adjustment in the x direction is accomplished through loosening set screws, moving a platform, and retightening the set screws. Motion translators are used for adjustment in the y and z directions. An electric motor rotates the sample, and receives power from the diffractometer.

Hesch, V.L.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

210

TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY (TES) Project Team: S. Bare 1,2 , J. Brandes 3 , T. Buonassisi 4 , J. Chen 5,2 , M. Croft 6 , E. DiMasi 7 , A. Frenkel 8,2 , D. Hesterberg 9 , S. Hulbert 7,2 , S. Khalid 7 , S. Myneni 10 , P. Northrup 7,11 , E.T. Rasbury 11 , B. Ravel 12 , R. Reeder 11 , J. Rodriguez 7,2 , D. Sparks 5,13 , V. Stojanoff 7 , G. Waychunas 14 1 UOP LLC, 2 Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium, 3 Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, 4 MIT Laboratory for Photovoltaics Research, 5 Univ. of Delaware, 6 Rutgers Univ., 7 Brookhaven National Lab, 8 Yeshiva Univ., 9 North Carolina State Univ., 10 Princeton Univ., 11 Stony Brook Univ., 12 NIST, 13 Delaware Environmental Inst., 14 Lawrence Berkeley National Lab TECHNIQUES: High performance and in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and spatially-resolved XAS of

211

Hard X-ray Variability of AGN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aims: Active Galactic Nuclei are known to be variable throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. An energy domain poorly studied in this respect is the hard X-ray range above 20 keV. Methods: The first 9 months of the Swift/BAT all-sky survey are used to study the 14 - 195 keV variability of the 44 brightest AGN. The sources have been selected due to their detection significance of >10 sigma. We tested the variability using a maximum likelihood estimator and by analysing the structure function. Results: Probing different time scales, it appears that the absorbed AGN are more variable than the unabsorbed ones. The same applies for the comparison of Seyfert 2 and Seyfert 1 objects. As expected the blazars show stronger variability. 15% of the non-blazar AGN show variability of >20% compared to the average flux on time scales of 20 days, and 30% show at least 10% flux variation. All the non-blazar AGN which show strong variability are low-luminosity objects with L(14-195 keV) < 1E44 erg/sec. Conclusions: Concerning the variability pattern, there is a tendency of unabsorbed or type 1 galaxies being less variable than the absorbed or type 2 objects at hardest X-rays. A more solid anti-correlation is found between variability and luminosity, which has been previously observed in soft X-rays, in the UV, and in the optical domain.

V. Beckmann; S. D. Barthelmy; T. J. -L. Courvoisier; N. Gehrels; S. Soldi; J. Tueller; G. Wendt

2007-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

212

Cocoa Butter and Related CompoundsChapter 14 New Method to Study Molecular Interactions in Fats—Synchrotron Radiation Microbeam X-ray Diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cocoa Butter and Related Compounds Chapter 14 New Method to Study Molecular Interactions in Fats—Synchrotron Radiation Microbeam X-ray Diffraction Food Science Health Nutrition eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Bioc

213

Energy Determination of X-Ray Transition Energies Using the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... We chose to measure x-ray transition energies from NIST ... This resulted in the production of x-ray emission ... would yield not only an energy scale for ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

214

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - SLAC's X-ray Laser Explores...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-ray Laser Explores Big Data Frontier By Glenn Roberts Jr. June 12, 2013 It's no surprise that the data systems for SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser have drawn...

215

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - SLAC X-rays Help Discover...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

which pulses 120 times a second. In the instant before the intense X-rays destroy a nanocrystal, detectors record a flash of X-ray diffraction information. Finally, scientists use...

216

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Schemes that use one light...

217

Microstructural Mapping Using High-Energy X-Ray Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Advanced characterization methods at the APS permit unique in- situ ... The combination of an undulator source, brilliance preserving optics and focusing .... Ultra-Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering—X-Ray Photon Correlation ...

218

Transportation Planning & Decision Science Group Transportation Systems Research Group Diane Davidson Keith Kahl  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transportation Planning & Decision Science Group Transportation Systems Research Group Diane Davidson Keith Kahl 865-946-1475 865-946-1236 Center for Transportation Analysis News Oak Ridge National to members of the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet and the Kentucky Transportation Center. The purpose

219

Transportation Planning & Decision Science Group Transportation Systems Research Group Diane Davidson Keith Kahl  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transportation Planning & Decision Science Group Transportation Systems Research Group Diane Davidson Keith Kahl 865-946-1475 865-946-1236 Center for Transportation Analysis News Oak Ridge National, during the Chairman's Luncheon at the 92nd Annual Transportation Research Board (TRB) Meeting

220

Transportation Planning & Decision Science Group Transportation Systems Research Group Diane Davidson Keith Kahl  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transportation Planning & Decision Science Group Transportation Systems Research Group Diane Davidson Keith Kahl 865-946-1475 865-946-1236 Center for Transportation Analysis News Oak Ridge National of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Technology and Prospects for the Future" P.T. Jones ­ "Dynamic Wireless Power

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Strengthened lithium for x-ray blast windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lithium's high x-ray transparency makes it an attractive material for windows intended to protect soft x-ray diagnostics in high energy density experiments. Pure lithium is soft and weak, but lithium mixed with lithium hydride powder becomes harder and stronger, in principle without any additional x-ray absorption. A comparison with the standard material for x-ray windows, beryllium, suggests that lithium or lithium strengthened by lithium hydride may well be an excellent option for such windows.

Pereira, N. R. [Ecopulse Inc., P.O. Box 528, Springfield, Virginia 22150 (United States); Imam, M. A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Electron and X-Ray Microscopy: Structural Characterization of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 28, 2009 ... Recent Advances in Structural Characterization of Materials: Electron and X-Ray Microscopy: Structural Characterization of Nanoscale ...

223

X-ray Microscopy and Imaging: 2-BM  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BM BM Introduction The 2-BM beamline offers measurement capabilities for x-ray microtomography, x-ray topography and x-ray microdiffraction. X-ray microtomography and x-ray diffraction instruments are installed on separate optical tables for independent operation with fast switch over time. Optically-coupled high-resolution CCD system is used for microtomography and topography with up to 1 micron spatial resolution. X-ray microdiffraction setup consists of KB microfocussing mirrors (~3 micron minimum spot), four-circle Huber diffractometer, high-precision translation sample stage, two orthogonally-mounted video cameras for viewing sample, fluorescence detector (Si-drift diode) and diffraction detector (a scintillation detector or a CCD). Three different levels of monochromaticity are available. Conventional monochromatic x-rays from a double-bounced Si (111) crystal monochromator (DCM, D E/E=1E-4), wide band-pass monochromatic x-rays from a double multilayer monochromator (DMM, D E/E=1~4E-2) and pink beam. The available x-ray range is from 5 keV to 30 keV. The lower limit is due to the x-ray windows and the upper limit is due to the critical angle of the x-ray mirror. Two different coatings (Cr and Pt) for the x-ray mirror allow either 20 keV or 30 keV energy cutoff.

224

Phase Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calibration ­ Uses up part of dynamic range · Solution: ­ Soft x-rays: Back side Illumination ­ Hard xPhase Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays Using a Segmented Detector Benjamin Hornberger ­ Phase Contrast 101 · A Segmented Detector for Hard X-ray Microprobes ­ Segmented Silicon Chip ­ Charge

Homes, Christopher C.

225

Quantitative Analysis of Mt. St. Helens Ash by X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quantitative study by x-ray diffraction, optical polarizing microscopy, and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of fallout and ambient ash from three Mt. St. Helens eruptions has revealed a consistent picture of the mineralogical and elemental ...

Briant L. Davis; L. Ronald Johnson; Dana T. Griffen; William Revell Phillips; Robert K. Stevens; David Maughan

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Development of a Novel Tunable X-Ray Source for the RPI-LINAC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes the results of a three year effort to develop a parametric x-ray (PXR) source. The emphasis of this research was to demonstrate production of high yield monoenergetic x-rays. Production of PXR is accomplished by placing a crystal in a relativistic electron beam. The process was first demonstrated in 1985 in Russia. Numerous papers were written about the characteristics of PXR from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The advantage of PXR over other monoenergetic x-ray sources is that it is produced at large angle relative to the electron beam and at high intensity. None of the previous work described in the literature capitalized on this effect to study what is required in order to generate an effective monoenergetic x-ray source that can be used for practical applications. The work summarized here describes the process done in order to optimize the PXR production process by selecting an appropriate crystal and the optimal conditions. The research focused on production of 18 keV x-rays which are suitable for mammography however the results are not limited to this application or energy range. We are the first group to demonstrate x-ray imaging using PXR. Such sources can improve current medical imaging modalities. More research is required in order to design a prototype of a compact source.

Y. Danon; R.C. Block

2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

227

X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.

Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Applications and source development for high-repetition rate x-ray lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many applications in material science, chemistry, and atomic physics require an x-ray source that has a repetition rate of 1 Hz to a few kHz. In these fields, a very wide range of photon energies is of interest. One application is time-resolved surface photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopy where low energy (energies below 100 eV are very good with higher energy capabilities expected in the future. In addition, prospects of table-top size x-ray lasers with kHz repetition rates are presented.

Eder, D.C.; Amendt, P.; Bolton, P.R. [and others

1993-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

X-ray Observations of Galaxies: The Importance of Deep High-Resolution Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray observations of galaxies have grown from a curiosity into a full-fledged field of astronomy. These observations provide unique information on black holes, binary stars, and the hot phase of the ISM, which can be used to constrain the chemical evolution of the Universe, and the joint evolution of galaxies and massive black holes. These exciting results are due in large part to the high-resolution capability of {\\it Chandra}. To follow on {\\it Chandra} and push forward this science past the present capabilities, our community must build a high-resolution (sub-arcsecond) large-area (several square meters) X-ray telescope.

G. Fabbiano

2007-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

230

High energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the SRI-CAT  

SciTech Connect

This report is a combination of vugraphs and two papers. The vugraphs give information on the beamline at the APS for IXS and the science addressable by IXS. They also cover the 10 milli-eV resolution spectrometer and the 200 milli-eV resolution spectrometer. The first paper covers the performance of the focusing Ge(444) backscattering analyzers for the inelastic x-ray scattering. The second paper discusses inelastic x-ray scattering from TiC and Ti single crystals.

Macrander, A.T.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Calibrating X-ray Imaging Devices for Accurate Intensity Measurement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project presented is to develop methods to accurately calibrate X-ray imaging devices. The approach was to develop X-ray source systems suitable for this endeavor and to develop methods to calibrate solid state detectors to measure source intensity. NSTec X-ray sources used for the absolute calibration of cameras are described, as well as the method of calibrating the source by calibrating the detectors. The work resulted in calibration measurements for several types of X-ray cameras. X-ray camera calibration measured efficiency and efficiency variation over the CCD. Camera types calibrated include: CCD, CID, back thinned (back illuminated), front illuminated.

Haugh, M. J.

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-B RADIO PULSARS  

SciTech Connect

The study of high-magnetic-field pulsars is important for examining the relationships between radio pulsars, magnetars, and X-ray-isolated neutron stars (XINSs). Here, we report on X-ray observations of three such high-magnetic-field radio pulsars. We first present the results of a deep XMM-Newton observation of PSR J1734-3333, taken to follow up on its initial detection in 2009. The pulsar's spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a temperature of 300 {+-} 60 eV, with bolometric luminosity L{sub bb}=2.0{sub -0.7}{sup +2.2} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg s{sup -1}{approx}0.0036 E-dot for a distance of 6.1 kpc. We detect no X-ray pulsations from the source, setting a 1{sigma} upper limit on the pulsed fraction of 60% in the 0.5-3 keV band. We compare PSR J1734-3333 to other rotation-powered pulsars of similar age and find that it is significantly hotter, supporting the hypothesis that the magnetic field affects the observed thermal properties of pulsars. We also report on XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of PSRs B1845-19 and J1001-5939. We do not detect either pulsar, setting 3{sigma} upper limits on their blackbody temperatures of 48 and 56 eV, respectively. Despite the similarities in rotational properties, these sources are significantly cooler than all but one of the XINSs, which we attribute to the two groups having been born with different magnetic fields and hence evolving differently.

Olausen, S. A.; Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics, Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Zhu, W. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Vogel, J. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lyne, A. G.; Espinoza, C. M.; Stappers, B. W. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)] [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Manchester, R. N. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)] [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); McLaughlin, M. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, White Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, White Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

233

Medical x-ray exposure doses as contaminants of atomic bomb doses  

SciTech Connect

Since 1967 at the times of their biennial ABCC/RERF radiological examinations, all Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects have been interviewed to determine the exposures to medical x-rays they experienced in institutions other than RERF in order to estimate the numbers of examinations and corresponding doses which they received. These data have been stored on computer tapes together with the doses these subjects received during their radiological examinations in the ABCC/RERF Department of Radiology. Thus, their medical x-ray doses are available along with their atomic bomb doses (tentative 1965 doses revised, T65DR) for assessment of the role of ionizing radiation in the development of diseases. The medical x-ray doses incurred at RERF were assessed by means of phantom dosimetry. Those at other institutions were determined using phantom dosimetry data and results of surveys for trends in radiological examinations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. By the end of 1982, the average medical x-ray doses to the active bone marrow were 12.04 mGy for A-bomb exposed groups and 8.92 mGy for control groups (not-in-cities); to the male gonads, 2.26 mGy and 1.89 mGy, respectively; and to the female gonads, 17.45 mGy and 12.58 mGy, respectively. Results for Hiroshima and Nagasaki were similar. The main impact of medical x-ray doses was in the lowest T65DR group. Medical x-ray active bone marrow doses ranged from 0.05-500% (mean, 35%) of A-bomb doses in the 10-99 mGy T65DR group. In the 100-999 mGy T65DR group, medical x-ray active bone marrow doses ranged from 0.005-50% (mean, 5%) of their T65DR. In the greater than 1000-mGy T65DR group, medical x-ray exposures were proportionally less. Medical x-ray exposures produced smaller doses to the gonads of males than to those of the females.

Yamamoto, O.; Antoku, S.; Russell, W.J.; Fujita, S.; Sawada, S.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Apparatus for monitoring x-ray beam alignment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for monitoring alignment of an x-ray beam in an instrument employing an x-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of x-ray beam intensities from the x-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low x-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high x-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of x-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to x-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the x-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the x-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency.

Steinmeyer, P.A.

1989-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

235

Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for directly determining the crystalline structure of a protein crystal. The crystal is irradiated by a finely collimated x-ray beam. The interaction o f the x-ray beam with the crystal produces scattered x-rays. These scattered x-rays are detected by means of a large area, thick CCD which is capable of measuring a significant number of scattered x-rays which impact its surface. The CCD is capable of detecting the position of impact of the scattered x-ray on the surface of the CCD and the quantity of scattered x-rays which impact the same cell or pixel. This data is then processed in real-time and the processed data is outputted to produce an image of the structure of the crystal. If this crystal is a protein the molecular structure of the protein can be determined from the data received.

Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Introduction to Neutron and X-Ray Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scattering Studies of Thin Scattering Studies of Thin Polymer Films Introduction to Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Sunil K. Sinha UCSD/LANL Acknowledgements: Prof. R.Pynn( Indiana U.) Prof. M.Tolan (U. Dortmund) Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen 1845-1923 1895: Discovery of X-Rays 1901 W. C. Röntgen in Physics for the discovery of x-rays. 1914 M. von Laue in Physics for x-ray diffraction from crystals. 1915 W. H. Bragg and W. L. Bragg in Physics for crystal structure determination. 1917 C. G. Barkla in Physics for characteristic radiation of elements. 1924 K. M. G. Siegbahn in Physics for x-ray spectroscopy. 1927 A. H. Compton in Physics for scattering of x-rays by electrons. 1936 P. Debye in Chemistry for diffraction of x-rays and electrons in gases.

237

Bruker Workshop on Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diagnosis and Treatment of Problem Structures: Diagnosis and Treatment of Problem Structures: A Bruker Workshop on Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction May 30, 2008 Chemistry Department University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN This meeting focuses on the scientific resources of four ORNL user facilities funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Who Should Attend Synopsis Goals Scheduled Agenda Workshop Materials Confirmed Speakers Important Dates Registration - now open Location - Directions and Map Sponsors Organizing and Local Committee Contacts Relevant Literature, References, Websites Local Information Bruker - UT Workshop Who Should Attend? The Workshop is directed to the newcomer as well as the experienced user of a Bruker Apex / Apex-II system and SHELX software. It will concentrate on hard to solve and/or refine problem structures. We envision it to be

238

X-ray Method Shows How Frog Embryos Could Help Thwart Disease  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanocrystals Grow from Liquid Interface Nanocrystals Grow from Liquid Interface Eleventh Arthur H. Compton Award Announced Borland Awarded ACFA-IPAC'13 Prize for Accelerator Science President Obama at the Advanced Photon Source Von Dreele Receives Hanawalt Award APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed X-ray Method Shows How Frog Embryos Could Help Thwart Disease MAY 20, 2013 Bookmark and Share X-ray phase-contrast tomography: Early frog embryo in cellular resolution (left) and cell and tissue motion captured and visualized using flow analysis (right). Image: Alexey Ershov/KIT From R&D Magazine online: An international team of scientists using a new X-ray method recorded the internal structure and cell movement inside a living frog embryo in greater

239

X-ray imaging, spacecraft nuclear fission and cosmic ray contraband  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R&D 100 Awards winners R&D 100 Awards winners X-ray imaging, spacecraft nuclear fission and cosmic ray contraband detection score R&D 100 awards R&D Magazine announced the winners and three technologies from Los Alamos National Laboratory and its partners are among the honorees. July 8, 2013 MiniMAX is a battery powered, digital x-ray imaging system that is completely self-contained, lightweight, compact and portable. MiniMAX is a battery powered, digital x-ray imaging system that is completely self-contained, lightweight, compact and portable. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email "The innovation and creativity shown in this year's awards is truly inspiring. It gives me great confidence in the Laboratory's intellectual vitality and ongoing role in national security science. Congratulations to

240

X-ray chemistry in envelopes around young stellar objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present chemical models of the envelope of a young stellar object (YSO) exposed to a central X-ray source. The models are applied to the massive star-forming region AFGL 2591 for different X-ray fluxes. The total X-ray ionization rate is dominated by the `secondary' ionization rate of H2 resulting from fast electrons. The carbon, sulphur and nitrogen chemistries are discussed. It is found that He+ and H3+ are enhanced and trigger a peculiar chemistry. Several molecular X-ray tracers are found and compared to tracers of the far ultraviolet (FUV) field. Like ultraviolet radiation fields, X-rays enhance simple hydrides, ions and radicals. In contrast to ultraviolet photons, X-rays can penetrate deep into the envelope and affect the chemistry even at large distances from the source. Whereas the FUV enhanced species cover a region of 200-300 AU, the region enhanced by X-rays is >1000 AU. Best-fit models for AFGL 2591 predict an X-ray luminosity LX > 1e+31 ergs/s with a hard X-ray spectrum TX > 3e+07 K. Furthermore, we find LX/Lbol ~ 1e-6. The chemistry of the bulk of the envelope mass is dominated by cosmic-ray induced reactions rather than by X-ray induced ionization for X-ray luminosities LX < 1e+33 ergs/s. The calculated line intensities of HCO+ and HCS+ show that high-J lines are more affected than lower J lines by the presence of X-rays due to their higher critical densities, and that such differences are detectable even with large aperture single-dish telescopes. Future instruments such as Herschel-HIFI or SOFIA will be able to observe X-ray enhanced hydrides whereas the sensitivity and spatial resolution of ALMA is well-suited to measure the size and geometry of the region affected by X-rays.

P. Staeuber; S. D. Doty; E. F. van Dishoeck; A. O. Benz

2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images whole, frozen hydrated cells in 3-D (see highlight "Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography"). Large numbers of cells can currently be processed in a short time at resolutions of 40 to 60 nanometers, but the ability to increase resolution to the 10-nanometer range would enhance research capabilities in both biology and materials sciences.

242

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless Imaging of Whole Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images whole, frozen hydrated cells in 3-D (see highlight "Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography"). Large numbers of cells can currently be processed in a short time at resolutions of 40 to 60 nanometers, but the ability to increase resolution to the 10-nanometer range would enhance research capabilities in both biology and materials sciences.

243

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images whole, frozen hydrated cells in 3-D (see highlight "Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography"). Large numbers of cells can currently be processed in a short time at resolutions of 40 to 60 nanometers, but the ability to increase resolution to the 10-nanometer range would enhance research capabilities in both biology and materials sciences.

244

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images whole, frozen hydrated cells in 3-D (see highlight "Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography"). Large numbers of cells can currently be processed in a short time at resolutions of 40 to 60 nanometers, but the ability to increase resolution to the 10-nanometer range would enhance research capabilities in both biology and materials sciences.

245

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images whole, frozen hydrated cells in 3-D (see highlight "Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography"). Large numbers of cells can currently be processed in a short time at resolutions of 40 to 60 nanometers, but the ability to increase resolution to the 10-nanometer range would enhance research capabilities in both biology and materials sciences.

246

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images whole, frozen hydrated cells in 3-D (see highlight "Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography"). Large numbers of cells can currently be processed in a short time at resolutions of 40 to 60 nanometers, but the ability to increase resolution to the 10-nanometer range would enhance research capabilities in both biology and materials sciences.

247

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images whole, frozen hydrated cells in 3-D (see highlight "Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography"). Large numbers of cells can currently be processed in a short time at resolutions of 40 to 60 nanometers, but the ability to increase resolution to the 10-nanometer range would enhance research capabilities in both biology and materials sciences.

248

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images whole, frozen hydrated cells in 3-D (see highlight "Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography"). Large numbers of cells can currently be processed in a short time at resolutions of 40 to 60 nanometers, but the ability to increase resolution to the 10-nanometer range would enhance research capabilities in both biology and materials sciences.

249

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images whole, frozen hydrated cells in 3-D (see highlight "Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography"). Large numbers of cells can currently be processed in a short time at resolutions of 40 to 60 nanometers, but the ability to increase resolution to the 10-nanometer range would enhance research capabilities in both biology and materials sciences.

250

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - People - Nuclear and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interfacial Processes Interfacial Processes Paul Fenter, Physicist and Group Leader phone: 630/252-7053, fax: 630/252-9570, e-mail: fenter@anl.gov Ph.D., Physics, University of Pennsylvania Interfacial science Interfacial geochemistry (mineral / fluid interfaces) Phase-sensitive interfacial x-ray scattering Sang Soo Lee, Assistant Geochemist phone: 630/252-6679, fax: 630/252-9570, e-mail: sslee@anl.gov Ph.D., Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago Mineral-solution interfacial process Sorption of heavy metal and organic matter on minerals Ion-exchange and swelling of clay minerals X-ray reflectivity, resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity, resonant anomalous X-ray diffraction Tim Fister, Assistant Materials Scientist Fax: 630/252-9570, e-mail: fister@anl.gov

251

Simulated X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy on the Water Dimer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ability of an individual H{sub 2}O molecule to form multiple hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules makes it an ideal substance for the study of hydrogen bonding. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can be used to study what intermolecular structures the hydrogen-bonded water molecules form. XAS excites core electrons from the oxygen 1 s atomic orbital to an unoccupied orbital. The resulting absorption spectrum shows the energy levels of the unoccupied orbitals, which in turn is dependent on the intermolecular structure of the H{sub 2}O system. Previous studies using molecular dynamics computer simulations have concluded that the intermolecular structure of liquid water is a distorted tetrahedron. Yet x-ray absorption spectra show discrepancies between liquid water and ice Ih, which is already known to have a rigid tetrahedral structure. The research group, which is based in the University of Sweden in Stockholm and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, has studied the possible presence of broken hydrogen bonds in the liquid water intermolecular structure to explain these deviations. Computer simulations are used to construct theoretical absorption spectra for models of liquid water including broken hydrogen bonds. Creating such models requires controlling variables. The simplest method of isolating individual variables, such as hydrogen bond length and angles, is to study the water dimer. Here, the water dimer is used to study how the absorption spectra change with the way the water molecules are positioned and oriented relative to each other.

Wung, A

2004-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

252

Proton induced quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams for soft x-ray spectroscopy studies and selective x-ray fluorescence analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the analytical features and performance of an x-ray spectroscopy end station of moderate energy resolution operating with proton-induced quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams. The apparatus was designed, installed and operated at the 5.5 MV Tandem VdG Accelerator Laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos,' Athens. The setup includes a two-level ultrahigh vacuum chamber that hosts in the lower level up to six primary targets in a rotatable holder; there, the irradiation of pure element materials-used as primary targets-with few-MeV high current ({approx}{mu}A) proton beams produces intense quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams of selectable energy. In the chamber's upper level, a six-position rotatable sample holder hosts the targets considered for x-ray spectroscopy studies. The proton-induced x-ray beam, after proper collimation, is guided to the sample position whereas various filters can be also inserted along the beam's path to eliminate the backscattered protons or/and to absorb selectively components of the x-ray beam. The apparatus incorporates an ultrathin window Si(Li) spectrometer (FWHM 136 eV at 5.89 keV) coupled with low-noise electronics capable of efficiently detecting photons down to carbon K{alpha}. Exemplary soft x-ray spectroscopy studies and results of selective x-ray fluorescence analysis are presented.

Sokaras, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Zarkadas, Ch. [PANalytical B.V., 7600 AA Almelo (Netherlands); Fliegauf, R.; Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Karydas, A. G. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Gray scale x-ray mask  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention describes a method for fabricating an embossing tool or an x-ray mask tool, providing microstructures that smoothly vary in height from point-to-point in etched substrates, i.e., structure which can vary in all three dimensions. The process uses a lithographic technique to transfer an image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist and then etching the silicon substrate. Importantly, the photoresist is variably exposed so that when developed some of the resist layer remains. The remaining undeveloped resist acts as an etchant barrier to the reactive plasma used to etch the silicon substrate and therefore provides the ability etch structures of variable depths.

Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA); Gonzales, Marcela (Seattle, WA)

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

254

In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS A New Gas Loading System for Diamond Anvil Cells at GSECARS Sidorowicz Named "Supervisor of the Year" SESS 2007: The School for Environmental Sciences with Synchrotrons Art and Science A Breakthrough in Interface Science APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots MARCH 11, 2008 Bookmark and Share Research and Design Magazine "The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory has been kept busy of late." That's the first sentence of R&D Magazine's recent overview of research results from the APS. The article highlights "a new ultrafast synchrotron x-ray full-field phase contrast imaging technique and used it to reveal

255

APS 7-BM Beamline: X-Ray Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Useful Websites Useful Websites X-Ray Interactions with Matter from CRXO at LBNL. Intuitive interface for x-ray transmission and reflectivity for a wide range of materials. X-Ray Data Booklet from LBNL. Slightly outdated in places, but many useful tables of edge energies, fluorescence lines, and crystal lattice spacings. NIST XCOM Database. Powerful database of photoelectric absorption, elastic scattering, and Compton scattering cross-sections for a wide range of materials. X-Ray Server. Maintained by Sergey Stepanov at GMCA at the APS, this website has several powerful calculators for simulating x-ray reflection and diffraction. Software X-Ray Oriented Programs (XOP). This program, written by scientists at the ESRF and APS, is widely used in the synchrotron research community.

256

Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

257

Multilayers for next generation x-ray sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multilayers are artificially layered structures that can be used to create optics and optical elements for a broad range of x-ray wavelengths, or can be optimized for other applications. The development of next generation x-ray sources (synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers) requires advances in x-ray optics. Newly developed multilayer-based mirrors and optical elements enabled efficient band-pass filtering, focusing and time resolved measurements in recent FLASH (Free Electron LASer in Hamburg) experiments. These experiments are providing invaluable feedback on the response of the multilayer structures to high intensity, short pulsed x-ray sources. This information is crucial to design optics for future x-ray free electron lasers and to benchmark computer codes that simulate damage processes.

Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Hau-Riege, S; Alameda, J; Nelson, A J; Walton, C C; Kjornrattanawanich, B; Aquila, A; Dollar, F; Gullikson, E; Tarrio, C

2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

258

Optimization for Single-Spike X-Ray FELs at LCLS with a Low Charge Beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Linac Coherent Light Source is an x-ray free-electron laser at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, which is operating at x-ray wavelengths of 20-1.2 Angstrom with peak brightness nearly ten orders of magnitude beyond conventional synchrotron radiation sources. At the low charge operation mode (20 pC), the x-ray pulse length can be LCLS), the world's first hard x-ray Free electron laser (FEL), has started operation since 2009. With nominal operation charge of 250 pC, the generated x-ray pulse length is from 70 fs to a few hundred fs. This marks the beginning of a new era of ultrashort x-ray sciences. In addition, a low charge (20pC) operation mode has also been established. Since the collective effects are reduced at the low charge mode, we can increase the compression factor and still achieve a few kA peak current. The expected electron beam and x-ray pulses are less than 10 fs. There are growing interests in even shorter x-ray pulses, such as fs to sub-fs regime. One of the simple solutions is going to even lower charge. As discussed, single-spike x-ray pulses can be generated using 1 pC charge. However, this charge level is out of the present LCLS diagnostic range. 20 pC is a reasonable operation charge at LCLS, based on the present diagnostic system. At 20 pC in the soft x-ray wavelength regime, we have experimentally demonstrated that FEL can work at undercompression or over-compression mode, such as 1 degree off the full-compression; at full-compression, however, there is almost no lasing. In hard x-ray wavelength regime, we observed that there are reasonable photons generated even at full-compression mode, although the photon number is less than that from under-compression or over-compression mode. Since we cannot measure the x-ray pulse length at this time scale, the machine is typically optimized for generating maximum photons, not minimum pulse length. In this paper, we study the methods of producing femtosecond (or single-spike) x-ray pulses at LCLS with 20 pC charge, based on start-to-end simulations. Figure 1 shows a layout of LCLS. The compression in the second bunch compressor (BC2) determines the final e-beam bunch length. However, the laser heater, dog-leg after the main linac (DL2) and collective effects also affect the final bunch length. To adjust BC2 compression, we can either change the L2 phase or BC2 R{sub 56}. In this paper we only tune L2 phase while keep BC2 R{sub 56} fixed. For the start-to-end simulations, we used IMPACT-T and ELEGANT tracking from the photocathode to the entrance of the undulator, after that the FEL radiation was simulated with GENESIS. IMPACT-T tracks about 10{sup 6} particles in the injector part until 135 MeV, including 3D space charge force. The output particles from IMPACT-T are smoothed and increased to 12 x 10{sup 6} to reduce high-frequency numerical noise for subsequent ELEGANT simulations, which include linear and nonlinear transport effects, a 1D transient model of CSR, and longitudinal space charge effects, as well as geometric and resistive wake fields in the accelerator. In GENESIS part, the longitudinal wake field from undulator chamber and longitudinal space field are also included.

Wang, L.; Ding, Y.; Huang, Z.; /SLAC

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

259

NIST X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients - Version History  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... year, month day with database access date.) Hubbell, JH and Seltzer, SM (2004), Tables of X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients and Mass Energy- ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

260

Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultrafast X-ray and 2-dimensional UV Spectroscopy of TiO2 Nanoparticles: Majed Chergui1; 1Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Mesoporous titanium ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2010 ... Strain Determination in Nanoscale Microelectronic Materials Using X-Ray Diffraction: Conal Murray1; 1IBM T.J. Watson Research Center

262

High Temperature X-ray Diffraction Characterization of Thermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application of Conical Beam X-Ray Tomography to Multi-Phase Materials ... Digital Construction and Characterization of Reticulated Porous Microstructures ...

263

dosimetry of x-rays, gamma rays and electrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST and BIPM Standards for Air Kerma in Medium-Energy X-rays ... of the codes are available from the Government Printing Office, Washington, DC ...

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

264

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Investigations of Microscopic Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Case Study in Future Energy Challenges: Towards In Situ Hard X-ray Microscopy of ... of Crystal Structure and Domain Character in Lead Free Piezoceramics.

265

APS X-ray Optics Fabrication and Characterization Facility  

SciTech Connect

The APS is in the process of assembling an X-ray Optics Fabrication and characterization Facility. This report will describe its current (as of February 1993) design.

Davey, S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. 25 figs.

Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Fitch, J.P.; Everett, M.J.; Colston, B.W.; Stone, G.F.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide/ Reservoir...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Interfaces Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to:...

268

Phase Sensitive X-ray Imager for More Accurate Digital ...  

Livermore Lab Report. News Archive. News ... use of higher energy X-rays which would result in a lower amount of absorbed radiation to the ... testing ...

269

Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose to organize a seven-session Symposium on Neutron and X-Ray ... the advent of new powerful neutron sources such as the Spallation Neutron ...

270

Available Technologies: High Temperature Strain Cell for X-ray ...  

High Temperature Strain Cell for X-ray ... Six hexapole infrared lamps focus inside the sample chamber onto a ceramic material sample with a spherical ...

271

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source.

Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA); Everett, Matthew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Colston, Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Inelastic X-ray Scattering Reveals Microscopic Transport Properties...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inelastic X-ray Scattering Reveals Microscopic Transport Properties of Molten Aluminum Oxide The transport properties of high-temperature oxide melts are of considerable interest...

273

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Pulses in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SLAC researchers have demonstrated for the first time how to produce pairs of X-ray laser pulses in slightly different wavelengths, or colors, with finely adjustable intervals...

274

NIST X-Ray Transition Energies Version History  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Jr., P. Indelicato, L. de Billy, E. Lindroth, and J. Anton, "X-ray transition energies: new approach to a ... [Type of medium] Available: URL [Access date]. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

275

Particle Accelerator & X-Ray Optics | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hard X-Ray Quad Collimator Facilitates Microcrystallography Experiments Isotopic Abundance in Atom Trap Trace Analysis Nanomaterials Analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope...

276

X RAY TU E WITH MAGNETI ELE TRON STEERING  

Sandia National Laboratories has created an improved efficiency compact X-ray source to address a wide range ... escape the anode and cause electron h ...

277

Temporal multiplexing radiography for dynamic x-ray imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All current x-ray imaging devices acquire images sequentially, one at a time. Using a spatially distributed multibeam x-ray source we recently demonstrated the feasibility for multiplexing x-ray imaging, which can significantly increase the data collection speed. Here we present a general methodology for dynamic x-ray imaging of an object in cyclic motion with temporal multiplexing. Compared to the conventional sequential imaging technique, where 2N-1 phase images are required and N exposures are needed for a single phase image, a temporal multiplexing of dimension 2N-1 can reduce the imaging time by a factor of N while maintaining the temporal resolution.

Cao Guohua [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhang Jian [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhou, Otto; Lu Jianping [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599 (United States)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Refractive Optics for Hard X-ray Transmission Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For hard x-ray transmission microscopy at photon energies higher than 15 keV we design refractive condenser and imaging elements to be used with synchrotron light sources as well as with x-ray tube sources. The condenser lenses are optimized for low x-ray attenuation--resulting in apertures greater than 1 mm--and homogeneous intensity distribution on the detector plane, whereas the imaging enables high-resolution (condenser and imaging lenses are being developed. The imaging lenses (compound refractive lenses, CRLs) are made of SU-8 negative resist by deep x-ray lithography. SU-8 shows high radiation stability. The fabrication technique enables high-quality lens structures regarding surface roughness and arrangement precision with arbitrary 2D geometry. To provide point foci, crossed pairs of lenses are used. Condenser lenses have been made utilizing deep x-ray lithographic patterning of thick SU-8 layers, too, whereas in this case, the aperture is limited due to process restrictions. Thus, in terms of large apertures, condenser lenses made of structured and rolled polyimide film are more attractive. Both condenser types, x-ray mosaic lenses and rolled x-ray prism lenses (RXPLs), are considered to be implemented into a microscope setup. The x-ray optical elements mentioned above are characterized with synchrotron radiation and x-ray laboratory sources, respectively.

Simon, M.; Last, A.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Reznikova, E. [Institute for Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ahrens, G.; Voigt, A. [Microresist Technology, Koepenikerstrasse 325, 12555 Berlin (Germany)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

279

New Directions in X-ray Scattering - SSRL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

associated with chemically and radioactively contaminated ground-water. Ability to probe weak scattering from single crystals as function of energy (resonance) and x-ray...

280

Bibliography of NRL Works on X-Ray Fluorescence Authored ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... LS Birks, and EJ Brooks, "Grain-Boundary Diffusion of Zinc in Copper ... 111 J. Gilfrich, "X-Ray Diffraction Studies on the Titanium-Nickel System," in ...

2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

In situ X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials |...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to accurately characterize the dynamic electrochemical processes at the nanometer and atomic level, we have employed a set of complementary, in situ X-ray characterization...

282

Improved Treatment of X-ray Resistant & Inoperable Cancers ...  

If the electron beam can be transported to the internal cancer without exposure to tissue, ... This figure shows a comparison of X-ray radiation ...

283

Spatially-Resolved X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies Inside Individual ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This talk will describe recent advances including increased scanning speed, and will describe the use of this x-ray microscope to study mesoscale structural ...

284

Development of Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy and Its ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials III. Presentation Title, 2010 ...

285

Background X-ray Spectrum of Radioactive Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) is commonly used with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the elemental compositions and microstructures of a variety of samples. For example, the microstructures of nuclear fuels are commonly investigated with this technique. However, the radioactivity of some materials introduces additional X-rays that contribute to the EDS background spectrum. These X-rays are generally not accounted for in spectral analysis software, and can cause misleading results. X-rays from internal conversion [1], Bremsstrahlung [2] radiation associated with alpha ionizations and beta particle interactions [3], and gamma rays from radioactive decay can all elevate the background of radioactive materials.

Shannon Yee; Dawn E. Janney

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Grain Boundary Deformation Analyzed Via X-Ray Diffraction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modeling the Influence of the Second Phase Particle Spatial Distribution on Recrystallization of AA 7050 · Near-Field High Energy X-ray Diffraction Microscopy ...

287

Applications of High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... data, including concentration profiles from x-ray absorption measurements during ... Dynamic Evolution of Liquid-liquid Phase Separation While Cooling in a

288

Determining the Uncertainty of X-Ray Absorption ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The apparatus uses a tungsten filament and a tungsten target to generate x rays and the detector contains a CZT crystal. ...

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

289

X-ray Detection with Large Area Avalanche Photodiodes for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The primary photon detector was a 12-element ... The overall energy range for the experiment was ... to directly detect X-rays with energies between 0.3 ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

290

Spectrometry of X-Ray Beams Used for Calibrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and used to calibrate a wavelength-dispersive crystal x-ray spectrograph used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to diagnose ...

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

291

X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron Steering - Energy ...  

The high average power large area X-ray tube provides ... Solar Photovoltaic; Solar ... Description This invention consists of a cathode and anode ...

292

Angular Correlations of the X-Ray Background and Clustering of Extragalactic X-Ray Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The information content of the autocorrelation function (ACF) of intensity fluctuations of the X-ray background (XRB) is analyzed. The tight upper limits set by ROSAT deep survey data on the ACF at arcmin scales imply strong constraints on clustering properties of X-ray sources at cosmological distances and on their contribution to the soft XRB. If quasars have a clustering radius r_0=12-20 Mpc (H_0=50), and their two point correlation function, is constant in comoving coordinates as indicated by optical data, they cannot make up more 40-50% of the soft XRB (the maximum contribution may reach 80% in the case of stable clustering, epsilon=0). Active Star-forming (ASF) galaxies clustered like normal galaxies, with r_0=10-12 Mpc can yield up to 20% or up to 40% of the soft XRB for epsilon=-1.2 or epsilon=0, respectively. The ACF on degree scales essentially reflects the clustering properties of local sources and is proportional to their volume emissivity. The upper limits on scales of a few degrees imply that hard X-ray selected AGNs have r_06 deg, if real, may be due to AGNs with r_0=20 Mpc; the contribution from clusters of galaxies with r_0~50 Mpc is a factor 2 lower.

L. Danese; L. Toffolatti; A. Franceschini; J. M. Martin-Mirones; G. De Zotti

1993-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

293

X-ray Methods in High-Intensity Discharges and Metal-Halide Lamps: X-ray Induced Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

We describe the use of x-ray induced fluorescence to study metal-halide high-intensity discharge lamps and to measure equilibrium vapor pressures of metal-halide salts. The physical principles of metal-halide lamps, relevant aspects of x-ray-atom interactions, the experimental method using synchrotron radiation, and x-ray induced fluorescence measurements relevant to metal-halide lamps are covered.

Curry, John J.; Lapatovich, Walter P.; Henins, Albert (NIST)

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

294

Ultra-soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy: A bulk and surface probe of materials  

SciTech Connect

Direct comparisons between surface and bulk of diverse materials can be made by simultaneous electron yield (5 nm depth sensitivity) and fluorescence yield (200 nm) ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements utilizing a rapid sample interchange apparatus. For example the orientations of functional groups have been characterized at and near the surface of a series of model polymeric materials highlighting the chemical and molecular sensitivity of ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition we discuss a bulk sensitive use of fluorescence yield to non destructively study a buried metal polymer interface. A second bulk sensitive example is the use of fluorescence yield oxygen K near edge x-ray spectroscopy as a method to determine the hole state density of high Tc materials.

Fischer, D.A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Mitchell, G.E.; Dekoven, B.M. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States); Yeh, A.T.; Gland, J.L. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Moodenbaugh, A.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Ultra-soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy: A bulk and surface probe of materials  

SciTech Connect

Direct comparisons between surface and bulk of diverse materials can be made by simultaneous electron yield (5 nm depth sensitivity) and fluorescence yield (200 nm) ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements utilizing a rapid sample interchange apparatus. For example the orientations of functional groups have been characterized at and near the surface of a series of model polymeric materials highlighting the chemical and molecular sensitivity of ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition we discuss a bulk sensitive use of fluorescence yield to non destructively study a buried metal polymer interface. A second bulk sensitive example is the use of fluorescence yield oxygen K near edge x-ray spectroscopy as a method to determine the hole state density of high Tc materials.

Fischer, D.A. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)); Mitchell, G.E.; Dekoven, B.M. (Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States)); Yeh, A.T.; Gland, J.L. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Moodenbaugh, A.R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Structure-Function Analysis of Edible FatsChapter 3 Powder X-ray Diffraction of Triglycerides in the Study of Polymorphism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structure-Function Analysis of Edible Fats Chapter 3 Powder X-ray Diffraction of Triglycerides in the Study of Polymorphism Methods and Analyses eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Processing Methods - An

297

X-ray spectral states of microquasars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the origin of the dramatically different X-ray spectral shapes observed in the Low Hard State (LHS: dominated by thermal comptonisation) and the High Soft State (HSS: dominated by the accretion disc thermal emission and non-thermal comptonisation in the corona). We present numerical simulations using a new code accounting for the so-called synchrotron boiler effect. These numerical simulations when compared to the data allow us to constrain the magnetic field and temperature of the hot protons in the corona. For the hard state of Cygnus X-1 we find a magnetic field below equipartition with radiation, suggesting that the corona is not powered through magnetic field dissipation (as assumed in most accretion disc corona models). On the other hand, our results also point toward proton temperatures that are substantially lower than typical temperatures of the ADAF models. Finally, we show that in both spectral states Comptonising plasma could be powered essentially through power-law acceleration of non-thermal electrons, which are then partly thermalised by the synchrotron and Coulomb boiler. This suggests that, contrary to current beliefs, the corona of the HSS and that of the LHS could be of very similar nature. The differences between the LHS and HSS coronal spectra would then be predominantly caused by the strong disc soft cooling emission which is present in the HSS and absent in the LHS.

Julien Malzac; Renaud Belmont

2008-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

298

X-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel (u)  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel vessels are used to enclose solid materials for studying x-ray radiolysis that involves gas release from the materials. Commercially available stainless steel components are easily adapted to form a static or a dynamic condition to monitor the gas evolved from the solid materials during and after the x-ray irradiation. Experimental data published on the x-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel, however, are very scarce, especially over a wide range of x-ray energies. The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data that will be used to determine how a poly-energetic x-ray beam is attenuated by the stainless steel container wall. The data will also be used in conjunction with MCNP (Monte Carlos Nuclear Particle) modeling to develop an accurate method for determining energy absorbed in known solid samples contained in stainless steel vessels. In this study, experiments to measure the attenuation properties of stainless steel were performed for a range of bremsstrahlung x-ray beams with a maximum energy ranging from 150 keV to 10 MeV. Bremsstrahlung x-ray beams of these energies are commonly used in radiography of engineering and weapon components. The weapon surveillance community has a great interest in understanding how the x-rays in radiography affect short-term and long-term properties of weapon materials.

Wang, Lily L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berry, Phillip C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Hard X-ray Phase Contrast -Techniques and Applications -  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hard X-ray Phase Contrast Microscopy - Techniques and Applications - A Dissertation Presented of the Graduate School ii #12;Abstract of the Dissertation Hard X-ray Phase Contrast Microscopy - Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.2.4 Reconstruction Example for Integration Method . . . . 59 3.2.5 The Imaginary Part

300

High-energy x-ray production with pyroelectric crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention of pyroelectric x-ray generator technology has enabled researchers to develop ultraportable, low-power x-ray sources for use in imaging, materials analysis, and other applications. For many applications, the usefulness of an x-ray source is determined by its yield and endpoint energy. In x-ray fluorescence, for example, high-energy sources enable the excitation of the K-shell x-ray peaks for high-Z materials as well as the lower-energy L-shell peaks, allowing more positive sample identification. This report shows how a paired-crystal pyroelectric source can be used to approximately double the endpoint x-ray energy, in addition to doubling the x-ray yield, versus a single-crystal source. As an example of the advantage of a paired-crystal system, we present a spectrum showing the fluorescence of the K shell of thorium using a pyroelectric source, as well as a spectrum showing the fluorescence of the K shell of lead. Also shown is an x-ray spectrum with an endpoint energy of 215 keV.

Geuther, Jeffrey A.; Danon, Yaron [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

ESRF HIGHLIGHTS 2005 X-RAY ABSORPTION AND MAGNETIC SCATTERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

96 ESRF HIGHLIGHTS 2005 X-RAY ABSORPTION AND MAGNETIC SCATTERING References [1] C. Antoniak, J to original phenomena. These effects are observed in charge-density wave (CDW) materials. Upon cooling of the screw like dislocation shown in Figure 121b. #12;97 HIGHLIGHTS 2005 ESRF X-RAY ABSORPTION AND MAGNETIC

Paris-Sud 11, Université de

302

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 27, 2009 ... Use of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office ...

303

Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic Techniques Wednesday, September 5, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Gang Chen Seminar: Structures at atomic scales are traditionally determined through X-ray crystallography that amplifies scattering intensities by introducing spatial periodicity. For amorphous materials and many macromolecules, such as viruses, proteins and biofilms, it is hard to determine structures due to their incapability to crystallize or change of configuration during crystallization. In this talk, I will present the application of X-ray reflectivity and a newly developed fluctuation X-ray scattering technique to study the structures of lipid membranes and randomly oriented nanoparticles. Three different types of domain registrations occurring with

304

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscopic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscopic Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscopic Refinement Friday, September 28, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 322 SSRL Presents Kevin Stone X-ray absorption spectroscopy has become an important tool in understanding the electronic structure of materials. Resonant absorption edges in the soft x-ray regime are especially interesting as they allow the study of the lighter elements, such as in organic or organo-metallic substances, as well as important L-edges of the 3d transition metals important in magnetic and oxide systems. Measurements of soft x-ray absorption spectra are inherently surface sensitive, and are plagued by issues such as extinction (in electron yield measurements) or self absorption (in fluorescence yield

305

Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

Silver, Eric H. (Berkeley, CA); Legros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Madden, Norm W. (Livermore, CA); Goulding, Fred (Lafayette, CA); Landis, Don (Pinole, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

X-Ray Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The discovery by the BeppoSAX satellite of X-ray afterglow emission from the gamma-ray burst which occurred on 28 February 1997 produced a revolution in our knowledge of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon. Along with the discovery of X-ray afterglows, the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts were discovered and the distance issue was settled, at least for long $\\gamma$-ray bursts. The 30 year mystery of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon is now on the way to solution. Here I rewiew the observational status of the X-ray afterglow emission, its mean properties (detection rate, continuum spectra, line features, and light curves), and the X-ray constraints on theoretical models of gamma-ray bursters and their progenitors. I also discuss the early onset afterglow emission, the remaining questions, and the role of future X-ray afterglow observations.

Filippo Frontera

2004-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

307

Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

308

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Unexpected Angular Dependence of Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Wednesday, 29 August 2007 00:00 Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and x-ray polarization, but their orientation relative to the crystallographic axes must be taken into account for accurate interpretation of XMLD data. Magnetism and X Rays

309

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Symposium on Optics and Photonics, San Diego, California, July 31-August 4, 2005. Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5932, 59322A, Sept. 19, 2005. Turgeman, R., Gershevitz, O., Deutsch, M., Ocko,...

310

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

S.-W. Magnetic-field-induced collapse of charge-ordered nanoclusters and the colossal magnetoresistance effect in Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3. Phys. Rev. B 64, 220405(R), 1-5 (2001)....

311

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

G., Balicas, L., Xin, Y., Dagotto, E., Crow, J., Nelson, C., and Agterberg, D. Tunneling magnetoresistance and quantum oscillations in bilayered Ca3Ru2O7. Phys. Rev. B 67, 060406...

312

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

highlights Quantum Persistence of Magnetic Excitations in Overdoped High Temperature Superconductors Novel Magnetic Dispersions by Mixing Ir and Cu Materials Today Popular...

313

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

T., and Billinge, S. Local structural investigation of SmFeAsO1-xFx high temperature superconductors. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 272201 (2011). Partzsch, S., Wilkins,...

314

Availability Performance and Considerations for LCLS X-Ray FEL at SLAC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is an X-ray Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility located at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. LCLS has been in operation since spring 2009, and it has completed its 3rd user run. LCLS is the first in its class of X-ray FEL user facilities, and presents different availability challenges compared to storage ring light sources. This paper presents recent availability performance of the FEL as well as factors to consider when defining the operational availability figure of merit for user runs. During LCLS [1] user runs, an availability of 95% has been set as a goal. In run III, LCLS photon and electron beam systems achieved availabilities of 94.8% and 96.7%, respectively. The total availability goal can be distributed among subsystems to track performance and identify areas that need attention in order to maintain and improve hardware reliability and operational availability. Careful beam time accounting is needed to understand the distribution of down time. The LCLS complex includes multiple experimental hutches for X-ray science, and each user program has different requirements of a set of parameters that the FEL can be configured to deliver. Since each user may have different criteria for what is considered 'acceptable beam', the quality of the beam must be considered to determine the X-ray beam availability.

Allen, W. B.

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

315

Electron beam-based sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of various methods for generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses using relativistic electron beam from conventional accelerators is presented. Both spontaneous and coherent emission of electrons is considered. The importance of the time-resolved studies of matter at picosecond (ps), femtosecond (fs), and atttosecond (as) time scales using x-rays has been widely recognized including by award of a Nobel Prize in 1999 [Zewa]. Extensive reviews of scientific drivers can be found in [BES1, BES2, BES3, Lawr, Whit]. Several laser-based techniques have been used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses including laser-driven plasmas [Murn, Alte, Risc, Rose, Zamp], high-order harmonic generation [Schn, Rund, Wang, Arpi], and laser-driven anode sources [Ande]. In addition, ultrafast streak-camera detectors have been applied at synchrotron sources to achieve temporal resolution on the picosecond time scale [Wulf, Lind1]. In this paper, we focus on a different group of techniques that are based on the use of the relativistic electron beam produced in conventional accelerators. In the first part we review several techniques that utilize spontaneous emission of electrons and show how solitary sub-ps x-ray pulses can be obtained at existing storage ring based synchrotron light sources and linacs. In the second part we consider coherent emission of electrons in the free-electron lasers (FELs) and review several techniques for a generation of solitary sub-fs x-ray pulses. Remarkably, the x-ray pulses that can be obtained with the FELs are not only significantly shorter than the ones considered in Part 1, but also carry more photons per pulse by many orders of magnitude.

Zholents, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

316

Resonant Auger Effect at High X-Ray Intensity  

SciTech Connect

The resonant Auger effect of atomic neon exposed to high-intensity x-ray radiation in resonance with the 1s {yields} 3p transition is discussed. High intensity here means that the x-ray peak intensity is sufficient ({approx} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) to induce Rabi oscillations between the neon ground state and the 1s{sup -1}3p ({sup 1}P) state within the relaxation lifetime of the inner-shell vacancy. For the numerical analysis presented, an effective two-level model, including a description of the resonant Auger decay process, is employed. Both coherent and chaotic x-ray pulses are treated. The latter are used to simulate radiation from x-ray free-electron lasers based on the principle of self-amplified spontaneous emission. Observing x-ray-driven atomic population dynamics in the time domain is challenging for chaotic pulse ensembles. A more practical option for experiments using x-ray free-electron lasers is to measure the line profiles in the kinetic energy distribution of the resonant Auger electron. This provides information on both atomic population dynamics and x-ray pulse properties.

Rohringer, N; Santra, R

2008-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

317

X-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The intensity and spectral characteristics of x-ray emitted from laser-produced plasmas have been investigated computatinoally and experimentally. a two-dimensional implosi code was used successfully to calculate laser-plasma radiation characteristics and to aid in the design of laser targets for high-yield x-ray production. Other computer codes, in use or under development predict lime strengths and energies for laser-plasma x-ray emission. An experimental effort is aimed at reliable measurements of x-ray yields and spectra. a wide variety of x-ray detection methods have been evaluated, and x-ray yields have been measured from plasmas produced with two dissimilar laser systems. The high energy x-ray spectrum, from about 10 to 140 keV, has been studied using high-gain scintillatino detectors and thick K-edge filters. Various supplementary measurements have provided information concerning characteristics of the target-reflected laser light, the ion energies, and the laser intensity patterns.

Violet, C.E. [ed.

1974-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The Role of Surface X-ray Scattering in Electrocatalysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 N. M. Markovi , LBNL and C. A. Lucas, University of Liverpool Ecological and political realities have moved discussions of, and advances in, fuel cell technology into mainstream public awareness. Electrocatalysis, the science of modifying the overall rates of electrochemical reactions so that selectivity, yield and efficiency are maximized, is the work from which those advances spring. Studies in electrocatalysis have resulted in highly selective multicomponent gas mixture sensors, human blood component sensors, new electrocatalysts for oxidation/reduction of inorganic and organic pollutants in air and water, as well as better electrocatalysts for the fuel cell conversion of renewable and fossil fuels to electrical work. Studies of the mechanisms by which these catalysts operate have been advanced through development of in-situ surface x-ray scattering (SXS) techniques. SXS capabilities at SSRL were recently used to investigate the interface structure of an ultrathin COad (adsorbed carbon monoxide) overlayer on platinum. This work has elevated the macroscopic description of the COad state at the solid-liquid interface to a microscopic level and enabled the relation between the reactivity and the interfacial structure of COad/Pt to be understood.

319

Direct three-dimensional coherently scattered x-ray microtomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: It has been shown that coherently scattered x rays can be used to discriminate and identify specific components in a mixture of low atomic weight materials. The authors demonstrated a new method of doing coherently scattered x-ray tomography with a thin sheet of x ray. Methods: A collimated x-ray fan-beam, a parallel polycapillary collimator, and a phantom consisting of several biocompatible materials of low attenuation-based contrast were used to investigate the feasibility of the method. Because of the particular experimental setup, only the phantom translation perpendicular to the x-ray beam is needed and, thus, there is no need of Radon-type tomographic reconstruction, except for the correction of the attenuation to the primary and scattered x rays, which was performed by using a conventional attenuation-based tomographic image data set. The coherent scatter image contrast changes with momentum transfer among component materials in the specimen were investigated with multiple x-ray sources with narrow bandwidth spectra generated with anode and filter combinations of Cu/Ni (8 keV), Mo/Zr (18 keV), and Ag/Pd (22 keV) and at multiple scatter angles by orienting the detector and polycapillary collimator at different angles to the illuminating x ray. Results: The contrast among different materials changes with the x-ray source energy and the angle at which the image was measured. The coherent scatter profiles obtained from the coherent scatter images are consistent with the published results. Conclusions: This method can be used to directly generate the three-dimensional coherent scatter images of small animal, biopsies, or other small objects with low atomic weight biological or similar synthetic materials with low attenuation contrast. With equipment optimized, submillimeter spatial resolution may be achieved.

Cui Congwu; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Eaker, Diane R.; Ritman, Erik L. [Department of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Alfred Building 2-409, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

2011 U.S. National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 13th annual U.S. National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering was held June 11 to 25, 2011, at both Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories. This school brought together 65 early career graduate students from 56 different universities in the US and provided them with a broad introduction to the techniques available at the major large-scale neutron and synchrotron x-ray facilities. This school is focused primarily on techniques relevant to the physical sciences, but also touches on cross-disciplinary bio-related scattering measurements. During the school, students received lectures by over 30 researchers from academia, industry, and national laboratories and participated in a number of short demonstration experiments at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source (APS) and Oak Ridge's Spallation neutron Source (SNS) and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) facilities to get hands-on experience in using neutron and synchrotron sources. The first week of this year's school was held at Oak Ridge National Lab, where Lab director Thom Mason welcomed the students and provided a shitorical perspective of the neutron and x-ray facilities both at Oak Ridge and Argonne. The first few days of the school were dedicated to lectures laying out the basics of scattering theory and the differences and complementarity between the neutron and x-ray probes given by Sunil Sinha. Jack Carpenter provided an introduction into how neutrons are generated and detected. After this basic introduction, the students received lectures each morning on specific techniques and conducted demonstration experiments each afternoon on one of 15 different instruments at either the SNS or HFIR. Some of the topics covered during this week of the school included inelastic neutron scattering by Bruce Gaulin, x-ray and neutron reflectivity by Chuck Majkrazak, small-angle scattering by Volker Urban, powder diffraction by Ashfia Huq and diffuse scattering by Gene Ice.

Lang, Jonathan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); te Vethuis, Suzanne [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ekkebus, Allen E [ORNL; Chakoumakos, Bryan C [ORNL; Budai, John D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Optical systems for synchrotron radiation: lecture 4. Soft x-ray imaging systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The history and present techniques of soft x-ray imaging are reviewed briefly. The physics of x-ray imaging is described, including the temporal and spatial coherence of x-ray sources. Particular technologies described are: contact x-ray microscopy, zone plate imaging, scanned image zone plate microscopy, scanned image reflection microscopy, and soft x-ray holography and diffraction. (LEW)

Howells, M.R.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

X-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes developed for the LIL program  

SciTech Connect

This article describes x-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes, developed for the experimental program carried out on the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL) facility [J. P. Le Breton et al., Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001 (Elsevier, Paris, 2002), pp. 856-862] (24 kJ, UV--0.35 nm). The design includes a large target-to-microscope (400-700 mm) distance required by the x-ray ablation issues anticipated on the Laser MegaJoule facility [P. A. Holstein et al., Laser Part. Beams 17, 403 (1999)] (1.8 MJ) which is under construction. Two eight-image Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes [P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766 (1948)] with different spectral wavelength ranges and with a 400 mm source-to-mirror distance image the target on a custom-built framing camera (time resolution of {approx}80 ps). The soft x-ray version microscope is sensitive below 1 keV and its spatial resolution is better than 30 {mu}m over a 2-mm-diam region. The hard x-ray version microscope has a 10 {mu}m resolution over an 800-{mu}m-diam region and is sensitive in the 1-5 keV energy range. Two other x-ray microscopes based on an association of toroidal/spherical surfaces (T/S microscopes) produce an image on a streak camera with a spatial resolution better than 30 {mu}m over a 3 mm field of view in the direction of the camera slit. Both microscopes have been designed to have, respectively, a maximum sensitivity in the 0.1-1 and 1-5 keV energy range. We present the original design of these four microscopes and their test on a dc x-ray tube in the laboratory. The diagnostics were successfully used on LIL first experiments early in 2005. Results of soft x-ray imaging of a radiative jet during conical shaped laser interaction are shown.

Rosch, R.; Boutin, J. Y.; Le Breton, J. P.; Gontier, D.; Jadaud, J. P.; Reverdin, C.; Soullie, G.; Lidove, G.; Maroni, R. [CEA/DIF, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France)

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

X-ray afterglows from gamma-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider possible interpretations of the recently detected X- ray afterglow from the gamma-ray burst source GRB 970228. Cosmological and Galactic models of gamma-ray bursts predict different flux and spectral evolution of X-ray afterglows. We show that models based on adiabatic expansion of relativistic forward shocks require very efficient particle energization or post-burst re-acceleration during the expansion. Cooling neutron star models predict a very distinctive spectral and flux evolution that can be tested in current X-ray data.

M. Tavani

1997-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

324

Ten years of Vela x-ray observations  

SciTech Connect

The Vela spacecraft, particularly Vela 5B, produced all-sky X-ray data of unprecedented length and completeness. The data led to the discovery of X-ray bursts and numerous transient outbursts. Recent re-analysis has put the data in the form of 10-day skymaps covering a 7-year period, which have led to the discovery or confirmation of a number of long-term periodicities, and have made possible a time-lapse movie of the X-ray sky.

Terrell, J.; Priedhorsky, W.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

X-ray imaging for environmental science Chris Jacobsen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at CNM, Electron Microscopy Center, plus computation. 16 #12;Ultrafast imaging of fuel injector sprays, Chris Jacobsen, Robert Towers. Not shown: Sue Wirick, Chris Peltzer. Phase contrast and fluorescence

326

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | CHX: Coherent Hard X-ray Scattering...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

exceeding, for a photon energy near E8 keV, 1021 phsmrad2mm20.1 % bw (more than one order of magnitude higher than that of the Advanced Photon Source), the CHX beamline will...

327

Chemical Sciences Division: Introduction: Organization Chart  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chart Ultrafast X-Ray Science Laboratory ALS-MES Beamline Actinde Science Chemical Dynamics Beamline Centers Programs Chemical Physics The Glenn T. Seaborg Center...

328

Chandra X-ray Observatory Detection of Extended X-ray Emission from the Planetary Nebula BD+303639  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the detection of well resolved, extended X-ray emission from the young planetary nebula BD+303639 using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The X-ray emission from BD+303639 appears to lie within, but is concentrated to one side of, the interior of the shell of ionized gas seen in high-resolution optical and IR images. The relatively low X-ray temperature (Tx ~ 3x10^6 K) and asymmetric morphology of the X-ray emission suggests that conduction fronts are present and/or mixing of shock-heated and photoionized gas has occurred and, furthermore, hints at the presence of magnetic fields. The ACIS spectrum suggests that the X-ray emitting region is enriched in the products of helium burning. Our detection of extended X-ray emission from BD+303639 demonstrates the power and utility of Chandra imaging as applied to the study of planetary nebulae.

Kästner, J H; Vrtilek, S D; Dgani, R; Kastner, Joel H.; Soker, Noam; Vrtilek, Saeqa; Dgani, Ruth

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Chandra X-ray Observatory Detection of Extended X-ray Emission from the Planetary Nebula BD+303639  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the detection of well resolved, extended X-ray emission from the young planetary nebula BD+303639 using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The X-ray emission from BD+303639 appears to lie within, but is concentrated to one side of, the interior of the shell of ionized gas seen in high-resolution optical and IR images. The relatively low X-ray temperature (Tx ~ 3x10^6 K) and asymmetric morphology of the X-ray emission suggests that conduction fronts are present and/or mixing of shock-heated and photoionized gas has occurred and, furthermore, hints at the presence of magnetic fields. The ACIS spectrum suggests that the X-ray emitting region is enriched in the products of helium burning. Our detection of extended X-ray emission from BD+303639 demonstrates the power and utility of Chandra imaging as applied to the study of planetary nebulae.

Joel H. Kastner; Noam Soker; Saeqa Vrtilek; Ruth Dgani

2000-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

330

Novel Approaches to Soft X-ray Spectroscopy: Scanning TransmissionX-ray Microscopy and Ambient Pressure X-Ray PhotoelectronSpectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This workshop focused on novel spectroscopies at Beamlines 11.0.2, 5.3.2 and 9.3.2 at the ALS. The workshop brought together users from a wide range of fields to highlight recent experimental and technical developments both in scanning transmission X-ray spectroscopy (STXM) and ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPES). The morning session featured talks on experiments involving new developments at the STXM, while the afternoon session was devoted to those using APXPS. In the morning session, Tolek Tyliszczak discussed the improved detector developments at the STXM, such as an avalanche photodiode detector and fluorescence and electron detection, as well as the continued development of in situ cells for heating, gas flow, and electrochemical cells. Of these, only the avalanche photodiode in combination with a novel multichannel photon-counting system is in routine use in time-resolved studies. Bartel Van Waeyenberge (Ghent University) presented results of magnetic imaging with a time resolution of 70-100 ps combined with a lateral resolution of 20-40 nm performed with the STXM (Beamline 11.0.2). As a complement to the time-domain ''pump-and-probe'' measurements, they developed a frequency-domain ''sine-excitation'' technique in order to study specific eigenmodes of these ferromagnetic patterns with high spatial resolution. This new approach was used to study the gyrotropic vortex motions in micron-sized ferromagnetic patterns. Adam Hitchcock (McMaster University) presented the development, in collaboration with Daniel Guay (INRS, Varennes) and Sherry Zhang, of the apparatus and techniques for applying STXM to in-situ studies of electrochemistry, in particular electrochromism in polyaniline. In addition, substantial progress was reported on a joint project to develop substrates and methods for chemically selective lithography of multilayer polymer systems. Selective patterns, such as that displayed in the figure, can now be written efficiently with the bend magnet STXM on Beamline 5.3.2. Yves Acremann (SSRL) discussed time and spatially resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experiments on spin transfer devices at the STXM (Beamline 11.0.2). These elegant experiments explore time resolved measurements of the magnetization dynamics within a 100 x 150 nm sample influenced by a spin-polarized current. This experiment shows that the magnetization in these magnetic nanostructures are not uniform, as they are influenced by the Oersted field of the charge current needed to generate the spin current. The implementation of a novel multichannel photon counting system in combination with an avalanche photon detector decreased the data-acquisition time by a factor of 10, owing to its ability to resolve the structure of multi bunch mode. Gordon E. Brown, Jr. (Stanford University and SSRL) described ''Applications of STXM to Microbial Bioweathering and Biomineralization''. In the interaction of bacteria with ferrihydrite nanoparticles, microenvironments that were very different than the bulk material were observed, showing that bulk thermodynamics may not be useful for predicting micro phases. Gordon also presented work showing that iron nanoparticles are attracted to the negatively charged bacteria and form a coating that reduces iron oxide minerals. The afternoon session started with presentations by Simon Mun and Hendrik Bluhm, who discussed the current status and the future plans for the two APPES end-stations at the ALS, which are located at Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2, respectively. In both end-stations, samples can be measured in gaseous environments at pressures of up to several Torr, which makes possible the investigation of numerous phenomena, in particular in the fields of atmospheric and environmental science as well as heterogeneous catalysis. Specific examples of the application of APPES were shown in the following presentations. John Hemminger (University of California, Irvine) reported on APPES investigations at Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 of the interaction of alkali halide surfaces with water. The m

Bluhm, Hendrik; Gilles, Mary K.; Mun, Simon B.; Tyliszczak, Tolek

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has become the first ever operational hard X-ray Free Electron Laser in 2009. It will operate as a user facility capable of delivering unique research opportunities in multiple fields of science. The LCLS and the LCLS Ultrafast Science Instruments (LUSI) construction projects are developing instruments designed to make full use of the capabilities afforded by the LCLS beam. One such instrument is being designed to utilize the LCLS coherent beam to image with high resolution any sub-micron object. This instrument is called the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument. This instrument will provide a flexible optical system capable of tailoring key beam parameters for the users. A suite of shot-to-shot diagnostics will also be provided to characterize the beam on every pulse. The provided instrumentation will include multi-purpose sample environments, sample delivery and a custom detector capable of collecting 2D data at 120 Hz. In this article, the LCLS will be briefly introduced along with the technique of Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging (CXDI). A few examples of scientific opportunities using the CXI instrument will be described. Finally, the conceptual layout of the instrument will be presented along with a description of the key requirements for the overall system and specific devices required.

Boutet, Sebastien

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

332

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print Wednesday, 25 November 2009 00:00 Magnetic thin-film nanostructures can exhibit a magnetic vortex state in which the magnetization vectors lie in the film plane and curl around in a closed loop. At the very center of the vortex, a small, stable core exists where the magnetization points either up or down out of the plane. Three years ago, the discovery of an easy core reversal mechanism at the ALS not only made the possibility of using such systems as magnetic memories much more realistic, it also initiated investigation of the core switching mechanism itself. Now, a Belgian-German-ALS collaboration has used high-resolution, time-resolved, magnetic x-ray microscopy to experimentally reveal the first step of the reversal process: the dynamic deformation of the vortex core. The group also measured a critical vortex velocity above which reversal occurs. Both these observations provide the first experimental support for the postulated reversal mechanism.

333

X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SUPERGIANT SHELL IN IC 2574  

SciTech Connect

The M81 group member dwarf galaxy IC 2574 hosts a supergiant shell of current and recent star formation activity surrounding a 1000 Multiplication-Sign 500 pc hole in the ambient H I gas distribution. Chandra X-ray Observatory imaging observations reveal a luminous, L{sub X} {approx} 6.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.3-8.0 keV band, point-like source within the hole but offset from its center and fainter diffuse emission extending throughout and beyond the hole. The star formation history at the location of the point source indicates a burst of star formation beginning {approx}25 Myr ago and currently weakening and there is a young nearby star cluster, at least 5 Myr old, bracketing the likely age of the X-ray source at between 5 and {approx}25 Myr. The source is thus likely a bright high-mass X-ray binary-either a neutron star or black hole accreting from an early B star undergoing thermal-timescale mass transfer through Roche lobe overflow. The properties of the residual diffuse X-ray emission are consistent with those expected from hot gas associated with the recent star formation activity in the region.

Yukita, Mihoko [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Swartz, Douglas A. [Universities Space Research Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP12 Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Progress in Cell Marking for Synchrotron X-ray Computed Tomography  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been an increase in research activity into finding ways of marking cells in live animals for pre-clinical trials. Development of certain drugs and other therapies crucially depend on tracking particular cells or cell types in living systems. Therefore cell marking techniques are required which will enable longitudinal studies, where individuals can be examined several times over the course of a therapy or study. The benefits of being able to study both disease and therapy progression in individuals, rather than cohorts are clear. The need for high contrast 3-D imaging, without harming or altering the biological system requires a non-invasive yet penetrating imaging technique. The technique will also have to provide an appropriate spatial and contrast resolution. X-ray computed tomography offers rapid acquisition of 3-D images and is set to become one of the principal imaging techniques in this area. Work by our group over the last few years has shown that marking cells with gold nano-particles (GNP) is an effective means of visualising marked cells in-vivo using x-ray CT. Here we report the latest results from these studies. Synchrotron X-ray CT images of brain lesions in rats taken using the SYRMEP facility at the Elettra synchrotron in 2009 have been compared with histological examination of the tissues. Some deductions are drawn about the visibility of the gold loaded cells in both light microscopy and x-ray imaging.

Hall, Christopher [Monash Centre for Synchrotron Science, Monash University, Imaging and Medical Beam Line, Australian Synchrotron (Australia); Sturm, Erica [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University (Australia); Schultke, Elisabeth [Dept of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg (Germany); Arfelli, Fulvia; Astolfo, Alberto [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Menk, Ralf-Hendrik [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, Trieste (Italy); Juurlink, Bernhard H. J. [College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

335

Science and Engineering Alliance, Inc. (SEA) Activities to Increase Participation of Students from Underrepresented Groups in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Programs  

SciTech Connect

To Increase Participation of Students from Underrepresented Groups in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Programs.

Robert L. Shepard, PhD.

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

336

Active pixel sensors for X-ray astronomy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An active pixel sensor array, APS-1, has been fabricated for the purpose of scientific x-ray detection. This thesis presents the results of testing the device. Alternate design architectures are explored. Recommendations ...

Cohen, Matthew (Matthew L.)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Fifth X-ray Instrument...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and more.) The technique has been used for years to probe materials with visible-light lasers, and more recently with X-ray light from synchrotrons. But the LCLS is the first...

338

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Vision Exposes Aerosol...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

up exciting possibilities in the study of aerosol dynamics using highly focused X-ray lasers, such as SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). "Our study shows that LCLS can...

339

Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Keoki Seu Seminar: With the advent of free electron lasers there has been interest in using coherent x-rays to probe condensed matter systems....

340

Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures by X-ray Spectro...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

F. Schlotter and J. Sthr (SSRL) The unprecedented properties of X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) under development world wide will open the door for entirely new classes of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The Ulysses Catalog of Solar Hard X-Ray Flares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rupted full-Sun coverage of major solar X-ray ?are activity.of Ulysses from the Sun in AU, and its solar longitude andof the solar disk shows the view of the Sun from Earth,

Tranquille, C.; Hurley, K.; Hudson, H. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Radiological Safety Training for Radiation-Producing (X-Ray)...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for General Radiation Safety Installations Using Non-Medical X-Ray and Sealed Gamma-Ray Sources, Energies up to 10 MEV, ANSI Standard N43.3, American National Standards...

343

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Comparison of Soft X Rays...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Soft X-Rays and Ions Irradiation in a Model of V79 Mammalian Cell Authors: B. Ginovska, J.H. Miller, D. J. Lynch and W. E. Wilson Institutions: School of Electrical...

344

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-rays Reveal How Soil...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2012 Menlo Park, Calif. - Researchers working at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have used powerful X-rays to help decipher how certain...

345

Argonne TDC: Large Area CCD X-Ray Detector  

Large-Area CCD X-Ray Detector Opening Up New Horizons in the Study of Cellular and Metabolic Processes, Genetics, and Drug Development 2000 R&D 100 Award Winner!

346

Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

Aigeldinger, Georg (Livermore, CA); Skala, Dawn M. (Fremont, CA); Griffiths, Stewart K. (Livermore, CA); Talin, Albert Alec (Livermore, CA); Losey, Matthew W. (Livermore, CA); Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter (Dublin, CA)

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

347

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Takes Aim...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Takes Aim at Cosmic Mystery December 12, 2012 Menlo Park, Calif. - Scientists have used powerful X-rays from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the U.S. Department of...

348

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Sees Photosynthesis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

new window on the way plants generate the oxygen we breathe, researchers used an X-ray laser at the Department of Energy's (DOE) SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to...

349

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Brings Cellular...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a March experiment indicates it has, for the first time, used an X-ray free-electron laser - SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source - to reconstitute the structure of a G...

350

Material Characterization with X-ray and Optical Techniques I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Situ X-ray Nanocharacterization of Defects in Solar Cells: Mariana Bertoni1; ... a strong modeling tool for predicting and optimizing solar cell efficiency. ... levels (11 steps up to 55%) in order to understand the sequential damage process.

351

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-rays Capture Electron...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-rays Capture Electron 'Dance' By Glenn Roberts Jr. January 30, 2013 The way electrons move within and between molecules, transferring energy as they go, plays an important role...

352

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the...

353

Heat conduction in X-ray clusters: Spitzer over 3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective heat conduction in a random variable magnetic field should be equal to one third of the Spitzer's value. Recent observations indicate that this heat conduction is sufficient to account for the bremsstrahlung in cooling X-ray clusters.

Andrei Gruzinov

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

354

High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are an x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury. 4 Figs.

Logan, C.M.

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

355

High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The Ulysses Catalog of Solar Hard X-Ray Flares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

its Solar X-ray/Cosmic Gamma-Ray Burst Experiment (GRB) hasInstrument The Ulysses Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) instrument, hasrate due to a cosmic gamma-ray burst or a solar ?are, but we

Tranquille, C.; Hurley, K.; Hudson, H. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Towards hard x-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard x-rays ( Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research and applications using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and x-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one x-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards x-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are: (a) avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang Zhehui; Morris, C. L.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Luo, S.-N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Towards hard X-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard X-rays ({approx}> 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one X-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards X-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are (a) Avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) Microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwiatkowski, Kris K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapustinsky, Jon S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

359

Calibration of High-Resolution X-Ray Tomography With ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The x-ray attenuation of the sample at this energy was close to the ... J. Coal Geol. ... G. Xu, DE Eastman, I. McNulty, SP Frigo, Y. Wang, CC Retsch, IC ...

2001-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

360

Soft x-ray capabilities for investigating the strongly correlated electron  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Soft x-ray capabilities for investigating the strongly correlated electron Soft x-ray capabilities for investigating the strongly correlated electron materials Friday, September 14, 2012 - 1:00pm SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Jun-Sik Lee Seminar One of the most challenging extant issues in condensed matter physics and applied materials science is the search for post-silicon based electronics, and multi-functional complex oxides offer hopes that new classes of devices can be developed out of these intriguing materials. In that context, the strongly correlated systems display an extremely rich interplay of charge, spin, and lattice interactions that have extensively been studied. This is because nature has already shown how powerful this interplay is: high Tc superconductivity, multiferroelectric, colossal magnetoresistance, and novel behavior in a heterostructure. Of the complex oxides, perovskites are

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

High-energy X-rays shine light on mystery of Picasso's paints | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy X-rays shine light on mystery of Picasso's paints energy X-rays shine light on mystery of Picasso's paints By Tona Kunz * February 6, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint LEMONT, Ill. - The Art Institute of Chicago teamed up with Argonne National Laboratory to help unravel a decades-long debate among art scholars about what kind of paint Picasso used to create his masterpieces. The results published last month in the journal Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing add significant weight to the widely held theory that Picasso was one of the first master painters to use common house paint rather than traditional artists' paint. That switch in painting material gave birth to a new style of art marked by canvasses covered in glossy images with marbling, muted edges, and occasional errant paint drips, but devoid of brush marks. Fast-drying enamel house paint enabled

362

Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

G. R. et al. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy: A newwith the scanning transmission X-ray microscope at BESSY II.T. et al. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy imaging of

Moffet, Ryan C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Argonne CNM Highlight: World?s Most Precise ?Hard X-Ray?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

World's Most Precise "Hard X-Ray" Nanoprobe Activated X-rays from an APS undulator exiting the front end window of the nanoprobe beamline. X-rays from an APS undulator exiting the...

364

X-ray streak and framing camera techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews recent developments and applications of ultrafast diagnostic techniques for x-ray measurements. These techniques, based on applications of image converter devices, are already capable of significantly important resolution capabilities. Techniques capable of time resolution in the sub-nanosecond regime are being considered. Mechanical cameras are excluded from considerations as are devices using phosphors or fluors as x-ray converters.

Coleman, L.W.; Attwood, D.T.

1975-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

365

The complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 measured by the RGS instruments aboard XMM-Newton. The XMM-Newton RGS spectra demonstrate that the soft X-ray emission is extremely rich in X-ray emission lines and radiative recombination continua (RRC), with no clear evidence for any underlying continuum emission. Line emission, and the associated RRC, are clearly detected from hydrogen-like and helium-like ionization states of neon, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. The measured lines are blueshifted with a velocity of between ~100-1000 km/s, with respect to the systemic velocity of NGC 4151, approximately consistent with the outflow velocities of the absorption lines observed in the UV, suggestive of an origin for the UV and soft X-ray emission in the same material. Plasma diagnostics imply a range of electron temperatures of ~1-5x10^4 K and electron densities of between 10^8-10^10 cm^-3. The soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 is extremely similar to that of NGC 1068, suggesting that the soft X-ray excesses observed in many Seyfert galaxies may be composed of similar emission features. Modelling the RGS spectra in terms of emission from photoionized and photoexcited gas in an ionization cone reproduces all of the hydrogen-like and helium-like emission features observed in the soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 in detail and confirms the correspondence between the soft X-ray emission in NGC 4151 and NGC 1068.

N. J. Schurch; R. S. Warwick; R. E. Griffiths; S. M. Kahn

2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

366

Apparatus for obtaining an X-ray image  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A computed tomography apparatus in which a fan-shaped X-ray beam is caused to pass through a section of an object, enabling absorption detection on the opposite side of the object by a detector comprising a plurality of discrete detector elements. An electron beam generating the X-ray beam by impacting upon a target is caused to rotate over the target.

Watanabe, Eiji (Tokyo, JP)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Kinoform optics applied to X-ray photon correlation specroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moderate-demagnification higher-order silicon kinoform focusing lenses have been fabricated to facilitate small-angle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) experiments. The geometric properties of such lenses, their focusing performance and their applicability for XPCS measurements are described. It is concluded that one-dimensional vertical X-ray focusing via silicon kinoform lenses significantly increases the usable coherent flux from third-generation storage-ring light sources for small-angle XPCS experiments.

Sandy, A.R.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Narayanan, S.; Sprung, M.; Su, J.D; Isakovic, A.F.; Stein, A.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

X-ray emission from colliding laser plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Colliding Au, CD and Ti-Cr plasmas have been generated by illuminating two opposing foils each with a {approximately} 100J, 0.5 nsec, 2{omega} Nd-glass laser beam from the Trident laser facility at Los Alamos. The plasmas are being used to study plasma interactions which span the parameter regime from interpenetrating to collisional stagnation. X-ray emission during the laser target interaction and the subsequent collision is used to diagnose the initial plasma conditions and the colliding plasma properties. X-ray instrumentation consists of a 100 ps gated x-ray pinhole imager, a time-integratcd bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrograph and a gated x-ray spectrograph used to record isoelectronic spectra from the Ti-Cr plasmas. The imager has obtained multi-frame images of the collision and therefore, a measure of the stagnation length which is a function of the ion charge state and density and a strong function of the electron temperature. Other instrumentation includes a Thomson scattering spectrometer with probe beam, neutron detectors used to monitor the CD coated foil collisions and an ion spectrometer. We will describe the current status of the experiments and current results with emphasis on the x-ray emission diagnostics. We will also briefly describe the modeling using Lasnex and ISIS, a particle-in-cell code with massless fluid electrons and inter particle (classical) collisions.

Wilke, M.; Obst, A.W.; Winske, D. [and others

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Quiet Sun X-rays as Signature for New Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have studied published data from the Yohkoh solar X-ray mission, with the purpose of searching for signals from radiative decays of new, as yet undiscovered massive neutral particles. This search is based on the prediction that solar axions of the Kaluza-Klein type should result in the emission of X-rays from the Sun direction beyond the limb with a characteristic radial distribution. These X-rays should be observed more easily during periods of quiet Sun. An additional signature is the observed emission of hard X-rays by SMM, NEAR and RHESSI. The recent observation made by RHESSI of a continuous emission from the non-flaring Sun of X-rays in the 3 to ~15 keV range fits the generic axion scenario. This work also suggests new analyses of existing data, in order to exclude instrumental effects; it provides the rationale for targeted observations with present and upcoming (solar) X-ray telescopes, which can provide the final answer on the nature of the signals considered here. Such measurements become more promising during the forthcoming solar cycle minimum with an increased number of quiet Sun periods.

K. Zioutas; K. Dennerl; L. DiLella; D. H. H. Hoffmann; J. Jacoby; Th. Papaevangelou

2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

370

Dilation x-ray imager a new/faster gated x-ray imager for the NIF  

SciTech Connect

As the yield on implosion shots increases it is expected that the peak x-ray emission reduces to a duration with a FWHM as short as 20 ps for {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} neutron yield. However, the temporal resolution of currently used gated x-ray imagers on the NIF is 40-100 ps. We discuss the benefits of the higher temporal resolution for the NIF and present performance measurements for dilation x-ray imager, which utilizes pulse-dilation technology [T. J. Hilsabeck et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E317 (2010)] to achieve x-ray imaging with temporal gate times below 10 ps. The measurements were conducted using the COMET laser, which is part of the Jupiter Laser Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Nagel, S. R.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Barrios, M. A.; Felker, B.; Smith, R. F.; Collins, G. W.; Jones, O. S.; Piston, K.; Raman, K. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Materials Science Division - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Home About MSD Information Awards Visit MSD Administrative Staff Division Personnel Research Research Groups Condensed Matter Theory Emerging Materials Energy Conversion and Storage Magnetic Films Molecular Materials Neutron and X-ray Scattering Superconductivity and Magnetism Surface Chemistry Synchrotron Radiation Studies Threat Detection and Analysis Group Research Areas Careers in MSD Internal Sites Search Front Slide 1 November 2013 - Patricia Dehmer (second from right), Deputy Director of Science Programs, DOE Office of Science, joined Argonne Director Eric Isaacs(left) and Associate Laboratory Director for Physical Sciences and Engineering Peter Littlewood(second from left) to tour the recently-opened Energy Sciences Building. Among Dehmer's stops was the crystal growth

372

Understanding Water Uptake and Transport in Nafion Using X-ray...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Understanding Water Uptake and Transport in Nafion Using X-ray Microtomography Title Understanding Water Uptake and Transport in Nafion Using X-ray Microtomography Publication Type...

373

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and x-ray polarization, but their orientation relative to the crystallographic axes must be taken into account for accurate interpretation of XMLD data. Magnetism and X Rays The ancient Greeks and also the Chinese knew about strange and rare stones with the power to attract iron. Moreover, when freely suspended these objects pointed north-south. Throughout the past, we have used this phenomenon-magnetism-for navigation and more recently for power production and digital information storage, all while trying to explore and understand its origins. In 1986 researchers at a facility similar to the ALS observed for the first time that the absorption of x rays depends not only on the composition of a material-that is, if it contains iron, nickel, or other elements-but also on its magnetism. The effect is unique in that it allows us to distinguish which atomic species magnetism originates from and provides information about their local atomic environment-for example, whether a magnetic species is surrounded by 4 or 6 oxygen atoms. A research team at the ALS has now shown that the relationship between magnetic order and absorption of x rays is even more complex and exciting than has been assumed for the past 20 years, leading to a reassessment of previous results.

374

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and x-ray polarization, but their orientation relative to the crystallographic axes must be taken into account for accurate interpretation of XMLD data. Magnetism and X Rays The ancient Greeks and also the Chinese knew about strange and rare stones with the power to attract iron. Moreover, when freely suspended these objects pointed north-south. Throughout the past, we have used this phenomenon-magnetism-for navigation and more recently for power production and digital information storage, all while trying to explore and understand its origins. In 1986 researchers at a facility similar to the ALS observed for the first time that the absorption of x rays depends not only on the composition of a material-that is, if it contains iron, nickel, or other elements-but also on its magnetism. The effect is unique in that it allows us to distinguish which atomic species magnetism originates from and provides information about their local atomic environment-for example, whether a magnetic species is surrounded by 4 or 6 oxygen atoms. A research team at the ALS has now shown that the relationship between magnetic order and absorption of x rays is even more complex and exciting than has been assumed for the past 20 years, leading to a reassessment of previous results.

375

Tokamak physics studies using x-ray diagnostic methods  

SciTech Connect

X-ray diagnostic measurements have been used in a number of experiments to improve our understanding of important tokamak physics issues. The impurity content in TFTR plasmas, its sources and control have been clarified through soft x-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) measurements. The dependence of intrinsic impurity concentrations and Z/sub eff/ on electron density, plasma current, limiter material and conditioning, and neutral-beam power have shown that the limiter is an important source of metal impurities. Neoclassical-like impurity peaking following hydrogen pellet injection into Alcator C and a strong effect of impurities on sawtooth behavior were demonstrated by x-ray imaging (XIS) measurements. Rapid inward motion of impurities and continuation of m = 1 activity following an internal disruption were demonstrated with XIS measurements on PLT using injected aluminum to enhance the signals. Ion temperatures up to 12 keV and a toroidal plasma rotation velocity up to 6 x 10/sup 5/ m/s have been measured by an x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) with up to 13 MW of 85-keV neutral-beam injection in TFTR. Precise wavelengths and relative intensities of x-ray lines in several helium-like ions and neon-like ions of silver have been measured in TFTR and PLT by the XCS. The data help to identify the important excitation processes predicted in atomic physics. Wavelengths of n = 3 to 2 silver lines of interest for x-ray lasers were measured, and precise instrument calibration techniques were developed. Electron thermal conductivity and sawtooth dynamics have been studied through XIS measurements on TFTR of heat-pulse propagation and compound sawteeth. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution function has been measured, and evidence of the Parail-Pogutse instability identified by hard x-ray PHA measurements on PLT during lower-hybrid current-drive experiments.

Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Fredrickson, E.; Hsuan, H.; McGuire, K.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Sesnic, S.; Stevens, J.E.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Water destruction by X-rays in young stellar objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the H2O chemistry in star-forming environments under the influence of a central X-ray source and a central far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field. The gas-phase water chemistry is modeled as a function of time, hydrogen density and X-ray flux. To cover a wide range of physical environments, densities between n_H = 10^4-10^9 cm^-3 and temperatures between T = 10-1000 K are studied. Three different regimes are found: For T water abundance is of order 10^-7-10^-6 and can be somewhat enhanced or reduced due to X-rays, depending on time and density. For 100 K 10^-3 ergs s-1 cm^-2 (t = 10^4 yrs) and for F_X > 10^-4 ergs s^-1 cm^-2 (t = 10^5 yrs). At higher temperatures (T > 250 K) and hydrogen densities, water can persist with x(H2O) ~ 10^-4 even for high X-ray fluxes. The X-ray and FUV models are applied to envelopes around low-mass Class 0 and I young stellar objects (YSOs). Water is destroyed in both Class 0 and I envelopes on relatively short timescales (t ~ 5000 yrs) for realistic X-ray fluxes, although the effect is less prominent in Class 0 envelopes due to the higher X-ray absorbing densities there. FUV photons from the central source are not effective in destroying water. The average water abundance in Class I sources for L_X > 10^27 ergs s^-1 is predicted to be x(H2O) < 10^-6.

P. Stauber; J. K. Jorgensen; E. F. van Dishoeck; S. D. Doty; A. O. Benz

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

377

Scientific Interest Groups  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysis High Pressure LiquidSoft-Matter Surface Scattering Powder Diffraction SAXS Surface & Interface Scattering XAS X-ray Micros.Imaging Scientific Interest Groups...

378

www.ias.edu/rise Science Initiative Group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

funds. He has an ally in Heneri Dzinotyiweyi, the Minister for Science and Technology Development as a regional research facility and as the coordinating hub of a regional network. The 60 computer users ­ staff

379

Computer science students' experiences of decision making in project groups  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a study intended to understand the ways in which students experience the process of decision-making in computer science student projects. It also investigates the ways the student team works to make decisions. The empirical setting ...

Mattias Wiggberg

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

X-ray Microscopy and Imaging: FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Questions How to get beamtime ? 80% and more of our beamtime is awarded to General Users through the General User Proposal system. So, in order to receive beamtime for an experiment you have in mind, you would have to complete a short proposal form (specific instructions as to deadlines, etc), which can be found following this link. We are well oversubscribed, so prospective users may not get beamtime the first time they apply, but as proposals age, the score increases. Often, it is helpful for 'new' users to contact beamline staff first before submitting, so that potential pitfalls in experiments are avoided. For that purpose, you may wish to browse our webpages, and see who does what kind of science and applications, and directly email the person you think is most likely appropriate. When in doubt, you can also always send an email to Qun Shen, who then will make sure it reaches the appropriate people.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Initial Evaluation of Engine Combustion Network Injectors with X-Ray Diagnostics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A significant hurdle in the understanding of diesel sprays is the sensitivity of such sprays to the detailed geometry of the spray nozzle. This sensitivity hampers the comparison of results from spray measurements by different research groups, even if the groups measure nozzles with the same nominal geometry. Moreover, these differences make the comparison and validation of different diagnostic techniques problematic. To remove this source of uncertainty from diesel spray measurements, a collaboration of several research groups has formed to measure a common set of injectors under identical conditions under the auspices of Sandia National Laboratorys Engine Combustion Network. The current work describes the initial measurement of these injectors and the sprays created by these injectors using the x-ray diagnostics available at the Advanced Photon Source. X-ray phase-enhanced imaging is used to perform time-resolved, in situ measurements of injector pintle motion. In addition to these measurements, x-ray radiography measurements of the sprays from these injectors will be performed to better understand the near-nozzle fuel mass distribution in these sprays.

Kastengren, A.; Powell, C.F.; Tilocco, F.Z.; Fezzaa, K.

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

382

Formation and destruction of jets in X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutron-star and black-hole X-ray binaries (XRBs) exhibit radio jets, whose properties depend on the X-ray spectral state and history of the source. In particular, black-hole XRBs emit compact, steady radio jets when they are in the so-called hard state, the jets become eruptive as the sources move toward the soft state, disappear in the soft state, and re-appear when the sources return to the hard state. On the other hand, jets from neutron-star X-ray binaries are typically weaker radio emitters than the black-hole ones at the same X-ray luminosity and in some cases radio emission is detected in the soft state. Significant phenomenology has been accumulated so far regarding the spectral states of neutron-star and black-hole XRBs, and there is general agreement about the type of the accretion disk around the compact object in the various spectral states. Our aim is to investigate whether the phenomenology regarding the X-ray emission on one hand and the jet appearance and disappearance on the other can be put...

Kylafis, N D; Kazanas, D; Christodoulou, D M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Viewing spin structures with soft x-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment marks the basic unit for magnetic properties of matter. Magnetism, in particular ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism is described by a collective order of these spins, where the interaction between individual spins reflects a competition between exchange, anisotropy and dipolar energy terms. As a result the energetically favored ground state of a ferromagnetic system is a rather complex spin configuration, the magnetic domain structure. Magnetism is one of the eldest scientific phenomena, yet it is one of the most powerful and versatile utilized physical effects in modern technologies, such as in magnetic storage and sensor devices. To achieve highest storage density, the relevant length scales, such as the bit size in disk drives is now approaching the nanoscale and as such further developments have to deal with nanoscience phenomena. Advanced characterization tools are required to fully understand the underlying physical principles. Magnetic microscopes using polarized soft X-rays offer a close-up view into magnetism with unique features, these include elemental sensitivity due to X-ray magnetic dichroism effects as contrast mechanism, high spatial resolution provided by state-of-the-art X-ray optics and fast time resolution limited by the inherent time structure of current X-ray sources, which will be overcome with the introduction of ultrafast and high brilliant X-ray sources.

Fischer, Peter

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

YOHKOH remnants: partially occulted flares in hard X-rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flares being partially occulted by the solar limb, are the best reservoir of our knowledge about hard X-ray loop-top sources. Recently, the survey of partially occulted flares observed by the RHESSI has been published (Krucker & Lin 2008). The extensive YOHKOH database still awaits such activities. This work is an attempt to fill this gap. Among from 1286 flares in the YOHKOH Hard X-ray Telescope Flare Catalogue, for which the hard X-ray images had been enclosed, we identified 98 events that occurred behind the solar limb. We investigated their hard X-ray spectra and spatial structure. We found that in most cases the hard X-ray spectrum of partially occulted flares consists of two components, non-thermal and thermal, which are co-spatial. The photon energy spectra of the partially occulted flares are systematically steeper than spectra of the non-occulted flares. Such a difference we explain as a consequence of intrinsically dissimilar conditions ruling in coronal parts of flares, in comparison with the f...

Tomczak, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures.

Siddons, David Peter (Shoreham, NY); Johnson, Erik D. (Ridge, NY); Guckel, Henry (Madison, WI); Klein, Jonathan L. (Madison, WI)

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

386

Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures. 21 figs.

Siddons, D.P.; Johnson, E.D.; Guckel, H.; Klein, J.L.

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

387

Ultrafast x-ray diagnostics for laser fusion experiments  

SciTech Connect

Temporally, spectrally, and spatially resolved x-ray emission diagnostics are important tools in the study of the heating and compression of laser fusion targets by sub-nanosecond laser pulses. The use of the Livermore 15 psec resolution x-ray streak camera to make such measurements is reviewed. Temporal histories of spectrally resolved x-ray emission in the 1 to 10 keV range have been obtained. These data have served to further define the x-ray streak camera as a quantative diagnostic tool and have also provided data relating to the absorption and compression phases of laser heating. The x-ray streak camera has been used in conjunction with a specially designed pinhole imaging system to temporally record images of laser compressed targets with a spatial resolution of approximately 6 ..mu..m. Implosion characteristics are presented for experiments with glass microshell targets. The concept, development, and testing of an ultrafast framing camera for full two-dimensional time resolved imaging is discussed. A prototype camera, based on the image dissection-restoration concept, has achieved an approximately 200 psec frame period with a resolution of 50 ..mu..m.

Coleman, L.W.

1976-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

388

The complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 measured by the RGS instruments aboard XMM-Newton. The XMM-Newton RGS spectra demonstrate that the soft X-ray emission is extremely rich in X-ray emission lines and radiative recombination continua (RRC), with no clear evidence for any underlying continuum emission. Line emission, and the associated RRC, are clearly detected from hydrogen-like and helium-like ionization states of neon, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. The measured lines are blueshifted with a velocity of between ?100-1000 km s ?1, with respect to the systemic velocity of NGC 4151, approximately consistent with the outflow velocities of the absorption lines observed in the UV spectrum of NGC 4151 (Kriss et al. 1995), suggestive of an origin for the UV and soft X-ray emission in the same material. Plasma diagnostics from the observed helium-like triplets, imply a range of electron temperatures of ?1-5×10 4 K and electron densities of between 10 8-10 10 cm ?3. The soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 is extremely similar to that of NGC 1068, both in terms of the atomic species present and in terms of the relative strengths

N. J. Schurch; R. S. Warwick; R. E. Griffiths; S. M. Kahn

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

The complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 measured by the RGS instruments aboard XMM-Newton. The XMM-Newton RGS spectra demonstrate that the soft X-ray emission is extremely rich in X-ray emission lines and radiative recombination continua (RRC), with no clear evidence for any underlying continuum emission. Line emission, and the associated RRC, are clearly detected from hydrogen-like and helium-like ionization states of neon, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. The measured lines are blueshifted with a velocity of between ~100-1000 km/s, with respect to the systemic velocity of NGC 4151, approximately consistent with the outflow velocities of the absorption lines observed in the UV, suggestive of an origin for the UV and soft X-ray emission in the same material. Plasma diagnostics imply a range of electron temperatures of ~1-5x10^4 K and electron densities of between 10^8-10^10 cm^-3. The soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 is extremely similar to that of NGC 1068, suggesting that th...

Schurch, N J; Griffiths, R E; Kahn, S M

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

A multi-crystal wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multi-crystal wavelength dispersive hard x-ray spectrometer with high-energy resolution and large solid angle collection is described. The instrument is specifically designed for time-resolved applications of x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and x-ray Raman scattering (XRS) at X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL) and synchrotron radiation facilities. It also simplifies resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) studies of the whole 2d RIXS plane. The spectrometer is based on the Von Hamos geometry. This dispersive setup enables an XES or XRS spectrum to be measured in a single-shot mode, overcoming the scanning needs of the Rowland circle spectrometers. In conjunction with the XFEL temporal profile and high-flux, it is a powerful tool for studying the dynamics of time-dependent systems. Photo-induced processes and fast catalytic reaction kinetics, ranging from femtoseconds to milliseconds, will be resolvable in a wide array of systems circumventing radiation damage.

Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Montanez, Paul; Delor, James; Bergmann, Uwe [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kern, Jan [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8099 (United States); Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Nordlund, Dennis [SSRL, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Tran, Rosalie; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko [Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8099 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

The History of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}, pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

Pellegrini, C.; /UCLA /SLAC

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

392

Flat Field Anomalies in an X-ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-ray Source  

SciTech Connect

The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 ?m square pixels, and 15 ?m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 10W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/?E?10. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

M. J. Haugh and M. B. Schneider

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

393

ON THE X-RAY OUTBURSTS OF TRANSIENT ANOMALOUS X-RAY PULSARS AND SOFT GAMMA-RAY REPEATERS  

SciTech Connect

We show that the X-ray outburst light curves of four transient anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), namely, XTE J1810-197, SGR 0501+4516, SGR 1627-41, and CXOU J164710.2-455216, can be produced by the fallback disk model that was also applied to the outburst light curves of persistent AXPs and SGRs in our earlier work. The model solves the diffusion equation for the relaxation of a disk that has been pushed back by a soft gamma-ray burst. The sets of main disk parameters used for these transient sources are very similar to each other and to those employed in our earlier models of persistent AXPs and SGRs. There is a characteristic difference between the X-ray outburst light curves of transient and persistent sources. This can be explained by the differences in the disk surface density profiles of the transient and persistent sources in quiescence indicated by their quiescent X-ray luminosities. Our results imply that a viscous disk instability operating at a critical temperature in the range of {approx}1300-2800 K is a common property of all fallback disks around AXPs and SGRs. The effect of the instability is more pronounced and starts earlier for the sources with lower quiescent luminosities, which leads to the observable differences in the X-ray enhancement light curves of transient and persistent sources. A single active disk model with the same basic disk parameters can account for the enhancement phases of both transient and persistent AXPs and SGRs. We also present a detailed parameter study to show the effects of disk parameters on the evolution of the X-ray luminosity of AXPs and SGRs in the X-ray enhancement phases.

Cal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I skan, Sirin; Ertan, Uenal [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul, 34956 (Turkey)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

394

Exploring nanomagnetism with soft x-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy images magnetism in nanoscale systems with a spatial resolution down to 15nm provided by state-of-the-art Fresnel zone plate optics. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (X-MCD) is used as element-specific magnetic contrast mechanism similar to photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), however, with volume sensitivity and the ability to record the images in varying applied magnetic fields which allows to study magnetization reversal processes at fundamental length scales. Utilizing a stroboscopic pump-probe scheme one can investigate fast spin dynamics with a time resolution down to 70 ps which gives access to precessional and relaxation phenomena as well as spin torque driven domain wall dynamics in nanoscale systems. Current developments in zone plate optics aim for a spatial resolution towards 10nm and at next generation X-ray sources a time resolution in the fsec regime can be envisioned.

Fischer, P.; Kim, D.-H.; Mesler, B.L.; Chao, W.; Sakdinawat,A.E.; Anderson, E.H.

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

395

X-RAY FLUORESCENCE MICROPROBE (XFM) TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RAY FLUORESCENCE MICROPROBE (XFM) RAY FLUORESCENCE MICROPROBE (XFM) TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES APPLICATIONS WORLD-LEADING MICROFOCUSED EXAFS SPECTROSCOPY * XFM is an optimized three-pole wiggler beamline for the characterization of materials in an "as-is" state that are chemically heterogeneous at the micrometer scale via synchrotron induced X-ray fluorescence. * XFM includes instrumentation for microbeam X-ray fluorescence (µXRF), diffraction (µXRD) and fluorescence computed microtomography (FCMT) . However, it is optimized to provide users state-of-the-art microfocused Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (µEXAFS) spectroscopy between 4 to 20 keV. * XFM will trade-off beam size and flux for sample configuration flexibility. This includes more readily achievable stability

396

X-ray and Optical Filaments in M87  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare a very deep X-ray image of M87, at the center of the Virgo Cluster, to high-quality optical images of the low excitation emission-line gas in the same region. There are striking coincidences of detail between the two. We explore the possiblity that this represents a thermal interaction between hot gas at 10^7 K and warm gas at 10^4 K. We find two temperatures are present in the X-ray gas, with the lower more prevelant in the vicinity of the optical filaments. Electron conduction from the hot phase to the cooler one provides a quantitatively acceptable energy source for the optical filaments, and we show additionally that it can do so for the brightest X-ray cluster, Perseus. If operative, conduction in the presence of gas-rich galaxy mergers, may explain the presence of "cool cores" in clusters of galaxies.

William B. Sparks; Megan Donahue; Andres Jordan; Laura Ferrarese; Patrick Cote

2004-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

397

Composite structure development decisions using X-ray CT measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides measurement data useful for making composite manufacturing development decisions. X-ray CT measurements of material characteristics are quantitative in terms of the dimensions, density, and composition. The CT data on internal conditions, such as consolidation, gaps, delaminations, cracks, porosity and detail placement can be applied to the refinement of production techniques for composite manufacture. The key item of interest is the effect of variations in pressure loading, temperature, mold shape, material surface preparation, and bond layer thickness on the resulting consolidation or bondline quality in new composite manufacturing processes. X-ray CT measurements of densification and defect presence as a function of technique parameters are of critical importance to processes such as resin transfer molding, injection molding, composite welding, composite layup and advanced bonding methods.

Bossi, R.H.; Georgeson, G.E. [Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

An X-ray photometry system I: Chandra ACIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a system of X-ray photometry for the Chandra satellite. X-ray photometry can be a powerful tool to obtain flux estimates, hardness ratios, and colors unbiased by assumptions about spectral shape and independent of temporal and spatial changes in instrument characteristics. The system we have developed relies on our knowledge of effective area and the energy-to-channel conversion to construct filters similar to photometric filters in the optical bandpass. We show that the filters are well behaved functions of energy and that this X-ray photometric system is able to reconstruct fluxes to within about 20%, without color corrections, for non-pathological spectra. Even in the worst cases it is better than 50%. Our method also treats errors in a consistent manner, both statistical as well as systematic.

Grimm, H -J; Fabbiano, G; Elvis, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

X-ray Detection of a Rotating Radio Transient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract “Rotating RAdio Transients ” (RRATs) are a newly discovered astronomical phenomenon, characterised by occasional brief radio bursts, with average intervals between bursts ranging from minutes to hours. The burst spacings allow identification of periodicities, which fall in the range 0.4 to 7 seconds. The RRATs thus seem to be rotating neutron stars, albeit with properties very different from the rest of the population. We here present the serendipitous detection with the Chandra X-ray Observatory of a bright point-like X-ray source coincident with one of the RRATs. We discuss the temporal and spectral properties of this X-ray emission, consider counterparts in other wavebands, and interpret these results in the context of possible explanations for the RRAT population.

Bryan M. Gaensler; Maura Mclaughlin; Stephen Reynolds Kazik; Borkowski N; Burgay Fern; Andrew Lyne; Ingrid Stairs; B. M. Gaensler; S. Chatterjee; M. Mclaughlin; S. Reynolds; K. Borkowski; N. Rea; A. Possenti; M. Burgay; Osservatorio Astronomico Di Roma; F. Camilo; M. Kramer; A. Lyne

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Bonded multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard x-rays.  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated partial Multilayer Laue Lens (MLL) linear zone plate structures with thousands of alternating WSi{sub 2} and Si layers and various outermost zone widths according to the Fresnel zone plate formula. Using partial MLL structures, we were able to focus hard X-rays to line foci with a width of 30 nm and below. Here, we describe challenges and approaches used to bond these multilayers to achieve line and point focusing. Bonding was done by coating two multilayers with AuSn and heating in a vacuum oven at 280-300 C. X-ray reflectivity measurements confirmed that there was no change in the multilayers after heating to 350 C. A bonded MLL was polished to a 5-25 {micro}m wedge without cracking. SEM image analyses found well-positioned multilayers after bonding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a bonded full MLL for focusing hard X-rays.

Liu, C.; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Maser, J.; Kang, H.C.; Yan, H.; Stephenson, G.B.; Advanced Photonics Research Institute; Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology

2007-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

Gamboa, E.J. [University of Michigan; Huntington, C.M. [University of Michigan; Trantham, M.R. [University of Michigan; Keiter, P.A [University of Michigan; Drake, R.P. [University of Michigan; Montgomery, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

402

Laser assisted Compton scattering of X-ray photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Compton scattering of X-ray photons, assisted by a short intense optical laser pulse is discussed. The differential scattering cross section reveals the interesting feature that the main Klein-Nishina line is accompanied by a series of side-lines forming a broad plateau where up to ${\\cal O} (10^3)$ laser photons participate simultaneously in a single scattering event. Due to the non-linear mixing of X-ray and laser photons a frequency dependent rotation of the polarization of the final state photons relative to the scattering plane emerges. A consistent description of the scattering process with short laser pulses requires to work with X-ray pulses. An experimental investigation can be accomplished, e.g., at LCLS or the European XFEL in the near future.

D. Seipt; B. Kampfer

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

403

Explosive hydrogen burning during type I X-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Explosive hydrogen burning in type I X-ray bursts (XRBs) comprise charged particle reactions creating isotopes with masses up to A~100. Since charged particle reactions in a stellar environment are very temperature sensitive, we use a realistic time-dependent general relativistic and self-consistent model of type I x-ray bursts to provide accurate values of the burst temperatures and densities. This allows a detailed and accurate time-dependent identification of the reaction flow from the surface layers through the convective region and the ignition region to the neutron star ocean. Using this, we determine the relative importance of specific nuclear reactions in the X-ray burst.

Jacob Lund Fisker; Hendrik Schatz; Friedrich-Karl Thielemann

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

404

On burning regimes and long duration X-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen and helium accreted onto a neutron star undergo thermonuclear burning. Explosive burning is observed as a type I X-ray burst. We describe the different burning regimes and focus on some of the current inconsistencies between theory and observations. Of special interest are the rare kinds of X-ray bursts such as carbon-fueled superbursts and helium-fueled intermediately long X-ray bursts. These bursts are thought to originate deeper in the neutron star envelope, such that they are probes of the thermal properties of the crust. We investigate the possibility of observing superbursts with the wide-field instruments INTEGRAL-ISGRI and Swift-BAT. We find that only the brightest bursts are detectable.

L. Keek; J. J. M. in 't Zand

2008-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

405

Fast microtomography using bright monochromatic x-rays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast microtomography system for high-resolution high-speed imaging has been developed using bright monochromatic x-rays at the BL29XU beamline of SPring-8. The shortest scan time for microtomography we attained was 0.25 s in 1.25 {mu}m effective pixel size by combining the bright monochromatic x-rays, a fast rotating sample stage, and a high performance x-ray imaging detector. The feasibility of the tomography system was successfully demonstrated by visualization of rising bubbles in a viscous liquid, an interesting issue in multiphase flow physics. This system also provides a high spatial (a measurable feature size of 300 nm) or a very high temporal (9.8 {mu}s) resolution in radiographs.

Jung, J. W.; Lee, J. S.; Park, S. J.; Chang, S.; Pyo, J. [X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, N.; Kim, J. [X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kohmura, Y.; Nishino, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Ishikawa, T. [RIKEN/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Je, J. H. [X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); RIKEN/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Experiment Hazard Class 8.3 - X-Ray Generators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 - X-Ray Generators 3 - X-Ray Generators Applicability This hazard classification applies to all experiments involving the use of X-Ray Generators (other than the APS storage ring). As specified in LMS-PROC-109 a Radiation Generating Device (RGD) must be registered with the Argonne RGD Safety Officer using the ANL-847 form. The RGD will be assigned an inventory number, hazard class, RWP requirement, and inspection and survey frequencies. Experiment Category Experiments the Experiment Hazard Class are always categorized as High Risk. Experiment Hazard Control Verification Statements Engineered Controls - As determined in LMS-PROC-109. Samples chambers and all beam paths are fully enclosed by barriers. Class 2 and higher RGDs require an interlock to fail-safe beam shutter/beam stop or radiation

407

X-Ray Diffraction Project Final Report, Fiscal Year 2006  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray diffraction diagnostic system was developed for determining real-time shock-driven lattice parameter shifts in single crystals at the gas gun at TA-IV at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The signal-to-noise ratio and resolution of the system were measured using imaging plates as the detector and by varying the slit width. This report includes tests of the x-ray diffraction system using a phosphor coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera by a coherent fiber-optic bundle. The system timing delay was measured with a newly installed transistor-transistor logic (TTL) bypass designed to reduce the x-ray delay time. The axial misalignment of the Bragg planes was determined with respect to the optical axis for a set of eight LiF [lithium fluoride] crystals provided by SNL to determine their suitability for gas gun experiments.

Dane V. Morgan

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Phase Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays Using a Segmented  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phase Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays Using a Segmented Detector A Dissertation Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays Using a Segmented Detector by Benjamin Hornberger Doctor. In the hard x-ray range (multi-keV), the main focus lies on trace ele- ment mapping by x-ray fluorescence

409

HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF MICROFLARES Jiong Qiu,1, 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF MICROFLARES Jiong Qiu,1, 2 Chang Liu,2 Dale E. Gary,2 Gelu, we study solar microflares using the coordinated hard X-ray and microwave observations obtained the time derivative of soft X-rays and 14­20 keV hard X-rays, i.e., the Neupert effect, in about one

410

Concave Accretion Discs and X-ray Reprocessing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectra of Seyfert Is are commonly modelled as emission from an X-ray illuminated flat accretion disc orbiting a central black hole. This provides both a reprocessed and direct component of the X-ray emission as required by observations of individual objects and possibly a fraction of the cosmological X-ray background. There is some observational motivation to at least consider the role that an effectively concave disc surface might play: (1) a reprocessed fraction $\\gsim 1/2$ in some Seyferts and possibly in the X-ray background, and (2) the commonality of a sharp iron line peak for Seyferts at 6.4KeV despite a dependence of peak location on inclination angle for flat disc models. Here it is shown that a concave disc may not only provide a larger total fraction of reprocessed photons, but can also reprocess a much larger fraction of photons in its outer regions when compared to a flat disc. This reduces the sensitivity of the 6.4KeV peak location to the inner disc inclination angle because the outer regions are less affected by Doppler and gravitational effects. If the X-ray source is isotropic, the reprocessed fraction is directly determined by the concavity. If the X-ray source is anisotropic, the location of iron line peak can still be determined by concavity but the total reflected fraction need not be as large as for the isotropic emitter case. The geometric calculations herein are applicable to general accretion disc systems illuminated from the center.

Eric G. Blackman

1999-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

411

X-ray Diagnostics of Broad Absorption Line Quasar Geometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new generation of sensitive X-ray measurements are indicating that the existence of X-ray attenuation column densities, $N_{H}>10^{24}\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$ is quite common amongst broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). This is significant to the geometry of the broad absorption line (BAL) outflow. In particular, such an X-ray shield also shields equatorial accretion disk winds from the UV, thereby preventing high velocity equatorial outflows from being launched. By contrast, bipolar winds initiated by continuum radiation pressure from the funnel of a slim accretion disk flare outward (like a trumpet) and offer vastly different absorbing columns to the X-ray and UV emission which are emitted from distinct regions of the disk, $\\sim 6M$ and $\\sim 10M-40M$, respectively (where $M$ is the radius of the black hole). Recent numerical work indicates that it is also possible to launch bipolar outflows from the inner regions of a thin disk. The recent discovery with VLBI that the Galactic analog of a BALQSO, the X-ray binary Circinus X-1 (with high velocity P Cygni X-ray absorption lines) is viewed virtually along the radio jet axis (and therefore along the spin axis of the black hole and the normal to the accretion disk) has rekindled interest in the bipolar models of BALQSOs. We explore this possibility by studying the nearest BAL QSO, MRK 231. High resolution 2-D optical spectroscopy and VLBI mappings of the radio jet axis indicates that the BAL outflow is parallel to the parsec scale radio jet.

Brian Punsly; Sebastian Lipari

2005-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

412

Electronic Structure of Dense Plasmas by X-Ray Scattering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present an improved analytical expression for the x-ray dynamic structure factor from a dense plasma which includes the effects of weakly bound electrons. This result can be applied to describe scattering from low to moderate Z plasmas, and it covers the entire range of plasma conditions that can be found in inertial confinement fusion experiments, from ideal to degenerate up to moderately coupled systems. We use our theory to interpret x-ray scattering experiments from solid density carbon plasma and to extract accurate measurements of electron temperature, electron density and charge state. We use our experimental results to validate various equation-of-state models for carbon plasmas.

Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Rogers, F J; Pollaine, S M; Froula, D H; Blancard, C; Faussurier, G; Renaudin, P; Kuhlbrodt, S; Redmer, R; Landen, O L

2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

413

X-ray Time Lags in TeV Blazars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use Monte Carlo/Fokker-Planck simulations to study the X-ray time lags. Our results show that soft lags will be observed as long as the decay of the flare is dominated by radiative cooling, even when acceleration and cooling timescales are similar. Hard lags can be produced in presence of a competitive achromatic particle energy loss mechanism if the acceleration process operates on a timescale such that particles are slowly moved towards higher energy while the flare evolves. In this type of scenario, the {\\gamma} -ray/X-ray quadratic relation is also reproduced.

Chen, Xuhui; Liang, Edison; Böttcher, Markus

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Bragg x-ray survey spectrometer for ITER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several potential impurity ions in the ITER plasmas will lead to loss of confined energy through line and continuum emission. For real time monitoring of impurities, a seven channel Bragg x-ray spectrometer (XRCS survey) is considered. This paper presents design and analysis of the spectrometer, including x-ray tracing by the Shadow-XOP code, sensitivity calculations for reference H-mode plasma and neutronics assessment. The XRCS survey performance analysis shows that the ITER measurement requirements of impurity monitoring in 10 ms integration time at the minimum levels for low-Z to high-Z impurity ions can largely be met.

Varshney, S. K.; Jakhar, S. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Barnsley, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); O'Mullane, M. G. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

Logan, C.M.

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

416

Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Einstein x-ray observations of cataclysmic variables  

SciTech Connect

Observations with the imaging x-ray detectors on the Einstein Observatory have led to a large increase in the number of low luminosity x-ray sources known to be associated with cataclysmic variable stars (CVs). The high sensitivity of the Einstein instrumentation has permitted study of their short timescale variability and spectra. The data are adding significantly to our knowledge of the accretion process in cataclysmic variables and forcing some revision in our ideas concerning the origin of the optical variability in these stars.

Mason, K.O.; Cordova, F.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

SYNCHROTRON X-RAY BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF CDZNTE CRYSTALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals can be used for the room temperature-based detection of {gamma}-radiation. Structural/morphological heterogeneities within CZT, such as twinning, inclusions, and polycrystallinity can affect detector performance. We used a synchrotron-based X-ray technique, specifically extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, to determine whether there are differences on a local structural level between intact CZT of high and low radiation detector performance. These studies were complemented by data on radiation detector performance and transmission IR imaging. The EXAFS studies revealed no detectable local structural differences between the two types of CZT materials.

Duff, M

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

419

Developing small vacuum spark as an x-ray source for calibration of an x-ray focusing crystal spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A new technique of x-ray focusing crystal spectrometers' calibration is the desired result. For this purpose the spectrometer is designed to register radiated copper K{alpha} and K{beta} lines by using a flat {alpha}-quartz crystal. This experiment uses pre-breakdown x-ray emissions in low vacuum of about 2.5-3 mbar. At this pressure the pinch will not form so the plasma will not radiate. The anode material is copper and the capacity of the capacitor bank is 22.6 nF. This experiment designed and mounted a repetitive triggering system to save the operator time making hundreds of shots. This emission amount is good for calibration and geometrical adjustment of an optical crystal x-ray focusing spectrometer.

Ghomeishi, Mostafa; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd [Photonic Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Karami, Mohammad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

future science group 451ISSN 1759-726910.4155/BFS.10.18 2010 Future Science Ltd SchoolofForestResources&EnvironmentalScience,EcosystemScienceCenter,MichiganTechnologicalUniversity,1400TownsendDrive,Houghton,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

future science group 451ISSN 1759-726910.4155/BFS.10.18 © 2010 Future Science Ltd 1 SchoolofForestResources&EnvironmentalScience,EcosystemScienceCenter,Michigan or the distillation of liquid fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel from grains and plant seeds with high oil content understanding of scale-dependent relationships (within and among fields; Figure 2) between diversity

Gratton, Claudio

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "group x-ray science" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Restoration of X-ray fluorescence images of hidden paintings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes our methods for repairing and restoring images of hidden paintings (paintings that have been painted over and are now covered by a new surface painting) that have been obtained via noninvasive X-ray fluorescence imaging of their ... Keywords: Art restoration, Artifact correction, Image restoration, Underdetermined source separation

Anila Anitha; Andrei Brasoveanu; Marco Duarte; Shannon Hughes; Ingrid Daubechies; Joris Dik; Koen Janssens; Matthias Alfeld

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser (10) is formed of a vanadium (12) and titanium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions (32).

Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Calibration of X-ray absorption in our Galaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prediction of the soft X-ray absorption along lines of sight through our Galaxy is crucial for understanding the spectra of extragalactic sources, but requires a good estimate of the foreground column density of photoelectric absorbing species. Assuming uniform elemental abundances this reduces to having a good estimate of the total hydrogen column density, N(Htot)=N(HI)+2N(H2). The atomic component, N(HI), is reliably provided using the mapped 21 cm radio emission but estimating the molecular hydrogen column density, N(H2), expected for any particular direction, is difficult. The X-ray afterglows of GRBs are ideal sources to probe X-ray absorption in our Galaxy because they are extragalactic, numerous, bright, have simple spectra and occur randomly across the entire sky. We describe an empirical method, utilizing 493 afterglows detected by the Swift XRT, to determine N(Htot) through the Milky Way which provides an improved estimate of the X-ray absorption in our Galaxy and thereby leads to more reliable meas...

Willingale, R; Beardmore, A P; Tanvir, N R; O'Brien, P T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Concave accretion discs and X-ray reprocessing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectra of Seyfert Is are commonly modelled as emission from an X-ray illuminated flat accretion disc orbiting a central black hole. This provides both a reprocessed and direct component of the X-ray emission as required by observations of individual objects and possibly of the cosmological X-ray background. However, there is observational motivation to consider the role that an effectively concave disc surface might play: (1) a reprocessed fraction $> 1$ in individual Seyferts and the X-ray background, and (2) the commonality of a sharp iron line peak for Seyferts at 6.4KeV despite a strong dependence of peak location on inclination angle for flat disc models. Here it is shown that a concave disc may not only provide a larger total fraction of reprocessed photons but can also reprocess a much larger fraction of photons in its outer regions when compared to a flat disc. This reduces the sensitivity of the 6.4KeV peak location to the inner disc inclination angle because the outer regions are less affected by D...

Blackman, E G

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Shaping X-rays by diffractive coded nano-optics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we report results obtained in the fabrication and use of novel coded diffractive nano-optics that, beyond focusing, can perform new optical functions. In particular, the intensity of light in the space beyond the optical elements can be ... Keywords: X-ray beamshaping, coded diffractive optical element, nano-optics

E. Di Fabrizio; S. Cabrini; D. Cojoc; F. Romanato; L. Businaro; M. Altissimo; B. Kaulich; T. Wilhein; J. Susini; M. De Vittorio; E. Vitale; G. Gigli; R. Cingolani

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Spectral unfolds of PITHON Flash X-ray source.  

SciTech Connect

Using a differential absorption spectrometer we obtained experimental spectral information for the PITHON Flash X-ray Machine located in San Leandro, California at L-3 Communications. Spectral information we obtained pertained to the 200 keV to 800 keV endpoint operation of PITHON. We also obtained data on the temporal behavior of high energy and low energy spectral content.

Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Riordan, John C. (L-3 Pulse Sciences)

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

X-ray divergent-beam (Kossel) technique: A review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of the X-ray divergent-beam (Kossel) technique over the last 50 years is traced. The fundamentals of this technique and ways to implement it experimentally are considered, and its potential for studying the real structure of crystals is analyzed in detail.

Lider, V. V., E-mail: lider@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

Single atom identification by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, single, isolated impurity atoms of silicon and platinum in monolayer and multilayer graphene are identified. Simultaneously acquired electron energy loss spectra confirm the elemental identification. Contamination difficulties are overcome by employing near-UHV sample conditions. Signal intensities agree within a factor of two with standardless estimates.

Lovejoy, T. C.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L. [Nion, 1102 8th St., Kirkland, Washington 98033 (United States); Ramasse, Q. M. [SuperSTEM Laboratory, STFC Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Falke, M.; Kaeppel, A.; Terborg, R. [Bruker Nano GmbH, Schwarzschildstr. 12, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Zan, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

429

Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser is formed of a vanadium and titanium foil combination that is driven by two beams of intense line focused optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions.

Nilsen, J.

1991-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

430

Soft x-ray diagnostics for pulsed power machines  

SciTech Connect

A variety of soft x-ray diagnostics are being fielded on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus and Procyon pulsed power systems and also being fielded on joint US/Russian magnetized target fusion experiments known as MAGO (Magnitoye Obzhatiye). The authors have designed a low-cost modular photoemissive detector designated the XRD-96 that uses commercial 1100 series aluminum for the photocathode. In addition to photocathode detectors a number of designs using solid state silicon photodiodes have been designed and fielded. They also present a soft x-ray time-integrated pinhole camera system that uses standard type TMAX-400 photographic film that obviates the need for expensive and no longer produced zero-overcoat soft x-ray emulsion film. In a typical experiment the desired spectral energy cuts, signal intensity levels, and desired field of view will determine diagnostic geometry and x-ray filters selected. The authors have developed several computer codes to assist in the diagnostic design process and data deconvolution. Examples of the diagnostic design process and data analysis for a typical pulsed power experiment are presented.

Idzorek, G.C.; Coulter, W.L.; Walsh, P.J.; Montoya, R.R.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

High Energy X-ray Diffraction Microscopy Microstructure Mapping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

P1-04: 3D Microstructural Characterization of Uranium Oxide as a Surrogate Nuclear ... P1-15: Gating System Optimisation Design Study of a Cast Automobile ... P2-27: Characterization of Carbonate Rocks through X-ray Microtomography.

432

Enhanced Electron Efficiency in an X-ray Diode  

SciTech Connect

The goal for this research is to optimize the XRD structure and usage configurations and increase the efficiency of the XRD. This research was successful in optimizing the XRD structure and usage configurations, thus creating a high efficiency XRD. Best efficiency occurs when there is an angle between the photocathode and incident X-rays.

K. Sun, L. MacNeil

2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

433

Soft x-ray laser microscope. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL`s 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

Suckewer, P.I.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

X-ray astronomy in the new Millenium. A Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent X-ray observations have had a major impact on topics ranging from protostars to cosmology. They have also drawn attention to important and general physical processes that currently limit our understanding of thermal and nonthermal X-ray sources. These include unmeasured atomic astrophysics data (wavelengths, oscillator strengths etc.), basic hydromagnetic processes (e.g. shock structure, reconnection), plasma processes (such as electron-ion equipartition and heat conduction) and radiative transfer (in disks and accretion columns). Progress on these problems will probably come from integrative studies that draw upon observations, throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, of different classes of source. X-ray observations are also giving a new perspective on astronomical subjects, like the nature of galactic nuclei and the evolution of stellar populations. They are contributing to answering central cosmological questions including the measurement of the matter content of the universe, understanding its overall luminosity density, describing its chemical evolution and locating the first luminous objects. X-ray astronomy has a healthy future with several international space missions under construction and in development.

Roger Blandford

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

435

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print Magnetic thin-film nanostructures can exhibit a magnetic vortex state in which the magnetization vectors lie in the film plane and curl around in a closed loop. At the very center of the vortex, a small, stable core exists where the magnetization points either up or down out of the plane. Three years ago, the discovery of an easy core reversal mechanism at the ALS not only made the possibility of using such systems as magnetic memories much more realistic, it also initiated investigation of the core switching mechanism itself. Now, a Belgian-German-ALS collaboration has used high-resolution, time-resolved, magnetic x-ray microscopy to experimentally reveal the first step of the reversal process: the dynamic deformation of the vortex core. The group also measured a critical vortex velocity above which reversal occurs. Both these observations provide the first experimental support for the postulated reversal mechanism.

436

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print Magnetic thin-film nanostructures can exhibit a magnetic vortex state in which the magnetization vectors lie in the film plane and curl around in a closed loop. At the very center of the vortex, a small, stable core exists where the magnetization points either up or down out of the plane. Three years ago, the discovery of an easy core reversal mechanism at the ALS not only made the possibility of using such systems as magnetic memories much more realistic, it also initiated investigation of the core switching mechanism itself. Now, a Belgian-German-ALS collaboration has used high-resolution, time-resolved, magnetic x-ray microscopy to experimentally reveal the first step of the reversal process: the dynamic deformation of the vortex core. The group also measured a critical vortex velocity above which reversal occurs. Both these observations provide the first experimental support for the postulated reversal mechanism.

437

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print Magnetic thin-film nanostructures can exhibit a magnetic vortex state in which the magnetization vectors lie in the film plane and curl around in a closed loop. At the very center of the vortex, a small, stable core exists where the magnetization points either up or down out of the plane. Three years ago, the discovery of an easy core reversal mechanism at the ALS not only made the possibility of using such systems as magnetic memories much more realistic, it also initiated investigation of the core switching mechanism itself. Now, a Belgian-German-ALS collaboration has used high-resolution, time-resolved, magnetic x-ray microscopy to experimentally reveal the first step of the reversal process: the dynamic deformation of the vortex core. The group also measured a critical vortex velocity above which reversal occurs. Both these observations provide the first experimental support for the postulated reversal mechanism.

438

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print Magnetic thin-film nanostructures can exhibit a magnetic vortex state in which the magnetization vectors lie in the film plane and curl around in a closed loop. At the very center of the vortex, a small, stable core exists where the magnetization points either up or down out of the plane. Three years ago, the discovery of an easy core reversal mechanism at the ALS not only made the possibility of using such systems as magnetic memories much more realistic, it also initiated investigation of the core switching mechanism itself. Now, a Belgian-German-ALS collaboration has used high-resolution, time-resolved, magnetic x-ray microscopy to experimentally reveal the first step of the reversal process: the dynamic deformation of the vortex core. The group also measured a critical vortex velocity above which reversal occurs. Both these observations provide the first experimental support for the postulated reversal mechanism.

439

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print Magnetic thin-film nanostructures can exhibit a magnetic vortex state in which the magnetization vectors lie in the film plane and curl around in a closed loop. At the very center of the vortex, a small, stable core exists where the magnetization points either up or down out of the plane. Three years ago, the discovery of an easy core reversal mechanism at the ALS not only made the possibility of using such systems as magnetic memories much more realistic, it also initiated investigation of the core switching mechanism itself. Now, a Belgian-German-ALS collaboration has used high-resolution, time-resolved, magnetic x-ray microscopy to experimentally reveal the first step of the reversal process: the dynamic deformation of the vortex core. The group also measured a critical vortex velocity above which reversal occurs. Both these observations provide the first experimental support for the postulated reversal mechanism.

440

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print Magnetic thin-film nanostructures can exhibit a magnetic vortex state in which the magnetization vectors lie in the film plane and curl around in a closed loop. At the very center of the vortex, a small, stable core exists where the magnetization points either up or down out of the plane. Three years ago, the discovery of an easy core reversal mechanism at the ALS not only made the possibility of using such systems as magnetic memories much more realistic, it also initiated investigation of the core switching mechanism itself. Now, a Belgian-German-ALS collaboration has used high-resolution, time-resolved, magnetic x-ray microscopy to experimentally reveal the first step of the reversal process: the dynamic deformation of the vortex core. The group also measured a critical vortex velocity above which reversal occurs. Both these observations provide the first experimental support for the postulated reversal mechanism.

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441

X-ray Diffraction Crystal Calibration and Characterization  

SciTech Connect

National Security Technologies’ X-ray Laboratory is comprised of a multi-anode Manson type source and a Henke type source that incorporates a dual goniometer and XYZ translation stage. The first goniometer is used to isolate a particular spectral band. The Manson operates up to 10 kV and the Henke up to 20 kV. The Henke rotation stages and translation stages are automated. Procedures have been developed to characterize and calibrate various NIF diagnostics and their components. The diagnostics include X-ray cameras, gated imagers, streak cameras, and other X-ray imaging systems. Components that have been analyzed include filters, filter arrays, grazing incidence mirrors, and various crystals, both flat and curved. Recent efforts on the Henke system are aimed at characterizing and calibrating imaging crystals and curved crystals used as the major component of an X-ray spectrometer. The presentation will concentrate on these results. The work has been done at energies ranging from 3 keV to 16 keV. The major goal was to evaluate the performance quality of the crystal for its intended application. For the imaging crystals we measured the laser beam reflection offset from the X-ray beam and the reflectivity curves. For the curved spectrometer crystal, which was a natural crystal, resolving power was critical. It was first necessary to find sources of crystals that had sufficiently narrow reflectivity curves. It was then necessary to determine which crystals retained their resolving power after being thinned and glued to a curved substrate.

Michael J. Haugh; Richard Stewart; Nathan Kugland

2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

442

Investigation of the signature of lung tissue in X-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Purpose: Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a promising modality increasing the soft tissue contrast in medical imaging. In this work, the signature of lung tissue in X-ray grating-based physe-contrast imaging is investigated. Methods: We used a Talbot-Lau interferometer for our investigations of two C57BL/6 mice. Both underwent projection imaging and computed tomography. Results: The results show that the three images obtained by X-ray phase-contrast imaging show complementary anatomical structures. Especially the dark field image allows a more-exact determination of the position of the lung in the chest cavity. Conclusion: Due to its sensitivity to granular structures, the dark field image may be used for the diagnosis of lung diseases in earlier stages or without a CT scan. Furthermore, X-ray phase-contrast imaging may also have great potential in the application of animal laboratory sciences to reduce the number of required animals used in long-term translational, toxicity, and regenerative med...

Weber, Thomas; Haas, Wilhelm; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, André; Wucherer, Lukas; Braun, Jan Matthias; Durst, Jürgen; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

R and D toward a compact high-brilliance X-ray source based on channeling radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-rays have been valuable to a large number of fields including Science, Medicine, and Security. Yet, the availability of a compact high-spectral brilliance X-ray sources is limited. A technique to produce X-rays with spectral brilliance B{approx} 10{sup 12} photons.(mm-mrd){sup -2}. (0.1% BW){sup -1}.s{sup -1} is discussed. The method is based on the generation and acceleration of a low-emittance field-emitted electron bunches. The bunches are then focused on a diamond crystal thereby producing channeling radiation. In this paper, after presenting the overarching concept, we discuss the generation, acceleration and transport of the low-emittance bunches with parameters consistent with the production of high-brilliance X-rays through channeling radiation. We especially consider the example of the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) currently in construction at Fermilab where a proof-of-principle experiment is in preparation.

Piot, P.; Brau, C. A.; Gabella, W. E.; Choi, B. K.; Jarvis, J. D.; Lewellen, J. W.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Mihalcea, D. [Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development and Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States) and Accelerator Physics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States) and Vanderbilt Institute of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Physics Department and Combat Systems, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development and Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

444

Kinematics of Compton backscattering x-ray source for angiography  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of X-Ray production rates, energy spread, and spectrum of Compton-backscattered photons from a Free Electron Laser on an electron beam in a low energy (136-MeV) compact (8.5-m circumference) storage ring indicate that an X-Ray intensity of 34.6 10{sup 7} X-Ray photons per 0.5-mm {times} 0.5-mm pixel for Coronary Angiography near the 33.169-keV iodine K-absorption edge can be achieved in a 4-msec pulse within a scattering cone of 1-mrad half angle. This intensity, at 10-m from the photon-electron interaction point to the patient is about a factor of 10 larger than presently achieved from a 4.5-T superconducting wiggler source in the NSLS 2.5-GeV storage ring and over an area about 5 times larger. The 2.2-keV energy spread of the Compton-backscattered beam is, however, much larger than the 70-eV spread presently attained form the wiggler source and use of a monochromator. The beam spot at the 10-m interaction point-to-patient distance is 20-mm diameter; larger spots are attainable at larger distances but with a corresponding reduction in X-Ray flux. Such a facility could be an inexpensive clinical alternative to present methods of non-invasive Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA), small enough to be deployed in an urban medical center, and could have other medical, industrial and aerospace applications. Problems with the Compton backscattering source include laser beam heating of the mirror in the FEL oscillator optical cavity, achieving a large enough X-Ray beam spot at the patient, and obtaining radiation damping of the transverse oscillations and longitudinal emittance dilution of the storage ring electron beam resulting from photon-electron collisions without going to higher electron energy where the X-Ray energy spread becomes excessive for DSA. 38 refs.

Blumberg, L.N.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: A COMPARISON WITH LUMINOUS QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

We perform halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of high-redshift (z {approx} 1.2) X-ray-bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the XMM-COSMOS field measured by Allevato et al. The HOD parameterization is based on low-luminosity AGNs in cosmological simulations. At the median redshift of z {approx} 1.2, we derive a median mass of 1.02{sub -0.23}{sup +0.21} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} h{sup -1} M{sub sun} for halos hosting central AGNs and an upper limit of {approx}10% on the AGN satellite fraction. Our modeling results indicate (at the 2.5{sigma} level) that X-ray AGNs reside in more massive halos compared to more bolometrically luminous, optically selected quasars at similar redshift. The modeling also yields constraints on the duty cycle of the X-ray AGN, and we find that at z {approx} 1.2 the average duration of the X-ray AGN phase is two orders of magnitude longer than that of the quasar phase. Our inferred mean occupation function of X-ray AGNs is similar to recent empirical measurements with a group catalog and suggests that AGN halo occupancy increases with increasing halo mass. We project the XMM-COSMOS 2PCF measurements to forecast the required survey parameters needed in future AGN clustering studies to enable higher precision HOD constraints and determinations of key physical parameters like the satellite fraction and duty cycle. We find that N {sup 2}/A {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} deg{sup -2} (with N the number of AGNs in a survey area of A deg{sup 2}) is sufficient to constrain the HOD parameters at the 10% level, which is easily achievable by upcoming and proposed X-ray surveys.

Richardson, Jonathan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Chatterjee, Suchetana; Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82072 (United States); Zheng Zheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Hickox, Ryan, E-mail: jonathan.richardson@uchicago.edu, E-mail: schatte1@uwyo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

446

A New Method for Measuring X-ray Optics Aberrations | Advanced Photon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Clues for Asthma Treatment New Clues for Asthma Treatment Extending Resonant Diffraction to Very High Energies for Structural Studies of Complex Materials Tuning the Collective Properties of Artificial Nanoparticle Supercrystals The Workings of a Key Staph Enzyme and How to Block It Simple Lithium Is Good For Many Surprises Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A New Method for Measuring X-ray Optics Aberrations MARCH 31, 2011 Bookmark and Share Top: Experimental setup. Bottom: Measured and simulated lens aberrations (left) and their corresponding through focus amplitude of reconstructions (right) for different lens angular misalignments. (From Manuel

447

Ultrafast X-Ray Spectroscopy as a Probe of Nonequilibrium Dynamics in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Electronic Origin of Photoinduced Strain The Electronic Origin of Photoinduced Strain Modifying Proteins to Combat Disease Higher Temperature at the Earth's Core Clues about Rheumatoid Arthritis Damage Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Ultrafast X-Ray Spectroscopy as a Probe of Nonequilibrium Dynamics in Ruthenium Complexes FEBRUARY 8, 2013 Bookmark and Share Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Exciting the atoms or molecules of a substance via the use of visible light, or photoexcitation, can play a significant role in a range of energy-conversion processes, such as natural photosynthesis (oxygen from water) and manmade solar cells (electricity from sunlight). But a better

448

A proposal for a generation of two-color ultra-short x-ray pulses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 A proposal for a generation of two-color ultra-short x-ray pulses * Alexander Zholents Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL 60439 * Work supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE- AC02-06CH11357. The submitted manuscript has been created by UChicago Argonne, LLC, Operator of Argonne National Laboratory ("Argonne"). Argonne, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, is operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The U.S. Government retains for itself, and others acting on its behalf, a paid-up nonexclusive, irrevocable worldwide license in said article to reproduce, prepare

449

Multiple Crystal Cavities for Unlimited X-ray Energy Resolution and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Intriguing Twist in the Structure of a Cobalt Oxide Catalyst An Intriguing Twist in the Structure of a Cobalt Oxide Catalyst Breaking Records in Neurological Microradiology Exposing Valence-Bond Model Inadequacies Plants' Rapid Response System Revealed Rewriting the Organofluorine Playbook Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Multiple Crystal Cavities for Unlimited X-ray Energy Resolution and Coherence AUGUST 21, 2012 Bookmark and Share Fabry-Perot resonance spectra (right) of a single-cavity resonator, two cascaded resonators, and a monolithic two-cavity resonator, respectively. Note the significant background of T1 as the Bragg reflectivity from a 10-ÎĽm diamond plate is only 59%. By comparison, spectra T2 and T3 are very

450

Aerosol Imaging with a Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser  

SciTech Connect

Lasers have long played a critical role in the advancement of aerosol science. A new regime of ultrafast laser technology has recently be realized, the world's first soft xray free electron laser. The Free electron LASer in Hamburg, FLASH, user facility produces a steady source of 10 femtosecond pulses of 7-32 nm x-rays with 10{sub 12} photons per pulse. The high brightness, short wavelength, and high repetition rate (>500 pulses per second) of this laser offers unique capabilities for aerosol characterization. Here we use FLASH to perform the highest resolution imaging of single PM2.5 aerosol particles in flight to date. We resolve to 35 nm the morphology of fibrous and aggregated spherical carbonaceous nanoparticles that existed for less than two milliseconds in vacuum. Our result opens the possibility for high spatialand time-resolved single particle aerosol dynamics studies, filling a critical technological need in aerosol science.

Bogan, Michael J.; /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore; Boutet, Sebastien; /SLAC; Chapman, Henry N.; /DESY /Hamburg U.; Marchesini, Stefano; /LBL, Berkeley; Barty, Anton; Benner, W.Henry /LLNL, Livermore; Rohner, Urs; /LLNL, Livermore /TOFWERK AG; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; /LLNL, Livermore; Bajt, Sasa; /DESY; Woods, Bruce; /LLNL, Livermore; Seibert, M.M.; Iwan, Bianca; Timneanu, Nicusor; Hajdu, Janos; /Uppsala U.; Schulz, Joachim; /DESY

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

451

N-1: Safeguards Science and Technology Group, Tour Areas  

SciTech Connect

Group N-1 develops and provides training on nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies intended for nuclear material accounting and control to fulfill both international and domestic obligations. The N-1 group is located at Technical Area (TA)-35 in Buildings 2 and 27. Visitors to the area can observe developed and fielded NDA technologies, as well as the latest research efforts to develop the next generation of NDA technologies. Several areas are used for NDA training. The N-1 School House area typically is used for basic training on neutron- and gamma-ray-based NDA techniques. This area contains an assortment of gamma-ray detector systems, including sodium iodide and high-purity germanium and the associated measurement components. Many types of neutron assay systems are located here, including both standard coincidence and multiplicity counters. The N-1 School House area is also used for holdup training; located here are the mock holdup assemblies and associated holdup measurement tools. Other laboratory areas in the N-1 space are used for specialized training, such as waste NDA, calorimetry, and advanced gamma-ray NDA. Also, many research laboratories in the N-1 space are used to develop new NDA technologies. The calorimetry laboratory is used to develop and evaluate new technologies and techniques that measure the heat signature from nuclear material to determine mass. The micro calorimetry laboratory is being used to develop advanced technologies that can measure gamma rays with extremely high resolution. This technique has been proven in the laboratory setting, and the team is now working to cultivate a field-capable system. The N-1 group also develops remote and unattended systems for the tracking and control of nuclear material. A demonstration of this technology is located within one of the laboratory spaces. The source tracker software was developed by N-1 to monitor the locations and quantities of nuclear materials. This software is currently used to track N-1's nuclear material and is available for demonstration.

Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

452

Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International Workshop on the Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Ray International Workshop on the Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses with Matter (SLAC, January 23-24, 1997) During the last five years studies have been conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg concerning the feasibility of driving an Angstrom-wavelength Free-Electron Laser (FEL) with a high energy rf linac. Recent promising advances in linac, rf gun, and insertion device technologies make it seem likely that such a device can be constructed. The output radiation predicted for this type of source will be characterized by full transverse coherence, extreme pulse brevity (~50-100 fs), high peak power (10-100 GW), and very high unfocused peak power density (0.4-4.1013

453

Materials Analysis Using New X-ray Microbeams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Analysis Using New X-ray Microbeams Materials Analysis Using New X-ray Microbeams Materials ranging from massive steel girders to the microscopic aluminum wires in computer chips are made of grains - tiny crystals with diameters measured in millionths of a meter (microns). If scientists could "see" these individual grains, they could determine their orientation, as well as the effects of stress and chemical activity on them. They might also be able to determine how best to jam more circuits together in microelectronic components, making them smaller and faster, so computers could perform complex functions - such as speech recognition - more quickly. They could also find out to what extent grains of a superconducting material mimic the alignment of the substrate on which the material is grown; discovery of

454

Rapid determination of uranium by x-ray fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a method for rapidly determining the amount of uranium using x-ray fluorescence. We add an aliquot of sample solution plus the internal standard element, yttrium, to a 10-ml volumetric flask. We transfer this solution to an x-ray cell and read the L..cap alpha..1 line of uranium and the K..cap alpha..1 line of yttrium. We then compare the ratio of uranium to yttrium for the sample with the ratios obtained from standards. This rapid, highly accurate procedure has a relative standard deviation of 0.69% for samples containing 1 to 5 mg U/ml. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Martell, C.J.; Hansel, J.M.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation.

Hailey, Charles J. (San Francisco, CA); Ziock, Klaus-Peter (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Segmentation of x-ray images using Probabilistic Relaxation Labeling  

SciTech Connect

Segmentation is a process of separating objects of interest from their background or from other objects in an image. Without a suitable segmentation scheme, it is very difficult to detect contraband in X-rays images. In this paper, a Probabilistic Relaxation Labeling (PRL) segmentation scheme is presented and compared with other segmentation methods. PRL segmentation is an interative algorithm that labels each pixel in an image by cooperative use of two information sources: the pixel probability and the degree of certainty of its probability supported by the neighboring pixels. The practical implementation and results of the PRL segmentation on X-ray baggage images are also discussed and compared with other segmentation methods. 13 refs., 12 figs.

Thai, T.Q.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Search for serendipitous TNO occultation in X-rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To study the population properties of small, remote objects beyond Neptune's orbit in the outer solar system, of kilometer size or smaller, serendipitous occultation search is so far the only way. For hectometer-sized Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), optical shadows actually disappear because of diffraction. Observations at shorter wave lengths are needed. Here we report the effort of TNO occultation search in X-rays using RXTE/PCA data of Sco X-1 taken from June 2007 to October 2011. No definite TNO occultation events were found in the 334 ks data. We investigate the detection efficiency dependence on the TNO size to better define the sensible size range of our approach and suggest upper limits to the TNO size distribution in the size range from 30 m to 300 m. A list of X-ray sources suitable for future larger facilities to observe is proposed.

Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Chen, Kuan-Ting

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Neutron and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering Studies of Superconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Superconductors hold the promise for a more stable and efficient electrical grid, but new isotropic, high-temperature superconductors are needed in order to reduce cable manufacturing costs. The effort to understand high-temperature superconductivity, especially in the layered cuprates, provides guidance to the search for new superconductors. Neutron scattering has long provided an important probe of the collective excitations that are involved in the pairing mechanism. For the cuprates, neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques also provide information on competing types of order, such as charge and spin stripes, that appear to be closely connected to the superconductivity. Recently, inelastic x-ray scattering has become competitive for studying phonons and may soon provide valuable information on electronic excitations. Examples of how these techniques contribute to our understanding of superconductivity are presented.

Tranquada,J.M.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

A New Measurement of Kaonic Hydrogen X rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The $\\bar{K}N$ system at threshold is a sensitive testing ground for low energy QCD, especially for the explicit chiral symmetry breaking. Therefore, we have measured the $K$-series x rays of kaonic hydrogen atoms at the DA$\\Phi$NE electron-positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, and have determined the most precise values of the strong-interaction energy-level shift and width of the $1s$ atomic state. As x-ray detectors, we used large-area silicon drift detectors having excellent energy and timing resolution, which were developed especially for the SIDDHARTA experiment. The shift and width were determined to be $\\epsilon_{1s} = -283 \\pm 36 \\pm 6 {(syst)}$ eV and $\\Gamma_{1s} = 541 \\pm 89 {(stat)} \\pm 22 {(syst)}$ eV, respectively. The new values will provide vital constraints on the theoretical description of the low-energy $\\bar{K}N$ interaction.

M. Bazzi; G. Beer; L. Bombelli; A. M. Bragadireanu; M. Cargnelli; G. Corradi; C. Curceanu; A. d'Uffizi; C. Fiorini; T. Frizzi; F. Ghio; B. Girolami; C. Guaraldo; R. S. Hayano; M. Iliescu; T. Ishiwatari; M. Iwasaki; P. Kienle; P. Levi Sandri; A. Longoni; V. Lucherini; J. Marton; S. Okada; D. Pietreanu; T. Ponta; A. Rizzo; A. Romero Vidal; A. Scordo; H. Shi; D. L. Sirghi; F. Sirghi; H. Tatsuno; A. Tudorache; V. Tudorache; O. Vazquez Doce; E. Widmann; J. Zmeskal

2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

460

Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

Bloch, Jeffrey J. (Los Alamos, NM); Roussel-Dupre' , Diane (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Barham W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Hard X-ray Phase-Contrast Tomographic Nanoimaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synchrotron-based full-field tomographic microscopy established itself as a tool for noninvasive investigations. Many beamlines worldwide routinely achieve micrometer spatial resolution while the isotropic 100-nm barrier is reached and trespassed only by few instruments, mainly in the soft x-ray regime. We present an x-ray, full-field microscope with tomographic capabilities operating at 10 keV and with a 3D isotropic resolution of 144 nm recently installed at the TOMCAT beamline of the Swiss Light Source. Custom optical components, including a beam-shaping condenser and phase-shifting dot arrays, were used to obtain an ideal, aperture-matched sample illumination and very sensitive phase-contrast imaging. The instrument has been successfully used for the nondestructive, volumetric investigation of single, unstained cells.

Stampanoni, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Marone, F.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Gorelick, S.; David, C.; Mokso, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Trtik, P.; Jefimovs, K. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

462

Ultrafast three-dimensional x-ray computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well established visualization technique in medicine and nondestructive testing. However, since CT scanning requires sampling of radiographic projections from different viewing angles, common CT systems with mechanically moving parts are too slow for dynamic imaging, for instance of multiphase flows or live animals. Here, we introduce an ultrafast three-dimensional x-ray CT method based on electron beam scanning, which achieves volume rates of 500 s{sup -1}. Primary experiments revealed the capability of this method to recover the structure of phase boundaries in gas-solid and gas-liquid two-phase flows, which undergo three-dimensional structural changes in the millisecond scale.

Bieberle, Martina; Barthel, Frank; Hampel, Uwe [Institute of Safety Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Menz, Hans-Juergen; Mayer, Hans-Georg [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

463

X-ray absorption studies of battery materials  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is ideal for {ital in}{ital situ} studies of battery materials because both the probe and signal are penetrating x rays. The advantage of XAS being element specific permits investigation of the environment of a constituent element in a composite material. This makes it very powerful for studying electrode additives and corrosion of individual components of complex metal hydride alloys. The near edge part of the spectrum (XANES) provides information on oxidation state and site symmetry of the excited atom. This is particularly useful in study of corrosion and oxidation changes in cathode materials during charge/discharge cycle. Extended fine structure (EXAFS) gives structural information. Thus the technique provides both chemical and structural information. Since XAS probes only short range order, it can be applied to study of amorphous electrode materials and electrolytes. This paper discusses advantages and limitations of the method, as well as some experimental aspects.

McBreen, J.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer ``wavetrap`` deposited over the surface of a layered synthetic microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 {Angstrom} wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 {Angstrom} has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, their number and distance for the ``wavetrap.``

Bloch, J.J.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.W.

1990-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

465

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Photon Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

programs in chemical, materials and energy sciences, including work at three joint SLACStanford research centers. Many of these programs use our X-ray light sources as a...

466

Richard Gerber! NERSC Senior Science Advisor! User Services Group Lead  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

User Services Group Lead User Services Group Lead NUG Webinar January 2014 --- 1 --- January 9 , 2 014 Agenda * Edison C onfigura6on f or A Y 2 014 * Alloca6on Y ear R ollover I ssues * Project D irectories p er P roject * NUG 2 014 U ser G roup M ee6ng * Automa6c I /O P rofiling f or Y our C ode * Give / T ake U 6lity f or S haring F iles * NUG Q ueue C ommiRee U pdate * User Survey Needs Your Input * Open D iscussion --- 2 --- Edison Update --- 3 --- Jeff B roughton NERSC D eputy f or O pera6ons Systems D epartment H ead Edison at a Glance * First C ray X C30 * Intel I vy B ridge 1 2---core, 2 .4GHz processors * Aries i nterconnect w ith D ragonfly topology for great scalability * Performs 2 ---4 x H opper p er n ode o n real a pplica6ons * 12 x 512GB login nodes to support visualiza6on a nd a naly6cs --- 4 --- * 3 L ustre s cratch

467

ON THE TRUE SHAPE OF X-RAY SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

A method for obtaining the true shape of x-ray spectra was developed for the particular case of dispersive distortions. The method is of value in the correction of the shape of the spectrum for the distortion introduced by the outside level of the atom and in showing the correct shape of the energy dependence of the density of states n(E)p(E) where p(E) is the probability of the corresponding transition. (J.S.R.)

Blokhin, M.A.

1956-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Nuclear transitions induced by synchrotron x-rays.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We discuss two rare but interesting processes by which synchrotron x-rays with energies up to about 100 keV may be used to induce nuclear transitions. In the NEET (Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition) process, an intense x-ray beam is employed to make vacancies, e.g. K-holes, in the atoms of a specific nuclear isotope. When a vacancy is filled by an electronic transition from a higher atomic level, there is some probability that instead of the usual x-ray or Auger emission, the nucleus of the atom itself will be excited. This is then followed by a nuclear decay exhibiting characteristic gamma-rays or other types of radiation, with time delays typical of the nuclear states involved. The probability for NEET increases when the energies of the atomic and the nuclear transitions become close. We address some theoretical aspects of the process and describe experimental efforts to observe it in {sup 189}Os and {sup 197}Au. The second process to be discussed is the possibility of ''triggering'' the decay of a nuclear isomer by irradiation with an x-ray beam. We focus on the case of the 31-year, 2.4-MeV, 16+ isomer of {sup 178}Hf. There has been speculation that if one could isolate gram quantities, say, of this isomer and then have the capability to accelerate its decay in a controlled way, one would have a powerful triggerable source of enormous energy. This could be used to generate explosions, for rapid irradiations, or for more general energy-storage applications, depending on the rate of energy release. We describe attempts to observe this process.

Gemmell, D. S.

2002-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

469

X-Ray Absorption Characterization of Diesel Exhaust Particulates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have characterized particulates from a 1993 11.1 Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine with electronic unit injectors operated using fuels with and without methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and overbased calcium sulfonate added. X-ray photoabsorption (XAS) spectroscopy was used to characterize the diesel particulates. Results reveal a mixture of primarily Mn-phosphate with some Mn-oxide, and Ca-sulfate on the surface of the filtered particulates from the diesel engine.

Nelson, A J; Ferreira, J L; Reynolds, J G; Roos, J W

1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

470

Application of kinetic inductance thermometers to x-ray calorimetry  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic inductance thermometer is applied to x-ray calorimetry, and its operation over a wide range of frequencies and geometries is discussed. Three amplifier configurations are described, one using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifier, another incorporating an FET amplifier in an amplitude modulated system, and the third, using a tunnel diode frequency modulated oscillator circuit. The predicted performance of each configuration is presented. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Wai, Y.C.; Labov, S.E.; Silver, E.H.

1990-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

471

Statistical Analysis of X-ray Speckle at the NSLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a statistical analysis of the static speckle produced by illuminating a disordered aerogel sample by a nominally coherent x-ray beam at wiggler beamline X25 at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The results of the analysis allow us to determine that the coherence delivered to the X25 hutch is within 35% of what is expected. The rate of coherent photons is approximately two times smaller than expected on the basis of the X25 wiggler source brilliance.

Ophelia K. C. Tsui; S. G. J. Mochrie; L. E. Berman

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

472

X-ray Flares in Orion Low Mass Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context. X-ray flares are common phenomena in pre-main sequence stars. Their analysis gives insights into the physics at work in young stellar coronae. The Orion Nebula Cluster offers a unique opportunity to study large samples of young low mass stars. This work is part of the Chandra Orion Ultradeep project (COUP), an ~10 day long X-ray observation of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Aims. Our main goal is to statistically characterize the flare-like variability of 165 low mass (0.1-0.3 M_sun) ONC members in order to test and constrain the physical scenario in which flares explain all the observed emission. Methods. We adopt a maximum likelihood piece-wise representation of the observed X-ray light curves and detect flares by taking into account both the amplitude and time derivative of the count-rate. We then derive the frequency and energy distribution of the flares. Results. The high energy tail of the energy distribution of flares is well described by a power-law with index 2.2. We test the hypothesis that light curves are built entirely by overlapping flares with a single power law energy distribution. We constrain the parameters of this simple model for every single light curve. The analysis of synthetic light curves obtained from the model indicates a good agreement with the observed data. Comparing low mass stars with stars in the mass interval (0.9-1.2M_sun), we establish that, at ~1 Myr, low mass and solar mass stars of similar X-ray luminosity have very similar flare frequencies. Conclusions. Our observational results are consistent with the following model/scenario: the light curves are entirely built by over- lapping flares with a power-law intensity distribution; the intense flares are individually detected, while the weak ones merge and form a pseudo-quiescent level, which we indicate as the characteristic level.

M. Caramazza; E. Flaccomio; G. Micela; F. Reale; S. J. Wolk; E. D. Feigelson

2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

473

Sensitivity in X-ray grating interferometry on compact systems  

SciTech Connect

The optimization of compact X-ray grating interferometry systems is crucial for the progress of this technique in industrial devices. Here, an analytical formulation for the sensitivity of the phase contrast image acquisition is derived using previous results from noise analyses. Furthermore, experimental measurements of the sensitivity for different configurations are compared, providing further insight into the dependence on polychromatic radiation. Finally, strategies for the geometrical optimization are given.