National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for groundwater surface water

  1. Sources of Water Surface water and groundwater are present throughout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacAdam, Keith

    Sources of Water Surface water and groundwater are present throughout Kentucky's 39,486 square miles. Surface water occurs as rivers, streams, ponds, lakes, and wetlands. Ground- water occurs underlain by soluble carbonate rocks (for example, limestone). Water Supply · Approximately 49 inches

  2. Near stream groundwater surface water interfaces (GSI) are considered to provide natural remediation for groundwater nitrate before it discharges into surface water bodies,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    #12;2 ABSTRACT Near stream groundwater surface water interfaces (GSI) are considered to provide natural remediation for groundwater nitrate before it discharges into surface water bodies, largely. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined influences of hydrological properties on groundwater

  3. Optimal Use of Groundwater and Surface Water to Reduce Land Subsidence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acosta-Gonzalez, G.; Reddell, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Optimal Use of Groundwater and Surface Water to Reduce Land Subsidence G. Acosta-Gonzalez D.L. Reddell Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

  4. Interaction between shallow groundwater, saline surface water and contaminant discharge at a seasonally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Interaction between shallow groundwater, saline surface water and contaminant discharge the behaviour of the hydrocarbon plume at the groundwater/surface water transition zone to be strongly B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Ground water; Surface water; Hydrocarbons; Discharge; Tides

  5. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2014 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring is performed by the GWPP during CY 2014 to achieve the following goals: 􀁸 to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; 􀁸 to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; 􀁸 to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; 􀁸 to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and 􀁸 to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12.

  6. MODELING GROUNDWATER-SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS IN AN OPERATIONAL SETTING BY LINKING RIVERWARE WITH MODFLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of groundwater-surface water interactions is critical to modeling low river flow periods in riparian environments in the semi-arid southwestern United States. This thesis presents a modeling tool with significant potential to modeling groundwater-surface interactions in riparian zones, including riparian evapotranspiration

  7. Characterizing the Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Different Subsurface Geologic Environments Using Geochemical and Isotopic Analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Molly

    2014-12-31

    -surface water interactions. Knowledge of the influence these factors have on surface water connections with groundwater will help determine possible recharge and contaminant flow paths affecting future water supply wells installed in similar alluvial...

  8. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2012 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3. Sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4, and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding a data summary table presented in Section 4) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued throughout CY 2012) will be inserted in Appendix C, and addenda to this plan (if issued) will be inserted in Appendix D. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix E, and an approved Waste Management Plan is provided in Appendix F.

  9. Relation of soil-, surface-, and ground-water distributions of inorganic nitrogen with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macdonald, Ellen

    Relation of soil-, surface-, and ground-water distributions of inorganic nitrogen with topographic position in harvested and unharvested portions of an aspen-dominated catchment in the Boreal Plain M.L. Macrae, K.J. Devito, I.F. Creed, and S.E. Macdonald Abstract: Spatial distributions of soil extractable

  10. 3, 18091850, 2006 groundwater-surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HESSD 3, 1809­1850, 2006 Measuring groundwater-surface water interactions: a review E. Kalbus et al System Sciences Measuring methods for groundwater, surface water and their interactions: a review E;HESSD 3, 1809­1850, 2006 Measuring groundwater-surface water interactions: a review E. Kalbus et al

  11. May 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 9-10, 2012, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the site boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  12. Conjunctive management of groundwater and surface water resources in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1992-01-01

    The San Joaquin-Tulare Conjunctive Use Model (SANTUCM) was developed to evaluate possible long-term scenarios for long term management of drainage and drainage related problems in the western San Joaquin Valley of California. The unique aspect of the conjunctive use model is its coupling of a surface water delivery operations model with a regional groundwater model. A salinity model has been added to utilize surface water model output and allow assessment of compliance with State Water Resources Control Board water quality objectives for the San Joaquin River. The results of scenario runs, performed to data, using the SANTUCM model show table lowering and consequent drainage reduction can be achieved through a combination of source control, land retirement and regional groundwater pumping. The model also shows that water transfers within the existing distribution system are technically feasible and might allow additional releases to be made from Friant Dam for water quality maintenance in the San Joaquin River. However, upstream of Mendota Pool, considerable stream losses to the aquifer are anticipated, amounting to as much as 70% of in-stream flow.

  13. Overview of groundwater and surface water standards pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundahl, A.L.; Williams, S.; Grizzle, B.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document presents an overview of groundwater- and surface water-related laws, regulations, agreements, guidance documents, Executive Orders, and DOE orders pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This document is a summary and is intended to help readers understand which regulatory requirements may apply to their particular circumstances. However, the document is not intended to be used in lieu of applicable regulations. Unless otherwise noted, the information in this report reflects a summary and evaluation completed July 1, 1995. This document is considered a Living Document, and updates on changing laws and regulations will be provided.

  14. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  15. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ray G; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2012-01-01

    Fernandez (2010), The surface water and ocean topographyObserving terrestrial surface water and oceanic submesoscaleof trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing

  16. Prediction of postmine ground-water quality at a Texas surface lignite mine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, Clifton Farrell

    1995-01-01

    The prediction Of postmine ground-water quality is encumbered with many complications resulting from the complex hydrologic system found in mine spoils. Current analytical methods such as acid/base accounting have only had limited success...

  17. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ray G; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2012-01-01

    model of land surface water and energy fluxes for generalin our water balance. One is a daily, 0.05 ET energy balance

  18. Groundwater Surface Water Interactions in a Gold-mined Floodplain of the Merced River

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Lynn Sager

    2013-01-01

    J. A. Cherry, 1979. Groundwater. Prentice-Hall, Englewoodredd site selection, groundwater upwelling, and over-winterprocess between rivers and groundwater. Freshwater Biology.

  19. Groundwater Surface Water Interactions in a Gold-mined Floodplain of the Merced River

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Lynn Sager

    2013-01-01

    of small ponds on stream water chemistry. Lake and ReservoirSpeciation of iron in river water using a specific catalyticin surface-subsurface water exchange and lateral hyporheic

  20. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage, 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodell, M; Chambers, D P; Famiglietti, J S

    2011-01-01

    T. E. Reilly, 2002: Flow and storage in groundwater systems.Estimating ground water storage changes in the Mississippistorage..

  1. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  2. Groundwater Management and the Cost of Reduced Surface Water Deliveries to Urban Areas: The Case of the Central and West Coast Basins of Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunding, David L.; Hamilton, Stephen F; Ajami, Newsha K

    2009-01-01

    Optimal Management of Groundwater over Space and Time. ”Optimal Control in Groundwater Pumping,” Water ResourcesYear ???? Paper ???? Groundwater Management and the Cost of

  3. Lab 13: Groundwater --Water Supplies at Peril Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Po

    1 Lab 13: Groundwater -- Water Supplies at Peril Introduction Although hidden from view, groundwater like surface water moves under the influence of gravity. Knowing how groundwater moves is important because it helps identify areas were groundwater is recharged and the possible path

  4. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  5. Modeling the interaction between land surface and groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Modeling the interaction between land surface and groundwater Geng-Xin Ou Xun-Hong Chen School-ground water models Irrigation efficiency Materials and methods Development of SGWM #12;Background Groundwater in Nebraska. #12;Background Groundwater in Nebraska. decline 100 ft by 1980, 40 ft by 1999; 87% population

  6. Surface Water Transport for the F/H Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kuo-Fu

    1995-08-29

    The contribution of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSBs) tritium releases to the tritium concentration in the Savannah River are presented in this report. WASP5 was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the FHSBs. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at US Highway 301. The tritium concentrations in Fourmile Branch and the Savannah River were calculated for tritium releases from FHSBs. The calculated tritium concentrations above normal environmental background in the Savannah River, resulting from FHSBs releases, drop from 1.25 pCi/ml (<10% of EPA Drinking Water Guide) in 1995 to 0.0056 pCi/ml in 2045.

  7. Role of Climate Variability in Modulating the Surface Water and Groundwater Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Sankar

    levels with El Niño/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, NINO3.4, shows that interannual variability between JAS groundwater levels and JAS NINO3.4 is not statistically significant. Precipitation forecasts exists on the association between low-frequency climatic variability [e.g., El Niño/Southern Oscillation

  8. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage, 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodell, M; Chambers, D P; Famiglietti, J S

    2011-01-01

    2003: Tracking fresh water from space. Science, 301, 1485–2007: Mea- suring surface water from space. Rev. Geophys. ,2011:, Stratospheric water vapor trends over Boulder, Colo-

  9. Groundwater Surface Water Interactions in a Gold-mined Floodplain of the Merced River

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Lynn Sager

    2013-01-01

    the rocky tailings, water levels in swale ponds and canalstailings, and the red azola, green duckweed-covered swale pondsas swale ponds and at locations between the tailing rows.

  10. Understanding what lies beneath: Groundwater critical to Texas water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    of organizations and programs associated with groundwater in Texas: Aquifers: Geological formations that can store, transmit, and yield groundwater to a well or spring. Groundwater comes from nine major and 21 minor aquifers in Texas. Confined aquifer: Layer... of water that is held between two layers of clay. The recharge area is limited to land surface where the aquifer?s geologic material is exposed to the land surface. Unconfined aquifer: Layer of water that has a confining layer on bottom and a layer...

  11. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  12. Coupling Groundwater Modeling with Biology to Identify Strategic Water Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Coupling Groundwater Modeling with Biology to Identify Strategic Water Resources Didier Graillot 1 ABSTRACT The identification of hydraulic interactions between rivers and groundwater is part and parcel hinders groundwater modeling everywhere and simulating water management scenarios in every place

  13. Tritium monitoring of groundwater and surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacArthur, D.; Aamodt, P.; Bounds, J.; Koster, J.

    1999-03-01

    There are numerous facilities, both within the US and in the rest of the world, within the complex of radiation laboratories and production plants where tritium has been released into the environment because of historic or ongoing mission-related operations. Many of environmental restoration projects have detected low levels of tritium contamination in local streams, ponds, and/or ground water. Typically these waters are moving or have the potential to move offsite and are viewed as a potential risk to the public and environment. Los Alamos National Laboratory will modify the well-proven long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique for detection of ionizing radiation to optimize a system for detecting tritium in groundwater and other surfaces. The LRAD technique relies on detection of ionized air molecules rather than direct detection of ionizing radiation. The detected electrical current is proportional to the number of ionized air molecules present, which is in turn a measure of the amount of contamination present. Although this technique has been used commercially to measure alpha contamination on objects and surfaces, the technique is also ideal for monitoring low-energy beta particles. The authors have demonstrated beta detection using {sup 54}Mn, {sup 14}C, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 36}Cl sources. Thus, the detector technology and detection of beta particles using this technology have both been demonstrated. The extreme short range of tritium beta particles necessitates an optimization of the detector system. In this paper, the authors will discuss these new designs.

  14. Caffeine and agricultural pesticide concentrations in surface water and groundwater on the north shore of Kauai (Hawaii, USA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    on the north shore of Kauai (Hawaii, USA) Karen L. Knee a,b,*, Richard Gossett c , Alexandria B. Boehm d, and metribuzin) concen- trations in environmental waters on the tropical north shore of Kauai (Hawaii, USA of Hawaii, have been detected in beach and river water on the north shore of Kauai since 2000 (Hanalei

  15. Investigating groundwater and surface water interactions using novel isotopes and geochemical tracers in the upper Merced River Basin, Sierra Nevada, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Glenn David

    2009-01-01

    L. Michel, and P. Schlosser, Groundwater residence times inevolution of shallow groundwater as recorded by springs,stream flow, and groundwater exchanges in alpine streams,

  16. GROUND-WATER CONTRIBUTION TO DOSE FROM PAST HANFORD OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive ?literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work on the ground-water pathway be limited to tracking ongoing ground-water studies at the Hanford Site.

  17. Basic Ground-Water Hydrology By RALPH C. HEATH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    #12;Basic Ground-Water Hydrology By RALPH C. HEATH Prepared in cooperation with the North Carolina., 1983, Basic ground-water hydrology: U .S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2220, 86 p. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publications Data Heath, Ralph C . Basic ground-water hydrology (Geological Survey

  18. MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER IN SALT WATER INGRESS COASTAL AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER IN SALT WATER INGRESS COASTAL AQUIFERS C. P. Kumar Scientist `E1 dealing with exploitation, restoration and management of fresh groundwater in coastal aquifers, the key is disturbed by groundwater withdrawals and other human activities that lower groundwater levels, reduce fresh

  19. Impact of Storm Water Recharge Practices on Boston Groundwater Elevations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    Impact of Storm Water Recharge Practices on Boston Groundwater Elevations Brian F. Thomas, S periodically experienced a decline in groundwater elevations and the associated deterioration of untreated wood a groundwater conservation overlay district enforced by city zoning boards to require storm water recharge

  20. Guidelines for the Protection of Surface and Groundwater Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guidelines for the Protection of Surface and Groundwater Resources During Exploration Drilling Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Guidelines...

  1. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  2. Ground-water sapping processes, Western Desert, Egypt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, W.; Arvidson, R.E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Crombie, M.K. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Sturchio, N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alfy, Z.E. [Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority, Cairo (Egypt)] [Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-01-01

    Depressions of the Western Desert of Egypt (specifically, Kharga, Farafra, and Kurkur regions) are mainly occupied by shales that are impermeable, but easily erodible by rainfall and runoff, whereas the surrounding plateaus are composed of limestones that are permeable and more resistant to fluvial erosion under semiarid to arid conditions. A computer simulation model was developed to quantify the ground-water sapping processes, using a cellular automata algorithm with coupled surface runoff and ground-water flow for a permeable, resistant layer over an impermeable, friable unit. Erosion, deposition, slumping, and generation of spring-derived tufas were parametrically modeled. Simulations using geologically reasonable parameters demonstrate that relatively rapid erosion of the shales by surface runoff, ground-water sapping, and slumping of the limestones, and detailed control by hydraulic conductivity inhomogeneities associated with structures explain the depressions, escarpments, and associated landforms and deposits. Using episodic wet pulses, keyed by {delta}{sup 18}O deep-sea core record, the model produced tufa ages that are statistically consistent with the observed U/Th tufa ages. This result supports the hypothesis that northeastern African wet periods occurred during interglacial maxima. This {delta}{sup 18}O-forced model also replicates the decrease in fluvial and sapping activity over the past million years. 65 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Valuing Groundwater Services and Water Portfolio in Irrigated Agriculture with a Hedonic Pricing Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukherjee, Monobina

    2013-01-01

    2647-2668. Surface and Groundwater. 2012. U.S. EnvironmentalEstimating the Value of Groundwater in Irrigation, SelectedAgricultural adaptation to groundwater and climate. NBER

  4. Source Water and Groundwater Withdrawal Permit Application Process...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Source Water and Groundwater Withdrawal Permit Application Process Guidance Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance -...

  5. Drinking Water and Groundwater Protection Division File Transfer...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Drinking Water and Groundwater Protection Division File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Site Instructions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Permitting...

  6. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  7. RCRA ground-water monitoring: Draft technical guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The manual was prepared to provide guidance for implementing the ground-water monitoring regulations for regulated units contained in 40 CFR Part 264 Subpart F and the permitting standards of 40 CFR Part 270. The manual also provides guidance to owners and operators of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) that are required to comply with the requirements of 40 CFR Part 264 Subparts J (Tank Systems), K (Surface Impoundments), L (Waste Piles), N (Landfills), and X (Miscellaneous Units). This document updates technical information contained in other sources of U.S. EPA guidance, such as chapter eleven of SW-846 (Revision O, September 1986) and the Technical Enforcement Guidance Document (TEGD).

  8. Groundwater's significance to changing hydrology, water chemistry, and biological communities of a floodplain ecosystem, Everglades,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groundwater's significance to changing hydrology, water chemistry, and biological communities of former wetlands converted to agriculture. Interactions between groundwater and sur- face water have also groundwater's changing role, from a fresh- water storage reservoir that sustained the Everglades ecosystem

  9. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  10. Ground-water data for 1990--91 and ground-water withdrawals for 1951--91, Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, D.B.; Reiner, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents selected ground-water data collected from wells and test holes at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site. Depth-to-water measurements were made at 74 sites at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during water years 1990--91. Measured depths to water ranged from 301 to 2,215 feet below land surface and measured altitudes of the ground-water surface at the Nevada Test Site ranged from 2,091 to 6,083 feet above sea level. Depth-to-water measurements were obtained by a combination of wire-line, electric-tape, iron-horse, and steel-tape methods. Available historic withdrawal and depth-to-water data for ground-water supply wells have been included to show changes through time. Water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium concentrations at 15 sites during water years 1990--91. Tritium concentrations in bailed water samples ranged from below detection limits to 5,550,000 picocuries per liter. Tritium concentrations in samples from three wells exceeded drinking water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. All three wells are separate piezometers contained within a single test hole near an area of extensive underground nuclear testing.

  11. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport: Simulation of Impact of Hydraulic Fracturing on Groundwater

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on twomore »general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.« less

  12. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  13. Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah: Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana; Rebecca Holt

    2012-04-15

    Unconventional fuel development will require scarce water resources. In an environment characterized by scarcity, and where most water resources are fully allocated, prospective development will require minimizing water use and seeking to use water resources in the most efficient manner. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater provides just such an opportunity. Conjunctive use includes two main practices: First, integrating surface water diversions and groundwater withdrawals to maximize efficiency and minimize impacts on other resource users and ecological processes. Second, conjunctive use includes capturing surplus or unused surface water and injecting or infiltrating that water into groundwater aquifers in order to increase recharge rates. Conjunctive management holds promise as a means of addressing some of the West's most intractable problems. Conjunctive management can firm up water supplies by more effectively capturing spring runoff and surplus water, and by integrating its use with groundwater withdrawals; surface and groundwater use can be further integrated with managed aquifer recharge projects. Such integration can maximize water storage and availability, while simultaneously minimizing evaporative loss, reservoir sedimentation, and surface use impacts. Any of these impacts, if left unresolved, could derail commercial-scale unconventional fuel development. Unconventional fuel developers could therefore benefit from incorporating conjunctive use into their development plans. Despite its advantages, conjunctive use is not a panacea. Conjunctive use means using resources in harmony to maximize and stabilize long-term supplies â?? it does not mean maximizing the use of two separate but interrelated resources for unsustainable short-term gains â?? and it cannot resolve all problems or provide water where no unappropriated water exists. Moreover, conjunctive use may pose risks to ecological values forgone when water that would otherwise remain in a stream is diverted for aquifer recharge or other uses. To better understand the rapidly evolving field of conjunctive use, this Topical Report begins with a discussion of Utah water law, with an emphasis on conjunctive use issues. We contrast Utahâ??s approach with efforts undertaken in neighboring states and by the federal government. We then relate conjunctive use to the unconventional fuel industry and discuss how conjunctive use can help address pressing challenges. While conjunctive management cannot create water where none exists, it does hold promise to manage existing resources in a more efficient manner. Moreover, conjunctive management reflects an important trend in western water law that could provide benefit to those contemplating activities that require large-scale water development.

  14. Surface Water Quality Standards 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Standards Team. This advisory group, with representation from water asso- ciations, the agricultural industry, engineering firms, environmental organizations, consumer groups and government entities, is working with TCEQ staff to review and possibly...SURFACE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AAs part of the ongoing program to manage Texaswater quality, the Texas Commission onEnvironmental Quality (TCEQ) is currently review- ing the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards, including the standards...

  15. A rapid method for measuring local groundwater-surface water interactions and identifying potential non-point source pollution inputs to rivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Christopher Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Anderson, M.P. , 2005. Heat as a Ground Water Tracer.Ground Water, 43(6): 951-968-951-968. Bencala, K.E. , 1993.the Earth's thermal profile. Water resources research, 1(2):

  16. Investigating groundwater and surface water interactions using novel isotopes and geochemical tracers in the upper Merced River Basin, Sierra Nevada, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Glenn David

    2009-01-01

    Mountains of the world, water towers for humanity: typology,and global significance, Water Resources Research, 43,36 Cl pulse in natural water, Letters to Nature, 300, 737-

  17. Groundwater Management and the Cost of Reduced Surface Water Deliveries to Urban Areas: The Case of the Central and West Coast Basins of Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunding, David L.; Hamilton, Stephen F; Ajami, Newsha K

    2009-01-01

    as a separate cost from WCB recycled water (b) Decompose theprice of CB recycled water into two terms: At time t=0: P T1over time for CB recycled water as follows: PPP ???? TtTT =

  18. Waveform tomography at a groundwater contamination site: Surface reflection data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, R. Gerhard

    acoustic-waveform tomography to 45 2D seismic profiles to image the 3D geometry of a buried pale- ochannel the shallowest groundwater system in the study area. The 2D profiles were extracted from a 3D surface reflection the channel showed marked vertical and lat- eral velocity heterogeneity. Traveltime tomography and waveform

  19. A cost-effective, environmentally-responsive ground-water monitoring procedure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doucette, Richard Charles

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water monitoring is the primary method used to protect our ground-water resources. The primary objectives of monitoring programs are to detect, to attribute, and to mitigate any changes in-water quality or quantity. Previous monitoring...

  20. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  1. Groundwater-controlled valley networks and the decline of surface runoff on early Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Keith

    Groundwater-controlled valley networks and the decline of surface runoff on early Mars Keith P was dominated by valley networks created through a combination of groundwater processes and surface runoff evolution characterized by a weakening of surface runoff, leaving groundwater processes as the dominant

  2. A Quick Guide to Groundwater in Pennsylvania Groundwater is an important source of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    may originate from evaporation much closer to home. The sun powers the hydrologic cycle, evaporat- ing. The Hydrologic Cycle Any discussion of groundwater must start with an understanding of the hydrologic cycle, the move- ment of water in the environment. As the word "cycle" implies, there is no beginning or end

  3. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresel, P.E.; Newcomer, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Webber, W.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Raymond, R.G.; Opitz, B.E.

    1993-06-01

    Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals present in ground water as a result of Hanford Site operations and, whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. A total of 720 wells were sampled during 1992 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project prepared water-table maps of DOE`s Hanford Site for June 1992 from water-level elevations measured in 287 wells across the Hanford Site and outlying areas. These maps are used to infer ground-water flow directions and gradients for the interpretation of contaminant transport. Water levels beneath the 200 Areas decreased as much as 0.75 m (2.5 ft) between December 1991 and December 1992. Water levels in the Cold Creek Valley decreased approximately 0.5 m in that same period. The water table adjacent to the Columbia River along the Hanford Reach continues to respond significantly to fluctuations in river stage. These responses were observed in the 100 and 300 areas. The elevation of the ground-water mound beneath B Pond did not change significantly between December 1991 and December 1992. However, water levels from one well located at the center of the mound indicate a water-level rise of approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) during the last quarter of 1992. Water levels measured from unconfined aquifer wells north and east of the Columbia River in 1992 indicate that the primary source of recharge is from irrigation practices.

  4. Exact three-dimensional spectral solution to surface-groundwater interactions with arbitrary surface topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    surface topography Anders Wo¨rman,1 Aaron I. Packman,2 Lars Marklund,1 Judson W. Harvey,3 and Susa H. [1] It has been long known that land surface topography governs both groundwater flow patterns that the surface topography can be separated in a Fourier-series spectrum that provides an exact solution

  5. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  6. Sampling and analytical testing of groundwater and surface water at the Colorado School of Mines Research Institute (CSMRI) has been conducted on a quarterly basis since early

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is being consumed, changing the water chemistry, and leading to lower uranium concentrations with flow, Th-230, Th-232, and uranium), and metals (arsenic, barium calcium, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese and analytical testing for radium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, uranium, and zinc will continue

  7. Effect of faulting on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faunt, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This study characterizes the hydrogeologic system of the Death Valley region, an area covering approximately 100,000 square kilometers. The study also characterizes the effects of faults on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region by synthesizing crustal stress, fracture mechanics,a nd structural geologic data. The geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. Faulting and associated fracturing is pervasive and greatly affects ground-water flow patterns. Faults may become preferred conduits or barriers to flow depending on whether they are in relative tension, compression, or shear and other factors such as the degree of dislocations of geologic units caused by faulting, the rock types involved, the fault zone materials, and the depth below the surface. The current crustal stress field was combined with fault orientations to predict potential effects of faults on the regional ground-water flow regime. Numerous examples of fault-controlled ground-water flow exist within the study area. Hydrologic data provided an independent method for checking some of the assumptions concerning preferential flow paths. 97 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Groundwater Discharge of Mercury to California Coastal Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flegal, Russell; Paytan, Adina; Black, Frank

    2009-01-01

    R. 2009. Submarine groundwater discharge of total mercuryof nutrient-enriched fresh groundwater at Stinson Beach,Priya Ganguli collects groundwater at Elkhorn Slough. Coal-

  9. A radiocarbon method and multi-tracer approach to quantifying groundwater discharge to coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gramling, Carolyn M

    2003-01-01

    Groundwater discharge into estuaries and the coastal ocean is an important mechanism for the transport of dissolved chemical species to coastal waters. Because many dissolved species are present in groundwater in concentrations ...

  10. Water balance investigations of groundwater depletion in Asia : information needs and uncertainty analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiang, Julie E. (Julie Ega), 1971-

    2002-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is an essential component of global food production. In many regions of the world, and Asia in particular, groundwater is a major source of irrigation water. Over-pumping of groundwater aquifers has ...

  11. Quasi-three dimensional ground-water modeling of the hydrologic influence of paleozoic rocks on the ground-water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Si-Yong

    1994-01-01

    The proposed high-level radioactive waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has created a need to understand the, ground-water system at the site. One of the important hydrologic characteristics is a steep gradient on the ground-water table...

  12. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  13. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul R. Jones; Xiuqing Hao; Eduardo R. Cruz-Chu; Konrad Rykaczewski; Krishanu Nandy; Thomas M. Schutzius; Kripa K. Varanasi; Constantine M. Megaridis; Jens H. Walther; Petros Koumoutsakos; Horacio D. Espinosa; Neelesh A. Patankar

    2014-09-29

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

  14. GROUNDWATER ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY C. P. Kumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    1 GROUNDWATER ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY C. P. Kumar Scientist `F', National Institute of Hydrology is groundwater resources. Due to uneven distribution of rainfall both in time and space, the surface water on development of groundwater resources. The simultaneous development of groundwater, specially through dug wells

  15. Surface Water Development in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeely, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    1977-01-01

    ................................. 30 Appendix Tables .......................................... 32 ......... Appendix A: Major Conservation Storage Reservoirs 40 endix B: Water Development Board Policy ............... 41 eferences ............................................... 43... of acre-feet. In Texas, 95 percent of the total conservation storage capacity is concentrated in 63 reservoirs. The Texas Water Development Board has not provided a published figure on average annual yield of surface water from these reservoirs...

  16. Development and chemical quality of a ground-water system in cast overburden as the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borbely, Evelyn Susanna

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of Reclaimed Spoil RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Field Methods Monitoring Well Locations Drilling and Spoil Sampling Installation and Development of Monitoring Wells Ground-Water Sampling Hydraulic Conductivity Testing Page V1 1X X111 14 21 22... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Locations of research stations in reclaimed portions of the A and B surface mining pits Distribution of Texas near-surface lignite (Kaiser et al. , 1974) Fayette fluvial-delta system and dip profile, Jackson Group, central and East Texas...

  17. Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley REgional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael T. Moreo; and Leigh Justet

    2008-07-02

    Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913–1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

  18. EES 1001 Lab 9 Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    is groundwater. The water table is the top of the saturated zone, and is the target for well drillers that want, specifically if the water table is below the potentiometric surface. Manmade wells and natural springs flowingEES 1001 ­ Lab 9 Groundwater Water that seeps into the ground, and is pulled down by gravity

  19. Drought resilience of the California Central Valley surface-groundwater-conveyance system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.L.; Dale, L.L.; Brush, C.; Vicuna, S.; Kadir, T.N.; Dogrul, E.C.; Chung, F.I.

    2009-05-15

    A series of drought simulations were performed for the California Central Valley using computer applications developed by the California Department of Water Resources and historical datasets representing a range of droughts from mild to severe for time periods lasting up to 60 years. Land use, agricultural cropping patterns, and water demand were held fixed at the 2003 level and water supply was decreased by amounts ranging between 25 and 50%, representing light to severe drought types. Impacts were examined for four hydrologic subbasins, the Sacramento Basin, the San Joaquin Basin, the Tulare Basin, and the Eastside Drainage. Results suggest the greatest impacts are in the San Joaquin and Tulare Basins, regions that are heavily irrigated and are presently overdrafted in most years. Regional surface water diversions decrease by as much as 70%. Stream-to-aquifer flows and aquifer storage declines were proportional to drought severity. Most significant was the decline in ground water head for the severe drought cases, where results suggest that under these scenarios the water table is unlikely to recover within the 30-year model-simulated future. However, the overall response to such droughts is not as severe as anticipated and the Sacramento Basin may act as ground-water insurance to sustain California during extended dry periods.

  20. Ground-water solutes and eolian processes: An example from the High Plains of Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, W.W.; Sanford, W.E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Eolian dunes associated with saline-lake basins are important geologic features in arid and semiarid areas. The authors propose that eolian processes may also be important in controlling solute concentration and composition of ground water in these environments. A study of Double Lakes on the Southern High Plains of Texas suggests that approximately 200 megagrams of chloride enters this topographically closed basin from the surrounding water table aquifer, direct precipitation and surface runoff. Solute-transport simulation suggest that approximately 70 of the 200 megagrams of the chloride annually leaves the basin by diffusion and ground-water advection through a 30 meter-thick shale underlying the lake. The remaining 130 megagrams is hypothesized to be removed by eolian processes. Closed water-table contours around the lake and a hydrologic analysis suggest that it is improbable that solutes will reach the surrounding water-table aquifer by ground-water transport from this lake system. The conceptual eolian-transport model is further supported by observed chloride profiles in the unsaturated zone. When analyzed with estimates of recharge fluxes, these profiles suggest that approximately 150 megagrams of chloride enter the unsaturated zone downwind of the lake annually. Thus two independent methods suggest that 130 to 150 megagrams of chloride enter the unsaturated zone downwind of the lake annually. Thus two independent methods suggest that 130 to 150 megagrams of chloride are removed from the basin annually by eolian process and redeposited downwind of the lake. Eolian input to the ground water is consistent with the observed plume shape as well as with the solute and isotopic composition of ground water in the water-table aquifer downwind of the lake basin.

  1. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.

  2. Exchange of groundwater and surfacewater mediated by permafrost response to seasonal and long term air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    Exchange of groundwater and surfacewater mediated by permafrost response to seasonal and long term impact hydrologic cycle processes by promoting or impeding groundwater and surface water exchange. Under between groundwater and surface water. A coupled heat transport and groundwater flow model, SUTRA

  3. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  4. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on twomore »general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.« less

  5. Evaluating the Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing Below the Water Table on Groundwater and Radionuclide Migration in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluating the Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing Below the Water Table on Groundwater, using FEHM, evaluate perturbed groundwater behavior associated with underground nuclear tests to an instantaneous pressurization event caused by a nuclear test when different permeability and porosity

  6. WAC - 173-200 Water Quality Standards for Groundwaters of the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    200 Water Quality Standards for Groundwaters of the State of Washington Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC...

  7. EA-1155: Ground-water Compliance Activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's ground-water standards set forth in 40 CFR 192 at the Spook, Wyoming Uranium Mill...

  8. GROUNDWATER DATA REQUIREMENT AND ANALYSIS C. P. Kumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    GROUNDWATER DATA REQUIREMENT AND ANALYSIS C. P. Kumar National Institute of Hydrology Roorkee 1.0 INTRODUCTION Groundwater is used for a variety of purposes, including irrigation, drinking, and manufacturing. Groundwater is also the source of a large percentage of surface water. To verify that groundwater is suited

  9. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. GROUNDWATER FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODELING Application to Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Coastal Wetland Hydrology, and Deep Well Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukop, Mike

    GROUNDWATER FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODELING Application to Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Coastal, but is also lost to surface water drainage and potential submarine groundwater discharge. There are also to deal with issues such as submarine groundwater discharge and coastal wetland hydrology. SEAWAT also has

  11. Evaluation of the US Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program in Hawaii, 1992. Water-resources investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1997-12-31

    This report describes an evaluation of the 1992 USGS ground-water data-collection program in Hawaii. The occurrence of ground water in the Hawaiian islands is briefly described. Objectives for the data-collection program are identified followed by a description of well networks needed to prepare maps of water levels and chloride concentrations. For the islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii, the wells in the 1992 ground-water data-collection program are described followed by maps showing the distribution and magnitude of pumpage, and the distribution of proposed pumped wells. Wells in the 1992 USGS ground-water data-collection program that provide useful data for mapping water levels and chloride concentrations are identified followed by locations where additional wells are needed for water-level and chloride-concentration data. In addition, a procedure to store and review data is described.

  12. Field-deployable, nano-sensing approach for real-time detection of free mercury, speciation and quantification in surface stream waters and groundwater samples at the U.S. Department of Energy contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campiglia, Andres D.; Hernandez, Florencio E.

    2014-08-28

    The detrimental effects on human health caused by long-term exposure to trace contamination of toxic metals have been documented in numerous epidemiological and toxicological studies. The fact that metals are non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain poses a severe threat to the environment and human health. Their monitoring in drinking water, aquatic ecosystems, food and biological fluids samples is then essential for global sustainability. While research efforts employing established methodology continue to advance conceptual/computational models of contaminant behavior, the increasing awareness and public concern with environmental and occupational exposure to toxic metals calls for sensing devices capable to handle on-site elemental analysis in short analysis time. Field analysis with potable methodology prevents unnecessary scrutiny of un-contaminated samples via laboratory-bound methods, reduces analysis cost and expedites turnaround time for decision making and remediation purposes. Of particular toxicological interest are mercury and its species. Mercury is recognized as a major environmental pollution issue. The field-portable sensor developed in this project provides a unique and valuable tool for the on-site, real-time determination of inorganic mercury in surface waters. The ability to perform on-site analysis of mercury should prove useful in remote locations with difficult accessibility. It should facilitate data collection from statistically meaningful population sizes for a better understanding of the dose-effect role and the water-soil-plant-animal-human transfer mechanisms. The acquired knowledge should benefit the development of efficient environmental remediation processes, which is extremely relevant for a globally sustainable environment.

  13. Enhancing Drinking Water Supply by Better Understanding Surface Water Ground Water Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    Enhancing Drinking Water Supply by Better Understanding Surface Water ­ Ground Water Interaction Primary Investigators Thomas Boving Anne Veeger Patricia Logan #12;Enhancing Drinking Water Supply by Better Understanding Surface Water ­ Ground Water Interaction Thomas Boving, Anne Veeger & Patricia Logan

  14. Arsenic cycling within the water column of a small lake receiving contaminated ground-water discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Robert G.; Wilkin, Richard T.; Hernandez, Gina (EPA); (ECO)

    2008-09-18

    The fate of arsenic discharged from contaminated ground water to a small, shallow lake at a hazardous waste site was examined to understand the role of iron (hydr)oxide precipitation-dissolution processes within the water column. Field and laboratory observations indicate that arsenic solubility was controlled, in part, by the extent of ferrous iron oxidation-precipitation and arsenic sorption occurring near the lake chemocline. Laboratory experiments were conducted using site-derived water to assess the impact of these coupled processes on the removal of dissolved arsenic from the water column. The measured concentration of organic carbon from epilimnetic and hypolimnetic water sampled from the lake was approximately 1.3 mM and 17.0 mM, respectively. Experiments conducted with these samples along with synthetic controls containing no organic carbon demonstrated that observed rates of formation and crystallinity of the precipitated iron (hydr)oxide were dependent on the concentration of organic carbon in the lake water. Increasing dissolved organic matter concentration did not significantly interfere with ferrous iron oxidation, but inhibited iron (hydr)oxide precipitation and subsequent sorption of arsenic. For experiments using water sampled from the lake hypolimnion there was a strong relationship between the fraction of precipitated iron and the fraction of sorbed arsenic. Laboratory- and field-derived iron (hydr)oxide precipitates were characterized to evaluate mineralogy and arsenic distribution. In-situ suspended solids and precipitates formed in laboratory experiments using hypolimnetic water were identified as poorly crystalline 2-line ferrihydrite. These solids were readily dissolved in the presence of dithionite indicating that elevated dissolved iron and arsenic observed in the hypolimnion resulted, in part, from in-situ reductive dissolution of settling 2-line ferrihydrite near the sediment-water interface. These observations support the contention that the levels of dissolved arsenic observed in the shallow lake can be attributed to ground-water discharge and internal recycling of arsenic within the water column. The efficiency of the process resulting in iron (hydr)oxide precipitation and arsenic sorption limits the downgradient export of arsenic derived from ground-water discharge.

  15. Dependence of groundwater recharge in the Niles Cone Groundwater Basin on climate variability and inter-basin water transfers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Krishnachandran

    2012-01-01

    Morris, B L, et al. 2003. Groundwater and its susceptibilityG. et al. 2007. Groundwater Use in a Global Perspective –management of the state’s Groundwater Resources, Report from

  16. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  17. Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from 1977 to 1984 near settling ponds on adjacent industrial property at the western end of the Cowles Unit. Since 1980, when the settling pond bottoms were sealed, these intradunal lowlands contained standing water only during periods of high snowmelt or rainfall. Water level declines following the cessation of seepage ranged from 6 feet at the eastern-most settling pond to nearly 14 feet at the western-most pond. No general pattern of water table decline was observed in the Great Marsh or in the shoreline dune complex at distances > 3,000 ft east or north of the settling ponds. Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow ground-water downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow groundwater in areas unaffected by settling pond seepage. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

  19. Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah: Implications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Management in Utah: Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Unconventional fuel development will require scarce water resources. In an environment characterized by...

  20. 40 CFR 265 interim-status ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This report outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond, located in the southwestern part of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials may have been discharged to the pond. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to determine if hazardous chemicals are moving out of the pond. This plan describes the location of new wells for the monitoring system, how the wells are to be completed, the data to be collected, and how those data can be used to determine the source and extent of any ground-water contamination from the 2101-M pond. Four new wells are planned, one upgradient and three downgradient. 35 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  2. Virus removal by soil passage at field scale and ground-water protection of sandy aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

    Virus removal by soil passage at field scale and ground- water protection of sandy aquifers J; The Netherlands (E-mail: Majid@ct.tudelft.nl) Abstract Virus removal from groundwater by soil passage often for attachment than thereafter. A model is presented which interprets virus removal as a function of collision

  3. Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

  4. A new technique to monitor ground-water quality at municipal solid waste landfills 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Steven Charles

    1989-01-01

    31 37 37 37 40' 41 SITE CHARACTERIZATION Test Site , Geology . Hydrogeology Soil Characteristics Climate . . . , . . . . . . Baseline Geophysical Investigation Site Investigation Methodology Results and Discussion Geology Rainfall... Hydrogeology . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . Ground-water quality TEST OF RESISTIVITY MONITORING TECHNIOUE Methods Results and Discussion Station 3+00 Station 11+00 Station 33+00 Summary CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES APPENDIX A CORE...

  5. Water and nitrate exchange between cultivated ecosystems and groundwater in the Rolling Pampas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    downward water transport from ecosystems to aquifers (recharge) is the only flux connecting them salinity may increase by the upward transport of solutes from groundwater and solute exclusion by roots (Freeze and Cherry, 1979; Salama et al., 1999; To´th, 1999; Jobba´gy and Jackson, 2007). The Rolling

  6. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions.

  7. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    Experiences with injecting geothermal fluids have identified technical problems associated with geothermal waste disposal. This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented, including: Raft River, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake and Hatchobaru in Japan, and Ahuachapan in El Salvador. Hydrogeologic and design/operational factors affecting the success of an injection program are identified. Hydrogeologic factors include subsidence, near-surface effects of injected fluids, and seismicity. Design/operational factors include hydrodynamic breakthrough, condition of the injection system and reservoir maintenance. Existing and potential effects of production/injection on these factors are assessed.

  8. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for January through June 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between January and June 1988 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, and monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. In addition, several new analytical initiatives were undertaken during this period. These include cyanide speciation in the BY Cribs plume, inductively coupled argon plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) measurements on a broad selection of samples from the 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas, and high sensitivity gas chromatography measurements performed at the Solid Waste Landfill-Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Error Control of Iterative Linear Solvers for Integrated Groundwater Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Error Control of Iterative Linear Solvers for Integrated Groundwater Models by Matthew F. Dixon1 for integrated groundwater models, which are implicitly coupled to another model, such as surface water models in legacy groundwater modeling packages, resulting in the overall simulation speedups as large as 7

  10. Results of ground-water monitoring for radionuclides in the Separations Area, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serkowski, J.A.; Law, A.G.; Ammerman, J.J.; Schatz, A.L.

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the results for calendar year 1987 of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) ground-water monitoring program for radiological constituents in the Separations Area of the Hanford Site. This monitoring program is implemented to partially fulfill the US Department of Energy (DOE) requirement that radioactivity in the environment be monitored. The program is also used to monitor operating disposal facilities for compliance with DOE requirements. The Separations Area radionuclide ground-water monitoring program is coordinated with other ground-water monitoring activities on the Hanford Site conducted by Westinghouse Hanford and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The PNL program includes sampling for both radioactive and nonradioactive chemicals throughout the Site (including 100 and 300 Areas) and is responsible for estimating and evaluating the impact on ground water to the general public from all operations at the Hanford Site. Ground water characterization and monitoring for compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is also being conducted at facilities on the Hanford Site.

  11. Ground-water maps of the Hanford Site Separations Area, December 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, A.L.; Ammerman, J.J.

    1988-03-01

    The ground-water maps of the Separations Area are prepared by the Environmental Technology Section of the Defense Waste Management Division of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The Separations Area consists of the 200 East and 200 West Areas, where chemical processing activities are carried out. This set of ground-water maps consists of a water-table map of the unconfined aquifer, a depth-to-water map of the unconfined aquifer, and a potentiometric map of the uppermost confined aquifer (the Rattlesnake Ridge sedimentary interbed) in the area where West Lake, the deactivated Gable Mountain Pond, and the B Pond system are located. The Separations Area water-table map is prepared from water-level measurements made in June and December. For the December 1987 map approximately 200 wells were used for contouring the water table. The water-table mound beneath the deactivated U Pond has decreased in size since the June 1987 measurements were taken, reflecting the impact of shutting off flow to the pond in the fall of 1984. This mound has declined approximately 8 ft. since 1984. The water-table map also shows the locations of wells where the December 1987 measurements were made, and the data for these measurements are listed.

  12. Use and abandonment of surface impoundments for the disposal of oil-field produced waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.S. (California Regional Water Quality Board, Fresno (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Surface impoundments, or sumps, are utilized for the disposal of oil-field produced water through percolation and evaporation in California's San Joaquin basin. Environmental concerns have resulted in increased regulation of sumps. Surface disposal of produced waters into unlined sumps is permitted where the quality of the produced water meets the stated criteria in the applicable basin plan as regulated by the local regional water quality control board. In the San Joaquin Basin, surface disposal is initially governed by the Tulare Lake basin plan (5D). A basin plan permits disposal into sumps of produced waters which do not exceed a maximum electrical conductivity, chlorides content, or boron content in areas which overlie useable groundwater. If the produced water exceeds any one of the maximum constituent levels, regulation of surface disposal passes to Title 23, California code of Regulations, sections 2,510-2,601 (subchapter 15). Subchapter 15 regulates the use and abandonment of lined surface impoundments designed to dispose of produced water through evaporation. Subchapter 15 requires the operator to conduct a site hydrogeologic characterization, install a groundwater monitoring system, and construct and enclose the surface impoundment in accordance with specified criteria. Sumps can be utilized in areas which do not meet the criteria of the appropriate basin plan, or subchapter 15, where the operator demonstrates that surface percolation of the produced waters will not degrade underlying useable groundwater. Abandonment of unlined sumps includes removal and disposal of all free liquids, analysis of sludges and soils beneath the sumps, removal of contaminated sludges and soils, analysis of soils after removal of contaminated sludges and soils, backfilling of the sump, and revegetation of the site.

  13. Drought resilience of the California Central Valley surface-groundwater-conveyance system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, N.L.

    2009-01-01

    potential for surface and subsurface storage to limit the adverse impacts of drought and snowpack reduction on water supply and hydropower

  14. sor Dr. Jason Gurdak. A colleague who studies surface water once described Gurdak's subject as "voodoo" because of the hidden and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with groundwater--depends on the rate at which rain, snowmelt, or irrigation water from farmlands reaches the water8 #12;sor Dr. Jason Gurdak. A colleague who studies surface water once described Gurdak's subject as "voodoo" because of the hidden and intangible nature of underground water. Nevertheless, Gurdak's research

  15. Ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, January-December 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cline, C.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Raymond, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This program is designed to evaluate existing and potential pathways of exposure to radioactivity and hazardous chemicals from site operations. This document contains an evaluation of data collected during CY 1984. During 1984, 339 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Two of these constituents, specifically, tritium and nitrate, have been selected for detailed discussion in this report. Tritium and nitrate in the primary plumes originating from the 200 Areas continue to move generally eastward toward the Columbia River in the direction of ground-water flow. The movement within these plumes is indicated by changes in trends within the analytical data from the monitoring wells. No discernible impact on ground water has yet been observed from the start-up of the PUREX plant in December 1983. The shape of the present tritium plume is similar to those described in previous ground-water monitoring reports, although slight changes on the outer edges have been noted. Radiological impacts from two potential pathways for radionuclide transport in ground water to the environment are discussed in this report. The pathways are: (1) human consumption of ground water from onsite wells, and (2) seepage of ground water into the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium in spring samples that were collected and analyzed in 1983, and in wells sampled adjacent to the Columbia River in 1984 confirmed that constituents in the ground water are entering the river via springs and subsurface flow. The primary areas where radionuclides enter the Columbia River via ground-water flow are the 100-N and 300 Areas and the shoreline adjacent to the Hanford Townsite. 44 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. 2 Seasonal cycles in radium and barium within a 3 subterranean estuary: Implications for groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for groundwater 4 derived chemical fluxes to surface waters 5 Meagan Eagle Gonneea a, , Ann E. Mulligan b There is increasing evidence that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is an important source of water and dissolved constrained, however, natural variability in groundwater radium may span 16 several orders of magnitude

  17. The prediction of the effectiveness of interceptor trenches in the remediation of ground-water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mast, Mary Katherine

    1991-01-01

    THE PREDICTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERCEPTOR TRENCHES IN THE REMEDIATION OF GROUND-WATER CONTAMINATION BY PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by MARY KATHERINE MAST Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A@M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Geology THE PREDICTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERCEPTOR TRENCHES IN THE REMEDIATION OF GROUND-WATER CONTAMINATION BY PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS A...

  18. Assessing Phosphorous Loss to Protect Surface Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Raul

    2005-01-01

    programs. It is an integrated approach that considers soil and landscape features in order tx H2O | pg. 10 Assessing Phosphorus Loss to Protect Surface Water to find appropriate phosphorus management practices by estimating phosphorus delivery...

  19. Vermont Drinking Water and Groundwater Protection Division Permit Fees |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin, NewArkansas: EnergyVentnor City,Act|Division SurfaceOpen Energy

  20. Groundwater 7-1 7. Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Groundwater 7-1 7. Groundwater S. B. Jones and R. S. Loffman Abstract Most residents in the Oak Ridge area do not rely on groundwater for potable supplies, although suitable water is available. Local groundwater provides some domestic, municipal, farm, irrigation, and industrial uses, however, and must

  1. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Groundwater Everybody's Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groundwater Everybody's Resource Everybody's Responsibility Take Action Now! Michigan Groundwater Stewardship Program Check Inside I Water Cycle . . . . . . . 2 I Groundwater Quiz . . 3 I Risky Practice/ Safe for the benefit of people today and tomorrow. Groundwater is the water that fills spaces between rocks and soil

  3. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January 2000-December 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locke, Glenn L. [US Geological Survey, Carson City, NV (United States); La Camera, Richard J. [US Geological Survey, Carson City, NV (United States)

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January 2000 through December 2002. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are graphically presented to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented for 1992–2002 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to selected baseline periods. Baseline periods varied for 1985–93. At six of the seven wells in Jackass Flats, the median water levels for 2002 were slightly higher (0.3–2.4 feet) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining well, data for 2002 was not summarized statistically but median water-level altitude in 2001 was 0.7 foot higher than that in its baseline period.

  4. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil Friday, G. P. 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; SOILS; SURFACE WATERS; SEDIMENTS; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ENVIRONMENTAL...

  5. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 7: Regional Groundwater than the unit situations that we saw. Surface water/Groundwater interactions. lakes and streams springs (seepage) Ambient water-table movements Seasonal changes Inteference with other water end-users. Inherent

  6. Technical Basis for Evaluating Surface Barriers to Protect Groundwater from Deep Vadose Zone Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Freedman, Vicky L.

    2010-02-03

    This document presents a strategy for evaluating the effectiveness of surface barriers for site-specific deep vadose zone remediation. The strategy provides a technically defensible approach to determine the depth to which a surface barrier can effectively isolate contaminants in the vadose at a specific site as a function of subsurface properties, contaminant distribution, barrier design, and infiltration control performance. The strategy also provides an assessment of additional data and information needs with respect to surface barrier performance for deep vadose zone applications. The strategy addresses the linkage between surface barriers and deep vadose zone in situ remediation activities, monitoring issues, and emerging science, technology, and regulatory objectives. In short, the report documents the existing knowledge base, identifies knowledge needs (based on data gaps), and suggests tasks whose outcomes will address those knowledge needs. More important, the report serves as a starting point to engage the regulator and stakeholder community on the viability of deploying surface barriers for deep vadose zone contamination. As that engagement unfolds, a systematic methodology can be formalized and instituted. The strategy is focused on deep vadose zone contamination and the methods needed to determine the impact to groundwater from those deep vadose zone contaminants. Processes that affect surface barrier performance, recharge in the areas surrounding the surface barrier, and the near-surface vadose zone beneath the barrier are acknowledged but are not addressed by this strategy. In addition, the collection of site-specific data on contaminant distribution and geologic structure and properties are programmatic responsibilities and are not provided by this strategy.

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for April through June 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.C.; Mitchell, P.J.; Dennison, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site. Results for monitoring by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) during April-June 1987 show that certain regulated hazardous materials and radionuclides exist in Hanford Site ground waters. The presence of regulated constituents in the ground water derives both from site operations and from natural sources. The major contamination problems defined by recent monitoring activities are carbon tetrachloride in the 200 West Area; cyanide in and north of the 200 East Area; hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100B, 100D, 100K, and 100H areas; chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill; uranium at the 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 cribs in the 200 West Area; tritium across the site; and nitrate across the site. The distribution of hazardous materials related to site operations is more limited than the distribution of tritium and nitrate. 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Isolating Effects of Water Table Dynamics, Terrain, and Soil Moisture Heterogeneity on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using Coupled Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rihani, Jehan

    2010-01-01

    for simulating surface water–groundwater interactions”,Advances in Water Resources, doi: 10.1016/j.hydraulic properties”, Water Resources Research, 43, W07445,

  9. Hydrogeologic evaluation and numerical simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; Hill, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ground-water system. The study area covers approximately 100,000 square kilometers between lat 35{degrees}N., long 115{degrees}W and lat 38{degrees}N., long 118{degrees}W and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the and climatic conditions and the complex described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as having two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Throughout the regional flow system, ground-water flow is probably controlled by extensive and prevalent structural features that result from regional faulting and fracturing. Hydrogeologic investigations over a large and hydrogeologically complex area impose severe demands on data management. This study utilized geographic information systems and geoscientific information systems to develop, store, manipulate, and analyze regional hydrogeologic data sets describing various components of the ground-water flow system.

  10. Stakeholder Quotes for USGS Circulars 1352-1360 on Water Quality of the Nation's Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the Nation's Groundwater Examples of How USGS Science is Informing Groundwater Quality Management of groundwater quality in the High Plains aquifer will be invaluable for local and statewide management toward sustainable groundwater resources of this important aquifer system."--Jim Goeke, Professor and Research

  11. How the Forest handles stormwater: 15% surface water runoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    or contaminants present on the parking lot such as hydrocarbons, silt, salt, and nutrients, and deposits them1 #12;How the Forest handles stormwater: 15% surface water runoff 35% surface water detained or infiltrated 50% evapotranspiration In developed conditions: 5570% surface water runoff 15% surface water

  12. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Cline, C.S.; Jensen, E.J.; Liikala, T.L.; Oster, K.R.

    1984-07-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents contain low level of radioactive and chemical substances. During 1983, 328 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Three of these constituents, specifically tritium, nitrate, and gross beta activity, were selected for detailed discussion in this report because they are more readily transported in the ground water than some of the other constituents. Transport of these constituents in the ground water has resulted in the formation of plumes that can be mapped by contouring the analytical data obtained from the monitoring wells. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium, nitrate and gross beta plumes. Changes or trends in contaminant levels in wells located within both the main plumes (originating from the 200 Areas) and the smaller plumes are discussed in this report. Two potential pathways for radionuclide transport from the ground water to the environmental are discussed in this report, and the radiological impacts are examined. In addition to describing the present status of the ground water beneath the Hanford Site, this report contains the results of studies conducted in support of the ground-water surveillance effort during CY 1983. 21 references, 26 figures, 5 tables.

  13. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FAYER JM; FREEDMAN VL; WARD AL; CHRONISTER GB

    2010-02-24

    The U.S. DOE and its predecessors released nearly 2 trillion liters (450 billion gallons) of contaminated liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Some of the contaminants currently reside in the deeper parts of the vadose zone where they are much less accessible to characterization, monitoring, and typical remediation activities. The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) prepared a treatability test plan in 2008 to examine remediation options for addressing contaminants in the deep vadose zone; one of the technologies identified was surface barriers (also known as engineered barriers, covers, and caps). In the typical configuration, the contaminants are located relatively close to the surface, generally within 15 m, and thus they are close to the base of the surface barrier. The proximity of the surface barrier under these conditions yielded few concerns about the effectiveness of the barrier at depth, particularly for cases in which the contaminants were in a lined facility. At Hanford, however, some unlined sites have contaminants located well below depths of 15 m. The issue raised about these sites is the degree of effectiveness of a surface barrier in isolating contaminants in the deep vadose zone. Previous studies by Hanford Site and PNNL researchers suggest that surface barriers have the potential to provide a significant degree of isolation of deep vadose zone contaminants. The studies show that the actual degree of isolation is site-specific and depends on many factors, including recharge rates, barrier size, depth of contaminants, geohydrologic properties ofthe sediments, and the geochemical interactions between the contaminants and the sediments. After the DOE-RL treatability test plan was published, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted to review the information available to support surface barrier evaluation for the deep vadose zone, identify gaps in the information and outcomes necessary to fill the data gaps, and outline tasks to achieve those outcomes. Full understanding of contaminant behavior in the deep vadose zone is constrained by four key data gaps: limited access; limited data; limited time; and the lack of an accepted predictive capability for determining whether surface barriers can effectively isolate deep vadose zone contaminants. Activities designed to fill these data gaps need to have these outcomes: (1) common evaluation methodology that provides a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination; (2) deep vadose zone data that characterize the lithology, the spatial distribution of moisture and contaminants, the physical, chemical, and biological process that affect the mobility of each contaminant, and the impacts to the contaminants following placement of a surface barrier; (3) subsurface monitoring to provide subsurface characterization of initial conditions and changes that occur during and following remediation activities; and (4) field observations that span years to decades to validate the evaluation methodology. A set of six proposed tasks was identified to provide information needed to address the above outcomes. The proposed tasks are: (1) Evaluation Methodology - Develop common evaluation methodology that will provide a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination. (2) Case Studies - Conduct case studies to demonstrate the applicability ofthe common evaluation methodology and provide templates for subsequent use elsewhere. Three sites expected to have conditions that would yield valuable information and experience pertinent to deep vadose zone contamination were chosen to cover a range of conditions. The sites are BC Cribs and Trenches, U Plant Cribs, and the T Farm Interim Cover. (3) Subsurface Monitoring Technologies - Evaluate minimally invasive geophysical approaches for delineating subsurface plumes and monitoring their migration in the deep

  14. Reactive chemical transport in ground-water hydrology: Challenges to mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Apps, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    For a long time, earth scientists have qualitatively recognized that mineral assemblages in soils and rocks conform to established principles of chemistry. In the early 1960's geochemists began systematizing this knowledge by developing quantitative thermodynamic models based on equilibrium considerations. These models have since been coupled with advective-dispersive-diffusive transport models, already developed by ground-water hydrologists. Spurred by a need for handling difficult environmental issues related to ground-water contamination, these models are being improved, refined and applied to realistic problems of interest. There is little doubt that these models will play an important role in solving important problems of engineering as well as science over the coming years. Even as these models are being used practically, there is scope for their improvement and many challenges lie ahead. In addition to improving the conceptual basis of the governing equations, much remains to be done to incorporate kinetic processes and biological mediation into extant chemical equilibrium models. Much also remains to be learned about the limits to which model predictability can be reasonably taken. The purpose of this paper is to broadly assess the current status of knowledge in modeling reactive chemical transport and to identify the challenges that lie ahead.

  15. Protection of the Groundwater Resource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection of the Groundwater Resource Protection of the Groundwater Resource Monitoring wells act as sentinels between suspected LANL contamination and the water supply. August 1,...

  16. Dependence of groundwater recharge in the Niles Cone Groundwater Basin on climate variability and inter-basin water transfers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Krishnachandran

    2012-01-01

    2011. ibid Alameda County Water District Website. Sheikh,Overview of Institutional and Water Use Issue, CongressionalAzuara, J. et al. 2009. Water management and adaptation with

  17. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2008-01-01

    of more than 35,000 groundwater analyses selected from the1994), Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution. A.A.Balkema,1995), Estimating 14C groundwater ages in a methanogenic

  19. Removing High Explosives from Groundwater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – In an initiative supported by EM, Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Corrective Actions Program is addressing high explosive contamination in surface water and groundwater at a location this summer in the forests surrounding the laboratory.

  20. Near Surface Water Content Estimation using GPR Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Yoram

    waves can be used to estimate soil water content · Short pulses of High frequency EM energy · Variations) Improved irrigation management; 3) Improved understanding of ecosystem responses and terroir; 4) May assist, evapotranspiration, and groundwater storage From Or and Rubin, 1990 ** Accurate Spatial and Temporal Variations

  1. Edible Aquifers Activity Steps 1. Review what groundwater is, the geology of groundwater hydrologic systems, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    , sprinkles; a top soil layer: 7. Pour clear soda onto the soil (precipitation) & observe water percolation the decline in the water table. 9. Add pollutants to the top soil (food coloring, concentrated juiceQ.com) Groundwater is any water found below the land surface. It is found as soil moisture, in aquifers in the pore

  2. Hawaii Application for Surface Water Use Permit for Proposed...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hawaii Application for Surface Water Use Permit for Proposed New Use in a Designated Surface Water Management Area (DLNR Form SWUPA-N) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  3. An Update of the Analytical Groundwater Modeling to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Afton Solar Energy Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, John J.; Greer, Christopher B.; Carr, Adrianne E.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to update a one-dimensional analytical groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal in support of utility-scale solar energy development at the Afton Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program. This report describes the modeling for assessing the drawdown associated with SEZ groundwater pumping rates for a 20-year duration considering three categories of water demand (high, medium, and low) based on technology-specific considerations. The 2012 modeling effort published in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (Solar PEIS; BLM and DOE 2012) has been refined based on additional information described below in an expanded hydrogeologic discussion.

  4. Permafrost thaw in a nested groundwater-flow system Jeffrey M. McKenzie & Clifford I. Voss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    Groundwater flow in cold regions containing permafrost accelerates climate-warming-driven thaw and changesPermafrost thaw in a nested groundwater-flow system Jeffrey M. McKenzie & Clifford I. Voss Abstract controls the groundwater/surface-water-geomorphology system; hence, prediction and mitigation of impacts

  5. Groundwater monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ames, Kenneth R. (Pasco, WA); Doesburg, James M. (Richland, WA); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA); Kelley, Roy C. (Kennewick, WA); Myers, David A. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A groundwater monitoring system includes a bore, a well casing within and spaced from the bore, and a pump within the casing. A water impermeable seal between the bore and the well casing prevents surface contamination from entering the pump. Above the ground surface is a removable operating means which is connected to the pump piston by a flexible cord. A protective casing extends above ground and has a removable cover. After a groundwater sample has been taken, the cord is disconnected from the operating means. The operating means is removed for taking away, the cord is placed within the protective casing, and the cover closed and locked. The system is thus protected from contamination, as well as from damage by accident or vandalism.

  6. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water standards might be exceeded was evaluated. A variety of scenarios and aquifer conditions was considered in a sensitivity evaluation. The scenarios and conditions simulated in Section 4, in particular those describing the geochemistry and mineralogy of potable aquifers, were selected based on the comprehensive geochemical model developed in Section 3.

  7. Water: one molecule, two surfaces, one mistake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Vega

    2015-05-29

    In order to rigorously evaluate the energy and dipole moment of a certain configuration of molecules one needs to solve the Schr\\"odinger equation. Repeating this for many different configurations allows one to determine the potential energy surface (PES) and the dipole moment surface (DMS). Since the early days of computer simulation it has been implicitly accepted that for empirical potentials the charges used to fit the PES should also be used to describe the DMS. This is a mistake. Partial charges are not observable magnitudes. They should be regarded as adjustable fitting parameters. Optimal values used to describe the PES are not necessarily the best to describe the DMS. One could use two fits: one for the PES, and another for the DMS. This is a common practice in the quantum chemistry community, but not used so often by the community performing computer simulations. This idea affects all types of modelling of water (with the exception of ab-initio calculations) from coarse grained to non-polarizable and polarizable models. We anticipate that an area that will benefit dramatically from having both, a good PES and a good DMS, is the modelling of water in the presence of electric fields.

  8. Notes on Groundwater Age in Forward and Inverse Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginn, Timothy R.; Haeri, Hanieh; Massoudieh, Arash; Foglia, Laura

    2009-01-01

    from radiocarbon dating of groundwater and numerical ?ow andReply to “Comment on groundwater age, life expectancy andanalysis of regional groundwater ?ow. 2. Effect of water-

  9. Earthquake prediction: Gas emission and ground-water changes. (lLtest citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the forecasting and prediction of earthquakes by observation and measurement of changes in groundwater and gaseous emissions prior to the seismic event. The citations discuss detection and measurement of changes in radon and other gas emissions from fault lines, groundwater, and well holes in earthquake-prone areas. Groundwater chemistry level changes of subsurface waters, and changes in conductive properties of groundwater are presented. Studies on other precursors to large seismic events are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 94 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  11. Water Quality Professional Certificate Training 1. Catalog Description: Certificate course; Open registration. This course focuses on water quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migliaccio, Kati White

    Water Quality Professional Certificate Training Syllabus 1. Catalog Description: Certificate course; Open registration. This course focuses on water quality sampling, laboratory assessment, and data analyses. It includes surface water, groundwater, and pore water aspects. The course is divided into 6

  12. Inversion of Gravity Data to Define the Pre-Cenozoic Surface and Regional Structures Possibly Influencing Groundwater Flow in the Rainier Mesa Region, Nye County, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas G. Hildenbrand; Geoffrey A. Phelps; Edward A. Mankinen

    2006-09-21

    A three-dimensional inversion of gravity data from the Rainier Mesa area and surrounding regions reveals a topographically complex pre-Cenozoic basement surface. This model of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks is intended for use in a 3D hydrogeologic model being constructed for the Rainier Mesa area. Prior to this study, our knowledge of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks was based on a regional model, applicable to general studies of the greater Nevada Test Site area but inappropriate for higher resolution modeling of ground-water flow across the Rainier Mesa area. The new model incorporates several changes that lead to significant improvements over the previous regional view. First, the addition of constraining wells, encountering old volcanic rocks lying above but near pre-Cenozoic basement, prevents modeled basement from being too shallow. Second, an extensive literature and well data search has led to an increased understanding of the change of rock density with depth in the vicinity of Rainier Mesa. The third, and most important change, relates to the application of several depth-density relationships in the study area instead of a single generalized relationship, thereby improving the overall model fit. In general, the pre-Cenozoic basement surface deepens in the western part of the study area, delineating collapses within the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes, and shallows in the east in the Eleana Range and Yucca Flat regions, where basement crops out. In the Rainier Mesa study area, basement is generally shallow (< 1 km). The new model identifies previously unrecognized structures within the pre-Cenozoic basement that may influence ground-water flow, such as a shallow basement ridge related to an inferred fault extending northward from Rainier Mesa into Kawich Valley.

  13. Water: one molecule, two surfaces, one mistake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vega, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In order to rigorously evaluate the energy and dipole moment of a certain configuration of molecules one needs to solve the Schr\\"odinger equation. Repeating this for many different configurations allows one to determine the potential energy surface (PES) and the dipole moment surface (DMS). Since the early days of computer simulation it has been implicitly accepted that for empirical potentials the charges used to fit the PES should also be used to describe the DMS. This is a mistake. Partial charges are not observable magnitudes. They should be regarded as adjustable fitting parameters. Optimal values used to describe the PES are not necessarily the best to describe the DMS. One could use two fits: one for the PES, and another for the DMS. This is a common practice in the quantum chemistry community, but not used so often by the community performing computer simulations. This idea affects all types of modelling of water (with the exception of ab-initio calculations) from coarse grained to non-polarizable an...

  14. Report on surface geology and groundwater investigations of Mortons and Green Valley Well Fields. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas Project, Converse County, Wyoming; site evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The general region of investigation of this report is in the southern part of the Powder River Basin near the Town of Douglas, Wyoming. Two specific areas within this region were investigated to determine the groundwater potential with drilling and testing programs during the years 1973 to 1975. One area of investigation is located approximately 12 miles west of Douglas in T32 and 33N, R73 and 74W, and is known as the Green Valley Well Field. This area is situated in the foothills of the north end of the Laramie Range and encompasses approximately 25 square miles. In this area the Madison Formation limestone and the Flathead Formation sandstone are the aquifers of interest for groundwater production. The second area is located approximately 13 miles north of Douglas in T34 and 35N, R70 and 71W, and is known as the Mortons Well Field. This area encompasses about 30 square miles. In this area, the Lance Formation and Fox Hills Formation sandstones are the aquifers of interest. Contained within the body of this report are two geologic studies prepared by consulting geologists, Dr. Peter Huntoon and Henry Richter. These studies define the pertinent structural and groundwater geologic features in and in the vicinities of the Mortons and Green Valley Well Fields. A relatively complex structural geology was encountered in the Green Valley area. The study of the Mortons area suggests that the geology of this area is relatively uniform. Inventories of the water users in the vicinities of the two study areas are included at the back of this report in Appendix B. These inventories are comprised of water appropriations as recognized by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office. Both groundwater and surface water appropriations are inventoried within the Green Valley study area. Only groundwater appropriations are inventoried within the Mortons study area.

  15. Adsorption structure of water molecules on the Be(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yu; Li, Yanfang [LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Wang, Shuangxi [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhang, Ping, E-mail: zhang-ping@iapcm.ac.cn [LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-07

    By using density functional theory calculations, we systematically investigate the adsorption of water molecules at different coverages on the Be(0001) surface. The coverage dependence of the prototype water structures and energetics for water adlayer growth are systematically studied. The structures, energetics, and electronic properties are calculated and compared with other available studies. Through our systematic investigations, we find that water molecules form clusters or chains on the Be(0001) surface at low coverages. When increasing the water coverage, water molecules tend to form a 2?×?2 hexagonal network on the Be(0001) surface.

  16. New Mexico Surface Water Quality Bureau Federal Dredge and Fill...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Mexico Surface Water Quality Bureau Federal Dredge and Fill Permits webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: New Mexico Surface...

  17. atershed water quality concerns in the Northeast have focused on surface water,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Christopher

    W atershed water quality concerns in the Northeast have focused on surface water, particularly practices, attempt to improve water quality by altering farm hydrology so as to reduce surface runoff for water quality BMPs are contained in the National Handbook of Conservation Practices (NRCS, 1996

  18. Structure of water adsorbed on a mica surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sung-Ho; Sposito, Garrison

    2002-01-29

    Monte Carlo simulations of hydration water on the mica (001) surface under ambient conditions revealed water molecules bound closely to the ditrigonal cavities in the surface, with a lateral distribution of approximately one per cavity, and water molecules interposed between K{sup +} counter ions in a layer situated about 2.5 {angstrom} from a surface O along a direction normal to the (001) plane. The calculated water O density profile was in quantitative agreement with recent X-ray reflectivity measurements indicating strong lateral ordering of the hydration water but liquid-like disorder otherwise.

  19. The polluted surface water exerts an influence on underground water and its environmental effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, H.

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between the polluted surface water flowing through urban areas and adjacent ground water resources in the southeast of China was systematically studied. The polluted surface water contained elevated concentrations of heavy metals in the sediment. When this water was directly used in irrigation or as fertilizer, the harmful components and heavy metals were transported from water to soil and were adsorbed by soil and plants. The health of local people who drank the ground water was threatened.

  20. Molecular dynamics studies of interfacial water at the alumina surface.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyris, Dr. Dimitrios [University of Oklahoma; Ho, Thomas [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University

    2011-01-01

    Interfacial water properties at the alumina surface were investigated via all-atom equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations at ambient temperature. Al-terminated and OH-terminated alumina surfaces were considered to assess the structural and dynamic behavior of the first few hydration layers in contact with the substrates. Density profiles suggest water layering up to {approx}10 {angstrom} from the solid substrate. Planar density distribution data indicate that water molecules in the first interfacial layer are organized in well-defined patterns dictated by the atomic terminations of the alumina surface. Interfacial water exhibits preferential orientation and delayed dynamics compared to bulk water. Water exhibits bulk-like behavior at distances greater than {approx}10 {angstrom} from the substrate. The formation of an extended hydrogen bond network within the first few hydration layers illustrates the significance of water?water interactions on the structural properties at the interface.

  1. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2008-01-01

    springs, gas vents, and sinkholes, many of which poseon groundwater chemistry and sinkhole formation, NASCENT (with the locations of sinkholes. Gas bubbles in springs,

  2. Dynamic behavior of interfacila water at the silica surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyris, Dr. Dimitrios [University of Oklahoma; Cole, David R [ORNL; Striolo, Alberto [Oklahoma University

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were employed to study the dynamics properties of water at the silica-liquid interface at ambient temperature. Three different degrees of hydroxylation of a crystalline silica surface were used. To assess the water dynamic properties we calculated the residence probability and in-plane mean square displacement as a function of distance from the surface. The data indicate that water molecules at the fully hydroxylated surface remain longer, on average, in the interfacial region than in the other cases. By assessing the dynamics of molecular dipole moment and hydrogen-hydrogen vector an anisotropic reorientation was discovered for interfacial water in contact with any of the surfaces considered. However, the features of the anisotropic reorientation observed for water molecules depend strongly on the relative orientation of interfacial water molecules and their interactions with surface hydroxyl groups. On the partially hydroxylated surface, where water molecules with hydrogen-down and hydrogen-up orientation are both found, those water molecules associated with surface hydroxyl groups remain at the adsorbed locations longer and reorient slower than the other water molecules. A number of equilibrium properties, including density profiles, hydrogen bond networks, charge densities, and dipole moment densities are also reported to explain the dynamics results.

  3. Multiobjective calibration and sensitivity of a distributed land surface water and energy balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houser, Paul R; Gupta, Hoshin V; Shuttleworth, W. James; Famiglietti, James S

    2001-01-01

    distributed land surface water and energy balance model Pauldistributed land surface water and energy balance model (because models of water and energy balance, Ph.D.

  4. Analysis of ground-water contaminant transport with three-dimensional scaled models. Technical completion report, 1 May 88-30 Apr 89

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sill, B.L.

    1991-04-01

    A three dimensional scale model was designed and built to simulate the transport of a solute in the groundwater at a known location. The study was undertaken to further validate a new method of groundwater transport modeling which has been under development at Clemson University, using mixtures of cement, sand and water to simulate the subsurface matrix. By comparing field measurements with laboratory simulations, it was judged that transport times and concentrations were modeled satisfactorily.

  5. NEAR SURFACE WATER CONTENT ESTIMATION USING GPR DATA: INVESTIGATIONS WITHIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Yoram

    NEAR SURFACE WATER CONTENT ESTIMATION USING GPR DATA: INVESTIGATIONS WITHIN CALIFORNIA VINEYARDS S (sshubbard@lbl.gov) Detailed estimates of water content are necessary for variety of hydrogeological inves to obtain sufficient information about the spatial variation of water content within the root zone using

  6. Water Order Profiles on Phospholipid/Cholesterol Membrane Bilayer Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Shea, Paul

    Water Order Profiles on Phospholipid/Cholesterol Membrane Bilayer Surfaces DAVID ROBINSON,1 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). Abstract: Water is pivotal in the stabilization of macromolecular biological structures, although the dynamic en- semble structure of water near to molecular

  7. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Appendix B of Attachment 3: Groundwater hydrology report, Attachment 4: Water resources protection strategy, Final

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Attachment 3 Groundwater Hydrology Report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the processing site and Dry Flats disposal site. The Hydrological Services calculations contained in Appendix A of Attachment 3, are presented in a separate report. Attachment 4 Water Resources Protection Strategy describes how the remedial action will be in compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater standards.

  8. Concentrations of 23 trace elements in ground water and surface water at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1988--91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liszewski, M.J.; Mann, L.J.

    1993-12-31

    Analytical data for 23 trace elements are reported for ground- and surface-water samples collected at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during 1988--91. Water samples were collected from 148 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer, 18 wells completed in discontinuous deep perched-water zones, and 1 well completed in an alluvial aquifer. Surface-water samples also were collected from three streams, two springs, two ponds, and one lake. Data are categorized by concentrations of total recoverable of dissolved trace elements. Concentrations of total recoverable trace elements are reported for unfiltered water samples and include results for one or more of the following: aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and zinc. Concentrations of dissolved trace elements are reported for water samples filtered through a nominal 0.45-micron filter and may also include bromide, fluoride, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, thallium, and vanadium. Concentrations of dissolved hexavalent chromium also are reported for many samples. The water samples were analyzed at the US Geological Survey`s National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado. Methods used to collect the water samples and quality assurance instituted for the sampling program are described. Concentrations of chromium equaled or exceeded the maximum contaminant level at 12 ground-water quality monitoring wells. Other trace elements did not exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels.

  9. Ground-water flow and recharge in the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer, east-central Illinois: A conceptual model based on hydrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, K.C.; Cartwright, K.; Liu, C.L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Major-ion and isotopic analyses of ground water have been used to develop a conceptual model of flow and recharge to the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MVA). The MVA is composed of clean, permeable sands and gravels and forms a basal'' fill up to 60 m thick in a buried, west-trending bedrock valley. A thick succession of glacial tills, some containing interbedded lenses of sand and gravel, covers the MVA. Three regions within the MVA have hydrochemically distinct ground-water types. A fourth ground-water type was found at the confluence of the MVA and the Mackinaw Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MAK) to the west.

  10. Measurements of water surface snow lines in classical protoplanetary disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blevins, Sandra M; Banzatti, Andrea; Zhang, Ke; Najita, Joan R; Carr, John S; Salyk, Colette; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    We present deep Herschel-PACS spectroscopy of far-infrared water lines from a sample of four protoplanetary disks around solar-mass stars, selected to have strong water emission at mid-infrared wavelengths. By combining the new Herschel spectra with archival Spitzer-IRS spectroscopy, we retrieve a parameterized radial surface water vapor distribution from 0.1-100 AU using two-dimensional dust and line radiative transfer modeling. The surface water distribution is modeled with a step model comprising of a constant inner and outer relative water abundance and a critical radius at which the surface water abundance is allowed to change. We find that the four disks have critical radii of $\\sim 3-11$ AU, at which the surface water abundance decreases by at least 5 orders of magnitude. The measured values for the critical radius are consistently smaller than the location of the surface snow line, as predicted by the observed spectral energy distribution. This suggests that the sharp drop-off of the surface water abu...

  11. Groundwatergroundwater Groundwater refers to the saturated layer of Earth's crust extending beneath the land surface to a depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Christopher

    Groundwatergroundwater Groundwater refers to the saturated layer of Earth's crust extending beneath. The widespread geographical distribution of groundwater and its usually high quality for human consumption and glaciers. The spatial occurrence and quality of groundwater are not uniform, which is the result of geology

  12. Plant Water Use in Owens Valley, CA: Understanding the Influence of Climate and Depth to Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pataki, Diane E

    2008-01-01

    plant responses to water stress, plant chemical composition,Phreatophytes (Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1423).T. E. Dawson. 2006. Depth of water acquisition by invading

  13. WAC - 173-210A Water Quality Standards for Surface Waters of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Water Quality Standards for Surface Waters of the State of Washington Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC...

  14. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-12-01

    This document is a compendium of water quality and hydrologic characterization data obtained through December 2005 from the network of groundwater monitoring wells and surface water sampling stations (including springs and building sumps) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee that have been sampled since January 2003. The primary objectives of this document, hereafter referenced as the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Compendium, are to: (1) Serve as a single-source reference for monitoring data that meet the requirements of the Y-12 GWPP, as defined in the Y-12 GWPP Management Plan (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2004); (2) Maintain a detailed analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data for each applicable well, spring, and surface water sampling station, with a focus on results for the primary inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater and surface water at Y-12; and (3) Ensure retention of ''institutional knowledge'' obtained over the long-term (>20-year) history of groundwater and surface water monitoring at Y-12 and the related sources of groundwater and surface water contamination. To achieve these goals, the Y-12 GWPP Compendium brings together salient hydrologic, geologic, geochemical, water-quality, and environmental compliance information that is otherwise disseminated throughout numerous technical documents and reports prepared in support of completed and ongoing environmental contamination assessment, remediation, and monitoring activities performed at Y-12. The following subsections provide background information regarding the overall scope and format of the Y-12 GWPP Compendium and the planned approach for distribution and revision (i.e., administration) of this ''living'' document.

  15. Particles in Surface Waters: Coagulation and Transport 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culkin, Gerald W.; Lawler, Desmond F.

    1991-01-01

    -averaged, unsteady particle transport were developed to approximate the size-dependent particle transport processes, which included advection, dispersion, and settling. Coupled exchange of discrete particles between the water column and sediment bed was modeled using...

  16. Surface Water Quality Modeling Pollutant Release from a Surface Source during Rainfall Runoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Surface Water Quality Modeling Pollutant Release from a Surface Source during Rainfall Runoff M. Todd Walter,* J.-Y. Parlange, M. F. Walter, X. Xin, and C. A. Scott ABSTRACT different pollutants were is recognized as an impor- Agricultural runoff water quality research has primar-tant mode of nonpoint

  17. LANL Water Protection Status Report - FY12 3rd Qtr. (Apr thru Jun 2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglass, Craig R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Continued monitoring of the Buckman Direct Diversion and Los Alamos County Water Supply Wells; Groundwater Protection - Continued implementation of the Interim Facility-Wide Groundwater Monitoring Plan (IFGMP); Surface Water Protection - Continued protection of surface water through implementation of the Individual Stormwater Permit (IP); Buckman Early Notification System operability at 100% per MOU Requirements.

  18. A three-dimensional numerical model of predevelopment conditions in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Agnese, F.A.; O'Brien, G.M.; Faunt, C.C.; Belcher, W.R.; San Juan, Carma

    2002-11-22

    In the early 1990's, two numerical models of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system were developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. In general, the two models were based on the same basic hydrogeologic data set. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey develop and maintain a ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in support of U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of developing this ''second-generation'' regional model was to enhance the knowledge and understanding of the ground-water flow system as new information and tools are developed. The U.S. Geological Survey also was encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy to cooperate to the fullest extent with other Federal, State, and local entities in the region to take advantage of the benefits of their knowledge and expertise. The short-term objective of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project was to develop a steady-stat e representation of the predevelopment conditions of the ground-water flow system utilizing the two geologic interpretations used to develop the previous numerical models. The long-term objective of this project was to construct and calibrate a transient model that simulates the ground-water conditions of the study area over the historical record that utilizes a newly interpreted hydrogeologic conceptual model. This report describes the result of the predevelopment steady-state model construction and calibration.

  19. Impervious Areas: Examining the Undermining Effects on Surface Water Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, De'Etra Jenra

    2012-02-14

    lot study. Results indicated that day since last rain event had the most significant effect on surface water quality. Furthermore, concrete produced higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), potassium and calcium...

  20. EA-1093: Surface Water Drainage System, Golden, Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats...

  1. Investigation of Groundwater Flow in Foothill and Mountain regions using Heat Flow measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fogg, Graham E.; Trask, James C

    2009-01-01

    1965) Rates of Vertical Groundwater Movement Estimated fromCrystalline Rocks. Groundwater, Vol. 2, pp. 6-12. Dettinger,horizontal and vertical groundwater flow components. Water

  2. Installation of River and Drain Instrumentation Stations to Monitor Flow and Water Quality and Internet Data Sharing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Z.; Brown, C.; Creel, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Michelsen, A.; Fahy, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    IMS, data sharing and transfer, user needs assessment, Rio Grande, Rio Grande Project, gage station, surface water flow, groundwater, downloadable Microsoft Access database....

  3. WATER-IMMERSION DEEP-SUBWAVELENGTH SURFACE PLASMON VIRTUAL PROBES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    WATER-IMMERSION DEEP-SUBWAVELENGTH SURFACE PLASMON VIRTUAL PROBES QIAN WANG Optoelectronics in water by using near- ¯eld scanning optical microscope. The full-width half-maximum of the probe is as small as 0=5:5. Such deep-subwavelength sized plasmonic virtual probe may lead to many potential

  4. Hydraulic "Fracking": Are Surface Water Impacts An Ecological Concern?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydraulic "Fracking": Are Surface Water Impacts An Ecological Concern? G. Allen Burton Jr; Fracking; Water-quality stressor; Ecological risk assessment Introduction The world's energy marketplace industrial processes, the higher the risk of that ecosystem being impacted by the operation. The associated

  5. An Ontology Design Pattern for Surface Water Features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities can be found due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology. It can then be used to systematically incor-porate concepts that are specific to a culture, language, or scientific domain. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this on-tology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is imple-mented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. A discussion about why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, es-pecially the previously developed Surface Network pattern is also provided. Fi-nally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through a few queries and annotated geospatial datasets.

  6. Plant Water Use in Owens Valley, CA: Understanding the Influence of Climate and Depth to Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pataki, Diane E

    2008-01-01

    J.R. Ehleringer. 2006. Water extraction times for plant andstems were sampled for water extraction and stable isotopeCA). Following the water extraction, roots were removed from

  7. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Title: Development of a Kenaf-Based Biosorptive Water Treatment Process Project Number: B-20 Start, Treatment, Toxic Substances Descriptors: Hazardous Wastes, Groundwater Quality, Pollution Control Lead surface waters and groundwaters currently undergoing treatment or scheduled for treatment contain organic

  8. Ground-water geochemistry and radionuclide activity in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer of Dodge and Fond du Lac counties, Wisconsin. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, T.R.; Bahr, J.M.; Anderson, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of groundwater from wells in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer of eastern Wisconsin indicate that regions of the aquifer contain elevated concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride and sulfate. Groundwater from several wells in the area also approach or exceed the current drinking water standard for combined radium activity. Significant changes in groundwater chemistry occur where the aquifer becomes confined by the Maquoketa shale. Concentrations of Cl(-), SO4(2-) and Na(+) increase in the confined region, and the highest combined radium activities are typically observed in the area. Geochemical modeling implies that the observed changes in major ion groundwater chemistry occur in response to the presence of the confining unit which may act as a source of SO4(2-), through gypsum dissolution, and Na(+), through cation exchange. A finite difference groundwater flow model was linked to a particle tracking routine to determine groundwater flow paths and residence times in the aquifer near the boundary between unconfined and confined conditions. Results suggest that the presence of the confining unit produces a vertically stratified flow regime in the confined region.

  9. The ecological evaluation of surface water outfalls at a manufacturing plant in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harman, C.R.; Gilchrist, W.

    1995-12-31

    Historic metal machining operations at a manufacturing plant in northern New Jersey had resulted in the contamination of three surface water outfalls leading from the plant to a second-order stream used for trout fishing. The outfalls were fed by a combination of non-contact cooling water, stormwater runoff and groundwater infiltration. The outfalls ranged in length from 180 meters to 600 meters. All three of the outfalls pass through forested wetland areas and contained emergent wetland pockets. The ecological evaluation consisted of the collection of sediment samples to evaluate the extent of chemical contamination and the evaluation of the biological integrity of a portion of the surface water outfalls. Additionally, an ecological characterization of the surrounding habitat was prepared. Sediment sampling indicated elevated concentrations of antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc. Nickel concentrations were the most significant, with concentrations ranging up to 9,850 mg/kg. PCB concentrations ranged between 0.45 mg/kg and 6.4 mg/kg. Elevated concentrations of metals and PCBs were detected to a sediment depth of 45 centimeters. To evaluate the potential for biological impacts from the metals in the sediments, a modified Rapid Bioassessment Protocol 1 evaluation was conducted on the macroinvertebrate population. The results of the evaluation indicated a very sparse macroinvertebrate community. Those organisms that were identified were typical of highly contaminated surface water system. The surrounding wetland systems appeared to be unaffected by the outfall contamination. Based on the results of the first phase of the ecological evaluation, a program of additional sediment sampling and further biological evaluation was prepared.

  10. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H?O? and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  11. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (?hads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reachingmore »its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.« less

  12. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (?hads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reaching its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.

  13. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

  14. 1 INTRODUCTION The modular finitedifference groundwater flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Thomas F.

    1 INTRODUCTION The modular finite­difference ground­water flow model (MODFLOW) developed by the U­dimensional ground­water systems (McDonald & Harbaugh, 1988, Harbaugh & McDonald, 1996). MOC3D is a solute is optimal for advection­ dominated systems, which are typical of many field problems involving ground­water

  15. CE 473/573 Groundwater Course information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehmann, Chris

    CE 473/573 Groundwater Fall 2011 Course information Instructor: Prof. Chris Rehmann rehmann of water and contaminants in groundwater systems to solve problems of groundwater resource evaluation and groundwater contamination, to develop thinking skills, to communicate effectively and function on teams

  16. CE 473/573 Groundwater Course information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehmann, Chris

    CE 473/573 Groundwater Fall 2009 Course information Instructor: Prof. Chris Rehmann rehmann of water and contaminants in groundwater systems to solve problems of groundwater resource evaluation and groundwater contamination, to develop thinking skills, to communicate effectively and function on teams

  17. Groundwater Flow in the Ganges Delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    Groundwater Flow in the Ganges Delta Basu et al. (1) reported that 2 1011 m3 /year of groundwater groundwater than in Ganges-Brahmaputra river water. The flow could also have impli- cations for the origin and fate of other groundwater constituents in the Ganges delta that could be flushed by such rapid regional

  18. Groundwater 7-1 7. Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    level and the pressures exerted on it by wells. surrounding water. Because hydraulic head is not Water Aquifer. Yields of some wells penetrating larger solution conduits are reported to exceed 1000 gal groundwater flow in the aquitards occurs through fractures. The typical yield of a well in the aquitards

  19. Radiogenic and Stable Isotope and Hydrogeochemical Investigation of Groundwater, Pajarito Plateau and Surrounding Areas, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Longmire, Michael Dale, Dale Counce, Andrew Manning, Toti Larson, Kim Granzow, Robert Gray, and Brent Newman

    2007-07-15

    From October 2004 through February 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the New Mexico Environment Department-Department of Energy Oversight Bureau, and the United States Geological Survey conducted a hydrochemical investigation. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate groundwater flow paths and determine groundwater ages using tritium/helium-3 and carbon-14 along with aqueous inorganic chemistry. Knowledge of groundwater age and flow paths provides a technical basis for selecting wells and springs for monitoring. Groundwater dating is also relevant to groundwater resource management, including aquifer sustainability, especially during periods of long-term drought. At Los Alamos, New Mexico, groundwater is either modern (post-1943), submodern (pre-1943), or mixed (containing both pre- and post-1943 components). The regional aquifer primarily consists of submodern groundwater. Mixed-age groundwater results from initial infiltration of surface water, followed by mixing with perched alluvial and intermediate-depth groundwater and the regional aquifer. No groundwater investigation is complete without using tritium/helium-3 and carbon-14 dating methods to quantify amounts of modern, mixed, and/or submodern components present in samples. Computer models of groundwater flow and transport at Los Alamos should be calibrated to groundwater ages for perched intermediate zones and the regional aquifer determined from this investigation. Results of this study clearly demonstrate the occurrence of multiple flow paths and groundwater ages occurring within the Sierra de los Valles, beneath the Pajarito Plateau, and at the White Rock Canyon springs. Localized groundwater recharge occurs within several canyons dissecting the Pajarito Plateau. Perched intermediate-depth groundwater and the regional aquifer beneath Pueblo Canyon, Los Alamos Canyon, Sandia Canyon, Mortandad Canyon, Pajarito Canyon, and Canon de Valle contain a modern component. This modern component consists of tritium, nitrate, perchlorate, chromate, boron, uranium, and/or high explosive compounds. It is very unlikely that there is only one transport or travel time, ranging from 25 to 62 years, for these conservative chemicals migrating from surface water to the regional water table. Lengths of groundwater flow paths vary within deep saturated zones containing variable concentrations of tritium. The 4-series springs discharging within White Rock Canyon contain a modern component of groundwater, primarily tritium. Average groundwater ages for the regional aquifer beneath the Pajarito Plateau varied from 565 to 10,817 years, based on unadjusted carbon-14 measurements.

  20. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 10: Minor Structures for Ground and Surface Water () March 23, 2010 1 / 31 #12;Classification by Purpose We may classify the velocity of water-flow (ii) increasing the infiltration coefficient (iii) explicit groundwater recharge

  1. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 1998 Water Year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. A. Shaull; M. R. Alexander; R. P. Reynolds; C. T. McLean; R. P. Romero

    1999-02-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 19 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Also included are discharge data from three springs that flow into Caiion de Vane.

  2. Improving parameter estimation and water table depth simulation in a land surface model using GRACE water storage and estimated base flow data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Syed, T. H

    2010-01-01

    spatially variable water and energy balance processes, Waterdistributed land surface water and energy balance model, J.

  3. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-11-14

    Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate water and carbon dioxide adsorption at the (010) surface of five olivine minerals, namely, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), calcio-olivine (Ca2SiO4), tephroite (Mn2SiO4), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and Co-olivine (Co2SiO4). Adsorption energies per water molecule obtained from energy minimizations varied from -78 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -128 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine at sub-monolayer coverage and became less exothermic as coverage increased. In contrast, carbon dioxide adsorption energies at sub-monolayer coverage ranged from -20 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -59 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine. Therefore, the DFT calculations show a strong driving force for carbon dioxide displacement by water at the surface of all olivine minerals in a competitive adsorption scenario. Additionally, adsorption energies for both water and carbon dioxide were found to be more exothermic for the alkaline-earth (AE) olivines than for the transition-metal (TM) olivines and to not correlate with the solvation enthalpies of the corresponding divalent cations. However, a correlation was obtained with the charge of the surface divalent cation indicating that the more ionic character of the AE cations in the olivine structure relative to the TM cations leads to greater interactions with adsorbed water and carbon dioxide molecules at the surface and thus more exothermic adsorption energies for the AE olivines. For calcio-olivine, which exhibits the highest divalent cation charge of the five olivines, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showed that this effect leads both water and carbon dioxide to react with the surface and form hydroxyl groups and a carbonate-like species, respectively.

  4. Groundwater depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with implications for transboundary water management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voss, Katalyn A; Famiglietti, James S; Lo, MinHui; de Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C

    2013-01-01

    Wilson (2007), Estimating groundwater storage changes in theGlobal depletion of groundwater resources, Geophys. Res.table decline on the groundwater quality in Marand Plain,

  5. Investigation of regulatory efficiency with reference to the EU Water Framework Directive: an application to Scottish agriculture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lago Aresti, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) has the stated objective of delivering good status (GS) for Europe’s surface waters and groundwaters. But meeting GS is cost dependent, and in some water bodies pollution abatement ...

  6. Gradual Variation Analysis for Groundwater Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Li

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater flow in Washington DC greatly influences the surface water quality in urban areas. The current methods of flow estimation, based on Darcy's Law and the groundwater flow equation, can be described by the diffusion equation (the transient flow) and the Laplace equation (the steady-state flow). The Laplace equation is a simplification of the diffusion equation under the condition that the aquifer has a recharging boundary. The practical way of calculation is to use numerical methods to solve these equations. The most popular system is called MODFLOW, which was developed by USGS. MODFLOW is based on the finite-difference method in rectangular Cartesian coordinates. MODFLOW can be viewed as a "quasi 3D" simulation since it only deals with the vertical average (no z-direction derivative). Flow calculations between the 2D horizontal layers use the concept of leakage. In this project, we have established a mathematical model based on gradually varied functions for groundwater data volume reconstruction. T...

  7. A step towards Mobile Arsenic measurement for surface waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villiers, C. A.; Lapsley, M. C.; Hall, E. A. H.

    2015-02-25

    is also demonstrated using a mobile phone camera to record the measurement, producing a detection limit of 5 ?M. However, copper remains the main interferent of concern. Water-soluble CdTe QDs show little sensitivity to As3+ even with a GSH surface...

  8. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  9. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  10. Surface water waves and tsunamis By Walter Craig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Walter

    Surface water waves and tsunamis By Walter Craig Department of Mathematics and Statistics Mc earthquake in Sumatra on December 26, 2004, and the devastating tsunami which followed, I have chosen time of the recent tsunami from its epicenter off of the north Sumatra coast to the coast of nearby

  11. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2000 Water Year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.A.Shaull; M.R.Alexander; R.P.Reynolds; R.P.Romero; E.T.Riebsomer; C.T.McLean

    2001-06-02

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 23 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs, two that flow into Canon del Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  12. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2006 Water Year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.P. Romero, D. Ortiz, G. Kuyumjian

    2007-08-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 44 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs--two that flow into Canon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon--and peak flow data for 44 stations.

  13. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2002 Water Year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.A. Shaull; D. Ortiz; M.R. Alexander; R.P. Romero

    2003-03-03

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 34 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs--two that flow into Canon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon--and peak flow data from 16 stations.

  14. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1999 Water Year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. A. Shaull; M. R. Alexander; R. P. Reynolds; C. T. McLean; R. P. Romero

    2000-04-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 22 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory with one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs that flow into Canon de Valle and nine partial-record storm water stations.

  15. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2009 water year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, David; McCullough, Betsy

    2010-05-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 73 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs— two that flow into Cañon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  16. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2008 water year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, David; Cata, Betsy; Kuyumjian, Gregory

    2009-09-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 69 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs— two that flow into Cañon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  17. Groundwater Overdraft in California's Central Valley: Updated CALVIN Modeling Using Recent CVHM and C2VSIM Representations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lund, Jay R.

    i Groundwater Overdraft in California's Central Valley: Updated CALVIN Modeling Using Recent CVHM water demands, groundwater availability, and local water management opportunities. This update project focused on improving groundwater representation in CALVIN, which included changing CALVIN groundwater

  18. Cholesterol enhances surface water diffusion of phospholipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi, E-mail: songi@chem.ucsb.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Olijve, Luuk L. C. [Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-12-14

    Elucidating the physical effect of cholesterol (Chol) on biological membranes is necessary towards rationalizing their structural and functional role in cell membranes. One of the debated questions is the role of hydration water in Chol-embedding lipid membranes, for which only little direct experimental data are available. Here, we study the hydration dynamics in a series of Chol-rich and depleted bilayer systems using an approach termed {sup 1}H Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) NMR relaxometry that enables the sensitive and selective determination of water diffusion within 5–10 Å of a nitroxide-based spin label, positioned off the surface of the polar headgroups or within the nonpolar core of lipid membranes. The Chol-rich membrane systems were prepared from mixtures of Chol, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and/or dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine lipid that are known to form liquid-ordered, raft-like, domains. Our data reveal that the translational diffusion of local water on the surface and within the hydrocarbon volume of the bilayer is significantly altered, but in opposite directions: accelerated on the membrane surface and dramatically slowed in the bilayer interior with increasing Chol content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshape analysis shows looser packing of lipid headgroups and concurrently tighter packing in the bilayer core with increasing Chol content, with the effects peaking at lipid compositions reported to form lipid rafts. The complementary capability of ODNP and EPR to site-specifically probe the hydration dynamics and lipid ordering in lipid membrane systems extends the current understanding of how Chol may regulate biological processes. One possible role of Chol is the facilitation of interactions between biological constituents and the lipid membrane through the weakening or disruption of strong hydrogen-bond networks of the surface hydration layers that otherwise exert stronger repulsive forces, as reflected in faster surface water diffusivity. Another is the concurrent tightening of lipid packing that reduces passive, possibly unwanted, diffusion of ions and water across the bilayer.

  19. Observation of dynamic water microadsorption on Au surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaokang, E-mail: xiaokang.huang@tqs.com; Gupta, Gaurav; Gao, Weixiang; Tran, Van; Nguyen, Bang; McCormick, Eric; Cui, Yongjie; Yang, Yinbao; Hall, Craig; Isom, Harold [TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc., 500 W Renner Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Experimental and theoretical research on water wettability, adsorption, and condensation on solid surfaces has been ongoing for many decades because of the availability of new materials, new detection and measurement techniques, novel applications, and different scales of dimensions. Au is a metal of special interest because it is chemically inert, has a high surface energy, is highly conductive, and has a relatively high melting point. It has wide applications in semiconductor integrated circuitry, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, biochips, jewelry, coinage, and even dental restoration. Therefore, its surface condition, wettability, wear resistance, lubrication, and friction attract a lot of attention from both scientists and engineers. In this paper, the authors experimentally investigated Au{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth, wettability, roughness, and adsorption utilizing atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflectance spectrometry, and contact angle measurement. Samples were made using a GaAs substrate. Utilizing a super-hydrophilic Au surface and the proper surface conditions of the surrounding GaAs, dynamic microadsorption of water on the Au surface was observed in a clean room environment. The Au surface area can be as small as 12??m{sup 2}. The adsorbed water was collected by the GaAs groove structure and then redistributed around the structure. A model was developed to qualitatively describe the dynamic microadsorption process. The effective adsorption rate was estimated by modeling and experimental data. Devices for moisture collection and a liquid channel can be made by properly arranging the wettabilities or contact angles of different materials. These novel devices will be very useful in microfluid applications or biochips.

  20. Improving Groundwater Predictions Utilizing Seasonal Precipitation Forecasts from General Circulation Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Sankar

    Improving Groundwater Predictions Utilizing Seasonal Precipitation Forecasts from General. The research reported in this paper evaluates the potential in developing 6-month-ahead groundwater Surface Temperature forecasts. Ten groundwater wells and nine streamgauges from the USGS Groundwater

  1. Arkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    quality of surface water and groundwater, especially non-point source pollution and sensitive ecosystems wastewater disposal systems, ground water modeling and land use mapping, erosion and pollution, water qualityArkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 2012 Arkansas Water Resources Center

  2. Bacteria and Surface Water Quality Standards Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each state set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bodies that support oyster harvesting, called oyster waters, have four clas- sifications which determineBacteria and Surface Water Quality Standards Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each state set water quality standards to ensure all uses of a water body have the ap- propriate water

  3. Colloid characterization and quantification in groundwater samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Stephen Kung

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for studying the groundwater colloids for the Yucca Mountain Project in conjunction with the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Colloidal particle size distributions and total particle concentration in groundwater samples are quantified and characterized. Colloid materials from cavity waters collected near underground nuclear explosion sites by HRMP field sampling personnel at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were quantified. Selected colloid samples were further characterized by electron microscope to evaluate the colloid shapes, elemental compositions, and mineral phases. The authors have evaluated the colloid size and concentration in the natural groundwater sample that was collected from the ER-20-5 well and stored in a 50-gallon (about 200-liter) barrel for several months. This groundwater sample was studied because HRMP personnel have identified trace levels of radionuclides in the water sample. Colloid results show that even though the water sample had filtered through a series of Millipore filters, high-colloid concentrations were identified in all unfiltered and filtered samples. They had studied the samples that were diluted with distilled water and found that diluted samples contained more colloids than the undiluted ones. These results imply that colloids are probably not stable during the storage conditions. Furthermore, results demonstrate that undesired colloids have been introduced into the samples during the storage, filtration, and dilution processes. They have evaluated possible sources of colloid contamination associated with sample collection, filtrating, storage, and analyses of natural groundwaters. The effects of container types and sample storage time on colloid size distribution and total concentration were studied to evaluate colloid stability by using J13 groundwater. The data suggests that groundwater samples should be analyzed for colloid size and concentration shortly after they have been collected. A prolonged waiting period after sampling will affect the colloid size distribution as well as colloid concentration resulting from the changes of water chemical properties. The data also shows that sample containers, filter materials, and labware that are used for colloid analyses should be cleaned by specially treated low-colloid-containing water. Water used for sample dilution should be verified for total colloidal particle concentration. They then analyzed freshly collected groundwater from NTS wells ER-20-5{number_sign}1 and {number_sign}3. Results show that these groundwater samples have similar colloid concentrations and particle size distributions. For the particle size range between 50- and 200-nm, about ten trillion (1E10) colloidal particles per liter are present in these water samples. Most of these colloidal particles are less than 100 mm in size. For example, more than 98% of the colloids are smaller than 100 nm in size in the ER-20-5 {number_sign}1 sample. Furthermore, it was found that the smaller the sizes of colloid, the higher the colloid concentration present in the water. For another site at NTS, Cheshire, they had analyzed two zones of groundwater samples. For water samples collected from the lower water zone (near the underground detonation cavity about 3,700 feet of slanted depth from the surface), the colloid concentration was about 5E12 particles per liter. About 20 times less than the lower zone of total colloids was found in water samples collected from the upper aquifer (around 2,511 feet of slanted depth), although colloid size distributions from these two zones appear to be rather similar.

  4. The Whitham Equation as a Model for Surface Water Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daulet Moldabayev; Henrik Kalisch; Denys Dutykh

    2014-10-30

    The Whitham equation was proposed as an alternate model equation for the simplified description of uni-directional wave motion at the surface of an inviscid fluid. As the Whitham equation incorporates the full linear dispersion relation of the water wave problem, it is thought to provide a more faithful description of shorter waves of small amplitude than traditional long wave models such as the KdV equation. In this work, we identify a scaling regime in which the Whitham equation can be derived from the Hamiltonian theory of surface water waves. The Whitham equation is integrated numerically, and it is shown that the equation gives a close approximation of inviscid free surface dynamics as described by the Euler equations. The performance of the Whitham equation as a model for free surface dynamics is also compared to two standard free surface models: the KdV and the BBM equation. It is found that in a wide parameter range of amplitudes and wavelengths, the Whitham equation performs on par with or better than both the KdV and BBM equations.

  5. Dynamics of microdroplets over the surface of hot water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiro Umeki; Masahiko Ohata; Hiizu Nakanishi; Masatoshi Ichikawa

    2015-01-03

    When drinking a cup of coffee under the morning sunshine, you may notice white membranes of steam floating on the surface of the hot water. They stay notably close to the surface and appear to almost stick to it. Although the membranes whiffle because of the air flow of rising steam, peculiarly fast splitting events occasionally occur. They resemble cracking to open slits approximately 1 mm wide in the membranes, and leave curious patterns. We studied this phenomenon using a microscope with a high-speed video camera and found intriguing details: i) the white membranes consist of fairly monodispersed small droplets of the order of 10 $\\mu\\,{\\rm m}$; ii) they levitate above the water surface by 10$\\sim$100 $\\mu{\\rm m}$; iii) the splitting events are a collective disappearance of the droplets, which propagates as a wave front of the surface wave with a speed of 1$\\sim$2 m/s; and iv) these events are triggered by a surface disturbance, which results from the disappearance of a single droplet.

  6. Effects of pore-scale velocity and pore-scale physical processes on contaminant biodegradation during transport in groundwater: modeling and experiments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendoza Sanchez, Itza

    2009-05-15

    Contamination of surface and ground water has emerged as one of the most important environmental issues in developed and developing countries. Bioremediation of groundwater takes advantage of bacteria present in the environment to transform toxic...

  7. Ground-water hydrology of the Panther Junction area of Big Bend National Park, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, John Lawrence

    1983-01-01

    . Hydrogeologic investigation of the study area included eval- uation of precipitation, recharge, discharge, aquifer geometry, storage reserve, and hydraulic properties of the aquifer. Accumulated departure from mean annual orecipitation at. the Panther... the surface. The effective uniform depth of precipitation on the mountain slopes is 15. 86 in/yr. Green Gulch is believed to be the primary recharge zone for the Aguja aquifer, and the eastern slope of the Chisos Mountains is the major recharge zone...

  8. An integrable evolution equation for surface waves in deep water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Kraenkel; H. Leblond; M. A. Manna

    2011-01-30

    In order to describe the dynamics of monochromatic surface waves in deep water, we derive a nonlinear and dispersive system of equations for the free surface elevation and the free surface velocity from the Euler equations in infinite depth. From it, and using a multiscale perturbative methods, an asymptotic model for small-aspect-ratio waves is derived. The model is shown to be completely integrable. The Lax pair, the first conserved quantities as well as the symmetries are exhibited. Theoretical and numerical studies reveal that it supports periodic progressive Stokes waves which peak and break in finite time. Comparison between the limiting wave solution of the asymptotic model and classical irrotational results is performed.

  9. Legacy of historic mining and water quality in a heavily mined Scottish river catchment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haunch, Simon

    2013-11-28

    Mine abandonment and the discharge of contaminated mine water is recognised globally as a major source of surface water and groundwater pollution. Contamination generally arises from the oxidation of sulphide minerals, ...

  10. Methane Bioattenuation and Implications for Explosion Risk Reduction along the Groundwater to Soil Surface Pathway above a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Methane Bioattenuation and Implications for Explosion Risk Reduction along the Groundwater to Soil aquifers, which could pose an explosion risk if methane migrates into enclosed spaces where ignitable table. Despite methane concentrations within the ethanol plume reaching saturated levels (20-23 mg

  11. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ray G; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2012-01-01

    Sac refer to San Joaquin/Tulare Lake and Sacramento basins,and the normally closed Tulare Lake basin. The Valley’smento and San Joaquin/Tulare Lake portions of the Valley (

  12. Ground-water hydrogeology and geochemistry of a reclaimed lignite surface mine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollock, Clifford Ralph

    1982-01-01

    is removed by a walking dragline and cast in con- ical piles to form rows of spoil ridges in the mined-out portion of the preceding mine cut. The lignite is removed by smaller pieces of earth- moving equipment, such as crawler-mounted power shovels, front...

  13. Groundwater Surface Water Interactions in a Gold-mined Floodplain of the Merced River

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Lynn Sager

    2013-01-01

    Huffman Dam. Figure 20 The four hydraulic conductivity zoneshydraulic conductivity zones of the MRR and upstream to the Crocker Huffman Dam

  14. April 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-12

    Sampling and analysis were conducted on April 16-19, 2012, as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office Of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Duplicate samples were collected from locations SA1-1-H, HMH-5R, SA3-4-H, SA1-2-H, Pond W of GZ, and SA5-4-4. One trip blank was collected during this sampling event.

  15. Accepted Manuscript Temporal and spatial variability of groundwater-surface water fluxes: Devel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    conventional Darcian flux based methods.12 Thermal parameters required to distinguish between conductive opment and application of an analytical method using temperature time series John Keery, Andrew Binley method using temperature time series, (2006), doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.12.003 This is a PDF file

  16. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ray G; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2012-01-01

    Energy Balance ALgorithm (SEBAL) run using 250 m and 1 km observations with automatic pixel selec- tion, dynamic wind

  17. Groundwater Surface Water Interactions in a Gold-mined Floodplain of the Merced River

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Lynn Sager

    2013-01-01

    1998). Chinook tend to run up larger river systems and occurEstimated Fall Run Chinook Merced River Year Figure 12of Merced River adult fall-run Chinook salmon ..

  18. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ray G; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2012-01-01

    in satellite-based precipitation measurements, Geophys. Res.and A. Y. Hou (2010), Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM)2005), Eval- uation of precipitation estimates from PRISM

  19. May and June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700,Grand JunctionMSGOUIDMay and June 2015

  20. Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nichols, Ralph L. (812 Plantation Point Dr., N. Augusta, SC 29841); Widdowson, Mark A. (4204 Havana Ct., Columbia, SC 29206); Mullinex, Harry (10 Cardross La., Columbia, SC 29209); Orne, William H. (12 Martha Ct., Sumter, SC 29150); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

  1. Horizon effects with surface waves on moving water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Germain Rousseaux; Philippe Maissa; Christian Mathis; Pierre Coullet; Thomas G. Philbin; Ulf Leonhardt

    2010-10-01

    Surface waves on a stationary flow of water are considered, in a linear model that includes the surface tension of the fluid. The resulting gravity-capillary waves experience a rich array of horizon effects when propagating against the flow. In some cases three horizons (points where the group velocity of the wave reverses) exist for waves with a single laboratory frequency. Some of these effects are familiar in fluid mechanics under the name of wave blocking, but other aspects, in particular waves with negative co-moving frequency and the Hawking effect, were overlooked until surface waves were investigated as examples of analogue gravity [Sch\\"utzhold R and Unruh W G 2002 Phys. Rev. D 66 044019]. A comprehensive presentation of the various horizon effects for gravity-capillary waves is given, with emphasis on the deep water/short wavelength case kh>>1 where many analytical results can be derived. A similarity of the state space of the waves to that of a thermodynamic system is pointed out.

  2. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2008-01-01

    coexistence of pyrite and goethite, using a selected set ofof lead sepecies on goethite. Colloids and Surfaces A:Constraints Eh defined by goethite saturation and total

  3. Arkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    quality of surface water and groundwater, especially non-point source pollution and sensitive ecosystemsArkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 2013 Arkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 2013 1 #12;Introduction The Arkansas Water Resources Center is part

  4. Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

    2009-04-01

    Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

  5. Status of understanding of the saturated-zone ground-water flow system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as of 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckey, R.R.; Tucci, P.; Faunt, C.C.; Ervin, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, which is being studied extensively because it is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository, consists of a thick sequence of volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that are underlain, at least to the southeast, by carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age. Stratigraphic units important to the hydrology of the area include the alluvium, pyroclastic rocks of Miocene age (the Timber Mountain Group; the Paintbrush Group; the Calico Hills Formation; the Crater Flat Group; the Lithic Ridge Tuff; and older tuffs, flows, and lavas beneath the Lithic Ridge Tuff), and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The saturated zone generally occurs in the Calico Hills Formation and stratigraphically lower units. The saturated zone is divided into three aquifers and two confining units. The flow system at Yucca Mountain is part of the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek subbasin of the Death Valley groundwater basin. Variations in the gradients of the potentiometric surface provided the basis for subdividing the Yucca Mountain area into zones of: (1) large hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change at least 300 meters in a few kilometers; (2) moderate hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change about 45 meters in a few kilometers; and (3) small hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change only about 2 meters in several kilometers. Vertical hydraulic gradients were measured in only a few boreholes around Yucca Mountain; most boreholes had little change in potentiometric levels with depth. Limited hydraulic testing of boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area indicated that the range in transmissivity was more than 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in a particular hydrogeologic unit, and that the average values for the individual hydrogeologic units generally differed by about 1 order of magnitude. The upper volcanic aquifer seems to be the most permeable hydrogeologic unit, but this conclusion was based on exceedingly limited data.

  6. Energy Boom andEnergy Boom and Groundwater BustGroundwater Bust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Energy Boom andEnergy Boom and Groundwater BustGroundwater Bust MexicoMexico''s Waters Water electricity demand, e.g., in Mexico 10% in Sonora state 17% in Chihuahua state 30% in Zacatecas state #12 and PolicySustainability and Policy Behind groundwater boom-bust cycles (e.g., Mexico) are energy supply

  7. Novel Americium Treatment Process for Surface Water and Dust Suppression Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiepel, E.W.; Pigeon, P.; Nesta, S.; Anderson, J.

    2006-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production plant, has been remediated under CERCLA and decommissioned to become a National Wildlife Refuge. The site conducted this cleanup effort under the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) that established limits for the discharge of surface and process waters from the site. At the end of 2004, while a number of process buildings were undergoing decommissioning, routine monitoring of a discharge pond (Pond A-4) containing approximately 28 million gallons of water was discovered to have been contaminated with a trace amount of Americium-241 (Am-241). While the amount of Am-241 in the pond waters was very low (0.5 - 0.7 pCi/l), it was above the established Colorado stream standard of 0.15 pCi/l for release to off site drainage waters. The rapid successful treatment of these waters to the regulatory limit was important to the site for two reasons. The first was that the pond was approaching its hold-up limit. Without rapid treatment and release of the Pond A-4 water, typical spring run-off would require water management actions to other drainages onsite or a mass shuttling of water for disposal. The second reason was that this type of contaminated water had not been treated to the stringent stream standard at Rocky Flats before. Technical challenges in treatment could translate to impacts on water and secondary waste management, and ultimately, cost impacts. All of the technical challenges and specific site criteria led to the conclusion that a different approach to the treatment of this problem was necessary and a crash treatability program to identify applicable treatment techniques was undertaken. The goal of this program was to develop treatment options that could be implemented very quickly and would result in the generation of no high volume secondary waste that would be costly to dispose. A novel chemical treatment system was developed and implemented at the RFETS to treat Am-241 contaminated pond water, surface run-off and D and D dust suppression water during the later stages of the D and D effort at Rocky Flats. This novel chemical treatment system allowed for highly efficient, high-volume treatment of all contaminated waste waters to the very low stream standard of 0.15 pCi/1 with strict compliance to the RFCA discharge criteria for release to off-site surface waters. The rapid development and implementation of the treatment system avoided water management issues that would have had to be addressed if contaminated water had remained in Pond A-4 into the Spring of 2005. Implementation of this treatment system for the Pond A-4 waters and the D and D waters from Buildings 776 and 371 enabled the site to achieve cost-effective treatment that minimized secondary waste generation, avoiding the need for expensive off-site water disposal. Water treatment was conducted for a cost of less than $0.20/gal which included all development costs, capital costs and operational costs. This innovative and rapid response effort saved the RFETS cleanup program well in excess of $30 million for the potential cost of off-site transportation and treatment of radioactive liquid waste. (authors)

  8. Oil spreading in surface waters with an ice cover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yapa, P.D.; Weerasuriya, S.A.; Belaskas, D.P.; Chowdhury, T.

    1993-02-01

    A study of oil spreading in surface waters in the presence of a floating ice cover is presented. The ice can be solid or fragmented. Both axi-symmetrical and uni-directional spreading are studied. The report describes the analytical and numerical model development, the experimental set-up, results from the laboratory experiments, and their comparison with the derived theory and the numerical simulation. To analyze the spreading of oil under solid ice, new equations are derived. These equations consider gravity (buoyancy) - inertia phase, gravity (buoyancy) - viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy - surface tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to termination of spreading is presented. The emphasis of the study is on the dominant spreading mechanism for oil under ice, which is the buoyancy-viscous phase.

  9. High-Resolution Estimation of Near-Subsurface Water Content using Surface GPR Ground Wave Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Yoram

    1 High-Resolution Estimation of Near-Subsurface Water Content using Surface GPR Ground Wave, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 1. Introduction Information about near surface soil water content the applicability of a surface geophysical method, ground penetrating radar (GPR), for use as a water content

  10. Correlation Between Opacity and Surface Water Vapor Pressure Measurements at Rio Frio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    Correlation Between Opacity and Surface Water Vapor Pressure Measurements at Rio Frio M.A. Holdaway 1, 1996 Abstract We use the surface water vapor pressure measured by weather stations at 4060 m opacity. The surface water vapor pressure is inverted some 20% of the time at night and some 35

  11. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS AND DESIGN TOOL DEVELOPMENT FOR SURFACE WATER HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS AND DESIGN TOOL DEVELOPMENT FOR SURFACE WATER HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By MATT AND DESIGN TOOL DEVELOPMENT FOR SURFACE WATER HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved: Jeffrey D. Spitler Thesis Title of Study: EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND DESIGN TOOL DE- VELOPMENT FOR SURFACE WATER HEAT PUMP

  12. Fermilab | Tritium at Fermilab | Tritium in Surface Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvan Racah861MayArtQuestions forFeatureSurface Water

  13. Different Strategies for Biological Remediation of Perchlorate Contaminated Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    groundwater from West Valley Water District Well #2 locatedbuilt, and mobilized at West Valley Water District Well #2built, and mobilized at West Valley Water District (WVWD)

  14. Groundwater Contamination

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Trichloroethylene, Technetium-99 Groundwater collection and treatment via building sumps ongoing since 1989. Removal of source areas in 1998 and 2001. Additional potential...

  15. Contamination levels of human pharmaceutical compounds in French surface and drinking water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -west France. 98 samples were analysed from 63 stations (surface water and drinking water produced from surface. The removal rate of human pharmaceutical compounds at 11 water treatment units was also determined. Only caffeine proved to be resistant to drinking water treatment processes (with a minimum rate of 5%). Other

  16. A Surface Water Protection Assessment Tool that uses Digital Elevation Models1 Darwin L. Sorensen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    . A first approximation estimate of pollutant concentration reaching the drinking water treatment plant of surface water supplies to pollution from current and future activities in the watershed. Surface water of pollution under various storm intensities can be analyzed. The influences of shallow ground water quality (e

  17. Chemical Composition of Anthropogenically Influenced Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Chemical Composition of Anthropogenically Influenced Groundwater Jacqueline Gordon Brandeis of Biology 1 #12;ABSTRACT I examined the oxygen and nitrogen components of groundwater. I looked at groundwater from a pristine site, a human impacted site, and Title V treated wastewater. All of the water

  18. groundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    groundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation The Seymour Aquifer is a shallow aquifer, the Seymour Aquifer has the highest groundwater pollution potential of all the major aqui- fers in Texas drinking water standards. Potential sources of nitrate in groundwater include atmospheric deposi- tion

  19. Groundwater contaminant plume ranking. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    Containment plumes at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites were ranked to assist in Subpart B (i.e., restoration requirements of 40 CFR Part 192) compliance strategies for each site, to prioritize aquifer restoration, and to budget future requests and allocations. The rankings roughly estimate hazards to the environment and human health, and thus assist in determining for which sites cleanup, if appropriate, will provide the greatest benefits for funds available. The rankings are based on the scores that were obtained using the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Modified Hazard Ranking System (MHRS). The MHRS and HRS consider and score three hazard modes for a site: migration, fire and explosion, and direct contact. The migration hazard mode score reflects the potential for harm to humans or the environment from migration of a hazardous substance off a site by groundwater, surface water, and air; it is a composite of separate scores for each of these routes. For ranking the containment plumes at UMTRA Project sites, it was assumed that each site had been remediated in compliance with the EPA standards and that relict contaminant plumes were present. Therefore, only the groundwater route was scored, and the surface water and air routes were not considered. Section 2.0 of this document describes the assumptions and procedures used to score the groundwater route, and Section 3.0 provides the resulting scores for each site. 40 tabs.

  20. Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

  1. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1994 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several waste-management facilities and a petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) site associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites addressed by this document are located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The East Fork Regime, which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant, encompasses the Y-12 Plant. The regime extends west from a surface water and shallow groundwater divide located near the west end of the plant to Scarboro Road (directions in this report are in reference to the Y-12 Plant grid system unless otherwise noted). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy.

  2. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Ballard, Sanford (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow.

  3. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  4. Groundwater: Recharge is Not the Whole Story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bredehoeft, John

    2015-01-01

    files/documents/ Source_of_Water_Derived_from_Wells.pdf TóthDefinition of selected ground-water terms: revisions andU.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1988. Washington,

  5. Radio-Ecological Conditions of Groundwater in the Area of Uranium Mining and Milling Facility - 13525

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titov, A.V.; Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Isaev, D.V.; Metlyaev, E.G. [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glagolev, A.V.; Klimova, T.I.; Sevtinova, E.B. [FSESP 'Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation)] [FSESP 'Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation); Zolotukhina, S.B.; Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)] [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Manmade chemical and radioactive contamination of groundwater is one of damaging effects of the uranium mining and milling facilities. Groundwater contamination is of special importance for the area of Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association, JSC 'PPMCA', because groundwater is the only source of drinking water. The paper describes natural conditions of the site, provides information on changes of near-surface area since the beginning of the company, illustrates the main trends of contaminators migration and assesses manmade impact on the quality and mode of near-surface and ground waters. The paper also provides the results of chemical and radioactive measurements in groundwater at various distances from the sources of manmade contamination to the drinking water supply areas. We show that development of deposits, mine water discharge, leakages from tailing dams and cinder storage facility changed general hydro-chemical balance of the area, contributed to new (overlaid) aureoles and flows of scattering paragenetic uranium elements, which are much smaller in comparison with natural ones. However, increasing flow of groundwater stream at the mouth of Sukhoi Urulyungui due to technological water infiltration, mixing of natural water with filtration streams from industrial reservoirs and sites, containing elevated (relative to natural background) levels of sulfate-, hydro-carbonate and carbonate- ions, led to the development and moving of the uranium contamination aureole from the undeveloped field 'Polevoye' to the water inlet area. The aureole front crossed the southern border of water inlet of drinking purpose. The qualitative composition of groundwater, especially in the southern part of water inlet, steadily changes for the worse. The current Russian intervention levels of gross alpha activity and of some natural radionuclides including {sup 222}Rn are in excess in drinking water; regulations for fluorine and manganese concentrations are also in excess. Possible ways to improve the situation are considered. (authors)

  6. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District: 1 Research Category: Not Applicable Focus Category: Groundwater, Waste Water, Water Quality

  7. GEOL4850 (GEOL5850) Groundwater Hydrology University of North Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    GEOL4850 (GEOL5850) Groundwater Hydrology University of North Texas Department of Geography Spring and potentiometric surface maps, aquifer characteristics, homogeneity and isotropy 4. Soil moisture and groundwater of groundwater flow ---hydraulic head, Darcy's law, equations of groundwater flow in confined and unconfined

  8. GEOL4850 (GEOL5850) Groundwater Hydrology University of North Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    GEOL4850 (GEOL5850) Groundwater Hydrology University of North Texas Department of Geography Fall surface maps, aquifer characteristics, homogeneity and isotropy 4. Soil moisture and groundwater recharge of groundwater flow ---hydraulic head, Darcy's law, equations of groundwater flow in confined and unconfined

  9. Map Shows Groundwater Decline Slowed LINCOLN, Neb. --Groundwater levels in Nebraska slowed their rate of decline and actually

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Map Shows Groundwater Decline Slowed LINCOLN, Neb. -- Groundwater levels in Nebraska slowed director of the UNL Water Center, said that the groundwater level maps produced annually by SNR, or stable groundwater levels, with oranges and reds indicating declines and greens and blues showing

  10. Water at the Surfaces of Aligned Phospholipid Multibilayer Model Membranes Probed with Ultrafast Vibrational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water at the Surfaces of Aligned Phospholipid Multibilayer Model Membranes Probed with Ultrafast@stanford.edu Abstract: The dynamics of water at the surface of artificial membranes composed of aligned multibilayers pump-probe spectroscopy. The experiments are performed at various hydration levels, x ) 2 - 16 water

  11. Hydroecological factors governing surface water flow on a low-gradient floodplain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to flow reductions associated with flood control. We measured flow velocity, water depth, and wind with the square of water surface slope and the fourth power of stem diameter, decreases in direct proportionHydroecological factors governing surface water flow on a low-gradient floodplain Judson W. Harvey

  12. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in surface waters of southern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selinger, Brent

    Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in surface waters of southern Alberta and Salmonella spp. in surface water within the basin. This study is the first of its kind to identify E. coli O and Salmonella spp. in water samples was 0.9% (n = 1483) and 6.2% (n = 1429), respectively. While data examined

  13. ORNL/CDIAC-152 GLOBAL OCEAN SURFACE WATER PARTIAL PRESSURE OF CO2 DATABASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORNL/CDIAC-152 NDP-088r GLOBAL OCEAN SURFACE WATER PARTIAL PRESSURE OF CO2 DATABASE: MEASUREMENTS .....................................................................................................................................9 #12;#12;v LIST OF FIGURES 1 Location of LDEO master database of sea surface pCO2 observations. .............................................2 LIST OF TABLES 1 List of data contributors to the global surface water pCO2 LDEO database

  14. Environmental Sciences Division Groundwater Program Office. Annual report, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    This first edition of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Annual Report summarizes the work carried out by the Energy Systems GWPO for fiscal year (FY) 1993. This introductory section describes the GWPO`s staffing, organization, and funding sources. The GWPO is responsible for coordination and oversight for all components of the groundwater program at the three Oak Ridge facilities [ORNL, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], and the PGDP and PORTS, respectively. Several years ago, Energy systems senior management recognized that the manner in which groundwater activities were conducted at the five facilities could result in unnecessary duplication of effort, inadequate technical input to decisions related to groundwater issues, and could create a perception within the regulatory agencies of a confusing and inconsistent approach to groundwater issues at the different facilities. Extensive interactions among management from Environmental Compliance, Environmental Restoration (ER), Environmental Sciences Division, Environmental Safety and Health, and the five facilities ultimately led to development of a net technical umbrella organization for groundwater. On April 25, 1991, the GWPO was authorized to be set up within ORNL thereby establishing a central coordinating office that would develop a consistent technical and administrative direction for the groundwater programs of all facilities and result in compliance with all relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations such as RCRA and Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as well as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and orders. For example, DOE Order 5400.1, issued on November 9, 1988, called for each DOE facility to develop an environmental monitoring program for all media (e.g., air, surface water, and groundwater).

  15. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal . 20 Energy Used for Water Services . 20 Transporting Water 21 Pumping Groundwater. 22 Treating Wastewater 23 Desalination ..

  16. Probabilistic estimation and prediction of groundwater recharge in a semi-arid environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying and characterizing groundwater recharge are critical for water resources management. Unfortunately, low recharge rates are difficult to resolve in dry environments, where groundwater is often most important. ...

  17. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2010-01-01

    degradation of phenols in groundwater. J Contam. Hydrol.Bioimmobilization of Cr(VI) in Groundwater Using Hydrogenof bacterial activity in groundwater containing petroleum

  18. Evaporation of tiny water aggregation on solid surfaces of different wetting properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen Wang; Yusong Tu; Rongzheng Wan; Haiping Fang

    2012-03-08

    The evaporation of a tiny amount of water on the solid surface with different wettability has been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We found that, as the surface changed from hydrophobicity to hydrophility, the evaporation speed did not show a monotonically decrease from intuition, but increased first, and then decreased after reached a maximum value. The competition between the number of the water molecules on the water-gas surface from where the water molecules can evaporate and the potential barrier to prevent those water molecules from evaporating results in the unexpected behavior of the evaporation. A theoretical model based on those two factors can fit the simulation data very well. This finding is helpful in understanding the evaporation on the biological surfaces, designing artificial surface of ultra fast water evaporating or preserving water in soil.

  19. Effect of water table dynamics on land surface hydrologic memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2010-01-01

    Theory and observations, Water Resour. Res. , 34, 765–776.and macroscale models of water and energy balance, Ph.D.of capillary flux on the soil water balance in a stochastic

  20. Appendix D Surface Water and Ground Water Time-Concentration Plots,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the WeldonB10081278MaywoodWayne AnalyticalSurface Water

  1. 5 CCR 1002-31 Basic Standards and Methodologies for Surface Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Surface Water RegulationLegal Abstract Regulations implementing the Colorado Water Quality Control Act, in particular CRS 25-8-203 and 25-8-204, providing basic...

  2. Autocatalytic and cooperatively-stabilized dissociation of water on a stepped platinum surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donadio, Davide; Site, Luigi Delle; 10.1021/ja308899g

    2012-01-01

    Water-metal interfaces are ubiquitous and play a key role in many chemical processes, from catalysis to corrosion. Whereas water adlayers on atomically flat transition metal surfaces have been investigated in depth, little is known about the chemistry of water on stepped surfaces, commonly occurring in realistic situations. Using first-principles simulations we study the adsorption of water on a stepped platinum surface. We find that water adsorbs preferentially at the step edge, forming linear clusters or chains, stabilized by the cooperative effect of chemical bonds with the substrate and hydrogen bonds. In contrast with flat Pt, at steps water molecules dissociate forming mixed hydroxyl/water structures, through an autocatalytic mechanism promoted by hydrogen bonding. Nuclear quantum effects contribute to stabilize partially dissociated cluster and chains. Together with the recently demonstrated attitude of water chains adsorbed on stepped Pt surfaces to transfer protons via thermally activated hopping, th...

  3. On a class of self-similar 2D surface water waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sijue Wu

    2012-06-11

    We construct a class of self-similar surface water waves and study its properties. This class of surface waves appears to be in very good agreement with a common type of wave crests in the ocean.

  4. Daily Time Step Simulation with a Priority Order Based Surface Water Allocation Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffpauir, Richard James

    2011-02-22

    Surface water availability models often use monthly simulation time steps for reasons of data availability, model parameter parsimony, and reduced computational time. Representing realistic streamflow variability, ...

  5. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will improve the capability of engineers to design heat pump systems that utilize surface water or standing column wells (SCW) as their heat sources and sinks.

  6. Numerical investigation for the impact of CO2 geologic sequestration on regional groundwater flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    11. Change in surface groundwater discharge due to CO 2Marui, A. , 2003. Deep groundwater in the Kanto Plain, J.in underground and regional groundwater flow-, Urban Kubota,

  7. Calendar Year 2011 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental LLC,

    2012-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2011 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. This report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and known extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2011 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) contractor responsible for environmental cleanup on the ORR. In August 2011, URS | CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) replaced Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) as the DOE EM contractor. For this report, BJC/UCOR will be referenced as the managing contractor for CY 2011. Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC/UCOR (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2011 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. This report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 GWPP including sampling locations and frequency; quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) sampling; sample collection and handling; field measurements and laboratory analytes; data management and data quality objective (DQO) evaluation; and groundwater elevation monitoring. However, this report does not include equivalent QA/QC or DQO evaluation information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities associated with the monitoring programs implemented by BJC/UCOR. Such details are deferred to the respective programmatic plans and reports issued by BJC. Collectively, the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 2011 by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC/UCOR address DOE Order 436.1 and DOE Order 458.1 requirements for monitoring groundwater and surface water quality in areas (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring) and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). This report presents a summary evaluation of the monitoring data with regard to the respective objectives of surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring, based on the analytical results for the principal groundwater contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. This report summarizes the most pertinent findings regarding the principal contaminants, along with recommendations proposed for ongoing groundwater and surface water quality monitoring performed under the Y-12 GWPP.

  8. Post-Closure Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the 1324-N Surface Impoundment and 1324-NA Percolation Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, Mary J.

    2004-04-02

    The 1324-N Surface Impoundment and the 1324-NA Percolation Pond, located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site, are regulated under the Resource Consevation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Surface and underground features of the facilities have been removed and laboratory analyses showed that soil met the closure performance standards. These sites have been backfilled and revegetated.

  9. Site characterization plan for groundwater in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R.R.; Curtis, A.H.; Houlberg, L.M.; Purucker, S.T.; Singer, M.L.; Tardiff, M.F.; Wolf, D.A.

    1994-07-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization to identify environmental contamination that may be present. This document, Site Characterization Report for Groundwater in Waste Area Grouping I at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identifies areas of concern with respect to WAG 1 groundwater and presents the rationale, justification, and objectives for conducting this continuing site characterization. This report summarizes the operations that have taken place at each of the areas of concern in WAG 1, summarizes previous characterization studies that have been performed, presents interpretations of previously collected data and information, identifies contaminants of concern, and presents an action plan for further site investigations and early actions that will lead to identification of contaminant sources, their major groundwater pathways, and reduced off-site migration of contaminated groundwater to surface water. Site characterization Activities performed to date at WAG I have indicated that groundwater contamination, principally radiological contamination, is widespread. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to an unknown extent. The general absence of radiological contamination in surface water at the perimeter of WAG 1 is attributed to the presence of pipelines and underground waste storage tank sumps and dry wells distributed throughout WAG 1 which remove more than about 40 million gal of contaminated groundwater per year.

  10. VOCs, Pesticides, Nitrate, and Their Mixtures in Groundwater Used for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VOCs, Pesticides, Nitrate, and Their Mixtures in Groundwater Used for Drinking Water in the United, Rapid City, South Dakota 57702 Samples of untreated groundwater from 1255 domestic drinking-water wells of the groundwater resource and, thus, were distributed geographically across large aquifers, primarily in rural

  11. Environmental geochemistry for surface and subsurface waters in the Pajarito Plateau and outlying areas, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, W.D.; Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Counce, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report provides background information on waters in the Los Alamos and Santa Fe regions of northern New Mexico. Specifically, the presented data include major element, trace element, and isotope analyses of 130 water samples from 94 different springs, wells, and water bodies in the area. The region considered in this study extends from the western edge of the Valles Caldera to as far east as Santa Fe Lake. For each sample, the presented analysis includes fourteen different major elements, twenty-six trace elements, up to five stable isotopes, and tritium. In addition, this data base contains certain characteristics of the water that are calculated from the aforementioned raw data, including the water`s maximum and minimum residence times, as found from tritium levels assuming no contamination, the water`s recharge elevation, as found from stable isotopes, and the charge balance of the water. The data in this report are meant to provide background information for investigations in groundwater hydrology and geochemistry, and for environmental projects. For the latter projects, the presented information would be useful for determining the presence of contamination it any one location by enabling one to compare potential contaminant levels to the background levels presented here. Likely locations of interest are those possibly effected by anthropogenic activities, including locations in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory, White Rock Canyon, and developed areas in the Rio Grande Valley.

  12. Application Prospect Analysis of the Surface Water Source Heat-Pump in China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Zhuang, Z.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    Surface water resources in China are rather abundant and it can be use as the heat or cool source for heat pump. The winter surface water temperatures of 17 typical cities are investigated in December, and they are all distributed in the interval...

  13. Monitoring water stress using time series of observed to unstressed surface temperature difference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, Pierre

    Monitoring water stress using time series of observed to unstressed surface temperature difference to monitor stress have shifted from establishing empirical relationships between combined vegetation cover/temperature surface temperature as a baseline to monitor water stress. The unstressed temperature is the equilibrium

  14. Free energy surface of supercooled water A. Scala,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    Free energy surface of supercooled water A. Scala,1,2 F. W. Starr,1,3 E. La Nave,1 H. E. Stanley,1 a detailed analysis of the free energy surface of a well characterized rigid model for water in supercooled states. We propose a functional form for the liquid free energy, supported by recent theoretical

  15. Roles of Oxygen and Water Vapor in the Oxidation of Halogen Terminated Ge(111) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Shiyu; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Sun, Yun; Liu, Zhi; Lee, Dong-Ick; Pianette, Piero; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-12-18

    The initial stage of the oxidation of Cl and Br terminated Ge(111) surfaces is studied using photoelectron spectroscopy. The authors perform controlled experiments to differentiate the effects of different factors in oxidation, and find that water vapor and oxygen play different roles. Water vapor effectively replaces the halogen termination layers with the hydroxyl group, but does not oxidize the surfaces further. In contrast, little oxidation is observed for Cl and Br terminated surfaces with dry oxygen alone. However, with the help of water vapor, oxygen oxidizes the surface by breaking the Ge-Ge back bonds instead of changing the termination layer.

  16. Ab initio Investigation of Effect of Vacancy on Dissociation of Water Molecule on Cu(111) Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaware, Vaibhav

    2015-01-01

    Water dissociation is a rate limiting step in many industrially important chemical reactions. In this investigation, climbing image nudged elastic band (CINEB) method, within the framework of density functional theory, is used to report the activation energies (E a ) of water dissociation on Cu(111) surface with a vacancy. Introduction of vacancy results in a reduced coordination of the dissociated products, which facilitates their availability for reactions that involve water dissociation as an intermediate step. Activation energy for dissociation of water reduces by nearly 0.2 eV on Cu(111) surface with vacancy, in comparison with that of pristine Cu(111) surface. We also find that surface modification of the Cu upper surface is one of the possible pathways to dissociate water when the vacancy is introduced. Activation energy, and the minimum energy path (MEP) leading to the transition state remain same for various product configurations. CINEB corresponding to hydrogen gas evolution is also performed which...

  17. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  18. Economies of size in municipal water treatment technologies: Texas lower Rio Grande Valley 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Christopher Neil

    2008-10-10

    surface-water contamination. This research specifically focuses on investigating economies of size for conventional surface-water treatment and brackish-groundwater desalination by using results from four water treatment facilities in the Texas Lower Rio... Grande Valley (LRGV). The methodology and results can have direct implications on future water planning. iv Economic and financial life-cycle costs were estimated for a “small”- conventional-surface water facility (2.0 million gallons per day (mgd...

  19. Clean water from clean energy: removal of dissolved contaminants from brackish groundwater using wind energy powered electrodialysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malek, Payam

    2015-06-29

    Around 770 million people lack access to improved drinking water sources (WHO 2013), urgently necessitating implementation of contaminant removal by e.g. desalination systems on a large scale. To improve water quality ...

  20. Geochemical and isotopic results for groundwater, drainage waters, snowmelt, permafrost, precipitation in Barrow, Alaska (USA) 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent; Heikoop, Jeff

    2012-07-18

    Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

  1. Geochemical and isotopic results for groundwater, drainage waters, snowmelt, permafrost, precipitation in Barrow, Alaska (USA) 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent; Heikoop, Jeff

    Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

  2. 86 Water Resources and the Urban Environment Review of Analytical Studies of Tidal Groundwater Flow in Coastal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    . For example, Carr (1969) investigated the tide-related salt-water intrusion in Prince Edward Island; Lanyon et

  3. United: How one computer model makes Texas surface water management possible 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    . A?er a major drought in the ????s, the Texas Legislature passed Senate Bill ? in ????, which called for a comprehensive water management planning process and a water availability modeling system to make e?ective management of the surface water... as any possible impacts it might have on existing water rights in the basin. ?If someone applies for a new water right, we have many requirements, one of which is that we have to ?nd that the water is available, a?er we look at all existing water...

  4. Feasibility study of extracting runoff data from satellite altimetry over continental surface waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuttgart, Universität

    the feasibility of extracting runoff data using satellite altimetry over all possible continental surface waters- ered algorithm for extracting runoff from the satellite altimetry is based on making water level. not feasible be- cause of bad quality of extracted water level time series class 4. impossible. Computed runoff

  5. Modeling Urban Storm-Water Quality Treatment: Model Development and Application to a Surface Sand Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    management; Urban areas; Hydraulic models; Sand, filter; Parameters; Estimation; Water treatment. Author and nutrient removal is often low. Water quality performance of the sand filter can be evaluated by comparing a surface sand filter. If the water quality attributes of the sand filter can be confidently mod- eled

  6. Water adsorption on stepped ZnO surfaces from MD simulation David Raymand a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Water adsorption on stepped ZnO surfaces from MD simulation David Raymand a , Adri C.T. van Duin b Keywords: Zinc oxide Water Solid­gas interfaces Construction and use of effective interatomic interactions force-field for use in molecular dynamics simulations of the ZnO­ water system. The force

  7. Retrieving snow mass from GRACE terrestrial water storage change with a land surface model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Retrieving snow mass from GRACE terrestrial water storage change with a land surface model Guo snow water equivalent (SWE) product is critical for climate and hydrology studies in Arctic regions changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS), of which snow mass is the primary component in winter Arctic

  8. Spatial variations in phytoplankton pigment ratios, optical properties, and environmental gradients in Oregon coast surface waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Stephen

    by incident solar radiation, stratification of the upper water column from warming and the injection of less:PSC ratios and the aph slope parameter for surface samples grouped by location, date, and water mass, more nutrient deplete water. Temperature and photosynthetic available radiation explained 42

  9. Surface excess properties from energy transport measurements during water evaporation Fei Duan and C. A. Ward*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Charles A.

    Surface excess properties from energy transport measurements during water evaporation Fei Duan condi- tions, accounts for as little as 50% of the energy required to evaporate water at the measured 2004; revised manuscript received 21 March 2005; published 2 November 2005 When water evaporates

  10. SWOT: The Surface Water & Ocean Topography Satellite Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Center School of Earth Sciences The Ohio State University Funded By: Funded By: #12;with many-Boundary Issues: ex: Tigris & Euphrates Disputes Slide courtesy Frank Schwartz n Water Usage: n 98.5% water energy of the ocean. For example, the cross-stream scale of the Gulf Stream is 100 km, which is not fully

  11. Water Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina Annual Technical Report FY 2000 Introduction SUMMARY The North Carolina Water Resources Research Institute program for 2000-2001 (Federal Fiscal Year 2000) continued to focus on three broad areas of concern: surface waters, groundwater

  12. Molecular Structure and Dynamics in Thin Water Films at the Silica and Graphite Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyris, Dr. Dimitrios [University of Oklahoma; Tummala, Dr. Naga Rajesh [University of Oklahoma; StrioloDr., A [Vanderbilt University; Cole, David R [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The structure and dynamic properties of interfacial water at the graphite and silica solid surfaces were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The effect of surface properties on the characteristics of interfacial water was quantified by computing density profiles, radial distribution functions, surface density distributions, orientation order parameters, and residence and reorientation correlation functions. In brief, our results show that the surface roughness, chemical heterogeneity, and surface heterogeneous charge distribution affect the structural and dynamic properties of the interfacial water molecules, as well as their rate of exchange with bulk water. Most importantly, our results indicate the formation of two distinct water layers at the SiO2 surface covered by a large density of hydroxyl groups. Further analysis of the data suggests a highly confined first layer where the water molecules assume preferential hydrogen-down orientation and a second layer whose behavior and characteristics are highly dependent on those of the first layer through a well-organized hydrogen bond network. The results suggest that water-water interactions, in particular hydrogen bonds, may be largely responsible for macroscopic interfacial properties such as adsorption and contact angle.

  13. Kauai Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Kauai. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume IV – Island of Kauai Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2015.

  14. Water Quality Surface and Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThinWarsaw, Poland: EnergyPage EditWater Power ForumWaterWater

  15. Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Michael Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich (Moscow, RU); Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich (Moscow, RU); Smimova, Olga Alekseevna (Moscow, RU); Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich (Moscow, RU); Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan (Moscow, RU)

    2008-08-26

    Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

  16. On isolated vorticity regions beneath the water surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Octavian G. Mustafa

    2011-03-12

    We present a class of vorticity functions that will allow for isolated, circular vorticity regions in the background of still water preceding the arrival of a tsunami wave at the shoreline.

  17. Three-dimensional acoustic propagation through shallow water internal, surface gravity and bottom sediment waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shmelev, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the physics of fully three-dimensional low frequency acoustic interaction with internal waves, bottom sediment waves and surface swell waves that are often observed in shallow waters and on continental ...

  18. Clean Boiler Water-side Heat Transfer Surfaces - Steam Tip Sheet #7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on cleaning boiler water-side heat transfer surfaces provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. Parameter estimation of coupled water and energy balance models based on stationary constraints of surface states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Jian

    [1] We use a conditional averaging approach to estimate the parameters of a land surface water and energy balance model and then use the estimated parameters to partition net radiation into latent, sensible, and ground ...

  20. Essays on Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Moore, Johnnie N.

    2015-01-01

    2015 EDITORIAL Essays on Groundwater Samuel N. Luoma 1 ,the Bay–Delta watershed. Groundwater is one of the pillarsunderstanding of how much groundwater we use and how long it

  1. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  2. Contribution of global groundwater depletion since 1900 to sealevel rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of water from terrestrial subsurface storage is a natural consequence of groundwater withdrawals] The extracted groundwater can subsequently follow any number of pathways through the hydrologic cycle, and most pathways that don't involve a return to the groundwater system have relatively short travel times

  3. FULLYDISCRETE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MULTIPHASE FLOW IN GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, Richard E.

    FULLY­DISCRETE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MULTIPHASE FLOW IN GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY Zhangxin Chen element method for a nonlinear differential system for describing an air­water system in groundwater experiments using the present approach for modeling groundwater flow in porous media are reported. Key words

  4. artesian borehole, Singhida (central Tanzania) Hydrology, weather and groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Paul

    artesian borehole, Singhida (central Tanzania) Hydrology, weather and groundwater NERC EQUIP;protected spring in Kampala (Uganda) · groundwater supplies 50% of world's drinking water Kundzewicz and Döll (2009) #12;maize plantation irrigated by a groundwater-fed pivot, Katwe (Zambia) · and 42

  5. Transport and Fate of Contaminants in Surface Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    has been prepared jointly by the University of California Agricultural Extension Service) solids. The amount of a contaminant of concern (COC) found at a given location in the aquatic environment originates from within the water body. It includes ungrazed plant components such as cells and tissues

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER Seasonal progression of diatom assemblages in surface waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    relative to other periods of the study, although carbon export was relatively low. Melt water flux the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (Pal-LTER) project have documented a 40% decrease in mean duration Bordeaux 1, Av. Des Facultes, 33405 Talence Cedex, France A. Clarke British Antarctic Survey, High Cross

  7. Groundwater Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    program through sampling. August 1, 2013 Conceptual model of water movement and geology at Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual model of water movement and geology at...

  8. Surface Water Quality Pollutant Removal Efficacy of Three Wet Detention Ponds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallin, Michael

    Surface Water Quality Pollutant Removal Efficacy of Three Wet Detention Ponds Michael A. Mallin the natureand outflowing water nutrient concentrations. There were substantial suburban runoff inputs entering-circuited pollutant removal contact time. The golf course pond geometry of the system. showed significant increases

  9. A meta-analysis of water vapor deuterium-excess in the midlatitude atmospheric surface layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    are in natural ecosystems, a forest (Borden Forest, Ontario, Canada) and a grassland (Duolun, China). We found.1029/2011GB004246. 1. Introduction [2] Water vapor is the most important atmospheric greenhouse gas and temporal variability in the isotopic composition of water in the air and also on the land surface (i

  10. Polarizable interaction potential for water from coupled cluster calculations. I. Analysis of dimer potential energy surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by nonadditive effects which make it impossible to sufficiently accurately represent the energy of water as a sumPolarizable interaction potential for water from coupled cluster calculations. I. Analysis of dimer potential energy surface Robert Bukowski,1 Krzysztof Szalewicz,1,a Gerrit C. Groenenboom,2 and Ad van der

  11. Kinetic, potential and surface tension energies of solitary waves in deep water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vera Mikyoung Hur

    2015-09-01

    We present an exact relation among the kinetic, potential and surface tension energies of a solitary wave in deep water in all dimensions. We deduce its non-existence in the absence of the effects of surface tension, provided that gravity acts in a direction opposite to what is physically realistic.

  12. Kinetic, potential and surface tension energies of solitary waves in deep water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hur, Vera Mikyoung

    2015-01-01

    We present an exact relation among the kinetic, potential and surface tension energies of a solitary wave in deep water in all dimensions. We deduce its non-existence in the absence of the effects of surface tension, provided that gravity acts in a direction opposite to what is physically realistic.

  13. Groundwater Monitoring Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Groundwater Monitoring Network Groundwater Monitoring Network The network includes 92 natural sources, 102 regional aquifer wells, 41 intermediate-depth wells and springs, and 67...

  14. Denitrification as a means of addressing nitrate-contaminated groundwater on Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motolenich-Salas, Kenneth M. (Kenneth Michael)

    1997-01-01

    The residents of Cape Cod face a problem of nitrate contamination of their groundwater (their primary source of drinking water) and their coastal and aquatic environments. Groundwater is the only source of drinking water ...

  15. Groundwater Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Lowï‚— We wantInvestigationsMeasurementGroundwater

  16. Lead Groundwater Contamination of Groundwater in the Northeast ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-03-12

    historical data with a, groundwater contamination sampling for water quality ... constructed the hydraulic conductivity field, which was used run in a ..... F reundlich curve-f it in the study of Cu, Cd and P b ads or ption on taiwan s oils, J. Soil.

  17. Validation Analysis of the Shoal Groundwater Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Hassan; J. Chapman

    2008-11-01

    Environmental restoration at the Shoal underground nuclear test is following a process prescribed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Characterization of the site included two stages of well drilling and testing in 1996 and 1999, and development and revision of numerical models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Agreement on a contaminant boundary for the site and a corrective action plan was reached in 2006. Later that same year, three wells were installed for the purposes of model validation and site monitoring. The FFACO prescribes a five-year proof-of-concept period for demonstrating that the site groundwater model is capable of producing meaningful results with an acceptable level of uncertainty. The corrective action plan specifies a rigorous seven step validation process. The accepted groundwater model is evaluated using that process in light of the newly acquired data. The conceptual model of ground water flow for the Project Shoal Area considers groundwater flow through the fractured granite aquifer comprising the Sand Springs Range. Water enters the system by the infiltration of precipitation directly on the surface of the mountain range. Groundwater leaves the granite aquifer by flowing into alluvial deposits in the adjacent basins of Fourmile Flat and Fairview Valley. A groundwater divide is interpreted as coinciding with the western portion of the Sand Springs Range, west of the underground nuclear test, preventing flow from the test into Fourmile Flat. A very low conductivity shear zone east of the nuclear test roughly parallels the divide. The presence of these lateral boundaries, coupled with a regional discharge area to the northeast, is interpreted in the model as causing groundwater from the site to flow in a northeastward direction into Fairview Valley. Steady-state flow conditions are assumed given the absence of groundwater withdrawal activities in the area. The conceptual and numerical models were developed based upon regional hydrogeologic investigations conducted in the 1960s, site characterization investigations (including ten wells and various geophysical and geologic studies) at Shoal itself prior to and immediately after the test, and two site characterization campaigns in the 1990s for environmental restoration purposes (including eight wells and a year-long tracer test). The new wells are denoted MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3, and are located to the northnortheast of the nuclear test. The groundwater model was generally lacking data in the north-northeastern area; only HC-1 and the abandoned PM-2 wells existed in this area. The wells provide data on fracture orientation and frequency, water levels, hydraulic conductivity, and water chemistry for comparison with the groundwater model. A total of 12 real-number validation targets were available for the validation analysis, including five values of hydraulic head, three hydraulic conductivity measurements, three hydraulic gradient values, and one angle value for the lateral gradient in radians. In addition, the fracture dip and orientation data provide comparisons to the distributions used in the model and radiochemistry is available for comparison to model output. Goodness-of-fit analysis indicates that some of the model realizations correspond well with the newly acquired conductivity, head, and gradient data, while others do not. Other tests indicated that additional model realizations may be needed to test if the model input distributions need refinement to improve model performance. This approach (generating additional realizations) was not followed because it was realized that there was a temporal component to the data disconnect: the new head measurements are on the high side of the model distributions, but the heads at the original calibration locations themselves have also increased over time. This indicates that the steady-state assumption of the groundwater model is in error. To test the robustness of the model d

  18. Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nichols, R.L.; Widdowson, M.A.; Mullinex, H.; Orne, W.H.; Looney, B.B.

    1994-03-15

    An apparatus is described for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations. 3 figures.

  19. High-resolution temporal record of Holocene ground-water chemistry: Tracing links between climate and hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banner, Jay L.

    growth layers in Holocene spe- leothems from Barbados, West Indies, reveals high-resolution temporal. carbonate mineral reactions, as reflected in 87 Sr/86 Sr values of modern Barbados ground waters variations in rainfall on Barbados that are predicted by this hydrologic model. INTRODUCTION In spite

  20. Recent California water transfers: Emerging options in water management. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lund, J.R.; Israel, M.

    1992-12-01

    Report examines the recent use of water transfers in California. Emphasis is on the use of water transfers during the current drought and how planners and operators of federal, state, and local systems can integrate water transfers into the planning and operations of their systems. Through the California experience, the study identifies motivations for incorporating water transfers into water supply systems, reviews a variety of water transfer types, and discusses the integration of water transfers with traditional supply argumentation and water conservation measures. Limitations, constraints, and difficulties for employing water transfers within existing systems are also discussed. The study focuses primarily on the technical, planning, and operational aspects of water transfers, rather than the legal, economic, and social implications. Water transfers, Water management, Water bank, Water supply, Water use, Water institutions, Infrastructure, California state water project, Water rights, Drought, Surface water, Groundwater.

  1. Pu#ng Groundwater into Agro-IBIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    below the top of the capillary fringe to represent groundwater · This modificaCviCes of · TranspiraCon to depth to water table · NPP to depth to water table · Next water table is shallow · Regional climate directly interacts with groundwater

  2. Category:Surface Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPID Roadmap ContactRockEurope JumpStep-outSurface

  3. Predicting Groundwater Contamination beneath Stormwater Infiltration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    1 Predicting Groundwater Contamination beneath Stormwater Infiltration Activities Shirley E. Clark, Penn State Harrisburg Robert Pitt, University of Alabama Pollutants of Concern · Classes of stormwaterHighest Observed Concentration Metal Are these waters infiltration quality? Benefits of Urban Stormwater

  4. Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-11-14

    Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

  5. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Attachment 3, Groundwater hydrology report, Attachment 4, Water resources protection strategy: Preliminary final

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (40 CFR 192). The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 designated responsibility to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for assessing the inactive uranium milling sites. The DOE has determined that each assessment shall include information on site characterization, a description of the proposed action, and a summary of the water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA groundwater protection standards. To achieve compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards, the US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes that supplemental standards be applied at the Dry Flats disposal site because of Class III (limited use) groundwater in the uppermost aquifer (the basal sandstone of the Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation) based on low yield. The proposed remedial action will ensure protection of human health and the environment.

  6. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the East Fork Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  7. Guidance document for groundwater protection needs assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, R.P.; Berg, R.C.; Wehrmann, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to serve as a guidebook for conducting Groundwater Protection Needs Assessments (GPNA). The intent of a GPNA is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the groundwater protection measures necessary in order to assure a long-term supply of potable water that is not highly vulnerable to contamination. The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA), the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and the Illinois State Water Survey (ISWS) have developed the approach discussed for undertaking of GPNA.

  8. The 6th International Symposium on Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces Kyoto, Japan, May 17-21, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbe, Christoph S.

    .Schimpf,Christoph.Garbe,Bernd.Jähne}@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de The impact of wind, rain, and surface slicks on the transport of heat and gas at the water surfaceThe 6th International Symposium on Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces Kyoto, Japan, May 17-21, 2010 Combined Visualization of Wind Waves and Water Surface Temperature R. Rocholz1 , U. Schimpf1 , C. S. Garbe1

  9. Soliton Turbulence in Shallow Water Ocean Surface Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costa, Andrea; Resio, Donald T; Alessio, Silvia; Chrivì, Elisabetta; Saggese, Enrica; Bellomo, Katinka; Long, Chuck E

    2014-01-01

    We analyze shallow water wind waves in Currituck Sound, North Carolina and experimentally confirm, for the first time, the presence of $soliton$ $turbulence$ in ocean waves. Soliton turbulence is an exotic form of nonlinear wave motion where low frequency energy may also be viewed as a $dense$ $soliton$ $gas$, described theoretically by the soliton limit of the Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation, a $completely$ $integrable$ $soliton$ $system$: Hence the phrase "soliton turbulence" is synonymous with "integrable soliton turbulence." For periodic/quasiperiodic boundary conditions the $ergodic$ $solutions$ of KdV are exactly solvable by $finite$ $gap$ $theory$ (FGT), the basis of our data analysis. We find that large amplitude measured wave trains near the energetic peak of a storm have low frequency power spectra that behave as $\\sim\\omega^{-1}$. We use the linear Fourier transform to estimate this power law from the power spectrum and to filter $densely$ $packed$ $soliton$ $wave$ $trains$ from the data. We apply ...

  10. 2, 135, 2005 groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 2, 1­35, 2005 Submarine groundwater discharge inferred from radon and salinity J. Crusius et al Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Submarine groundwater(s). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. 1 #12;BGD 2, 1­35, 2005 Submarine groundwater

  11. Surface water supply for the Clearlake, California Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    It is proposed to construct a demonstration Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal plant in the vicinity of the City of Clearlake. An interim evaluation has been made of the availability of surface water to supply the plant. The evaluation has required consideration of the likely water consumption of such a plant. It has also required consideration of population, land, and water uses in the drainage basins adjacent to Clear Lake, where the HDR demonstration project is likely to be located. Five sources were identified that appear to be able to supply water of suitable quality in adequate quantity for initial filling of the reservoir, and on a continuing basis, as makeup for water losses during operation. Those sources are California Cities Water Company, a municipal supplier to the City of Clearlake; Clear Lake, controlled by Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Borax Lake, controlled by a local developer; Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, controlled by Lake County; and wells, ponds, and streams on private land. The evaluation involved the water uses, water rights, stream flows, precipitation, evaporation, a water balance, and water quality. In spite of California`s prolonged drought, the interim conclusion is that adequate water is available at a reasonable cost to supply the proposed HDR demonstration project.

  12. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base (GWD) presents data as of 2003 for 221 groundwater plumes at 60 DOE sites and facilities. Note that Riley and Zachara analyzed the data from only 18 sites/facilities including 91 plumes. In this paper, we present the results of statistical analyses of the data in the GWD as guidance for planning future basic and applied research of groundwater contaminants within the DOE complex. Our analyses include the evaluation of a frequency and ranking of specific contaminants and contaminant groups, contaminant concentrations/activities and total contaminant masses and activities. We also compared the results from analyses of the GWD with those from the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The difference between our results and those summarized in the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara could be caused by not only additional releases, but also by the use of modern site characterization methods, which more accurately reveal the extent of groundwater contamination. Contaminated sites within the DOE complex are located in all major geographic regions of the United States, with highly variable geologic, hydrogeologic, soil, and climatic conditions. We assume that the information from the 60 DOE sites included in the GWD are representative for the whole DOE complex. These 60 sites include the major DOE sites and facilities, such as Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Savannah River Site, South Carolina; Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee; and Hanford Reservation, Washington. These five sites alone ccount for 71% of the value of the remediation work.

  13. Ground Water and Surface Water Stable Isotope Data for East Maui, Hawaii Supplement to Scholl et al., 2002, Journal of Hydrology, The influence of microclimates and fog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ground Water and Surface Water Stable Isotope Data for East Maui, Hawaii Supplement to Scholl et al in interpretation of regional hydrology: East Maui, Hawaii Sample Field ID Date Field Field Location Number USGS

  14. Beneficial effects of groundwater entry into liquid-dominated geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lippmann, M.J. ); Truesdell, A.H. )

    1990-04-01

    In all active liquid-dominated geothermal systems there is continuous circulation of mass and transfer of heat, otherwise they would slowly cool and fade away. In the natural state these systems are in dynamic equilibrium with the surrounding colder groundwater aquifers. The ascending geothermal fluids cool conductively, boil, or mix with groundwaters, and ultimately may discharge at the surface as fumaroles or hot springs. With the start of fluid production and the lowering of reservoir pressure, the natural equilibrium is disrupted and cooler groundwater tends to enter the reservoir. Improperly constructed or damaged wells, and wells located near the margins of the geothermal system, exhibit temperature reductions (and possibly scaling from mixing of chemically distinct fluids) as the cooler-water moves into the reservoir. These negative effects, especially in peripheral wells are, however, compensated by the maintenance of reservoir pressure and a reduction in reservoir boiling that might result in mineral precipitation in the formation pores and fractures. The positive effect of cold groundwater entry on the behavior of liquid-dominated system is illustrated by using simple reservoir models. The simulation results show that even though groundwater influx into the reservoir causes cooling of fluids produced from wells located near the cold-water recharge area, it also reduces pressure drawdown and boiling in the exploited zone, and sweeps the heat stored in the reservoir rocks toward production wells, thus increasing the productive life of the wells and field. 9 refs.

  15. Observation of the Dynamical Change in a Water Monolayer Adsorbed on a ZnO Surface Olga Dulub,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    a wide temperature range from below 200 K up to the boiling point of water [12]. Scanning tunneling-dissociated water structure [see Fig. 1(a) and top left inset, labeled with ``HD'']. A part of the surfaceObservation of the Dynamical Change in a Water Monolayer Adsorbed on a ZnO Surface Olga Dulub,1

  16. Studies of the viscoelastic properties of water confined between surfaces of specified chemical nature.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, Jack E.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Moore, Nathan W.; Feibelman, Peter J.

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes the work completed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 10-0973 of the same title. Understanding the molecular origin of the no-slip boundary condition remains vitally important for understanding molecular transport in biological, environmental and energy-related processes, with broad technological implications. Moreover, the viscoelastic properties of fluids in nanoconfinement or near surfaces are not well-understood. We have critically reviewed progress in this area, evaluated key experimental and theoretical methods, and made unique and important discoveries addressing these and related scientific questions. Thematically, the discoveries include insight into the orientation of water molecules on metal surfaces, the premelting of ice, the nucleation of water and alcohol vapors between surface asperities and the lubricity of these molecules when confined inside nanopores, the influence of water nucleation on adhesion to salts and silicates, and the growth and superplasticity of NaCl nanowires.

  17. Closing the Loop on Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions, River Hydrodynamics, and Metabolism on the San Joaquin River Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    of the rate of change of NEP ? Pressure, temperature, andstation. Calculation of NEP from the SJR-Merced RiverNet Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) using dissolved oxygen (DO)

  18. June-July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the t-) S/,,5 'a C O M P R E H E N SGwen}: .'June-July

  19. Regional Groundwater Evapotranspiration in Illinois

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Pat J-F.; Famiglietti, J. S

    2009-01-01

    characteristics of groundwater outflow and baseflow fromtween precipitation and shallow groundwater in Illinois. J.Coauthors, 2006: Groundwater-supported evapo- transpiration

  20. Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

  1. Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Withdrawal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Rosemary; Giroux, Brian; Pohll, Greg; Hershey, Ronald; Russell, Charles; Howcroft, William

    2004-01-28

    Alternative uses of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) may require large amounts of water to construct and/or operate. The only abundant source of water at the NTS is groundwater. This report describes preliminary modeling to quantify the amount of groundwater available for development from three hydrographic areas at the NTS. Modeling was conducted with a three-dimensional transient numerical groundwater flow model.

  3. A User’s Guide to the Comprehensive Water Quality Database for Groundwater in the Vicinity of the Nevada Test Site, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farnham, Irene

    2006-09-01

    This water quality database (viz.GeochemXX.mdb) has been developed as part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Program with the cooperation of several agencies actively participating in ongoing evaluation and characterization activities under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The database has been constructed to provide up-to-date, comprehensive, and quality controlled data in a uniform format for the support of current and future projects. This database provides a valuable tool for geochemical and hydrogeologic evaluations of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and surrounding region. Chemistry data have been compiled for groundwater within the NTS and the surrounding region. These data include major ions, organic compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, various field parameters, and environmental isotopes. Colloid data are also included in the database. The GeochemXX.mdb database is distributed on an annual basis. The extension ''XX'' within the database title is replaced by the last two digits of the release year (e.g., Geochem06 for the version released during the 2006 fiscal year). The database is distributed via compact disc (CD) and is also uploaded to the Common Data Repository (CDR) in order to make it available to all agencies with DOE intranet access. This report provides an explanation of the database configuration and summarizes the general content and utility of the individual data tables. In addition to describing the data, subsequent sections of this report provide the data user with an explanation of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) protocols for this database.

  4. Electric double layer at metal oxide surfaces: Static properties of the cassiterite - Water Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Zhang, Zhan; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J

    2007-04-01

    The structure of water at the (110) surface of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) at ambient conditions was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray crystal truncation rod experiments and interpreted with the help of the revised MUSIC model of surface protonation. The interactions of the metal oxide in the simulations were described by a recently developed classical force field based on the SPC/E model of water. Two extreme cases of completely hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces were considered along with a mixed surface with 50% dissociation. To study the dependence of the surface properties on pH, neutral and negatively charged variants of the surfaces were constructed. Axial and lateral density distributions of water for different types of surfaces were compared to each other and to experimental axial density distributions found by X-ray experiments. Although significant differences were found between the structures of the studied interfaces, the axial distances between Sn and O atoms are very similar and therefore could not be clearly distinguished by the diffraction technique. The explanation of structures observed in the density distributions was provided by a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding in the interfacial region. It revealed qualitatively different hydrating patterns formed at neutral hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces and suggested a preference for the dissociative adsorption of water. At negatively charged surfaces, however, the situation can be reversed by the electric field stabilizing a hydrogen bond network similar to that found at the neutral nonhydroxylated surface. Comparison with previously studied rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) surfaces provided insight into the differences between the hydration of these two metal oxides, and an important role was ascribed to their different lattice parameters. A link to macroscopic properties was provided by the revised MUSIC surface protonation model. Explicit use of the Sn-O bond lengths based on ab initio calculations and H-bond configurations as inputs led to the prediction of a pH of zero net-proton induced surface charge (pH{sub pzc}) that agrees very well with those determined experimentally (about 4.4 at 298 K).

  5. Electric double layer at metal oxide surfaces:static properties of the cassiterite-water interface.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlcek, L.; Zhang, Z.; Machesky, M .L.; Fenter, P.; Rosenqvist, J.; Wesolowski, D. J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Predota, M.; Cummings, P. T.; Vanderbilt Univ.; ORNL; Univ. of South Bohimia; Illinois State Water Survey

    2007-03-24

    The structure of water at the (110) surface of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) at ambient conditions was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray crystal truncation rod experiments and interpreted with the help of the revised MUSIC model of surface protonation. The interactions of the metal oxide in the simulations were described by a recently developed classical force field based on the SPC/E model of water. Two extreme cases of completely hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces were considered along with a mixed surface with 50% dissociation. To study the dependence of the surface properties on pH, neutral and negatively charged variants of the surfaces were constructed. Axial and lateral density distributions of water for different types of surfaces were compared to each other and to experimental axial density distributions found by X-ray experiments. Although significant differences were found between the structures of the studied interfaces, the axial distances between Sn and O atoms are very similar and therefore could not be clearly distinguished by the diffraction technique. The explanation of structures observed in the density distributions was provided by a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding in the interfacial region. It revealed qualitatively different hydrating patterns formed at neutral hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces and suggested a preference for the dissociative adsorption of water. At negatively charged surfaces, however, the situation can be reversed by the electric field stabilizing a hydrogen bond network similar to that found at the neutral nonhydroxylated surface. Comparison with previously studied rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) surfaces provided insight into the differences between the hydration of these two metal oxides, and an important role was ascribed to their different lattice parameters. A link to macroscopic properties was provided by the revised MUSIC surface protonation model. Explicit use of the Sn-O bond lengths based on ab initio calculations and H-bond configurations as inputs led to the prediction of a pH of zero net-proton induced surface charge (pH{sub pzc}) that agrees very well with those determined experimentally (about 4.4 at 298 K).

  6. Texas Water Resources Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas Water Resources Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction Research Program #12;Texas Groundwater Management and Global Applications Basic Information Title: Texas Groundwater Principal Investigators: Daniel Stein Publication 1. Stein, Daniel R., 2002, Texas-Mexico Groundwater

  7. Seasonally Resolved Surface Water (delta)14C Variability in the Lombok Strait: A Coralline Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guilderson, T P; Fallon, S J; Moore, M D; Schrag, D P; Charles, C D

    2008-04-23

    We have explored surface water mixing in the Lombok Strait through a {approx}bimonthly resolved surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C time-series reconstructed from a coral in the Lombok Strait that spans 1937 through 1990. The prebomb surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C average is -60.5{per_thousand} and individual samples range from -72{per_thousand} to 134{per_thousand}. The annual average post-bomb maximum occurs in 1973 and is 122{per_thousand}. The timing of the post-bomb maximum is consistent with a primary subtropical source for the surface waters in the Indonesian Seas. During the post-bomb period the coral records regular seasonal cycles of 5-20{per_thousand}. Seasonal high {Delta}{sup 14}C occur during March-May (warm, low salinity), and low {Delta}{sup 14}C occur in September (cool, higher salinity). The {Delta}{sup 14}C seasonality is coherent and in phase with the seasonal {Delta}{sup 14}C cycle observed in Makassar Strait. We estimate the influence of high {Delta}{sup 14}C Makassar Strait (North Pacific) water flowing through the Lombok Strait using a two endmember mixing model and the seasonal extremes observed at the two sites. The percentage of Makassar Strait water varies between 16 and 70%, and between 1955 and 1990 it averages 40%. During La Nina events there is a higher percentage of Makassar Strait (high {Delta}{sup 14}C) water in the Lombok Strait.

  8. Watershed response and land energy feedbacks under climate change depend upon groundwater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, R M; Kollet, S J

    2008-06-10

    Human induced climate change will have a significant impact on the hydrologic cycle, creating changes in fresh water resources, land cover, and feedbacks that are difficult to characterize, which makes it an issue of global importance. Previous studies have not included subsurface storage in climate change simulations and feedbacks. A variably-saturated groundwater flow model with integrated overland flow and land surface model processes is used to examine the interplay between coupled water and energy processes under climate change conditions. A case study from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) USA, an important agricultural region that is susceptible to drought, is used as the basis for three scenarios simulations using a modified atmospheric forcing dataset to reflect predicted effects due to human-induced climate change. These scenarios include an increase in the atmospheric temperature and variations in rainfall amount and are compared to the present-day climate case. Changes in shallow soil saturation and groundwater levels are quantified as well as the corresponding energy fluxes at the land surface. Here we show that groundwater and subsurface lateral flow processes are critical in understanding hydrologic response and energy feedbacks to climate change and that certain regions are more susceptible to changes in temperature, while others to changes in precipitation. This groundwater control is critical for understanding recharge and drought processes, possible under future climate conditions.

  9. Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project...

  10. Near-coastal surface water velocity field estimation using airborne remote sensing11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Near-coastal surface water velocity field estimation using airborne remote sensing11 Tim J Malthus1. With airborne remote sensing, however, it is possible to determine synoptic changes in velocity fields because properties of successive remotely sensed images may be used to estimate velocity vectors associated

  11. Water jet rebounds on hydrophobic surfaces : a first step to jet micro-fluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck Celestini; R. Kofman; Xavier Noblin; Mathieu Pellegrin

    2010-09-28

    When a water jet impinges upon a solid surface it produces a so called hydraulic jump that everyone can observe in the sink of its kitchen. It is characterized by a thin liquid sheet bounded by a circular rise of the surface due to capillary and gravitational forces. In this phenomenon, the impact induces a geometrical transition, from the cylindrical one of the jet to the bi-dimensional one of the film. A true jet rebound on a solid surface, for which the cylindrical geometry is preserved, has never been yet observed. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a water jet can impact a solid surface without being destabilized. Depending on the incident angle of the impinging jet, its velocity and the degree of hydrophobicity of the substrate, the jet can i) bounce on the surface with a fixed reflected angle, ii) land on it and give rise to a supported jet or iii) be destabilized, emitting drops. Capillary forces are predominant at the sub-millimetric jet scale considered in this work, along with the hydrophobic nature of the substrate. The results presented in this letter raise the fundamental problem of knowing why such capillary hydraulic jump gives rise to this unexpected jet rebound phenomenon. This study furthermore offers new and promising possibilities to handle little quantity of water through "jet micro-fluidics"

  12. Nevada National Security Site Groundwater Program

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-10-28

    From 1951 to 1992, the Unites States government conducted 828 underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site. About one-third of these tests occurred near, below or within the water table - the very top portion of the groundwater layer where rock and soil are completely saturated with water. As a result, some groundwater was contaminated. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began exploring the effects of groundwater contamination in the 1970s. Though contamination from underground testing has never been detected on public land, the DOE was committed to developing an advanced, reliable monitoring network that ensures the long-term protection of the public. An intensive groundwater investigation program was launched in 1989.

  13. Provided by Thomas Harter, UC Davis http://groundwater.ucdavis.edu 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Tule River Basin, Tulare County 1980 - NORMAL Ruud, Harter et al., 2003, 2004 groundwater extraction Basin, Tulare County 1980 - NORMAL Ruud, Harter et al., 2003, 2004 groundwater extraction river water://groundwater.ucdavis.edu 18 Monthly Landscape Water Budget October ­ September Tule River Basin, Tulare County 1977 - DRY 1980

  14. Mobility of D atoms on porous amorphous water ice surfaces under interstellar conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Matar; E. Congiu; F. Dulieu; A. Momeni; J. L. Lemaire

    2008-10-13

    Aims. The mobility of H atoms on the surface of interstellar dust grains at low temperature is still a matter of debate. In dense clouds, the hydrogenation of adsorbed species (i.e., CO), as well as the subsequent deuteration of the accreted molecules depend on the mobility of H atoms on water ice. Astrochemical models widely assume that H atoms are mobile on the surface of dust grains even if controversy still exists. We present here direct experimental evidence of the mobility of H atoms on porous water ice surfaces at 10 K. Methods. In a UHV chamber, O2 is deposited on a porous amorphous water ice substrate. Then D atoms are deposited onto the surface held at 10 K. Temperature-Programmed Desorption (TPD) is used and desorptions of O2 and D2 are simultaneously monitored. Results. We find that the amount of O2 that desorb during the TPD diminishes if we increase the deposition time of D atoms. O2 is thus destroyed by D atoms even though these molecules have previously diffused inside the pores of thick water ice. Our results can be easily interpreted if D is mobile at 10 K on the water ice surface. A simple rate equation model fits our experimental data and best fit curves were obtained for a D atoms diffusion barrier of 22(+-)2 meV. Therefore hydrogenation can take place efficiently on interstellar dust grains. These experimental results are in line with most calculations and validate the hypothesis used in several models.

  15. Diffusion Processes in Water on Oxide Surfaces: Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study of Hydration Water in Rutile Nano-Powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Xiang-Qiang [ORNL; Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Podlesnyak, Andrey A [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) was used to investigate the diffusion dynamics of hydration water on the surface of rutile (TiO{sub 2}) nanopowder. The dynamics measurements utilizing two inelastic instruments, a backscattering spectrometer and a disk chopper spectrometer, probed the fast, intermediate, and slow motions of the water molecules on the time scale of picoseconds to more than a nanosecond. We employed a model-independent analysis of the data collected at each value of the scattering momentum transfer to investigate the temperature dependence of several diffusion components. All of the probed components were present in the studied temperature range of 230-320 K, providing, at a first sight, no evidence of discontinuity in the hydration water dynamics. However, a qualitative change in the elastic scattering between 240 and 250 K suggested a surface freezing-melting transition, when the motions that were localized at lower temperatures became delocalized at higher temperatures. On the basis of our previous molecular dynamics simulations of this system, we argue that interpretation of QENS data from such a complex interfacial system requires at least qualitative input from simulations, particularly when comparing results from spectrometers with very different energy resolutions and dynamic ranges.

  16. The Hanford Story: Groundwater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This second chapter of The Hanford Story explains how more than 100 square miles of groundwater under the Hanford Site became contaminated and what workers are doing to restore groundwater to its highest beneficial use.

  17. AGENDA ADEP Surface Water Protection Project NPDES Storm Water Individual Permit Bi-Annual Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See Energy Level79AJ01)19^ U N I T E D S T A T ADEP Surface

  18. Tuning the interaction between propagating and localized surface plasmons for surface enhanced Raman scattering in water for biomedical and environmental applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shioi, Masahiko; Jans, Hilde; Lodewijks, Kristof; Van Dorpe, Pol; Lagae, Liesbet; Kawamura, Tatsuro

    2014-06-16

    With a view to biomedical and environmental applications, we investigate the plasmonic properties of a rectangular gold nanodisk array in water to boost surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects. To control the resonance wavelengths of the surface plasmon polariton and the localized surface plasmon, their dependence on the array period and diameter in water is studied in detail using a finite difference time domain method. A good agreement is obtained between calculated resonant wavelengths and those of gold nanodisk arrays fabricated using electron beam lithography. For the optimized structure, a SERS enhancement factor of 7.8?×?10{sup 7} is achieved in water experimentally.

  19. Water balance in the Amazon basin from a land surface model ensemble

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Getirana, Augusto; Dutra, Emanuel; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Kam, Jonghun; Li, Hongyi; Decharme, Bertrand; Zhang, Zhengqiu J.; Ducharne, Agnes; Boone, Aaron; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Rodell, Matthew; Mounirou Toure, Ally; Xue, Yongkang; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Arsenault, Kristi Rae; Drapeau, Guillaume; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ronchail, Josyane; Sheffield, Justin

    2014-12-06

    Despite recent advances in modeling and remote sensing of land surfaces, estimates of the global water budget are still fairly uncertain. The objective of this study is to evaluate the water budget of the Amazon basin based on several state-of-the-art land surface model (LSM) outputs. Water budget variables [total water storage (TWS), evapotranspiration (ET), surface runoff (R) and baseflow (B)] are evaluated at the basin scale using both remote sensing and in situ data. Fourteen LSMs were run using meteorological forcings at a 3-hourly time step and 1-degree spatial resolution. Three experiments are performed using precipitation which has been rescaled to match monthly global GPCP and GPCC datasets and the daily HYBAM dataset for the Amazon basin. R and B are used to force the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme and simulated discharges are compared against observations at 165 gauges. Simulated ET and TWS are compared against FLUXNET and MOD16A2 evapotranspiration, and GRACE TWS estimates in different catchments. At the basin scale, simulated ET ranges from 2.39mm.d-1 to 3.26mm.d-1 and a low spatial correlation between ET and P indicates that evapotranspiration does not depend on water availability over most of the basin. Results also show that other simulated water budget variables vary significantly as a function of both the LSM and precipitation used, but simulated TWS generally agree at the basin scale. The best water budget simulations resulted from experiments using the HYBAM dataset, mostly explained by a denser rainfall gauge network the daily rescaling.

  20. Calendar Year 2004 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2005-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2004 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2004 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2004 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). However, detailed analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the CY 2004 monitoring data is deferred to the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium (BWXT 2005). For each monitoring well, spring, and surface water sampling station included in this report, the GWPP Compendium provides: (1) pertinent well installation and construction information; (2) a complete sampling history, including sampling methods and distinguishing sampling characteristics; (3) an evaluation of hydrologic characteristics, based on pre-sampling groundwater elevations, along with a compilation of available test results (e.g., hydraulic conductivity test data); (4) a discussion of geochemical characteristics based on evaluation of the analytical results for the primary anions and cations; and (5) a detailed analysis and interpretation of the available data for the principal groundwater contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2004 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities in the Bear Creek, East Fork, and Chestnut Ridge Regime. Section 2 briefly describes the hydrogeologic system and generalized extent of groundwater contamination in each regime. Section 3 describes the monitoring programs implemented and associated sampling activities performed in each regime during CY 2004. Section 4 presents an a summary of the CY 2004 monitoring data with regard to the provisions of DOE Order 450.1 (surveillance and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring), including highlights of notable findings and time-series plots of data for CY 2004 sampling locations that provide representative examples of long-term contaminant concentration trends. Brief conclusions and proposed recommendations are provided in Section 5. Section 6 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational, regulatory, and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Monitoring well construction details are in Appendix C. Results of field measurements and laboratory analyses of the groundwater and surface water samples collected during CY 2004 are in Appendix D (Bear Creek Regime), Appendix E (East Fork Regime and surrounding areas), and Appendix F (Chestnut Ridge Regime). Appendix G contai

  1. Calendar Year 2005 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2005 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2005 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2005 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). However, detailed analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the CY 2005 monitoring data is deferred to the ''Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium'' (BWXT 2006). For each monitoring well, spring, and surface water sampling station included in this report, the GWPP Compendium provides: (1) pertinent well installation and construction information; (2) a complete sampling history, including sampling methods and distinguishing sampling characteristics; (3) an evaluation of hydrologic characteristics, based on pre-sampling groundwater elevations, along with a compilation of available test results (e.g., hydraulic conductivity test data); (4) a discussion of geochemical characteristics based on evaluation of the analytical results for the primary anions and cations; and (5) a detailed analysis and interpretation of the available data for the principal groundwater contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2005 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities in the Bear Creek, East Fork, and Chestnut Ridge Regime. Section 2 briefly describes the hydrogeologic system and generalized extent of groundwater contamination in each regime. Section 3 describes the monitoring programs implemented and associated sampling activities performed in each regime during CY 2005. Section 4 presents an a summary of the CY 2005 monitoring data with regard to the provisions of DOE Order 450.1 (surveillance and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring), including highlights of notable findings and time-series plots of data for CY 2005 sampling locations that provide representative examples of long-term contaminant concentration trends. Brief conclusions and proposed recommendations are provided in Section 5. Section 6 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational, regulatory, and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Monitoring well construction details are in Appendix C. Results of field measurements and laboratory analyses of the groundwater and surface water samples collected during CY 2005 are in Appendix D (Bear Creek Regime), Appendix E (East Fork Regime and surrounding areas), and Appendix F (Chestnut Ridge Regime). Appendix G co

  2. In Situ Groundwater Arsenic Removal Using Iron Oxide-Coated Sand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hongxu

    2010-10-12

    In many regions of the world, groundwater is contaminated with a high level of arsenic that must be treated before it can be safely used as drinking water. In situ immobilization of arsenic from groundwater within subsurface ...

  3. Effect of hydrological flow pattern on groundwater arsenic concentration in Bangladesh by Khandaker Ashfaque.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashfaque, Khandaker

    2007-01-01

    Widespread arsenic contamination of groundwater has become a major concern in Bangladesh since the water supply, particularly in rural areas, is heavily dependent on groundwater. However, relative to the extent of research ...

  4. GROUNDWATER QUALITY PROTECTION PRACTICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;GROUNDWATER QUALITY PROTECTION PRACTICES Submitted to: Environment Canada 224 West Esplanade.............................................................................................1 2.0 GROUNDWATER RESOURCES WITHIN THE FRASER BASIN.................3 2.1 Lower Fraser Region..............................................................................5 3.0 COMMON SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION ...............6 3.1 Category 1 - Sources Designed

  5. 4, 11331151, 2007 Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HESSD 4, 1133­1151, 2007 Groundwater vulnerability assessment and WFD K. Berkhoff Title Page are under open-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Groundwater vulnerability@em.uni-frankfurt.de) 1133 #12;HESSD 4, 1133­1151, 2007 Groundwater vulnerability assessment and WFD K. Berkhoff Title Page

  6. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage, 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodell, M; Chambers, D P; Famiglietti, J S

    2011-01-01

    house gas because it has one of the strongest global some halogenated gases continue to increase globally warming

  7. Error Control of Iterative Linear Solvers for Integrated Groundwater Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, Matthew; Brush, Charles; Chung, Francis; Dogrul, Emin; Kadir, Tariq

    2010-01-01

    An open problem that arises when using modern iterative linear solvers, such as the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method or Generalized Minimum RESidual method (GMRES) is how to choose the residual tolerance in the linear solver to be consistent with the tolerance on the solution error. This problem is especially acute for integrated groundwater models which are implicitly coupled to another model, such as surface water models, and resolve both multiple scales of flow and temporal interaction terms, giving rise to linear systems with variable scaling. This article uses the theory of 'forward error bound estimation' to show how rescaling the linear system affects the correspondence between the residual error in the preconditioned linear system and the solution error. Using examples of linear systems from models developed using the USGS GSFLOW package and the California State Department of Water Resources' Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM), we observe that this error bound guides the choice of a prac...

  8. Groundwater in the Great Plains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.

    2003-01-01

    - cide study. Results suggest that roughly 33% of the counties in the United States have both high pesticide use and high groundwater vulnerabil- ity, including a large section of Texas, Ne- braska, Kansas and Oklahoma that potentially could be especially... laboratories, local health depart- ments, and state and county agencies. Check with your local officials to determine who can test water in your area. Tests for pesticides and organic chemicals are usually more expensive than those for minerals and bacteria...

  9. Adsorption and Reaction of CO2 and SO2 at a Water Surface Teresa L. Tarbuck and Geraldine L. Richmond*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    : The orientation and hydrogen bonding of water molecules in the vapor/water interfacial region in the presenceH of the solution. Surface complexes have recently been invoked to explain the initial step in a number of surface correspondence should be addressed. Phone: 541-346-4635. Fax: 541-346-5859. (1) Cotton, A. F.; Wilkinson, G. AdVanced

  10. Presented at the 2005 EWRI Congress. Strategies/Guidance for Managing Stormwater: Infiltration vs. Surface Water Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    as the water-quality standards and quality of stormwater that may inhibit the use of infiltration. #12;. Surface Water Discharge Shirley E. Clark1 , Katherine H. Baker2 , Melinda M. Lalor3, J. Bradley Mikula4 decisions as to whether the "disposal" of runoff should be through infiltration, surface discharge

  11. Water-hydroxyl phases on an open metal surface: breaking the ice rules Matthew Forster,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, Ali

    Water-hydroxyl phases on an open metal surface: breaking the ice rules Matthew Forster,a Rasmitath July 2011 DOI: 10.1039/c1sc00355k Hydroxyl is a key reaction intermediate in many surface catalyzed redox reactions, yet establishing the phase diagram for water/hydroxyl adsorption on metal

  12. Global estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    -relative-humidity-based two-source (ARTS) E model that simulates the surface energy balance, soil water balanceGlobal estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water balance model H. Yan a, , S.Q. Wang b , D. Billesbach c , W. Oechel d , J.H. Zhang e , T. Meyers f , T

  13. AFM pictures of the surfaces of glass RPC electrodes damaged by water vapor contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kubo; E. Nakano; Y. Teramoto

    2002-11-08

    We present surface pictures of the damaged electrodes from the Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPCs) taken by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). For the test, a set of chambers were operated with freon mixed gas (damaged) and freonless gas (not damaged), contaminated with 1000 to 2000 ppm of water vapor. In the AFM pictures, clear differences in damage are seen between the electrodes in the chambers with the freon mixed gas and the freonless gas; a combination of freon and water vapor caused the damage.

  14. Development of a simple groundwater model for use in climate models and evaluation with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Development of a simple groundwater model for use in climate models and evaluation with Gravity 7 April 2007. [1] Groundwater interacts with soil moisture through the exchanges of water between, groundwater is not explicitly represented in climate models. This paper developed a simple groundwater model

  15. Hydrological SciencesJournaldes Sciences Hydrologiques, 54(4) August 2009 Special issue: Groundwater and Climate in Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    : Groundwater and Climate in Africa 655 Groundwater and climate in Africa--a review RICHARD G. TAYLOR1 , ANTONIS on water resources commonly exclude groundwater. This omission is of particular concern in Africa, where. The Groundwater and Climate in Africa Conference (http://www.gwclim.org/), held in Kampala, Uganda on 24­28 June

  16. Water-waves modes trapped in a canal by a body with the rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Cardone; T. Durante; S. A. Nazarov

    2009-10-06

    The problem about a body in a three dimensional infinite channel is considered in the framework of the theory of linear water-waves. The body has a rough surface characterized by a small parameter $\\epsilon>0$ while the distance of the body to the water surface is also of order $\\epsilon$. Under a certain symmetry assumption, the accumulation effect for trapped mode frequencies is established, namely, it is proved that, for any given $d>0$ and integer $N>0$, there exists $\\epsilon(d,N)>0$ such that the problem has at least $N$ eigenvalues in the interval $(0,d)$ of the continuous spectrum in the case $\\epsilon\\in(0,\\epsilon(d,N)) $. The corresponding eigenfunctions decay exponentially at infinity, have finite energy, and imply trapped modes.

  17. Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and airsea CO2 fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern for the estimation of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern South), respectively, the monthly pCO2 fields were computed. The derived pCO2 was compared with the shipboard pCO2

  18. Why the case for clean surfaces does not hold water: Structure and morphology of hydroxylated nickel oxide (1 1 1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    Why the case for clean surfaces does not hold water: Structure and morphology of hydroxylated diffraction Density functional calculations Surface structure kinetics Hydroxylation a b s t r a c t We report that the surfaces contain significant coverage of hydroxyl terminations, and the sur- face structures

  19. Stable water isotope simulation by current land-surface schemes:Results of IPILPS phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson-Sellers, A.; Fischer, M.; Aleinov, I.; McGuffie, K.; Riley, W.J.; Schmidt, G.A.; Sturm, K.; Yoshimura, K.; Irannejad, P.

    2005-10-31

    Phase 1 of isotopes in the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (iPILPS) compares the simulation of two stable water isotopologues ({sup 1}H{sub 2} {sup 18}O and {sup 1}H{sup 2}H{sup 16}O) at the land-atmosphere interface. The simulations are off-line, with forcing from an isotopically enabled regional model for three locations selected to offer contrasting climates and ecotypes: an evergreen tropical forest, a sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a mixed deciduous wood. Here we report on the experimental framework, the quality control undertaken on the simulation results and the method of intercomparisons employed. The small number of available isotopically-enabled land-surface schemes (ILSSs) limits the drawing of strong conclusions but, despite this, there is shown to be benefit in undertaking this type of isotopic intercomparison. Although validation of isotopic simulations at the land surface must await more, and much more complete, observational campaigns, we find that the empirically-based Craig-Gordon parameterization (of isotopic fractionation during evaporation) gives adequately realistic isotopic simulations when incorporated in a wide range of land-surface codes. By introducing two new tools for understanding isotopic variability from the land surface, the Isotope Transfer Function and the iPILPS plot, we show that different hydrological parameterizations cause very different isotopic responses. We show that ILSS-simulated isotopic equilibrium is independent of the total water and energy budget (with respect to both equilibration time and state), but interestingly the partitioning of available energy and water is a function of the models' complexity.

  20. The thermodynamics of proton hydration and the electrochemical surface potential of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollard, Travis P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States); Beck, Thomas L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The free energy change for transferring a single ion across the water liquid/vapor interface includes an electrochemical surface potential contribution. Since this potential is not directly accessible to thermodynamic measurement, several extra-thermodynamic approaches have been employed to infer its sign and magnitude, with a resulting wide spread of values. Here, we examine further the thermodynamics of proton hydration and the electrochemical surface potential of water along three directions: (1) a basic relation of interfacial electrostatics and experimental results on ion distributions near a water/organic interface are employed to infer a solvent contribution to the electrochemical surface potential, (2) a re-analysis is performed of the existing bulk and cluster ion hydration data, and (3) extensive computational modeling is conducted to examine the size dependence of hydration enthalpy differences for the NaF ion pair between the small cluster and the converged bulk limits. The computational studies include classical polarizable models and high-level quantum chemical methods. The new theoretical analysis of existing experimental data and the combined classical/quantum modeling lead to results consistent with our previously derived proton hydration quantities.

  1. Hydrologic and Aquatic Species Implications of the Proposed Pebble Mine, Bristol Bay, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cundy, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Proposed  Surface  Water  Extraction  Limits    (Source:  groundwater  extraction  affect  surface  water?   6. How  groundwater  extraction  affect  surface  water? There  is  

  2. Local well-posedness of the two-layer shallow water model with free surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronan Monjarret

    2014-02-13

    In this paper, we adress the question of the hyperbolicity and the local well-posedness of the two-layer shallow water model, with free surface, in two dimensions. We first provide a general criterion that proves the symmetrizability of this model, which implies hyperbolicity and local well-posedness in $\\mathcal{H}^s(\\mathbb{R}^2)$, with s>2. Then, we analyze rigorously the eigenstructure associated to this model and prove a more general criterion of hyperbolicity and local well-posedness, under weak density-stratification assumption. Finally, we consider a new conservative two-layer shallow water model, prove the hyperbolicity and the local well-posedness and rely it to the basic two-layer shallow water model.

  3. West Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for West Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  4. Bending Frustration of Lipid-Water Mesophases Based on Cubic Minimal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. S. Schwarz; G. Gompper

    2001-02-26

    Inverse bicontinuous cubic phases are ubiquitous in lipid-water mixtures and consist of a lipid bilayer forming a cubic minimal surface, thereby dividing space into two cubic networks of water channels. For small hydrocarbon chain lengths, the monolayers can be modeled as parallel surfaces to a minimal midsurface. The bending energy of the cubic phases is determined by the distribution of Gaussian curvature over the minimal midsurfaces which we calculate for seven different structures (G, D, P, I-WP, C(P), S and F-RD). We show that the free-energy densities of the structures G, D and P are considerably lower than those of the other investigated structures due to their narrow distribution of Gaussian curvature. The Bonnet transformation between G, D, and P implies that these phases coexist along a triple line, which also includes an excess water phase. Our model includes thermal membrane undulations. Our qualitative predictions remain unchanged when higher order terms in the curvature energy are included. Calculated phase diagrams agree well with the experimental results for 2:1 lauric acid/dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine and water.

  5. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitler, J.D.; Culling, J.R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  6. California Water and the Rhetoric of Crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollak, Josh

    2010-01-01

    planner specializing in water managment, and isinterested in California water policy and groundwaterBerkeley on conjunctive water management in the San Joaquin

  7. Seismicity induced by seasonal groundwater recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manga, Michael

    and narrow-width pore-fluid pressure signal. Time delays between this seasonal groundwater recharge-fluid pressure fraction, PP/P0W0.1, of the applied near-surface pore-fluid pressure perturbation, P0W0.1 MPa Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: hydroseismicity; groundwater; pore-£uid pressure; permeability

  8. Groundwater Level Status Report for Fiscal Year 2007 - Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon P. Allen, Richard J. Koch

    2008-03-17

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2007 is provided in this report. The Groundwater Level Monitoring Project was instituted in 2005 to provide a framework for the collection and processing of quality controlled groundwater level data. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 166 monitoring wells, including 45 regional aquifer wells, 25 intermediate wells, and 96 alluvial wells, and 11 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 133 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well.

  9. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, David

    2015-02-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was analyzed for toxicity characteristic contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Beginning with the sample from July 31, 2013, pH and specific conductance were also measured. Leachate analysis results show no evidence of contamination. Results for toxicity characteristic contaminants are all below regulatory levels and analysis quantification limits. No quantifiable PCB levels were detected in any sample. Results for pH and specific conductance are also within expected ranges. After analysis, leachate was pumped from the collection tank and used in Cell 18 for dust control. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  10. In-situ Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Investigation of the Surface Films on Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in Pressurized Water Reactor-Primary Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    oxidation of Alloy 600 in PWR Primary Water. The layered-oxidation of Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water. The film ofwith oxidation of Alloy 600 in PWR Primary Water. The film

  11. Groundwater Contamination Potential from Stormwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    1 Groundwater Contamination Potential from Stormwater Infiltration Robert Pitt, University (CSOs). Introduction (cont.) · Scattered information is available addressing groundwater impacts cities · EPA 1983 NURP work on groundwater beneath Fresno and Long Island infiltration basins · NRC 1994

  12. Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Majority of Livestock Waste Lagoons Pose No Risk to Groundwater Pollution by Steve Ress UNL Water livestock waste lagoons may not be significant contributors to groundwater pollution. "This is particularly of groundwater pollution from livestock waste lagoons, Spalding said. Samples also were analyzed for nitrogen

  13. Defining groundwater remediation objectives with cost-1 benefit analysis: does it work?2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Defining groundwater remediation objectives with cost-1 benefit analysis: does it work?2 3 J at the local (site) level. This paper questions whether12 CBA is relevant for evaluating groundwater management the cost of groundwater14 protection and remediation measures at the regional (water body) level. It also

  14. Phase states of water near the surface of a polymer membrane. Phase microscopy and luminescence spectroscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunkin, N. F., E-mail: nbunkin@kapella.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gorelik, V. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. A., E-mail: v.kozlov@hotmail.com; Shkirin, A. V., E-mail: avshkirin@mephi.ru; Suyazov, N. V., E-mail: nvs@kapella.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Phase microscopy is used to show that the refractive index in the near-surface layer of water at the surface of a polymer Nafion membrane increases by a factor of 1.1 as compared to bulk water. Moreover, this layer exhibits birefringence. Experiments on UV irradiation of dry (anhydrous) and water-soaked Nafion are performed in grazing-incidence geometry to study their stimulated luminescence spectra. These spectra are found to be identical in both cases. For dry Nafion, luminescence can only be excited if probing radiation illuminates the polymer surface. The luminescence of water-soaked Nafion can also be excited if the distance between the optical axis and the surface is several hundred micrometers.

  15. Effects of climatic chance on surface water and energy balances of sorghum and cotton in West Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Wen

    1994-01-01

    Global climatic change may be occurring due to the increase of carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse" gases in the atmosphere. Effects of climatic change on surface water and energy balances of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. ...

  16. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent C. Tidwell; Barbara D. Moreland; Katie M. Zemlick; Barry L. Roberts; Howard D. Passell; Daniel Jensen; Christopher Forsgren; Gerald Sehlke; Margaret A. Cook; Carey W. King

    2014-06-01

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  17. Free energy surface of ST2 water near the liquid-liquid phase transition Peter H. Poole, Richard K. Bowles, Ivan Saika-Voivod, and Francesco Sciortino

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    Free energy surface of ST2 water near the liquid-liquid phase transition Peter H. Poole, Richard K://jcp.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 138, 034505 (2013) Free energy surface of ST2 water near umbrella sampling Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the free energy surface of the ST2 model of water

  18. Pipeline rehabilitation -- conclusion: Two projects highlight water, air processes for reconditioning pipeline surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, S.A.; Werner, D.P. (CRC-Evans Rehabilitation Systems Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-02-14

    In jobs for United Texas Transmission Co. and Natural Gas Pipeline Co. of America, a proprietary system of high-pressure water jet blasting for cleaning and air abrasive or mechanical-wheel blasting for surface preparation increased productivity and decreased time required for long-line pipelines rehabilitation projects. This second of two articles presents field results of the process' use for cleaning, conditioning, and coating pipelines by line-travel equipment. The first article detailed the procedure and notes tests of the process for asbestos-containing coatings.

  19. The Electrochemical Surface Potential Due to Classical Point Charge Models Drives Anion Adsorption to the Air-Water Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcel D. Baer; Abraham C. Stern; Yan Levin; Douglas J. Tobias; Christopher J. Mundy

    2013-07-05

    We demonstrate that the driving forces for ion adsorption to the air-water interface for point charge models results from both cavitation and a term that is of the form of a negative electrochemical surface potential. We carefully characterize the role of the free energy due to the electrochemical surface potential computed from simple empirical models and its role in ionic adsorption within the context of dielectric continuum theory. Our research suggests that the electrochemical surface potential due to point charge models provides anions with a significant driving force to the air-water interface. This is contrary to the results of ab initio simulations that indicate that the average electrostatic surface potential should favor the desorption of anions at the air-water interface. The results have profound implications for the studies of ionic distributions in the vicinity of hydrophobic surfaces and proteins.

  20. Groundwater availability and flow processes in the Williston and Powder River basins in the Northern Great Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Groundwater availability and flow processes in the Williston and Powder River basins Center, Cheyenne, WY 4 Office of Groundwater, Denver, CO 5 Oklahoma Water Science Center, Oklahoma City in Montana and Wyoming, provides an opportunity to study the water-energy nexus within a groundwater context

  1. Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Ruiz, Roberto (Tracy, CA); Pico, Tristan M. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

  2. The Economics of Water Project Capacities under Optimal Water Inventory Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yang; Zilberman, David

    2014-01-01

    an application to ground water. Man- agement Science 11: 80–allocation of groundwater. Water Resources Research 3: 45–institutional restrictions. Water Re- sources Research 6:

  3. Quantum Nature of the Proton in Water-Hydroxyl Overlayers on Metal Surfaces Xin-Zheng Li,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, Ali

    Quantum Nature of the Proton in Water-Hydroxyl Overlayers on Metal Surfaces Xin-Zheng Li,1 Matthew) Using ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics, we show that water-hydroxyl overlayers on transition and hydroxyl molecules [1­11]. These overlayers form because they offer the optimal balance of hydrogen (H

  4. The 6th International Symposium on Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces Kyoto, Japan, May 17-21, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbe, Christoph S.

    The 6th International Symposium on Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces Kyoto, Japan, May 17-21, 2010 A new approach for 3C3D measurements of aqueous boundary layer ows relative to the wind-wave undulated thermographic images of the air-water interface show coherent pat- terns, probably generated by Langmuir

  5. Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Marcel

    Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance, J. The algorithms are found to be valid both in coastal and oceanic waters, and largely insensitive to regional

  6. POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, J; Walt Kubilius, W; Thomas Kmetz, T; D Noffsinger, D; Karen M Adams, K

    2006-11-17

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed from detection monitoring and plume characterization, to active groundwater remediation, and now to monitored natural attenuation and postclosure monitoring. Thus, the objectives of the groundwater monitoring have changed accordingly. Characterization monitoring evaluated what biogeochemical natural attenuation processes were occurring and determined that elevated levels of radium were naturally occurring. Process monitoring of the biosparging system required comprehensive sampling network up- and down-gradient of the horizontal wells to verify its effectiveness. Currently, the scope of monitoring and reporting can be significantly reduced as the objective is to demonstrate that the alternate concentration limits (ACL) are being met at the point of compliance wells and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is being met at the surface water point of exposure. The proposed reduction is estimated to save about $2M over the course of the remaining 25 years of postclosure monitoring.

  7. CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER BY ORGANIC POLLUTANTS LEACHED FROM IN-SITU SPENT SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    of California. LBL-10526 CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER BYABSTRACT for contamination ter shale was studied in a seriesassessment of the ial contamination of ground~ water by c

  8. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Thomas Kmetz - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions SP01 Savannah River Site & D-Area Heavy Water Processing Moderator Processing Subunit & Impacts to Groundwater Tritium (pCi...

  9. Thermodynamic and structural aspects of the potential energy surface of simulated water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francis W. Starr; Srikanth Sastry; Emilia La Nave; Antonio Scala; H. Eugene Stanley; Francesco Sciortino

    2000-07-28

    Relations between the thermodynamics and dynamics of supercooled liquids approaching a glass transition have been proposed over many years. The potential energy surface of model liquids has been increasingly studied since it provides a connection between the configurational component of the partition function on one hand, and the system dynamics on the other. This connection is most obvious at low temperatures, where the motion of the system can be partitioned into vibrations within a basin of attraction and infrequent inter-basin transitions. In this work, we present a description of the potential energy surface properties of supercooled liquid water. The dynamics of this model has been studied in great details in the last years. Specifically, we locate the minima sampled by the liquid by ``quenches'' from equilibrium configurations generated via molecular dynamics simulations. We calculate the temperature and density dependence of the basin energy, degeneracy, and shape. The temperature dependence of the energy of the minima is qualitatively similar to simple liquids, but has anomalous density dependence. The unusual density dependence is also reflected in the configurational entropy, the thermodynamic measure of degeneracy. Finally, we study the structure of simulated water at the minima, which provides insight on the progressive tetrahedral ordering of the liquid on cooling.

  10. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site.

  11. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE's predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site.

  12. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

  13. Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    an estimated 2.5107 m3yr of recharge, suggesting that sample coverage of the groundwater system was essentially complete. Some of the waters contain magmatic helium with...

  14. Groundwater and Shale Gas Development (Updated May 29, 2015)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Groundwater and Shale Gas Development (Updated May 29, 2015) Background In parts of New York where shale gas extraction is possible, the Marcellus distance separates shale gas and potable water there are still risks associated

  15. Model Reduction via Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of Transient Confined and Unconfined Groundwater-Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, Scott Elliott

    2015-01-01

    groundwater flow. Advances in Water Resources, 83, 250-262,inverse problems. Advances in Water Resources, 69, 168-180,inverse problems. Advances in Water Resources, 69, 168-180.

  16. Detecting appropriate groundwater-level trends for safe groundwater development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Detecting appropriate groundwater-level trends for safe groundwater development Rahul Gokhale-monsoon Groundwater(GW) levels are important for the periodic categorisation of regions in India according to their GW-safety. A specific procedure has been recommended by the Groundwater Estimation Committee, 1997(GEC'97), constituted

  17. Groundwater Resources Program A New Tool to Assess Groundwater Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groundwater Resources Program A New Tool to Assess Groundwater Resources in the Mississippi CAROLINA GEORGIA LOUISIANA Mississippi River Groundwater flow Well a quifer Alluvial aquifer Middle alluvial aquifer is the primary source of groundwater for irriga- tion in the largely agricultural region

  18. Correlation of Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse Silanized Surfaces and Relationship to Fluid Interfacial Tensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Dehoff, Karl J.; Warner, Marvin G.; Pittman, Jonathan W.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2012-02-24

    The use of air-water, {Theta}{sub wa}, or air-liquid contact angles is customary in surface science, while oil-water contact angles {Theta}{sub ow}, are of paramount importance in subsurface multiphase flow phenomena including petroleum reocovery, nonaqueous phase liquid fate and transport, and geological carbon sequestration. In this paper we determine both the air-water and oil-water contact angles of silica surfaces modified with a diverse selection of silanes, using hexadecane as the oil. The silanes included alkylsilanes, alkylarylsilanes, and silanes with alkyl or aryl groups that are functionalized with heteroatoms such as N, O, and S. These silanes yielded surfaces with wettabilities from water-wet to oil wet, including specific silanized surfaces functionalized with heteroatoms that yield intermediate wet surfaces. The oil-water contact angles for clean and silanized surfaces, excluding one partially fluorinated surface, correlate linearly with air-water contact angles with a slope of 1.41 (R = 0.981, n = 13). These data were used to examine a previously untested theoretical treatment relating air-water and oil-water contact angles in terms of fluid interfacial energies. Plotting the cosines of these contact angles against one another, we obtain a linear relationship in excellent agreement with the theoretical treatment; the data fit cos {Theta}{sub ow} = 0.667 cos {Theta}{sub ow} + 0.384 (R = 0.981, n = 13), intercepting cos {Theta}{sub ow} = -1 at -0.284. The theoretical slope, based on the fluid interfacial tensions {Theta}{sub wa}, {Theta}{sub ow}, and {Theta}{sub oa}, is 0.67. We also demonstrate how silanes can be used to alter the wettability of the interior of a pore network micromodel device constructed in silicon/silica with a glass cover plate. Such micromodels are used to study multiphase flow phenomena. The contact angle of the resulting interior was determined in situ. An intermediate wet micromodel gave a contact angle in excellent agreement with that obtained on an open planar silica surface using the same silane.

  19. Plan for Using Solar-Powered Jack Pumps to Sample Groundwater at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Hudson, Charles Lohrstorfer, Bruce Hurley

    2007-05-03

    Groundwater is sampled from 39 monitoring wells on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as part of the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program. Many of these wells were not designed or constructed for long-term groundwater monitoring. Some have extensive completion zones and others have obstructions such as pumps and tubing. The high-volume submersible pumps in some wells are unsuitable for long-term monitoring and result in large volumes of water that may have to be contained and characterized before subsequent disposition. The configuration of most wells requires sampling stagnant well water with a wireline bailer. Although bailer sampling allows for the collection of depth-discrete samples, the collected samples may not be representative of local groundwater because no well purging is done. Low-maintenance, solar-powered jack pumps will be deployed in nine of these onsite monitoring wells to improve sample quality. These pumps provide the lift capacity to produce groundwater from the deep aquifers encountered in the arid environment of the NTS. The water depths in these wells range from 700 to 2,340 ft below ground surface. The considerable labor and electrical power requirements of electric submersible pumps are eliminated once these pumps are installed. Access tubing will be installed concurrent with the installation of the pump string to provide downhole access for water-level measurements or other wireline instruments. Micro-purge techniques with low pump rates will be used to minimize purge volumes and reduce hydraulic gradients. The set depths of the pumps will be determined by the borehole characteristics and screened interval.

  20. Groundwater depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with implications for transboundary water management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voss, Katalyn A; Famiglietti, James S; Lo, MinHui; de Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C

    2013-01-01

    in Marand Plain, Northwest Iran, Iranian Int. J. Sci. , 6(2008), Land subsidence in Iran caused by wide- spread waterTigris-Euphrates-Western Iran region, Water Resour. Res. ,

  1. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2014-04-14

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  2. In-situ Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Investigation of the Surface Films on Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in Pressurized Water Reactor-Primary Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Cook et. al. developed the Pourbaix diagram for the nickel-W.G. Cook has proposed a Pourbaix diagram for chromium-waterPWR primary water. At 300 o C, Pourbaix diagram shows a wide

  3. ICDP Complex Groundwater Monitoring Plan REV 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahn, L. S.

    2007-08-09

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan, along with the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions, constitutes the sampling and analysis plan for groundwater and perched water monitoring at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF). A detection monitoring system was installed in the Snake River Plan Aquifer to comply with substantive requirements of "Releases from Solid Waste Management Units" of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This detection monitoring wells constructed in the Snake River Plain Aquifer.

  4. Analysis of Ground-Water Levels and Associated Trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Fenelon

    2005-10-05

    Almost 4,000 water-level measurements in 216 wells in the Yucca Flat area from 1951 to 2003 were quality assured and analyzed. An interpretative database was developed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in Yucca Flat. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes narratives that discuss the water-level history of each well. Water levels in 34 wells were analyzed for variability and for statistically significant trends. An attempt was made to identify the cause of many of the water-level fluctuations or trends. Potential causes include equilibration following well construction or development, pumping in the monitoring well, withdrawals from a nearby supply well, recharge from precipitation, earthquakes, underground nuclear tests, land subsidence, barometric pressure, and Earth tides. Some of the naturally occurring fluctuations in water levels may result from variations in recharge. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for these fluctuations generally is less than 2 feet. Long-term steady-state hydrographs for most of the wells open to carbonate rock have a very similar pattern. Carbonate-rock wells without the characteristic pattern are directly west of the Yucca and Topgallant faults in the southwestern part of Yucca Flat. Long-term steady-state hydrographs from wells open to volcanic tuffs or the Eleana confining unit have a distinctly different pattern from the general water-level pattern of the carbonate-rock aquifers. Anthropogenic water-level fluctuations were caused primarily by water withdrawals and nuclear testing. Nuclear tests affected water levels in many wells. Trends in these wells are attributed to test-cavity infilling or the effects of depressurization following nuclear testing. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for wells with anthropogenic trends can be large, ranging from several feet to hundreds of feet. Vertical water-level differences at 27 sites in Yucca Flat with multiple open intervals were compared. Large vertical differences were noted in volcanic rocks and in boreholes where water levels were affected by nuclear tests. Small vertical differences were noted within the carbonate-rock and valley-fill aquifers. Vertical hydraulic gradients generally are downward in volcanic rocks and from pre-Tertiary clastic rocks toward volcanic- or carbonate-rock units.

  5. Economic costs of conventional surface-water treatment: A case study of the Mcallen northwest facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Callie Sue

    2009-05-15

    Conventional water treatment facilities are the norm for producing potable water for U.S. metropolitan areas. Rapidly-growing urban populations, competing demands for water, imperfect water markets, and uncertainty of ...

  6. Superhydrophilic graphite surfaces and water-dispersible graphite colloids by electrochemical exfoliation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yueh-Feng [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China)] [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China); Chen, Shih-Ming; Lai, Wei-Hao [Materials and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung, Hsinchu, 31040 Taiwan (China)] [Materials and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung, Hsinchu, 31040 Taiwan (China); Sheng, Yu-Jane [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106 Taiwan (China)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106 Taiwan (China); Tsao, Heng-Kwong [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China)] [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-14

    Superhydrophilic graphite surfaces and water-dispersible graphite colloids are obtained by electrochemical exfoliation with hydrophobic graphite electrodes. Such counterintuitive characteristics are caused by partial oxidation and investigated by examining both graphite electrodes and exfoliated particles after electrolysis. The extent of surface oxidation can be explored through contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscope, electrical sheet resistance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta-potential analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-visible, and Raman spectroscopy. The degree of wettability of the graphite anode can be altered by the electrolytic current and time. The water contact angle declines generally with increasing the electrolytic current or time. After a sufficient time, the graphite anode becomes superhydrophilic and its hydrophobicity can be recovered by peeling with adhesive tape. This consequence reveals that the anodic graphite is oxidized by oxygen bubbles but the oxidation just occurs at the outer layers of the graphite sheet. Moreover, the characteristics of oxidation revealed by UV peak shift, peak ratio between D and G bands, and negative zeta-potential indicate the presence of graphite oxide on the outer shell of the exfoliated colloids. However, thermogravimetric analysis for the extent of decomposition of oxygen functional groups verifies that the amount of oxygen groups is significantly less than that of graphite oxide prepared via Hummer method. The structure of this partially oxidized graphite may consist of a graphite core covered with an oxidized shell. The properties of the exfoliated colloids are also influenced by pH of the electrolytic solution. As pH is increased, the extent of oxidation descends and the thickness of oxidized shell decreases. Those results reveal that the degree of oxidation of exfoliated nanoparticles can be manipulated simply by controlling pH.

  7. Oxidative particle mixtures for groundwater treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegrist, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Murdoch, Lawrence C. (Clemson, SC)

    2000-01-01

    The invention is a method and a composition of a mixture for degradation and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater. The oxidative particle mixture and method includes providing a material having a minimal volume of free water, mixing at least one inorganic oxidative chemical in a granular form with a carrier fluid containing a fine grained inorganic hydrophilic compound and injecting the resulting mixture into the subsurface. The granular form of the inorganic oxidative chemical dissolves within the areas of injection, and the oxidative ions move by diffusion and/or advection, therefore extending the treatment zone over a wider area than the injection area. The organic contaminants in the soil and groundwater are degraded by the oxidative ions, which form solid byproducts that can sorb significant amounts of inorganic contaminants, metals, and radionuclides for in situ treatment and immobilization of contaminants. The method and composition of the oxidative particle mixture for long-term treatment and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater provides for a reduction in toxicity of contaminants in a subsurface area of contamination without the need for continued injection of treatment material, or for movement of the contaminants, or without the need for continuous pumping of groundwater through the treatment zone, or removal of groundwater from the subsurface area of contamination.

  8. Isotopic Survey of Lake Davis and the Local Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridley, M N; Moran, J E; Singleton, M J

    2007-08-21

    In September 2007, California Fish and Game (CAFG) plans to eradicate the northern pike from Lake Davis. As a result of the eradication treatment, local residents have concerns that the treatment might impact the local groundwater quality. To address the concerns of the residents, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) recommended measuring the naturally occurring stable oxygen isotopes in local groundwater wells, Lake Davis, and the Lake Davis tributaries. The purpose of these measurements is to determine if the source of the local groundwater is either rain/snowmelt, Lake Davis/Big Grizzly Creek water or a mixture of Lake Davis/Big Grizzly Creek and rain/snowmelt. As a result of natural evaporation, Lake Davis and the water flowing into Big Grizzly Creek are naturally enriched in {sup 18}oxygen ({sup 18}O), and if a source of a well's water is Lake Davis or Big Grizzly Creek, the well water will contain a much higher concentration of {sup 18}O. This survey will allow for the identification of groundwater wells whose water source is Lake Davis or Big Grizzly Creek. The results of this survey will be useful in the development of a water-quality monitoring program for the upcoming Lake Davis treatment. LLNL analyzed 167 groundwater wells (Table 1), 12 monthly samples from Lake Davis (Table 2), 3 samples from Lake Davis tributaries (Table 2), and 8 Big Grizzly Creek samples (Table 2). Of the 167 groundwater wells sampled and analyzed, only 2 wells contained a significant component of evaporated water, with an isotope composition similar to Lake Davis water. The other 163 groundwater wells have isotope compositions which indicate that their water source is rain/snowmelt.

  9. Groundwater under stress: the importance of management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaux, Henry

    2011-01-01

    static or decline. Groundwater will be uniquely attractiveThe need to manage groundwater ef?ciently and effectively asthe aquifer. Most methods of groundwater management involve

  10. Radionuclide release from PWR fuels in a reference tuff repository groundwater subsquently changed to Radionuclide release from PWR fuels in J-13 well water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.; Oversby, V.M.

    1985-04-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project (NNWSI) is studying the suitability of the welded devitrified Topopah Spring tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, for potential use as a high level nuclear waste repository. In support of the Waste Package task of NNWSI, tests have been conducted under ambient air environment to measure radionuclide release from two pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuels in water obtained from the J-13 well near the Yucca Mountain site. Four specimen types, representing a range of fuel physical conditions that may exist in a failed waste canister containing a limited amount of water were tested. The specimen types were: (1) fuel rod sections split open to expose bare fuel particles; (2) rod sections with water-tight end fittings with a 2.5-cm long by 150-{mu}m wide slit through the cladding; (3) rod sections with water-tight end fittings and two 200-{mu}m diameter holes through the cladding; and (4) undefected rod segments with water-tight end fittings. Radionuclide release results from the first 223-day test runs on H.B. Robinson spent fuel specimens in J-13 water are reported and compared to results from a previous test series in which similar Turkey Point reactor spent fuel specimens were tested in deionized water. Selected initial results are also given for Turkey Point fuel specimens tested in J-13 water. Results suggest that the actinides Pu, Am, Cm and Np are released congruently with U as the UO{sub 2} spent fuel matrix dissolves. Fractional release of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 99}Tc was greater than that measured for the actinides. Generally, lower radionuclide releases were measured for the H.B. Robinson fuel in J-13 water than for Turkey Point Fuel in deionized water.

  11. A dimension-breaking phenomenon for water waves with weak surface tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark D. Groves; Shu-Ming Sun; Erik Wahlén

    2014-11-10

    It is well known that the water-wave problem with weak surface tension has small-amplitude line solitary-wave solutions which to leading order are described by the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. The present paper contains an existence theory for three-dimensional periodically modulated solitary-wave solutions which have a solitary-wave profile in the direction of propagation and are periodic in the transverse direction; they emanate from the line solitary waves in a dimension-breaking bifurcation. In addition, it is shown that the line solitary waves are linearly unstable to long-wavelength transverse perturbations. The key to these results is a formulation of the water wave problem as an evolutionary system in which the transverse horizontal variable plays the role of time, a careful study of the purely imaginary spectrum of the operator obtained by linearising the evolutionary system at a line solitary wave, and an application of an infinite-dimensional version of the classical Lyapunov centre theorem.

  12. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    The Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of the previous years, with tritium detected only in well HC-4. The tritium concentration in groundwater from well HC-4 remains far below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-established maximum contaminant level of 20,000 picocuries per liter. Concentrations of total uranium and gross alpha were also detected during this monitoring period, with uranium accounting for nearly all the gross alpha activity. The total uranium concentrations obtained from this monitoring period were consistent with previous results and reflect a slightly elevated natural uranium concentration, consistent with the mineralized geologic terrain. Isotopic ratios of uranium also indicate a natural source of uranium in groundwater, as opposed to a nuclear-test-related source. Water level trends obtained from the 2012 water level data were consistent with those of previous years. The corrective action strategy for the PSA is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the current monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. While water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network will be conducted when water levels at the site have stabilized.

  13. Montana Surface Water Application for Beneficial Use (DNRC Form 600 SW) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec(Pritchett,GroundwaterEnergy.10Open Energy

  14. San Antonio Water System Title XVI Feasibility Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    .................................................................... 20 4.5 Disposal Water Quality Requirements............................................................................ 9 2.4 Water Quality Concerns San Antonio Water System Title XVI Feasibility Report Brackish Groundwater Desalination Program

  15. Hydrated goethite ([alpha]-FeOOH) (1 0 0 ) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghose, Sanjit K.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Trainor, Thomas P.; Eng, Peter J.

    2010-03-16

    Goethite({alpha}-FeOOH), an abundant and highly reactive iron oxyhydroxide mineral, has been the subject of numerous studies of environmental interface reactivity. However, such studies have been hampered by the lack of experimental constraints on aqueous interface structure, and especially of the surface water molecular arrangements. Structural information of this type is crucial because reactivity is dictated by the nature of the surface functional groups and the structure or distribution of water and electrolyte at the solid-solution interface. In this study we have investigated the goethite (1 0 0) surface using surface diffraction techniques, and have determined the relaxed surface structure, the surface functional groups, and the three dimensional nature of two distinct sorbed water layers. The crystal truncation rod (CTR) results show that the interface structure consists of a double hydroxyl, double water terminated interface with significant atom relaxations. Further, the double hydroxyl terminated surface dominates with an 89% contribution having a chiral subdomain structure on the (1 0 0) cleavage faces. The proposed interface stoichiometry is ((H{sub 2}O)-(H{sub 2}O)-OH{sub 2}-OH-Fe-O-O-Fe-R) with two types of terminal hydroxyls; a bidentate (B-type) hydroxo group and a monodentate (A-type) aquo group. Using the bond-valence approach the protonation states of the terminal hydroxyls are predicted to be OH type (bidentate hydroxyl with oxygen coupled to two Fe{sup 3+} ions) and OH{sub 2} type (monodentate hydroxyl with oxygen tied to only one Fe{sup 3+}). A double layer three dimensional ordered water structure at the interface was determined from refinement of fits to the experimental data. Application of bond-valence constraints to the terminal hydroxyls with appropriate rotation of the water dipole moments allowed a plausible dipole orientation model as predicted. The structural results are discussed in terms of protonation and H-bonding at the interface, and the results provide an ideal basis for testing theoretical predictions of characteristic surface properties such as pK{sub a}, sorption equilibria, and surface water permittivity.

  16. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; Borghese, J.V. [eds.] [and others] [eds.; and others

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1996 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that affected groundwater quality on the site. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone during FY 1996 comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-gas monitoring, and electrical resistivity tomography. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1995 and June 1996. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Smaller plumes of strontium-90, technetium-99, and plutonium also were present at levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington interim drinking water standards. Uranium concentrations greater than the proposed drinking water standard were also observed. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichlomethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels. The nitrate plume is the most extensive. Three-dimensional, numerical, groundwater models were applied to the Hanford Site to predict contaminant-flow paths and the impact of operational changes on site groundwater conditions. Other models were applied to assess the performance of three separate pump-and-treat systems.

  17. Effects of rainwater-harvesting-induced artificial recharge on the groundwater of wells in Rajasthan, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, Michael

    by artificially recharging local groundwater. Keywords Rainwater harvesting . Artificial recharge . Water qualityEffects of rainwater-harvesting-induced artificial recharge on the groundwater of wells. Anderson & Narendra K. Chauhan Abstract In light of the increasing deterioration of ground- water supplies

  18. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  19. Bridging the Pressure Gap in Water and Hydroxyl Chemistry on Metal Surfaces: the Cu(110) case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    the Pressure Gap in Water and Hydroxyl Chemistry on Metalresults on the water and hydroxyl chemistry on Cu(110) whichhave studied the water and hydroxyl chemistry on Cu(110) at

  20. Constraining water table depth simulations in a land surface model using estimated baseflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, MH; Yeh, PJF; Famiglietti, JS

    2008-01-01

    northeastern Kansas. Adv Water Resour 2002;25:221–38. [68]ing between runoff and soil water storage and differentcycles of base?ow and water table depth show signif- icant

  1. Theoretical analysis of the worthiness of Henry and Elder problems as benchmarks of density-dependent groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    -dependent groundwater flow models M.J. Simpson a , T.P. Clement a,b,* a Centre for Water Research, Department the availability of benchmark problems for testing density-dependent groundwater models is limited, one should: Groundwater-modeling; Density-dependent flow; Unsaturated flow; Contaminant transport 1. Introduction

  2. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 11 NOVEMBER 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1731 Evidence of the dependence of groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    of groundwater resources on extreme rainfall in East Africa Richard G. Taylor1 *, Martin C. Todd2 , Lister Kongola3 , Louise Maurice4 , Emmanuel Nahozya3 , Hosea Sanga3 and Alan M. MacDonald4 Groundwater recharge sustains the groundwater resources on which there is global dependence for drinking water and irrigated

  3. Dating groundwater with trifluoromethyl sulfurpentafluoride (SF5CF3), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), CF3Cl (CFC-13),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dating groundwater with trifluoromethyl sulfurpentafluoride (SF5CF3), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), CF; revised 3 October 2007; accepted 30 October 2007; published 22 February 2008. [1] A new groundwater dating and water samples. SF5CF3 and CFC-13 can be used to date groundwaters in some environments where the CFCs

  4. 2011 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-01

    Gnome-Coach was the site of a 3-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1961. Surface and subsurface contamination resulted from the underground nuclear testing, post-test drilling, and groundwater tracer test performed at the site. The State of New Mexico is currently proceeding with a conditional certificate of completion for the surface. As for the subsurface, monitoring activities that include hydraulic head monitoring and groundwater sampling of the wells onsite are conducted as part of the annual site inspection. These activities were conducted on January 19, 2011. The site roads, monitoring well heads, and the monument at surface ground zero were observed as being in good condition at the time of the site inspection. An evaluation of the hydraulic head data obtained from the site indicates that water levels in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8 appear to respond to the on/off cycling of the dedicated pump in well USGS-1 and that water levels in wells LRL-7 and DD-1 increased during this annual monitoring period. Analytical results obtained from the sampling indicate that concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 were consistent with concentrations from historical sampling events.

  5. The influence of geometry, surface character and flexibility on the permeation of ions and water through biological pores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver Beckstein; Mark S. P. Sansom

    2004-06-17

    A hydrophobic constriction site can act as an efficient barrier to ion and water permeation if its diameter is less than the diameter of an ion's first hydration shell. This hydrophobic gating mechanism is thought to operate in a number of ion channels, e.g. the nicotinic receptor, bacterial mechanosensitive channels (MscL and MscS) and perhaps in some potassium channels (e.g. KcsA, MthK, and KvAP). Simplified pore models allow one to investigate the primary characteristics of a conduction pathway, namely its geometry (shape, pore length, and radius), the chemical character of the pore wall surface, and its local flexibility and surface roughness. Our extended (ca. 0.1 \\mu s) molecular dynamic simulations show that a short hydrophobic pore is closed to water for radii smaller than 0.45 nm. By increasing the polarity of the pore wall (and thus reducing its hydrophobicity) the transition radius can be decreased until for hydrophilic pores liquid water is stable down to a radius comparable to a water molecule's radius. Ions behave similarly but the transition from conducting to non-conducting pores is even steeper and occurs at a radius of 0.65 nm for hydrophobic pores. The presence of water vapour in a constriction zone indicates a barrier for ion permeation. A thermodynamic model can explain the behaviour of water in nanopores in terms of the surface tensions, which leads to a simple measure of "hydrophobicity" in this context. Furthermore, increased local flexibility decreases the permeability of polar species. An increase in temperature has the same effect, and we hypothesise that both effects can be explained by a decrease in the effective solvent-surface attraction which in turn leads to an increase in the solvent-wall surface free energy.

  6. Trends in Surface Water Quality at the University of Florida, Gainesville.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    that include municipal waste water treatment plants, industrial discharge, urban stormwater drains and water. The NPDES required that the University of Florida implement a stormwater management program (Lindhoss

  7. Applying GIS characterizing and modeling contaminant transport in surface water at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.; Van Eeckhout, E.; David, N.A.; Irvine, J.M.

    1995-10-01

    During World War II, Los Alamos, New Mexico was chosen as the site for the secret development of the first atomic bomb. The remote location in the southwestern United States was ideal for such a project. After the war, research activities continued at the Los Alamos installation, focusing on new nuclear weapons models as well as greater effectiveness and reliability of existing weapons. Due to the emphasis on nuclear and non-nuclear weapons development as well as associated nuclear research, a large inventory of radionuclides and heavy metals have been tested, expended, and disposed of in the local environment, a high plateau of tuffaceous volcanic rocks incised by deep canyons in a semi-arid climate. In recent years an intensive evaluation of the environmental, impact of weapons testing at Los Alamos and elsewhere has been undertaken. GIS system utilization and image processing of past and current data has been an important part of this evaluation. Important problems can be more easily displayed and understood using this methodology. The main objective in this paper is to illustrate how transport of depleted uranium and associated heavy metals (copper in this case) used in dynamic testing of weapons components at open air firing sites can be evaluated and visualized. In our studies, surface water has been found to be the predominant transport mechanism. We have sampled soils, sediments, fallout, runoff water and snowmelt over a number of years in order to understand contaminant transport on- and offsite. Statistical analyses of these data have assisted in our characterization of issues such as contaminant variability, spatially and temporally, as well as in development of transport rates.

  8. Unconventional Groundwater System Proves Effective in Reducing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unconventional Groundwater System Proves Effective in Reducing Contamination at West Valley Demonstration Project Unconventional Groundwater System Proves Effective in Reducing...

  9. Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports...

  10. Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Fernald...

  11. Water Resources and Climate Change in Garden Park, Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baffa, Thomas W.

    2009-12-18

    This paper examines whether groundwater can provide adequate water supplies for land use change and future development in Garden Park, Colorado. A climatic water budget model was used to determine the amount and adequacy of the groundwater supply...

  12. Contact angle measurements and wetting behavior of inner surfaces of pipelines exposed to heavy crude oil and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    crude oil and water RonaldoG.dosSantos a , Rahoma S. Mohamed a,F , Antonio C. Bannwart b , Watson Loh c alternative for the transportation of heavy crude oils. The lubricating effect of the aqueous film leads of such surfaces by crude oils through contact angle measurements in systems containing heavy oil/aqueous phase

  13. Terrigenous dissolved organic matter in the Arctic Ocean and its transport to surface and deep waters of the North Atlantic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louchouarn, Patrick

    lignin phenols in polar surface waters are 7-fold to 16-fold higher than those in the Atlantic phenols provide some evidence of photochemical transformations of terrigenous DOM, but it appears the Arctic Ocean by microbial degradation is less clear and warrants further study. Physical transport

  14. Montana Surface Water Application for Beneficial Use (DNRC Form 600 GW) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec(Pritchett,GroundwaterEnergy.10Open Energy Information

  15. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon SequestrationSites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-06-17

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO{sub 2} may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO{sub 2} overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO{sub 2} bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s{sup -1} at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s{sup -1}. Liquid CO{sub 2} bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO{sub 2} bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} at three different seepage rates reveals that ebullition and bubble flow will be the dominant form of gas transport in surface water for all but the smallest seepage fluxes or shallowest water bodies. The solubility of the gas species in water plays a fundamental role in whether ebullition occurs. We used a solubility model to examine CO{sub 2} solubility in waters with varying salinity as a function of depth below a 200 m-deep surface water body. In this system, liquid CO{sub 2} is stable between the deep regions where supercritical CO{sub 2} is stable and the shallow regions where gaseous CO{sub 2} is stable. The transition from liquid to gaseous CO{sub 2} is associated with a large change in density, with corresponding large change in bubble buoyancy. The solubility of CO{sub 2} is lower in high-salinity waters such as might be encountered in the deep subsurface. Therefore, as CO{sub 2} migrates upward through the deep subsurface, it will likely encounter less saline water with increasing capacity to dissolve CO{sub 2} potentially preventing ebullition, depending on the CO{sub 2} leakage flux. However, as CO{sub 2} continues to move upward through shallower depths, CO{sub 2} solubility in water decreases strongly leading to greater likelihood of ebullition and bubble flow in surface water. In the case of deep density-stratified lakes in which ebullition is suppressed, enhanced mixing and man-made degassing schemes can alleviate the buildup of CO{sub 2} and related risk of dangerous rapid discharges. Future research efforts are needed to increase understanding of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage in surface water and saturated porous media. For example, we recommend experiments and field tests of CO{sub 2} migration in saturated systems to formulate bubble-driven water-displacement models and relative permeability functions that can be used in simulation models.

  16. Economic Effects of Land Subsidence Due to Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal in the Texas Gulf Coast Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, L. L.; Larson, J.

    1975-01-01

    Land surface subsidence continues to be a destructive force in the Texas Gulf Coast area. The sinking of the surface has been linked by engineers to the withdrawal of groundwater. Subsidence causes damages and property value losses as saltwater...

  17. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  18. The water ice rich surface of (145453) 2005 RR43: a case for a carbon-depleted population of TNOs?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Pinilla-Alonso; J. Licandro; R. Gil-Hutton; R. Brunetto

    2007-05-26

    Recent results suggest that there is a group of TNOs (2003 EL61 being the biggest member), with surfaces composed of almost pure water ice and with very similar orbital elements. We study the surface composition of another TNO that moves in a similar orbit, 2005 RR43, and compare it with the surface composition of the other members of this group. We report visible and near-infrared spectra, obtained with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope and the 3.58m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo at the "Roque de los Muchachos" Observatory (La Palma, Spain). The spectrum of 2005 RR43 is neutral in color in the visible and dominated by very deep water ice absorption bands in the near infrared (D= 70.3 +/- 2.1 % and 82.8 +/- 4.9 % at 1.5 \\mu and 2.0 \\mu respectively). It is very similar to the spectrum of the group of TNOs already mentioned. All of them present much deeper water ice absorption bands (D>40 %) than any other TNO except Charon. Scattering models show that its surface is covered by water ice, a significant fraction in crytalline state with no trace (5 % upper limit) of complex organics. Possible scenarios to explain the existence of this population of TNOs are discussed: a giant collision, an originally carbon depleted composition, or a common process of continuous resurfacing. We conclude that TNO 2005 RR43 is member of a group, may be a population, of TNOs clustered in the space of orbital parameters that show abundant water ice and no signs of complex organics. The lack of complex organics in their surfaces suggests a significant smaller fraction of carbonaceous volatiles like CH4 in this population than in "normal" TNOs. A carbon depleted population of TNOs could be the origin of the population of carbon depleted Jupiter family comets already noticed by A'Hearn et al. (1995).

  19. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  20. Groundwater Data Analysis Lalit Kumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Groundwater Data Analysis Lalit Kumar (10305073) Guide: Prof. Milind Sohoni Department of Computer BombayGroundwater Data Analysis Oct 25, 2011 1 / 23 #12;Outline Motivation Objective Terminology Case Sohoni (Department of Computer Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology BombayGroundwater

  1. GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION DESIGN USING SIMULATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mays, Larry W.

    CHAPTER 8 GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION DESIGN USING SIMULATED ANNEALING Richard L. Skaggs Pacific? There has been an emergence in the use of combinatorial methods such as simulated annealing in groundwater for groundwater management applications. The algorithm incor- porates "directional search" and "memory

  2. 2, 939970, 2005 Groundwater com-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HESSD 2, 939­970, 2005 Groundwater com- partmentalisation E. A. Mohamed and R. H. Worden Title Page-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Groundwater compartmentalisation is licensed under a Creative Commons License. 939 #12;HESSD 2, 939­970, 2005 Groundwater com

  3. Topological groundwater hydrodynamics Garrison Sposito

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Topological groundwater hydrodynamics Garrison Sposito Department of Civil and Environmental; received in revised form 10 November 2000; accepted 15 November 2000 Abstract Topological groundwater, the topological characteristics of groundwater ¯ows governed by the Darcy law are studied. It is demonstrated that

  4. Remedial action plan and final design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah: Volume 2A, Appendix D, Supplement, site characterization, Appendix E, Groundwater protection strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This volume includes: appendix D supplement on groundwater hydrology; and appendix E on water resources protection strategy.

  5. Geologic mapping for groundwater resource protection and assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, J.M. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Earth Sciences and Resources Inst.); Berg, R.C. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater is a vital natural resource in the US and around the world. In order to manage and protect this often threatened resource one must better understand its occurrence, extent, and susceptibility to contamination. Geologic mapping is a fundamental approach to developing more detailed and accurate assessments of groundwater resources. The stratigraphy and lithology of earth materials provide the framework for groundwater systems, whether they are deep confined aquifers or shallow, water table environments. These same earth materials control, in large part, the rates of migration of water and contaminants into and through groundwater systems thus establishing the potential yields of the systems and their vulnerability to contamination. Geologic mapping is used to delineate and display the vertical sequencing of earth materials either in cross-section or over lateral areas as in the stack-unit geologic map. These geologic maps, along with supportive hydrogeologic information, are used to identify the three-dimensional positioning and continuity of aquifer and non-aquifer earth materials. For example, detailed stack-unit mapping to a depth of 30 meters has been completed for a portion of a northern Illinois county. Groundwater contamination potentials were assigned to various vertical sequences of materials. Where aquifers are unconfined, groundwater contamination potentials are greatest. Conversely, other considerations being equal, the thicker the confining unit, the lower the contamination potential. This information is invaluable for land use decision-making; water supply assessment, development, and management; and environmental protection planning.

  6. A groundwater flow and transport model of long-term radionuclide migration in central Frenchman flat, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwicklis, Edward Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Becker, Naomi M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruskauff, Gregory [NAVARRO-INTERA, LLC.; De Novio, Nicole [GOLDER AND ASSOC.; Wilborn, Bill [US DOE NNSA NSO

    2010-11-10

    A set of groundwater flow and transport models were created for the Central Testing Area of Frenchman Flat at the former Nevada Test Site to investigate the long-term consequences of a radionuclide migration experiment that was done between 1975 and 1990. In this experiment, radionuclide migration was induced from a small nuclear test conducted below the water table by pumping a well 91 m away. After radionuclides arrived at the pumping well, the contaminated effluent was discharged to an unlined ditch leading to a playa where it was expected to evaporate. However, recent data from a well near the ditch and results from detailed models of the experiment by LLNL personnel have convincingly demonstrated that radionuclides from the ditch eventually reached the water table some 220 m below land surface. The models presented in this paper combine aspects of these detailed models with concepts of basin-scale flow to estimate the likely extent of contamination resulting from this experiment over the next 1,000 years. The models demonstrate that because regulatory limits for radionuclide concentrations are exceeded only by tritium and the half-life of tritium is relatively short (12.3 years), the maximum extent of contaminated groundwater has or will soon be reached, after which time the contaminated plume will begin to shrink because of radioactive decay. The models also show that past and future groundwater pumping from water supply wells within Frenchman Flat basin will have negligible effects on the extent of the plume.

  7. Arsenic in Groundwater: A Review of Current Knowledge and Relation to the CALFED Solution Area with Recommendations for Needed Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Alan H.; Oremland, Ronald S.; Davis, James A.; Watkins, Sharon A.

    2006-01-01

    in shallow ground water, Tulare basin, Southern San Joaquincontribu- tion to shallow groundwater in Tulare Lakebed area, Tulare Basin, California. Soil Science Society of

  8. Influence of particle size and water coverage on the thermodynamic properties of water confined on the surface of SnO2 cassiterite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Elinor; Ross, Dr. Nancy; Parker, Stewart F.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Woodfield, Brian; Woodfield, K; Rytting, M; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data for SnO2 nanoparticles of three different sizes and varying hydration levels are presented. Data were recorded on five nanoparticle samples that had the following compositions: 2 nm SnO2*0.82H2O, 6 nm SnO2*0.055H2O, 6 nm SnO2*0.095H2O, 20 nm SnO2*0.072H2O, and 20 nm SnO2*0.092H2O. The isochoric heat capacity and vibrational entropy values at 298 K for the water confined on the surface of these nanoparticles were calculated from the vibrational density of states that were extracted from the INS data. This study has shown that the hydration level of the SnO2 nanoparticles influences the thermodynamic properties of the water layers and, most importantly, that there appears to be a critical size limit for SnO2 between 2 and 6 nm below which the particle size also affects these properties and above which it does not. These results have been compared with those for isostructural rutile-TiO2 nanoparticles [TiO2*0.22H2O and TiO2*0.37H2O], which indicated that water on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles is more tightly bound and experiences a greater degree of restricted motion with respect to water on the surface of SnO2 nanoparticles. This is believed to be a consequence of the difference in chemical composition, and hence surface properties, of these metal oxide nanoparticles.

  9. In situ treatment of arsenic contaminated groundwater by aquifer iron coating: Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Pi, Kunfu; Liu, Chongxuan; Li, Junxia; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Mengyu

    2015-09-15

    In situ arsenic removal from groundwater by an iron coating method has great potential to be a cost effective and simple groundwater remediation technique, especially in rural and remote areas where groundwater is used as the main source of drinking water. The in situ arsenic removal technique was first optimized by simulating arsenic removal in various quartz sand columns under anoxic conditions., Its effectiveness was then evaluated in an actual high-arsenic groundwater environment. The mechanism of arsenic removal by the iron coating was investigated under different conditions using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/X-ray absorption spectroscopy, an electron microprobe, and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. A 4-step alternative cycle aquifer iron coating method was developed. A continuous injection of 5 mmol/L FeSO4 and 2.5 mmol/L NaClO for 96 hours can create a uniform coating of crystalline goethite on the surface of quartz sand in the columns without causing clogging. At a flow rate of 0.45 cm/min of the injection reagents (vi), the time for arsenic (as Na2HAsO4) to pass through the iron-coated quartz sand column was approximately 35 hours, which was much longer than that for tracer fluorescein sodium (approximately 2 hours). The retardation factor of arsenic was 23, and its adsorption capacity was 0.11 mol As per mol Fe, leading to an excellent arsenic removal. In situ arsenic removal from groundwater in an aquifer was achieved by simultaneous injections of As (V) and Fe (II) reagents. When the arsenic content in the groundwater was 233 ?g/L, the aqueous phase arsenic was completely removed with an arsenic adsorption of 0.05 mol As per mol Fe. Arsenic fixation resulted from a process of adsorption/co-precipitation, in which arsenic and iron likely formed the arsenic-bearing iron mineral phases with poor crystallinity by way of bidentate binuclear complexes. Thus, the high arsenic removal efficiency of the technique likely resulted from the expanded specific iron oxide/hydroxide surface area with poor crystallinity and from coprecipitation.

  10. SOLUTION OF A GROUNDWATER CONTROL PROBLEM WITH IMPLICIT FILTERING \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to a control problem from hydrology. We seek to control the temperature at a group of drinking water wells to control the temperature in a set of drinking water wells. The site shown in Figure 2.1 is in the rechargeSOLUTION OF A GROUNDWATER CONTROL PROBLEM WITH IMPLICIT FILTERING \\Lambda A. BATTERMANN y , J. M

  11. SOLUTION OF A GROUNDWATER CONTROL PROBLEM WITH IMPLICIT A. BATTERMANN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to a control problem from hydrology. We seek to control the temperature at a group of drinking water wells to control the temperature in a set of drinking water wells. The site shown in Figure 2.1 is in the rechargeSOLUTION OF A GROUNDWATER CONTROL PROBLEM WITH IMPLICIT FILTERING A. BATTERMANN ¡ , J. M

  12. 2005 ASHRAE. 109 Groundwater heat pump systems using standing column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    borehole that is filled with groundwater up to the level of the water table. Water is circulated from in growing numbers since the advent of geothermal heat pump systems and are recently receiving much more benefits, low maintenance, etc., as other forms of geothermal heat pump systems. The heat exchange rate

  13. Identification and Control Problems in Petroleum and Groundwater Modeling \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, Richard E.

    by pumping water into the aquifer at several wells and extracting the contaminated water at other wells to the ``grand­challenge problems'' of hydrocarbon recovery and groundwater remediation is given. The importance phenomena in porous media ranging from the location and subsequent remediation of contaminants

  14. Groundwater Consumption by Phreatophytes in Mid-Continent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernes, Peter J.

    content in vadose zone monitored biweekly during growing season using neutron probe · Data collected at 6Groundwater Consumption by Phreatophytes in Mid-Continent Stream-Aquifer Systems Gerard Kluitenberg measurements Water Level Monitoring #12;· PVC access tubes with sealed bottoms installed near wells · Water

  15. Biomimicry using Nano-Engineered Enhanced Condensing Surfaces for Sustainable Fresh Water Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Beaini, Sara

    2012-01-01

    innovation will enhance a sustainable solution for fresh water produc- tion at a lower costinnovation could o?er a sustainable solution for fresh water production at a lower cost

  16. Incorporating and Evaluating Environmental Instream Flows in a Priority Order Based Surface Water Allocation Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauls, Mark

    2014-03-18

    -step versions of the authorized use scenario water availability models using existing and recently added features of the Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP). Various metrics are developed by this research to characterize the degree to which the environmental...

  17. Hydrated goethite (alpha-FeOOH) (100) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghose, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    and the (010) surface of goethite. Geochem. Trans. 9, 1–16.Con?rmation of the surface structure of goethite (a-FeOOH. ,phosphated goethite by infrared spectroscopy. Soil Sci. Soc.

  18. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  19. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  20. Water balance in the amazon basin from a land surface model ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    land surface and Earth system models. J. Hydro- meteor. ,of the Community Earth System Model (CESM; Vertenstein et