National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for groundwater surface water

  1. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2014 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring is performed by the GWPP during CY 2014 to achieve the following goals: 􀁸 to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; 􀁸 to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; 􀁸 to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; 􀁸 to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and 􀁸 to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12.

  2. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2012 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3. Sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4, and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding a data summary table presented in Section 4) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued throughout CY 2012) will be inserted in Appendix C, and addenda to this plan (if issued) will be inserted in Appendix D. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix E, and an approved Waste Management Plan is provided in Appendix F.

  3. September 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site February 2016 LMS/SHP/S00915 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2015, Shiprock, New Mexico February 2016 RINs 15097348 and 15097349 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site

  4. January 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Processing Site

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    6 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Processing Site March 2016 LMS/GJT/S00116 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-January 2016, Grand Junction, Colorado March 2016 RIN 15127576 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Grand Junction, Colorado, Processing Site, Sample Location Map

  5. November 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites February 2016 LMS/RFN/RFO/S01115 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-November 2015, Rifle, Colorado February 2016 RINs 15107463 and 15107464 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site, Planned Sampling Map

  6. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  7. Overview of groundwater and surface water standards pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundahl, A.L.; Williams, S.; Grizzle, B.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document presents an overview of groundwater- and surface water-related laws, regulations, agreements, guidance documents, Executive Orders, and DOE orders pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This document is a summary and is intended to help readers understand which regulatory requirements may apply to their particular circumstances. However, the document is not intended to be used in lieu of applicable regulations. Unless otherwise noted, the information in this report reflects a summary and evaluation completed July 1, 1995. This document is considered a Living Document, and updates on changing laws and regulations will be provided.

  8. Ground-water in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1985-01-01

    Amount 61% of the water used by Texans is ground-water. Some areas, both municipal and rural, depend entirely on ground-water. In many areas long term withdrawal is lowering the water levels, causing surface land subsidence, salt-water encroachment, and reducing future reservoir availability. The increasing probability of seepage from radioactive and toxic wastes, herbicide residues, septic systems, and oilfield brines is threatening dangerous contamination of fresh ground-water reservoirs. The Texas Department of Water Resources, the Texas Department of Health, State and private colleges and universities, the US Geological Survey, the Environmental Protection Agency, various underground water districts, among others, are cooperating with concerned hydrologists in a concentrated program to increase the efficiency of ground-water use and development, preserve the aquifer reservoirs, and decrease the pollution potential. 88 references.

  9. June-July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    June-July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites November 2015 LMS/RFL/S00615 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-June and July 2015, Old and New Rifle, Colorado November 2015 RINs 15067100, 15067101, and 15077206 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site, Planned

  10. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  11. A modeling study of irrigation effects on global surface water and groundwater resources under a changing climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi; Tang, Qiuhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-08-25

    In this paper, the effects of irrigation on global surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) resources are investigated by performing simulations using Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4) at 0.5-degree resolution driven by downscaled/bias-corrected historical simulations and future projections from five General Circulation Models (GCMs) for 1950-2099. For each climate scenario, three sets of numerical experiments were configured: (1) a control experiment (CTRL) in which all crops are assumed to be rainfed; (2) an irrigation experiment (IRRIG) in which the irrigation module using only SW for irrigation is activated; and (3) a groundwater pumping experiment (PUMP) in which a groundwater pumpingmore » scheme coupled with the irrigation module is activated for conjunctive use of SW and GW for irrigation. The parameters associated with irrigation and groundwater pumping are calibrated based on a global inventory of census-based SW and GW use compiled by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Our results suggest that irrigation could lead to two major opposing effects: SW depletion/GW accumulation in regions with irrigation primarily fed by SW, and SW accumulation/GW depletion in regions with irrigation fed primarily by GW. Furthermore, irrigation depending primarily on SW tends to have larger impacts on low-flow than high-flow conditions, suggesting the potential to increase vulnerability to drought. By the end of the 21st century (2070-2099), climate change significantly increases (relative to 1971-2000) irrigation water demand across the world. Combined with the increased temporal-spatial variability of water supply, this may lead to severe issues of local water scarcity for irrigation. Regionally, irrigation has the potential to aggravate/alleviate climate-induced changes of SW/GW although such effects are negligible when averaged globally. Our results emphasize the importance of accounting for irrigation effects and irrigation sources in regional climate change impact assessment.« less

  12. A modeling study of irrigation effects on global surface water and groundwater resources under a changing climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi; Tang, Qiuhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-08-25

    Abstract In this study, the effects of irrigation on global surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) resources are investigated by performing simulations using Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4) at 0.5-degree resolution driven by downscaled/bias-corrected historical simulations and future projections from five General Circulation Models (GCMs) for 1950-2099. For each climate scenario, three sets of numerical experiments were configured: (1) a control experiment (CTRL) in which all crops are assumed to be rainfed; (2) an irrigation experiment (IRRIG) in which the irrigation module using only SW for irrigation is activated; and (3) a groundwater pumping experiment (PUMP) in which a groundwater pumping scheme coupled with the irrigation module is activated for conjunctive use of SW and GW for irrigation. The parameters associated with irrigation and groundwater pumping are calibrated based on a global inventory of census-based SW and GW use compiled by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Our results suggest that irrigation could lead to two major opposing effects: SW depletion/GW accumulation in regions with irrigation primarily fed by SW, and SW accumulation/GW depletion in regions with irrigation fed primarily by GW. Furthermore, irrigation depending primarily on SW tends to have larger impacts on low-flow than high-flow conditions, suggesting the potential to increase vulnerability to drought. By the end of the 21st century (2070-2099), climate change significantly increases (relative to 1971-2000) irrigation water demand across the world. Combined with the increased temporal-spatial variability of water supply, this may lead to severe issues of local water scarcity for irrigation. Regionally, irrigation has the potential to aggravate/alleviate climate-induced changes of SW/GW although such effects are negligible when averaged globally. Our results emphasize the importance of accounting for irrigation effects and irrigation sources in regional climate change impact assessment.

  13. A modeling study of irrigation effects on global surface water and groundwater resources under a changing climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi; Tang, Qiuhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-08-25

    In this paper, the effects of irrigation on global surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) resources are investigated by performing simulations using Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4) at 0.5-degree resolution driven by downscaled/bias-corrected historical simulations and future projections from five General Circulation Models (GCMs) for 1950-2099. For each climate scenario, three sets of numerical experiments were configured: (1) a control experiment (CTRL) in which all crops are assumed to be rainfed; (2) an irrigation experiment (IRRIG) in which the irrigation module using only SW for irrigation is activated; and (3) a groundwater pumping experiment (PUMP) in which a groundwater pumping scheme coupled with the irrigation module is activated for conjunctive use of SW and GW for irrigation. The parameters associated with irrigation and groundwater pumping are calibrated based on a global inventory of census-based SW and GW use compiled by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Our results suggest that irrigation could lead to two major opposing effects: SW depletion/GW accumulation in regions with irrigation primarily fed by SW, and SW accumulation/GW depletion in regions with irrigation fed primarily by GW. Furthermore, irrigation depending primarily on SW tends to have larger impacts on low-flow than high-flow conditions, suggesting the potential to increase vulnerability to drought. By the end of the 21st century (2070-2099), climate change significantly increases (relative to 1971-2000) irrigation water demand across the world. Combined with the increased temporal-spatial variability of water supply, this may lead to severe issues of local water scarcity for irrigation. Regionally, irrigation has the potential to aggravate/alleviate climate-induced changes of SW/GW although such effects are negligible when averaged globally. Our results emphasize the importance of accounting for irrigation effects and irrigation sources in regional climate change impact assessment.

  14. August 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site November 2015 LMS/TUB/S00815 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-August 2015, Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site November 2015 RIN 15087262 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site, Sample Location Map

  15. July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Naturita, Colorado, Processing Site

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Naturita, Colorado, Processing Site October 2015 LMS/NAP/S00715 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-July 2015, Naturita, Colorado October 2015 RIN 15077222 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Data Assessment Summary

  16. Surface Water Transport for the F/H Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kuo-Fu

    1995-08-29

    The contribution of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSBs) tritium releases to the tritium concentration in the Savannah River are presented in this report. WASP5 was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the FHSBs. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at US Highway 301. The tritium concentrations in Fourmile Branch and the Savannah River were calculated for tritium releases from FHSBs. The calculated tritium concentrations above normal environmental background in the Savannah River, resulting from FHSBs releases, drop from 1.25 pCi/ml (<10% of EPA Drinking Water Guide) in 1995 to 0.0056 pCi/ml in 2045.

  17. Characterization of Surface Water/Groundwater Exchange Regulating Uranium Transport Using Electrical Imaging and Distributed Temperature Sensing Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee D. Slater; Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis; Fred Day-Lewis; Kisa Mwakanyamale; Roelof J Versteeg; Andy Ward; Christopher Strickland; Carole D. Johnson; John Lane

    2010-10-01

    A critical challenge in advancing prediction of solute transport between contaminated aquifers and rivers is improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along river corridors. Here, we explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for uranium transport within the river corridor at the Hanford 300 Area. We first inverted CWEI (resistivity and induced polarization) datasets for distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units was reconstructed. Variations in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford formation and the underlying finer grained, less permeable Ringold formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, were resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the 300 Area. Polarizability images were translated into lithologic images using established relationships between polarizability and surface area normalized to pore volume (Spor). Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. The FO- DTS data recorded along a 1.5 km of cable with a 1-m spatial resolution and 5-minute sampling interval revealed sub-reaches showing (1) temperature anomalies (relatively warm in winter and cool in summer) and, (2) a strong correlation between temperature and river stage (negative in winter and positive in summer), both indicative of reaches of enhanced surface water/groundwater exchange. The FO-DTS datasets confirm the hydrologic significance of the variability identified in the CWEI and reveal a pattern of highly focused exchange, with exchange concentrated at springs where the Hanford formation is thick, and coinciding with a paleochannel identified in ground penetrating radar surveys at one location. No evidence for focused exchange is observed in the FO-DTS data where the Ringold unit is in contact with the riverbed or the Hanford formation is thin. Our findings illustrate how the combination of CWEI and FO-DTS technologies can characterize surface water/groundwater exchange in a complex, coupled river-aquifer system.

  18. Surface and groundwater management in surface mined-land reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evoy, B.; Holland, M.

    1990-06-01

    This report provides information on surface water and groundwater management for use in the mined-land reclamation planning process in California. Mined-land reclamation, as defined by the California Surface Mining and Reclamation Act, is the combination of land treatments which prevent or minimize water degradation, air pollution, damage to aquatic or wildlife habitat, and erosion resulting from a surface mining operation. Surface water and groundwater management play an integral role in nearly every reclamation plan. Groundwater and surface water runoff (both onto and off of the site) must often be evaluated (1) to design flooding and erosion protection measures such as drainage channels, levees, culverts, or riprap; (2) to prepare and carry out a successful revegetation program; (3) to design stable final slopes; (4) to maximize potential available water for the operation and reclamation stages; (5) to prevent the discharge of contaminants from mine processes or from mined areas; and (6) to limit long-term leachate formation and movement from tailings, pit, or waste rock disposal areas. This report is a guide for mine operators, local government, planners, and plan reviewers.

  19. Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah. Implications for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah. Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah. Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Unconventional fuel development will require scarce water resources. In an environment characterized by scarcity, and where most water resources are fully

  20. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  1. Source Water and Groundwater Withdrawal Permit Application Process...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permit Application Process Guidance Citation Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation. 2015. Source Water and Groundwater Withdrawal Permit Application Process...

  2. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  3. http://www.lvvwd.com/about/wr_groundwater.html

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Water Resources Groundwater About 10 percent of the Las Vegas Valley's water comes from groundwater, which is a water supply under the Earth's surface. In some areas, water...

  4. Vermont Drinking Water and Groundwater Protection Division Permit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2015 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Vermont Drinking Water and Groundwater Protection Division Permit Fees...

  5. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  6. RCRA ground-water monitoring: Draft technical guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The manual was prepared to provide guidance for implementing the ground-water monitoring regulations for regulated units contained in 40 CFR Part 264 Subpart F and the permitting standards of 40 CFR Part 270. The manual also provides guidance to owners and operators of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) that are required to comply with the requirements of 40 CFR Part 264 Subparts J (Tank Systems), K (Surface Impoundments), L (Waste Piles), N (Landfills), and X (Miscellaneous Units). This document updates technical information contained in other sources of U.S. EPA guidance, such as chapter eleven of SW-846 (Revision O, September 1986) and the Technical Enforcement Guidance Document (TEGD).

  7. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  8. Ground-water data for 1990--91 and ground-water withdrawals for 1951--91, Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, D.B.; Reiner, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents selected ground-water data collected from wells and test holes at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site. Depth-to-water measurements were made at 74 sites at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during water years 1990--91. Measured depths to water ranged from 301 to 2,215 feet below land surface and measured altitudes of the ground-water surface at the Nevada Test Site ranged from 2,091 to 6,083 feet above sea level. Depth-to-water measurements were obtained by a combination of wire-line, electric-tape, iron-horse, and steel-tape methods. Available historic withdrawal and depth-to-water data for ground-water supply wells have been included to show changes through time. Water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium concentrations at 15 sites during water years 1990--91. Tritium concentrations in bailed water samples ranged from below detection limits to 5,550,000 picocuries per liter. Tritium concentrations in samples from three wells exceeded drinking water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. All three wells are separate piezometers contained within a single test hole near an area of extensive underground nuclear testing.

  9. Use of Electrical Imaging and Distributed Temperature Sensing Methods to Characterize Surface Water-Groundwater Exchange Regulating Uranium Transport at the Hanford 300 Area, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Carole D.; Lane, John W.

    2010-10-31

    A critical challenge in advancing prediction of solute transport between contaminated aquifers and rivers is improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along river corridors. Here, we explored the use of waterborne geoelectrical imaging, in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for uranium transport within the hyporheic corridor at the Hanford 300 Area. We first inverted waterborne geoelectrical (resistivity and induced polarization) datasets for distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units was reconstructed. Variations in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, were resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the 300 Area. Polarizability images were translated into lithologic images using established relationships between polarizability and surface area normalized to pore volume (Spor). The spatial variability captured in the geoelectrical datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and point probing overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. The DTS data recorded on 1. 5 km of cable with a 1 m spatial resolution and 5 minute sampling interval revealed sub-reaches showing (1) high temperature anomalies and, (2) a strong negative correlation between temperature and river stage, both indicative of groundwater influxes during winter months. The DTS datasets confirm the hydrologic significance of the variability identified in the geoelectrical imaging and reveal a pattern of highly focused hyporheic exchange, with exchange concentrated at springs where the Hanford formation is thick, and coinciding with a paleochannel identified in ground penetrating radar surveys at one location. No evidence for focused hyporheic exchange is observed in the DTS data where the Ringold unit is in contact with the riverbed. Our findings illustrate how the combination of waterborne geoelectrical imaging and DTS technologies can characterize hyporheic exchange in a complex, coupled river-aquifer system.

  10. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  11. Selection of clc, cba, and fcb chlorobenzoate-catabolic genotypes from groundwater and surface waters adjacent to the Hyde Park, Niagara Falls, chemical landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peel, M.C.; Wyndham, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    The frequency of isolation of three nonhomologous chlorobenzoate catabolic genotypes (clc, cba, and fbc) was determined for 464 isolates from freshwater sediments and groundwater in the vicinity of the Hyde Park industrial landfill site in the Niagara watershed. Samples were collected from both contaminated and noncontaminated sites during spring, summer, and fall and enriched at 4, 22, or 32 C with micromolar to millimolar concentrations of chlorobenzoates and 3-chlorobiphenyl. Hybridization at moderate stringency to restriction-digested genomic DNA with DNA probes revealed the chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase operon (clcABD), the 3-chlorobenzoate 3,4-(4,5)-dioxygenase operon (cbaABC), and the 4-chlorobenzoate dehalogenase (fcbB) gene in isolates enriched from all contaminated sites in the vicinity of the industrial landfill. Nevertheless, the known genes were found in less than 10% of the isolates from the contaminated sites, indicating a high level of genetic diversity in the microbial community. The known genotypes were not enriched from the noncontaminated control sites nearby. The clc, cba, and fcb isolates were distributed across five phenotypically distinct groups based on Biolog carbon source utilization, with the breadth of the host range decreasing in the order clc > cba > fcb. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns showed that the cba genes were conserved in all isolates whereas the clc and fcb genes exhibited variation in RFLP patterns.

  12. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  13. GWVis: A Tool for Comparative Ground-Water Data Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, Daniel M.; Lewis, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    The Ground-Water Visualization application (GWVis) presents ground-water data visually in order to educate the public on ground-water issues. It is also intended for presentations to government and other funding agencies. Current three dimensional models of ground-water are overly complex, while the two dimensional representations (i.e., on paper) are neither comprehensive, nor engaging. At present, GWVis operates on water head elevation data over a given time span, together with a matching (fixed) underlying geography. Two elevation scenarios are compared with each other, typically a control data set (actual field data) and a simulation. Scenario comparison can be animated for the time span provided. We developed GWVis using the Python programming language, associated libraries, and pyOpenGL extension packages to improve performance and control of attributes of the mode (such as color, positioning, scale, and interpolation). GWVis bridges the gap between two dimensional and dynamic three dimensional research visualizations by providing an intuitive, interactive design that allows participants to view the model from different perspectives and to infer information about scenarios. By incorporating scientific data in an environment that can be easily understood, GWVis allows the information to be presented to a large audience base.

  14. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, through December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Camera, Richard J.; Locke, Glenn L.; Munson, Rodney H.

    1999-07-30

    Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals from a variety of ground-water sources in the study area are reported for calendar year 1997.

  15. Effect of faulting on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faunt, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This study characterizes the hydrogeologic system of the Death Valley region, an area covering approximately 100,000 square kilometers. The study also characterizes the effects of faults on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region by synthesizing crustal stress, fracture mechanics,a nd structural geologic data. The geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. Faulting and associated fracturing is pervasive and greatly affects ground-water flow patterns. Faults may become preferred conduits or barriers to flow depending on whether they are in relative tension, compression, or shear and other factors such as the degree of dislocations of geologic units caused by faulting, the rock types involved, the fault zone materials, and the depth below the surface. The current crustal stress field was combined with fault orientations to predict potential effects of faults on the regional ground-water flow regime. Numerous examples of fault-controlled ground-water flow exist within the study area. Hydrologic data provided an independent method for checking some of the assumptions concerning preferential flow paths. 97 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. WAC - 173-200 Water Quality Standards for Groundwaters of the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    These rules establish ground water quality standards to protect the environment and human health and protection of existing and future beneficial uses of groundwaters in...

  17. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  18. Guidelines for the Protection of Surface and Groundwater Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Groundwater Resources During Exploration Drilling Author Government of Western Australia Organization Department of Mines and Petroleum Published NA, 2002 DOI Not Provided...

  19. Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley REgional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael T. Moreo; and Leigh Justet

    2008-07-02

    Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 19131998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

  20. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.

  1. Drought resilience of the California Central Valley surface-groundwater-conveyance system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.L.; Dale, L.L.; Brush, C.; Vicuna, S.; Kadir, T.N.; Dogrul, E.C.; Chung, F.I.

    2009-05-15

    A series of drought simulations were performed for the California Central Valley using computer applications developed by the California Department of Water Resources and historical datasets representing a range of droughts from mild to severe for time periods lasting up to 60 years. Land use, agricultural cropping patterns, and water demand were held fixed at the 2003 level and water supply was decreased by amounts ranging between 25 and 50%, representing light to severe drought types. Impacts were examined for four hydrologic subbasins, the Sacramento Basin, the San Joaquin Basin, the Tulare Basin, and the Eastside Drainage. Results suggest the greatest impacts are in the San Joaquin and Tulare Basins, regions that are heavily irrigated and are presently overdrafted in most years. Regional surface water diversions decrease by as much as 70%. Stream-to-aquifer flows and aquifer storage declines were proportional to drought severity. Most significant was the decline in ground water head for the severe drought cases, where results suggest that under these scenarios the water table is unlikely to recover within the 30-year model-simulated future. However, the overall response to such droughts is not as severe as anticipated and the Sacramento Basin may act as ground-water insurance to sustain California during extended dry periods.

  2. Ground-water solutes and eolian processes: An example from the High Plains of Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, W.W.; Sanford, W.E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Eolian dunes associated with saline-lake basins are important geologic features in arid and semiarid areas. The authors propose that eolian processes may also be important in controlling solute concentration and composition of ground water in these environments. A study of Double Lakes on the Southern High Plains of Texas suggests that approximately 200 megagrams of chloride enters this topographically closed basin from the surrounding water table aquifer, direct precipitation and surface runoff. Solute-transport simulation suggest that approximately 70 of the 200 megagrams of the chloride annually leaves the basin by diffusion and ground-water advection through a 30 meter-thick shale underlying the lake. The remaining 130 megagrams is hypothesized to be removed by eolian processes. Closed water-table contours around the lake and a hydrologic analysis suggest that it is improbable that solutes will reach the surrounding water-table aquifer by ground-water transport from this lake system. The conceptual eolian-transport model is further supported by observed chloride profiles in the unsaturated zone. When analyzed with estimates of recharge fluxes, these profiles suggest that approximately 150 megagrams of chloride enter the unsaturated zone downwind of the lake annually. Thus two independent methods suggest that 130 to 150 megagrams of chloride enter the unsaturated zone downwind of the lake annually. Thus two independent methods suggest that 130 to 150 megagrams of chloride are removed from the basin annually by eolian process and redeposited downwind of the lake. Eolian input to the ground water is consistent with the observed plume shape as well as with the solute and isotopic composition of ground water in the water-table aquifer downwind of the lake basin.

  3. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on twomore » general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.« less

  4. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  5. EA-1155: Ground-water Compliance Activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's ground-water standards set forth in 40 CFR 192 at the Spook, Wyoming Uranium Mill...

  6. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of the US Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program in Hawaii, 1992. Water-resources investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1997-12-31

    This report describes an evaluation of the 1992 USGS ground-water data-collection program in Hawaii. The occurrence of ground water in the Hawaiian islands is briefly described. Objectives for the data-collection program are identified followed by a description of well networks needed to prepare maps of water levels and chloride concentrations. For the islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii, the wells in the 1992 ground-water data-collection program are described followed by maps showing the distribution and magnitude of pumpage, and the distribution of proposed pumped wells. Wells in the 1992 USGS ground-water data-collection program that provide useful data for mapping water levels and chloride concentrations are identified followed by locations where additional wells are needed for water-level and chloride-concentration data. In addition, a procedure to store and review data is described.

  8. Characterization of Flow Paths, Residence Time and Media Chemistry in Complex Landscapes to Integrate Surface, Groundwater and Stream Processes and Inform Models of Hydrologic and Water Quality Response to Land Use Activities; Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitew, Menberu; Jackson, Rhett

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this report is to document the methodology used to calculate the three hydro-geomorphic indices: C Index, Nhot spot, and Interflow Contributing Area (IFC Area). These indices were applied in the Upper Four Mile Creek Watershed in order to better understand the potential mechanisms controlling retention time, path lengths, and potential for nutrient and solute metabolism and exchange associated with the geomorphic configurations of the upland contributing areas, groundwater, the riparian zone, and stream channels.

  9. Field-deployable, nano-sensing approach for real-time detection of free mercury, speciation and quantification in surface stream waters and groundwater samples at the U.S. Department of Energy contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campiglia, Andres D.; Hernandez, Florencio E.

    2014-08-28

    The detrimental effects on human health caused by long-term exposure to trace contamination of toxic metals have been documented in numerous epidemiological and toxicological studies. The fact that metals are non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain poses a severe threat to the environment and human health. Their monitoring in drinking water, aquatic ecosystems, food and biological fluids samples is then essential for global sustainability. While research efforts employing established methodology continue to advance conceptual/computational models of contaminant behavior, the increasing awareness and public concern with environmental and occupational exposure to toxic metals calls for sensing devices capable to handle on-site elemental analysis in short analysis time. Field analysis with potable methodology prevents unnecessary scrutiny of un-contaminated samples via laboratory-bound methods, reduces analysis cost and expedites turnaround time for decision making and remediation purposes. Of particular toxicological interest are mercury and its species. Mercury is recognized as a major environmental pollution issue. The field-portable sensor developed in this project provides a unique and valuable tool for the on-site, real-time determination of inorganic mercury in surface waters. The ability to perform on-site analysis of mercury should prove useful in remote locations with difficult accessibility. It should facilitate data collection from statistically meaningful population sizes for a better understanding of the dose-effect role and the water-soil-plant-animal-human transfer mechanisms. The acquired knowledge should benefit the development of efficient environmental remediation processes, which is extremely relevant for a globally sustainable environment.

  10. Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah. Implications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unconventional fuel development will require scarce water resources. In an environment characterized by scarcity, and where most water resources are fully allocated, prospective ...

  11. Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from 1977 to 1984 near settling ponds on adjacent industrial property at the western end of the Cowles Unit. Since 1980, when the settling pond bottoms were sealed, these intradunal lowlands contained standing water only during periods of high snowmelt or rainfall. Water level declines following the cessation of seepage ranged from 6 feet at the eastern-most settling pond to nearly 14 feet at the western-most pond. No general pattern of water table decline was observed in the Great Marsh or in the shoreline dune complex at distances > 3,000 ft east or north of the settling ponds. Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow ground-water downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow groundwater in areas unaffected by settling pond seepage. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah. Implications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conjunctive management holds promise as a means of addressing some of the West's most intractable problems. Conjunctive management can firm up water supplies by more effectively ...

  13. Groundwater Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Groundwater Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring LANL maintains an extensive groundwater monitoring and surveillance program through sampling. August 1, 2013 Conceptual model of water movement and geology at Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual model of water movement and geology at Los Alamos National Laboratory RELATED IMAGES http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3749/9827580556_473a91fd78_t.jpg Enlarge

  14. 40 CFR 265 interim-status ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This report outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond, located in the southwestern part of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials may have been discharged to the pond. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to determine if hazardous chemicals are moving out of the pond. This plan describes the location of new wells for the monitoring system, how the wells are to be completed, the data to be collected, and how those data can be used to determine the source and extent of any ground-water contamination from the 2101-M pond. Four new wells are planned, one upgradient and three downgradient. 35 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

  16. Ground-water chemistry of a fen-wetland complex in northeastern Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panno, S.V.; Hensel, B.R.; Cartwright, K.; Krapac, I.G. ); Nuzzo, V. )

    1992-01-01

    Construction of homes within the watershed of a fen-wetland complex has resulted in encroachment of ground water-borne anthropogenic contaminants into 3 high-quality fens. The study area is located in northeastern Illinois and is situated at the base of a Wisconsinan moraine. The upper 15 to 45 m of glacial drift consists of permeable sand and gravel, overlain by 3 to 6 m of peat and marl. Ground-water samples were collected quarterly for 1.25 years from sand and gravel aquifers, and peat and marl of the fens, and analyzed for inorganic constituents. Density, cover and vigor data on threatened, endangered and selected common plant species in the fens were collected in conjunction with ground-water sampling. Ground water of the complex is of the Ca-HCO[sub 3] to Ca-Mg-HCO[sub 3] type which is typical of ground water of glacial deposits of North America. Contaminant plumes at this site are enriched in Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, NO[sub 3], SO[sub 4], with higher specific conductance and alkalinity. Some recharge areas within the complex yield ground-water samples containing 200--500 mg/L SO[sub 4]. Although this ground water is entering the fens, ground water from peat and marl in the fens contains an order of magnitude lower concentration of SO[sub 4] due to reducing conditions therein. Progressive enrichment of Cl and NO[sub 3], and decrease in Eh is occurring in recharge areas nearest housing developments, suggesting progressive degradation of ground-water quality. Mineral content of ground water appears to have the most significant affect on plant diversity within the fens. A specific conductance of greater than 100 [mu]s/cm in shallow fen ground water correlates well with the encroachment and proliferation of Typha angustifolia L. (narrow-leaf cattail) into areas of highly diverse flora.

  17. Surface Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Water Sampling Details Activities (3) Areas (2) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field...

  18. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface water, storm water and springs. April 12, 2012 Quarterly Groundwater monitoring attended by LANL managers and the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board LANL scientists brief the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board during quarterly groundwater monitoring of the well network around Area G. Contact

  19. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    Experiences with injecting geothermal fluids have identified technical problems associated with geothermal waste disposal. This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented, including: Raft River, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake and Hatchobaru in Japan, and Ahuachapan in El Salvador. Hydrogeologic and design/operational factors affecting the success of an injection program are identified. Hydrogeologic factors include subsidence, near-surface effects of injected fluids, and seismicity. Design/operational factors include hydrodynamic breakthrough, condition of the injection system and reservoir maintenance. Existing and potential effects of production/injection on these factors are assessed.

  20. Drinking Water and Groundwater Protection Division File Transfer...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Site Instructions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Instructions: Drinking Water and...

  1. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for January through June 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between January and June 1988 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, and monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. In addition, several new analytical initiatives were undertaken during this period. These include cyanide speciation in the BY Cribs plume, inductively coupled argon plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) measurements on a broad selection of samples from the 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas, and high sensitivity gas chromatography measurements performed at the Solid Waste Landfill-Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  2. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  4. June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Green River, Utah, Disposal Site August 2015 LMSGRNS00615 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-June 2015, Green River, Utah August 2015 RIN 15067102 ...

  5. Ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, January-December 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cline, C.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Raymond, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This program is designed to evaluate existing and potential pathways of exposure to radioactivity and hazardous chemicals from site operations. This document contains an evaluation of data collected during CY 1984. During 1984, 339 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Two of these constituents, specifically, tritium and nitrate, have been selected for detailed discussion in this report. Tritium and nitrate in the primary plumes originating from the 200 Areas continue to move generally eastward toward the Columbia River in the direction of ground-water flow. The movement within these plumes is indicated by changes in trends within the analytical data from the monitoring wells. No discernible impact on ground water has yet been observed from the start-up of the PUREX plant in December 1983. The shape of the present tritium plume is similar to those described in previous ground-water monitoring reports, although slight changes on the outer edges have been noted. Radiological impacts from two potential pathways for radionuclide transport in ground water to the environment are discussed in this report. The pathways are: (1) human consumption of ground water from onsite wells, and (2) seepage of ground water into the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium in spring samples that were collected and analyzed in 1983, and in wells sampled adjacent to the Columbia River in 1984 confirmed that constituents in the ground water are entering the river via springs and subsurface flow. The primary areas where radionuclides enter the Columbia River via ground-water flow are the 100-N and 300 Areas and the shoreline adjacent to the Hanford Townsite. 44 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil Friday, G. P. 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; SOILS; SURFACE WATERS; SEDIMENTS; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ENVIRONMENTAL...

  8. Category:Surface Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Water Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Surface Water Sampling page? For detailed information on...

  9. air_water.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    122011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring ...

  10. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January 2000-December 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locke, Glenn L. [US Geological Survey, Carson City, NV (United States); La Camera, Richard J. [US Geological Survey, Carson City, NV (United States)

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January 2000 through December 2002. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are graphically presented to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented for 19922002 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to selected baseline periods. Baseline periods varied for 198593. At six of the seven wells in Jackass Flats, the median water levels for 2002 were slightly higher (0.32.4 feet) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining well, data for 2002 was not summarized statistically but median water-level altitude in 2001 was 0.7 foot higher than that in its baseline period.

  11. Results of a ground-water and DNAPL recovery and containment strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazierski, P.F.; Connor, J.M. )

    1993-10-01

    Ground-water contamination and dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) were discovered at the DuPont Necco Park Landfill in Niagara Falls, New York, shortly after the facility was closed in the late 1970s. The facility received a variety of solid and liquid process wastes, including chlorinated volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. A number of proactive response activities--including the operation of a ground-water recovery system, installation of a grout curtain, and DNAPL recovery--were implemented by DuPont concurrent with site characterization. These efforts minimized off-site contaminant migration and removed most of the recoverable free-phase DNAPL prior to completion of the full site characterization. Site investigations to characterize hydrogeologic controls over occurrence and migration of ground water and DNAPL revealed with distinct water-bearing zones beneath the site. A DNAPL recovery program, using gas-driven pump assemblies, was initiated in early 1989 at a small group of wells where DNAPL was frequently observed. The volume of recovered DNAPL declined over the next four years from a peak of 397 gallons per month in 1989 to little or no recovery in recent months.

  12. Groundwater contamination from stormwater infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitt, R.; Clark, S.; Parmer, K.

    1995-10-01

    The research summarized here was conducted during the first year of a 3-yr cooperative agreement (CR819573) to identify and control stormwater toxicants, especially those adversely affecting groundwater. The purpose of this research effort was to review the groundwater contamination literature as it relates to stormwater. Prior to urbanization groundwater is recharged by rainfall-runoff and snowmelt infiltrating through pervious surfaces including grasslands and woods. This infiltrating water is relatively uncontaminated. Urbanization, however, reduces the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration occurs. This results in much less groundwater recharge and greatly increased surface runoff. In addition the waters available for recharge carry increased quantities of pollutants. With urbanization, waters having elevated contaminant concentrations also recharge groundwater including effluent from domestic septic tanks, wastewater from percolation basins and industrial waste injection wells, infiltrating stormwater, and infiltrating water from agricultural irrigation. The areas of main concern that are covered by this paper are: the source of the pollutants, stormwater constituents having a high potential to contaminate groundwater, and the treatment necessary for stormwater.

  13. Sheet1 Water Availability Metric (Acre-Feet/Yr) Water Cost Metric ($/Acre-Foot)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sheet1 Water Availability Metric (Acre-Feet/Yr) Water Cost Metric ($/Acre-Foot) Current Water Use (Acre-Feet/Yr) Projected Use in 2030 (Acre-Feet/Yr) HUC_8 STATE BASIN SUBBASIN UNAPPROPRIATED SURFACE WATER METRIC UNAPPROPRIATED GROUNDWATER METRIC APPROPRIATED WATER METRIC BRACKISH GROUNDWATER METRIC WASTEWATER METRIC UNAPPROPRIATED GROUNDWATER COST METRIC APPROPRIATED WATER COST METRIC BRACKISH GROUNDWATER COST METRIC WASTEWATER COST METRIC M&I_2012 AG_2012 ENVIRONMENT 2012 THERMOELECTIC

  14. Technical Basis for Evaluating Surface Barriers to Protect Groundwater from Deep Vadose Zone Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Freedman, Vicky L.

    2010-02-03

    This document presents a strategy for evaluating the effectiveness of surface barriers for site-specific deep vadose zone remediation. The strategy provides a technically defensible approach to determine the depth to which a surface barrier can effectively isolate contaminants in the vadose at a specific site as a function of subsurface properties, contaminant distribution, barrier design, and infiltration control performance. The strategy also provides an assessment of additional data and information needs with respect to surface barrier performance for deep vadose zone applications. The strategy addresses the linkage between surface barriers and deep vadose zone in situ remediation activities, monitoring issues, and emerging science, technology, and regulatory objectives. In short, the report documents the existing knowledge base, identifies knowledge needs (based on data gaps), and suggests tasks whose outcomes will address those knowledge needs. More important, the report serves as a starting point to engage the regulator and stakeholder community on the viability of deploying surface barriers for deep vadose zone contamination. As that engagement unfolds, a systematic methodology can be formalized and instituted. The strategy is focused on deep vadose zone contamination and the methods needed to determine the impact to groundwater from those deep vadose zone contaminants. Processes that affect surface barrier performance, recharge in the areas surrounding the surface barrier, and the near-surface vadose zone beneath the barrier are acknowledged but are not addressed by this strategy. In addition, the collection of site-specific data on contaminant distribution and geologic structure and properties are programmatic responsibilities and are not provided by this strategy.

  15. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for April through June 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.C.; Mitchell, P.J.; Dennison, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site. Results for monitoring by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) during April-June 1987 show that certain regulated hazardous materials and radionuclides exist in Hanford Site ground waters. The presence of regulated constituents in the ground water derives both from site operations and from natural sources. The major contamination problems defined by recent monitoring activities are carbon tetrachloride in the 200 West Area; cyanide in and north of the 200 East Area; hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100B, 100D, 100K, and 100H areas; chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill; uranium at the 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 cribs in the 200 West Area; tritium across the site; and nitrate across the site. The distribution of hazardous materials related to site operations is more limited than the distribution of tritium and nitrate. 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Hydrogeologic evaluation and numerical simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; Hill, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ground-water system. The study area covers approximately 100,000 square kilometers between lat 35{degrees}N., long 115{degrees}W and lat 38{degrees}N., long 118{degrees}W and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the and climatic conditions and the complex described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as having two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Throughout the regional flow system, ground-water flow is probably controlled by extensive and prevalent structural features that result from regional faulting and fracturing. Hydrogeologic investigations over a large and hydrogeologically complex area impose severe demands on data management. This study utilized geographic information systems and geoscientific information systems to develop, store, manipulate, and analyze regional hydrogeologic data sets describing various components of the ground-water flow system.

  17. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Cline, C.S.; Jensen, E.J.; Liikala, T.L.; Oster, K.R.

    1984-07-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents contain low level of radioactive and chemical substances. During 1983, 328 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Three of these constituents, specifically tritium, nitrate, and gross beta activity, were selected for detailed discussion in this report because they are more readily transported in the ground water than some of the other constituents. Transport of these constituents in the ground water has resulted in the formation of plumes that can be mapped by contouring the analytical data obtained from the monitoring wells. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium, nitrate and gross beta plumes. Changes or trends in contaminant levels in wells located within both the main plumes (originating from the 200 Areas) and the smaller plumes are discussed in this report. Two potential pathways for radionuclide transport from the ground water to the environmental are discussed in this report, and the radiological impacts are examined. In addition to describing the present status of the ground water beneath the Hanford Site, this report contains the results of studies conducted in support of the ground-water surveillance effort during CY 1983. 21 references, 26 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Groundwater Database

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has one of the largest ground water contamination problems and subsequent cleanup responsibilities for a single entity in the world, in terms of the sheer volume of affected groundwater, number...

  19. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FAYER JM; FREEDMAN VL; WARD AL; CHRONISTER GB

    2010-02-24

    The U.S. DOE and its predecessors released nearly 2 trillion liters (450 billion gallons) of contaminated liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Some of the contaminants currently reside in the deeper parts of the vadose zone where they are much less accessible to characterization, monitoring, and typical remediation activities. The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) prepared a treatability test plan in 2008 to examine remediation options for addressing contaminants in the deep vadose zone; one of the technologies identified was surface barriers (also known as engineered barriers, covers, and caps). In the typical configuration, the contaminants are located relatively close to the surface, generally within 15 m, and thus they are close to the base of the surface barrier. The proximity of the surface barrier under these conditions yielded few concerns about the effectiveness of the barrier at depth, particularly for cases in which the contaminants were in a lined facility. At Hanford, however, some unlined sites have contaminants located well below depths of 15 m. The issue raised about these sites is the degree of effectiveness of a surface barrier in isolating contaminants in the deep vadose zone. Previous studies by Hanford Site and PNNL researchers suggest that surface barriers have the potential to provide a significant degree of isolation of deep vadose zone contaminants. The studies show that the actual degree of isolation is site-specific and depends on many factors, including recharge rates, barrier size, depth of contaminants, geohydrologic properties ofthe sediments, and the geochemical interactions between the contaminants and the sediments. After the DOE-RL treatability test plan was published, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted to review the information available to support surface barrier evaluation for the deep vadose zone, identify gaps in the information and outcomes necessary to fill the data gaps, and outline tasks to achieve those outcomes. Full understanding of contaminant behavior in the deep vadose zone is constrained by four key data gaps: limited access; limited data; limited time; and the lack of an accepted predictive capability for determining whether surface barriers can effectively isolate deep vadose zone contaminants. Activities designed to fill these data gaps need to have these outcomes: (1) common evaluation methodology that provides a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination; (2) deep vadose zone data that characterize the lithology, the spatial distribution of moisture and contaminants, the physical, chemical, and biological process that affect the mobility of each contaminant, and the impacts to the contaminants following placement of a surface barrier; (3) subsurface monitoring to provide subsurface characterization of initial conditions and changes that occur during and following remediation activities; and (4) field observations that span years to decades to validate the evaluation methodology. A set of six proposed tasks was identified to provide information needed to address the above outcomes. The proposed tasks are: (1) Evaluation Methodology - Develop common evaluation methodology that will provide a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination. (2) Case Studies - Conduct case studies to demonstrate the applicability ofthe common evaluation methodology and provide templates for subsequent use elsewhere. Three sites expected to have conditions that would yield valuable information and experience pertinent to deep vadose zone contamination were chosen to cover a range of conditions. The sites are BC Cribs and Trenches, U Plant Cribs, and the T Farm Interim Cover. (3) Subsurface Monitoring Technologies - Evaluate minimally invasive geophysical approaches for delineating subsurface plumes and monitoring their migration in the deep

  20. Reactive chemical transport in ground-water hydrology: Challenges to mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Apps, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    For a long time, earth scientists have qualitatively recognized that mineral assemblages in soils and rocks conform to established principles of chemistry. In the early 1960's geochemists began systematizing this knowledge by developing quantitative thermodynamic models based on equilibrium considerations. These models have since been coupled with advective-dispersive-diffusive transport models, already developed by ground-water hydrologists. Spurred by a need for handling difficult environmental issues related to ground-water contamination, these models are being improved, refined and applied to realistic problems of interest. There is little doubt that these models will play an important role in solving important problems of engineering as well as science over the coming years. Even as these models are being used practically, there is scope for their improvement and many challenges lie ahead. In addition to improving the conceptual basis of the governing equations, much remains to be done to incorporate kinetic processes and biological mediation into extant chemical equilibrium models. Much also remains to be learned about the limits to which model predictability can be reasonably taken. The purpose of this paper is to broadly assess the current status of knowledge in modeling reactive chemical transport and to identify the challenges that lie ahead.

  1. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Protection of the Groundwater Resource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection of the Groundwater Resource Protection of the Groundwater Resource Monitoring wells act as sentinels between suspected LANL contamination and the water supply. August 1,...

  3. December 2015 Groundwater and Surface Waater Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Site

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Site March 2016 LMS/GJO/S01215 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-December 2015, Grand Junction, Colorado March 2016 RIN 15117528 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Data Assessment Summary

  4. Water Quality Surface and Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Surface and Ground Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterQualitySurfaceandGround&oldid612197" Feedback...

  5. Removing High Explosives from Groundwater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – In an initiative supported by EM, Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Corrective Actions Program is addressing high explosive contamination in surface water and groundwater at a location this summer in the forests surrounding the laboratory.

  6. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. An Update of the Analytical Groundwater Modeling to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Afton Solar Energy Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, John J.; Greer, Christopher B.; Carr, Adrianne E.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to update a one-dimensional analytical groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal in support of utility-scale solar energy development at the Afton Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program. This report describes the modeling for assessing the drawdown associated with SEZ groundwater pumping rates for a 20-year duration considering three categories of water demand (high, medium, and low) based on technology-specific considerations. The 2012 modeling effort published in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (Solar PEIS; BLM and DOE 2012) has been refined based on additional information described below in an expanded hydrogeologic discussion.

  8. Particulate, colloidal, and solution phase associations of plutonium, americium, and uranium in surface and groundwater at the Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harnish, R.A.; McKnight, D.M.; Ranville, J.F.; Stephens, V.C.; Honeyman, B.D.

    1993-12-31

    With the cessation of plutonium processing at the D.O.E.-administered Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, CO, the focus of activities at the facility has switched to contaminant assessment and potential remediation strategies. In this context the authors began a study in 1991 to determine the potential for colloid-facilitated transport of the actinides Pu, Am, and in surface- and groundwater at this site. Using the technique of tangential flow ultrafiltration, the authors isolated particles from four size fractions at one groundwater well and two surface water seeps to determine the distribution of Pu, Am, and U among particulate, colloidal, and dissolved aqueous phases. Analysis of particle isolates and filtrate fractions showed significant associations of Am and Pu with colloidal and particulate size particles; uranium isotopes were associated mainly with low molecular weight organic species. The results indicate a potential for colloidal-facilitated transport of the actinides Pu and Am and a significant contribution by low molecular weight natural organic matter to uranium transport.

  9. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water standards might be exceeded was evaluated. A variety of scenarios and aquifer conditions was considered in a sensitivity evaluation. The scenarios and conditions simulated in Section 4, in particular those describing the geochemistry and mineralogy of potable aquifers, were selected based on the comprehensive geochemical model developed in Section 3.

  10. Appendix D Surface Water and Ground Water Time-Concentration Plots,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Surface Water and Ground Water Time-Concentration Plots, Stream Discharge Measurements, Ground Water Level Data, and Ground Water Well Hydrographs This page intentionally left blank Contents Section .................................................................................. Surface Water Time-Concentration Plots D1.O ............................................................................................... Stream Discharge Measurements D2.0

  11. Groundwater monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ames, Kenneth R.; Doesburg, James M.; Eschbach, Eugene A.; Kelley, Roy C.; Myers, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A groundwater monitoring system includes a bore, a well casing within and spaced from the bore, and a pump within the casing. A water impermeable seal between the bore and the well casing prevents surface contamination from entering the pump. Above the ground surface is a removable operating means which is connected to the pump piston by a flexible cord. A protective casing extends above ground and has a removable cover. After a groundwater sample has been taken, the cord is disconnected from the operating means. The operating means is removed for taking away, the cord is placed within the protective casing, and the cover closed and locked. The system is thus protected from contamination, as well as from damage by accident or vandalism.

  12. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  13. Inversion of Gravity Data to Define the Pre-Cenozoic Surface and Regional Structures Possibly Influencing Groundwater Flow in the Rainier Mesa Region, Nye County, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas G. Hildenbrand; Geoffrey A. Phelps; Edward A. Mankinen

    2006-09-21

    A three-dimensional inversion of gravity data from the Rainier Mesa area and surrounding regions reveals a topographically complex pre-Cenozoic basement surface. This model of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks is intended for use in a 3D hydrogeologic model being constructed for the Rainier Mesa area. Prior to this study, our knowledge of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks was based on a regional model, applicable to general studies of the greater Nevada Test Site area but inappropriate for higher resolution modeling of ground-water flow across the Rainier Mesa area. The new model incorporates several changes that lead to significant improvements over the previous regional view. First, the addition of constraining wells, encountering old volcanic rocks lying above but near pre-Cenozoic basement, prevents modeled basement from being too shallow. Second, an extensive literature and well data search has led to an increased understanding of the change of rock density with depth in the vicinity of Rainier Mesa. The third, and most important change, relates to the application of several depth-density relationships in the study area instead of a single generalized relationship, thereby improving the overall model fit. In general, the pre-Cenozoic basement surface deepens in the western part of the study area, delineating collapses within the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes, and shallows in the east in the Eleana Range and Yucca Flat regions, where basement crops out. In the Rainier Mesa study area, basement is generally shallow (< 1 km). The new model identifies previously unrecognized structures within the pre-Cenozoic basement that may influence ground-water flow, such as a shallow basement ridge related to an inferred fault extending northward from Rainier Mesa into Kawich Valley.

  14. Montana Surface Water Application for Beneficial Use (DNRC Form...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Beneficial Use (DNRC Form 600 GW) Citation Montana Department of Natural Resources & Conservation. Form: Montana Surface Water Application for Beneficial Use (DNRC Form 600...

  15. Montana Surface Water Application for Beneficial Use (DNRC Form...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Beneficial Use (DNRC Form 600 SW) Citation Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. Form: Montana Surface Water Application for Beneficial Use (DNRC Form 600...

  16. Surface Water Sampling At Raft River Geothermal Area (1973) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Water Sampling At Raft River Geothermal Area (1973) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  17. Surface Water Sampling At Chena Geothermal Area (Holdmann, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Water Sampling At Chena Geothermal Area (Holdmann, Et Al., 2006) Exploration Activity...

  18. Texas Surface Water Quality Standards Webpage | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Texas Surface Water Quality Standards Webpage Citation Texas Commission on...

  19. Structure of water adsorbed on a mica surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sung-Ho; Sposito, Garrison

    2002-01-29

    Monte Carlo simulations of hydration water on the mica (001) surface under ambient conditions revealed water molecules bound closely to the ditrigonal cavities in the surface, with a lateral distribution of approximately one per cavity, and water molecules interposed between K{sup +} counter ions in a layer situated about 2.5 {angstrom} from a surface O along a direction normal to the (001) plane. The calculated water O density profile was in quantitative agreement with recent X-ray reflectivity measurements indicating strong lateral ordering of the hydration water but liquid-like disorder otherwise.

  20. Reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the Papio-Missouri river natural resources district, Eastern Nebraska, July through September 1992. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verstraeten, I.M.; Ellis, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to describe the water quality of the principal aquifers in the study area. Wells representative of the geology and land use in the study area were selected for water-quality sampling. Variations in constituent concentration among aquifers are discussed. The report describes the spatial distributions of dissolved nitrite plus-nitrate as nitrogen and triazine and other acetanilide herbicides and evaluates the effects of cropland application of nitrogen and herbicides on the ground-water quality within the study area. The report also summarizes the concentrations of dissolved major and trace constituents including radionuclide activity and concentration.

  1. Summary of hydrogeologic controls on ground-water flow at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laczniak, R.J.; Cole, J.C.; Sawyer, D.A.; Trudeau, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    The underground testing of nuclear devices has generated substantial volumes of radioactive and other chemical contaminants below ground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Many of the more radioactive contaminants are highly toxic and are known to persist in the environment for thousands of years. In response to concerns about potential health hazards, the US Department of Energy, under its Environmental Restoration Program, has made NTS the subject of a long-term investigation. Efforts will assess whether byproducts of underground testing pose a potential hazard to the health and safety of the public and, if necessary, will evaluate and implement steps to remediate any of the identified dangers. Ground-water flow is the primary mechanism by which contaminants can be transported significant distances away from the initial point of injection. Flow paths between contaminant sources and potential receptors are separated by remote areas that span tens of miles. The diversity and structural complexity of the rocks along these flow paths complicates the hydrology of the region. Although the hydrology has been studied in some detail, much still remains uncertain about flow rates and directions through the fractured-rock aquifers that transmit water great distances across this arid region. Unique to the hydrology of NTS are the effects of underground testing, which severely alter local rock characteristics and affect hydrologic conditions throughout the region. This report summarizes what is known and inferred about ground-water flow throughout the NTS region. The report identifies and updates what is known about some of the major controls on ground-water flow, highlights some of the uncertainties in the current understanding, and prioritizes some of the technical needs as related to the Environmental Restoration Program. 113 refs.

  2. Addressing Chromium in Groundwater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Chromium in Groundwater Addressing Chromium in Groundwater From 1956 to 1972, a non-nuclear power plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory periodically flushed water out ...

  3. Concentrations of 23 trace elements in ground water and surface water at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1988--91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liszewski, M.J.; Mann, L.J.

    1993-12-31

    Analytical data for 23 trace elements are reported for ground- and surface-water samples collected at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during 1988--91. Water samples were collected from 148 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer, 18 wells completed in discontinuous deep perched-water zones, and 1 well completed in an alluvial aquifer. Surface-water samples also were collected from three streams, two springs, two ponds, and one lake. Data are categorized by concentrations of total recoverable of dissolved trace elements. Concentrations of total recoverable trace elements are reported for unfiltered water samples and include results for one or more of the following: aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and zinc. Concentrations of dissolved trace elements are reported for water samples filtered through a nominal 0.45-micron filter and may also include bromide, fluoride, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, thallium, and vanadium. Concentrations of dissolved hexavalent chromium also are reported for many samples. The water samples were analyzed at the US Geological Survey`s National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado. Methods used to collect the water samples and quality assurance instituted for the sampling program are described. Concentrations of chromium equaled or exceeded the maximum contaminant level at 12 ground-water quality monitoring wells. Other trace elements did not exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels.

  4. WAC - 173-210A Water Quality Standards for Surface Waters of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0A Water Quality Standards for Surface Waters of the State of Washington Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation:...

  5. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Appendix B of Attachment 3: Groundwater hydrology report, Attachment 4: Water resources protection strategy, Final

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Attachment 3 Groundwater Hydrology Report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the processing site and Dry Flats disposal site. The Hydrological Services calculations contained in Appendix A of Attachment 3, are presented in a separate report. Attachment 4 Water Resources Protection Strategy describes how the remedial action will be in compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater standards.

  6. New Mexico Surface Water Quality Bureau Federal Dredge and Fill...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: New Mexico Surface Water Quality Bureau Federal Dredge and Fill Permits webpage Author New Mexico...

  7. Nano-Cone Textures Generate Extremely "Robust" Water- Repellant Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-30

    High-speed video of water droplets bouncing off a surface textured with nanocones.The scientists filmed the droplets using a camera capable of capturing 30,000 frames per second.

  8. Hawaii Application for Surface Water Use Permit for Proposed...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Proposed New Use in a Designated Surface Water Management Area (DLNR Form SWUPA-N) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Hawaii...

  9. EA-1093: Surface Water Drainage System, Golden, Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats...

  10. Fermilab | Tritium at Fermilab | Tritium in Surface Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Water Fermilab map Fermilab has conducted an environmental monitoring program on site for roughly 40 years. In November of 2005, for the first time, we detected low levels...

  11. Protection of the Groundwater Resource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection of the Groundwater Resource Protection of the Groundwater Resource Monitoring wells act as sentinels between suspected LANL contamination and the water supply. August 1, 2013 Where to place a sentinel well Where

  12. Groundwater Screen

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-11-09

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non radioactive substances from surface or buried sources and release to percolation ponds. The code calculates the limiting soil concentration or effluent release concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer, regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: Contaminant release from a source volume, contaminant transport inmore » the unsaturated zone, and contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. Transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation in groundwater. Concentration as a function of time at a user specified receptor point and maximum concentration averaged over the exposure interval are also calculated. In addition, the code calculates transport and impacts of radioactive progeny. Input to GWSCREEN is through one, free format ASCII file. This code was designed for assessment and screening of the groundwater pathway when field data is limited. It was not intended to be a predictive tool.« less

  13. Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy substrate for arsenic sensing in groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong; Mulvihill, Martin; Tao, Andrea R.; Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Arnold, John

    2015-06-16

    A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate formed from a plurality of monolayers of polyhedral silver nanocrystals, wherein at least one of the monolayers has polyvinypyrrolidone (PVP) on its surface, and thereby configured for sensing arsenic is described. Highly active SERS substrates are formed by assembling high density monolayers of differently shaped silver nanocrystals onto a solid support. SERS detection is performed directly on this substrate by placing a droplet of the analyte solution onto the nanocrystal monolayer. Adsorbed polymer, polyvinypyrrolidone (PVP), on the surface of the nanoparticles facilitates the binding of both arsenate and arsenite near the silver surface, allowing for highly accurate and sensitive detection capabilities.

  14. An Ontology Design Pattern for Surface Water Features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities can be found due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology. It can then be used to systematically incor-porate concepts that are specific to a culture, language, or scientific domain. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this on-tology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is imple-mented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. A discussion about why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, es-pecially the previously developed Surface Network pattern is also provided. Fi-nally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through a few queries and annotated geospatial datasets.

  15. A three-dimensional numerical model of predevelopment conditions in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Agnese, F.A.; O'Brien, G.M.; Faunt, C.C.; Belcher, W.R.; San Juan, Carma

    2002-11-22

    In the early 1990's, two numerical models of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system were developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. In general, the two models were based on the same basic hydrogeologic data set. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey develop and maintain a ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region in support of U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of developing this ''second-generation'' regional model was to enhance the knowledge and understanding of the ground-water flow system as new information and tools are developed. The U.S. Geological Survey also was encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy to cooperate to the fullest extent with other Federal, State, and local entities in the region to take advantage of the benefits of their knowledge and expertise. The short-term objective of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project was to develop a steady-stat e representation of the predevelopment conditions of the ground-water flow system utilizing the two geologic interpretations used to develop the previous numerical models. The long-term objective of this project was to construct and calibrate a transient model that simulates the ground-water conditions of the study area over the historical record that utilizes a newly interpreted hydrogeologic conceptual model. This report describes the result of the predevelopment steady-state model construction and calibration.

  16. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-12-01

    This document is a compendium of water quality and hydrologic characterization data obtained through December 2005 from the network of groundwater monitoring wells and surface water sampling stations (including springs and building sumps) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee that have been sampled since January 2003. The primary objectives of this document, hereafter referenced as the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Compendium, are to: (1) Serve as a single-source reference for monitoring data that meet the requirements of the Y-12 GWPP, as defined in the Y-12 GWPP Management Plan (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2004); (2) Maintain a detailed analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data for each applicable well, spring, and surface water sampling station, with a focus on results for the primary inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater and surface water at Y-12; and (3) Ensure retention of ''institutional knowledge'' obtained over the long-term (>20-year) history of groundwater and surface water monitoring at Y-12 and the related sources of groundwater and surface water contamination. To achieve these goals, the Y-12 GWPP Compendium brings together salient hydrologic, geologic, geochemical, water-quality, and environmental compliance information that is otherwise disseminated throughout numerous technical documents and reports prepared in support of completed and ongoing environmental contamination assessment, remediation, and monitoring activities performed at Y-12. The following subsections provide background information regarding the overall scope and format of the Y-12 GWPP Compendium and the planned approach for distribution and revision (i.e., administration) of this ''living'' document.

  17. Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Groundwater Protection Program, U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-03-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during calendar year (CY) 2000. These monitoring data were collected for the specific purposes of DOE Order 5400.1 site surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring, as described in the ''Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation'' (DOE 1996). Site surveillance monitoring provides data regarding the quality of groundwater and surface water in areas that are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12. Exit pathway/perimeter monitoring provides data regarding the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The CY 2000 groundwater and surface water monitoring data presented in this report were obtained under the auspices of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) (January-October, 2000) and by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (November-December, 2000), and the Water Resources Restoration Program (WRRP), which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Combining the monitoring results obtained under both the Y-12 GWPP and the WRRP enables this report to serve as a consolidated reference for the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained at Y-12 during CY 2000.

  18. Ground-water geochemistry and radionuclide activity in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer of Dodge and Fond du Lac counties, Wisconsin. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, T.R.; Bahr, J.M.; Anderson, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of groundwater from wells in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer of eastern Wisconsin indicate that regions of the aquifer contain elevated concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride and sulfate. Groundwater from several wells in the area also approach or exceed the current drinking water standard for combined radium activity. Significant changes in groundwater chemistry occur where the aquifer becomes confined by the Maquoketa shale. Concentrations of Cl(-), SO4(2-) and Na(+) increase in the confined region, and the highest combined radium activities are typically observed in the area. Geochemical modeling implies that the observed changes in major ion groundwater chemistry occur in response to the presence of the confining unit which may act as a source of SO4(2-), through gypsum dissolution, and Na(+), through cation exchange. A finite difference groundwater flow model was linked to a particle tracking routine to determine groundwater flow paths and residence times in the aquifer near the boundary between unconfined and confined conditions. Results suggest that the presence of the confining unit produces a vertically stratified flow regime in the confined region.

  19. The ecological evaluation of surface water outfalls at a manufacturing plant in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harman, C.R.; Gilchrist, W.

    1995-12-31

    Historic metal machining operations at a manufacturing plant in northern New Jersey had resulted in the contamination of three surface water outfalls leading from the plant to a second-order stream used for trout fishing. The outfalls were fed by a combination of non-contact cooling water, stormwater runoff and groundwater infiltration. The outfalls ranged in length from 180 meters to 600 meters. All three of the outfalls pass through forested wetland areas and contained emergent wetland pockets. The ecological evaluation consisted of the collection of sediment samples to evaluate the extent of chemical contamination and the evaluation of the biological integrity of a portion of the surface water outfalls. Additionally, an ecological characterization of the surrounding habitat was prepared. Sediment sampling indicated elevated concentrations of antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc. Nickel concentrations were the most significant, with concentrations ranging up to 9,850 mg/kg. PCB concentrations ranged between 0.45 mg/kg and 6.4 mg/kg. Elevated concentrations of metals and PCBs were detected to a sediment depth of 45 centimeters. To evaluate the potential for biological impacts from the metals in the sediments, a modified Rapid Bioassessment Protocol 1 evaluation was conducted on the macroinvertebrate population. The results of the evaluation indicated a very sparse macroinvertebrate community. Those organisms that were identified were typical of highly contaminated surface water system. The surrounding wetland systems appeared to be unaffected by the outfall contamination. Based on the results of the first phase of the ecological evaluation, a program of additional sediment sampling and further biological evaluation was prepared.

  20. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (Δhads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reaching its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.

  1. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (Δhads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reachingmore » its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.« less

  2. LANL Water Protection Status Report - FY12 3rd Qtr. (Apr thru Jun 2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglass, Craig R.

    2012-07-12

    Continued monitoring of the Buckman Direct Diversion and Los Alamos County Water Supply Wells; Groundwater Protection - Continued implementation of the Interim Facility-Wide Groundwater Monitoring Plan (IFGMP); Surface Water Protection - Continued protection of surface water through implementation of the Individual Stormwater Permit (IP); Buckman Early Notification System operability at 100% per MOU Requirements.

  3. Surface Catalysis of Water Oxidation by the Blue Ruthenium Dimer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurss, Jonah W.; Concepcion, Javier C.; Norris, Michael R.; Templeton, Joseph L.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2010-04-08

    Single-electron activation of multielectron catalysis has been shown to be viable in catalytic water oxidation with stepwise proton-coupled electron transfer, leading to high-energy catalytic precursors. For the blue dimer, cis,cis-[(bpy)2(H2O)RuIIIORuIII(H2O)(bpy)2]4+, the first well-defined molecular catalyst for water oxidation, stepwise 4e-/4H+ oxidation occurs to give the reactive precursor [(O)RuVORuV(O)]4+. This key intermediate is kinetically inaccessible at an unmodified metal oxide surface, where the only available redox pathway is electron transfer. We report here a remarkable surface activation of indium-tin oxide (In2O3:Sn) electrodes toward catalytic water oxidation by the blue dimer at electrodes derivatized by surface phosphonate binding of [Ru(4,4'-((HO)2P(O)CH2)2bpy)2(bpy)]2+. Surface binding dramatically improves the rate of surface oxidation of the blue dimer and induces water oxidation catalysis.

  4. Radiolysis Concerns for Water Shielding in Fission Surface Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Anghaie, Samim

    2008-01-21

    This paper presents an overview of radiolysis concerns with regard to water shields for fission surface power. A review of the radiolysis process is presented and key parameters and trends are identified. From this understanding of the radiolytic decomposition of water, shield pressurization and corrosion are identified as the primary concerns. Existing experimental and modeling data addressing concerns are summarized. It was found that radiolysis of pure water in a closed volume results in minimal, if any net decomposition, and therefore reduces the potential for shield pressurization and corrosion.

  5. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

  6. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-11-14

    Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate water and carbon dioxide adsorption at the (010) surface of five olivine minerals, namely, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), calcio-olivine (Ca2SiO4), tephroite (Mn2SiO4), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and Co-olivine (Co2SiO4). Adsorption energies per water molecule obtained from energy minimizations varied from -78 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -128 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine at sub-monolayer coverage and became less exothermic as coverage increased. In contrast, carbon dioxide adsorption energies at sub-monolayer coverage ranged from -20 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -59 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine. Therefore, the DFT calculations show a strong driving force for carbon dioxide displacement by water at the surface of all olivine minerals in a competitive adsorption scenario. Additionally, adsorption energies for both water and carbon dioxide were found to be more exothermic for the alkaline-earth (AE) olivines than for the transition-metal (TM) olivines and to not correlate with the solvation enthalpies of the corresponding divalent cations. However, a correlation was obtained with the charge of the surface divalent cation indicating that the more ionic character of the AE cations in the olivine structure relative to the TM cations leads to greater interactions with adsorbed water and carbon dioxide molecules at the surface and thus more exothermic adsorption energies for the AE olivines. For calcio-olivine, which exhibits the highest divalent cation charge of the five olivines, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showed that this effect leads both water and carbon dioxide to react with the surface and form hydroxyl groups and a carbonate-like species, respectively.

  7. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 1998 Water Year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. A. Shaull; M. R. Alexander; R. P. Reynolds; C. T. McLean; R. P. Romero

    1999-02-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 19 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Also included are discharge data from three springs that flow into Caiion de Vane.

  8. Heterogeneous nucleation of naphthalene vapor on water surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolik, J.; Schwarz, J.

    1997-01-15

    Transfer processes between drops and gas play an important role in many natural and industrial processes, as absorption of gaseous pollutants by water drops in the atmosphere, combustion of fuel droplets, spray drying, synthesis of nanopowders, wet-dry desulfurization or extinguishing of hot combustion gases. The evaporation of a water drop into a ternary gaseous mixture of air, steam, and naphthalene vapor was investigated. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical prediction based on a numerical solution of coupled boundary layer equations for heat and mass transfer from a drop moving in ternary gas. In the experiments the naphthalene vapor condensed on the water drop as a supercooled liquid even at temperatures far below the melting point of naphthalene. The condensation on drop surface is discussed in terms of classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation on smooth surfaces.

  9. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2009 water year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, David; McCullough, Betsy

    2010-05-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 73 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs two that flow into Caon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  10. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2008 water year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, David; Cata, Betsy; Kuyumjian, Gregory

    2009-09-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 69 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs two that flow into Caon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  11. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2000 Water Year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.A.Shaull; M.R.Alexander; R.P.Reynolds; R.P.Romero; E.T.Riebsomer; C.T.McLean

    2001-06-02

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 23 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs, two that flow into Canon del Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  12. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2006 Water Year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.P. Romero, D. Ortiz, G. Kuyumjian

    2007-08-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 44 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs--two that flow into Canon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon--and peak flow data for 44 stations.

  13. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2002 Water Year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.A. Shaull; D. Ortiz; M.R. Alexander; R.P. Romero

    2003-03-03

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 34 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs--two that flow into Canon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon--and peak flow data from 16 stations.

  14. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1999 Water Year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. A. Shaull; M. R. Alexander; R. P. Reynolds; C. T. McLean; R. P. Romero

    2000-04-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 22 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory with one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs that flow into Canon de Valle and nine partial-record storm water stations.

  15. Observation of dynamic water microadsorption on Au surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaokang, E-mail: xiaokang.huang@tqs.com; Gupta, Gaurav; Gao, Weixiang; Tran, Van; Nguyen, Bang; McCormick, Eric; Cui, Yongjie; Yang, Yinbao; Hall, Craig; Isom, Harold [TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc., 500 W Renner Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Experimental and theoretical research on water wettability, adsorption, and condensation on solid surfaces has been ongoing for many decades because of the availability of new materials, new detection and measurement techniques, novel applications, and different scales of dimensions. Au is a metal of special interest because it is chemically inert, has a high surface energy, is highly conductive, and has a relatively high melting point. It has wide applications in semiconductor integrated circuitry, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, biochips, jewelry, coinage, and even dental restoration. Therefore, its surface condition, wettability, wear resistance, lubrication, and friction attract a lot of attention from both scientists and engineers. In this paper, the authors experimentally investigated Au{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth, wettability, roughness, and adsorption utilizing atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflectance spectrometry, and contact angle measurement. Samples were made using a GaAs substrate. Utilizing a super-hydrophilic Au surface and the proper surface conditions of the surrounding GaAs, dynamic microadsorption of water on the Au surface was observed in a clean room environment. The Au surface area can be as small as 12??m{sup 2}. The adsorbed water was collected by the GaAs groove structure and then redistributed around the structure. A model was developed to qualitatively describe the dynamic microadsorption process. The effective adsorption rate was estimated by modeling and experimental data. Devices for moisture collection and a liquid channel can be made by properly arranging the wettabilities or contact angles of different materials. These novel devices will be very useful in microfluid applications or biochips.

  16. The use of plants to enhance microbial degradation of de-icing agents in soil and surface water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, P.J.; Coats, J.R.; Anderson, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    Significant quantities of ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) enter the environment through de-icing of aircraft, spills, and improper disposal of used antifreeze. An estimated 80% of the de-icing fluids spill onto the ground, which may lead to the contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater. EG and PG contamination of surface waters creates a high biological oxygen demand (BOD) that can adversely impact aquatic communities. Plants and rhizosphere soils have been shown to enhance the degradation of organic pollutants in the soil. The research investigates the use of vegetation to enhance the transformation of EG and PG in soil by studying the fate of these chemicals in nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils at three temperatures ({minus}10 C, 0 C, 20 C). Terrestrial and aquatic emergent plants were evaluated as a cost-effective and aesthetically pleasing way to remediate and restore soil and surface waters contaminated with chemical de-icing agents. Additional surface runoff and vegetated undisturbed soil column studies were used to determine the influence of vegetation on the prevention of offsite movement by surface runoff and infiltration. Enhanced degradation of EG occurred in all the rhizosphere soils in comparison to the nonrhizosphere and autoclaved soils. After 28 days at 0 C, 40%, 41%, and 18% of applied EG degraded to CO{sub 2} in the Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) rhizosphere soil, and nonrhizosphere soil, respectively.

  17. Radiogenic and Stable Isotope and Hydrogeochemical Investigation of Groundwater, Pajarito Plateau and Surrounding Areas, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Longmire, Michael Dale, Dale Counce, Andrew Manning, Toti Larson, Kim Granzow, Robert Gray, and Brent Newman

    2007-07-15

    From October 2004 through February 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the New Mexico Environment Department-Department of Energy Oversight Bureau, and the United States Geological Survey conducted a hydrochemical investigation. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate groundwater flow paths and determine groundwater ages using tritium/helium-3 and carbon-14 along with aqueous inorganic chemistry. Knowledge of groundwater age and flow paths provides a technical basis for selecting wells and springs for monitoring. Groundwater dating is also relevant to groundwater resource management, including aquifer sustainability, especially during periods of long-term drought. At Los Alamos, New Mexico, groundwater is either modern (post-1943), submodern (pre-1943), or mixed (containing both pre- and post-1943 components). The regional aquifer primarily consists of submodern groundwater. Mixed-age groundwater results from initial infiltration of surface water, followed by mixing with perched alluvial and intermediate-depth groundwater and the regional aquifer. No groundwater investigation is complete without using tritium/helium-3 and carbon-14 dating methods to quantify amounts of modern, mixed, and/or submodern components present in samples. Computer models of groundwater flow and transport at Los Alamos should be calibrated to groundwater ages for perched intermediate zones and the regional aquifer determined from this investigation. Results of this study clearly demonstrate the occurrence of multiple flow paths and groundwater ages occurring within the Sierra de los Valles, beneath the Pajarito Plateau, and at the White Rock Canyon springs. Localized groundwater recharge occurs within several canyons dissecting the Pajarito Plateau. Perched intermediate-depth groundwater and the regional aquifer beneath Pueblo Canyon, Los Alamos Canyon, Sandia Canyon, Mortandad Canyon, Pajarito Canyon, and Canon de Valle contain a modern component. This modern component consists of tritium, nitrate, perchlorate, chromate, boron, uranium, and/or high explosive compounds. It is very unlikely that there is only one transport or travel time, ranging from 25 to 62 years, for these conservative chemicals migrating from surface water to the regional water table. Lengths of groundwater flow paths vary within deep saturated zones containing variable concentrations of tritium. The 4-series springs discharging within White Rock Canyon contain a modern component of groundwater, primarily tritium. Average groundwater ages for the regional aquifer beneath the Pajarito Plateau varied from 565 to 10,817 years, based on unadjusted carbon-14 measurements.

  18. May and June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... installation of a low-flow sampling pump in the open hole portion of DVP-May and June 2015, Bluewater, New Mexico U.S. Department of Energy RIN 15057015 and 15067154 August 2015 ...

  19. April 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-12

    Sampling and analysis were conducted on April 16-19, 2012, as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office Of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Duplicate samples were collected from locations SA1-1-H, HMH-5R, SA3-4-H, SA1-2-H, Pond W of GZ, and SA5-4-4. One trip blank was collected during this sampling event.

  20. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress Report for the Period July 1 to September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the progress of four Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period from July 1 to September 310, 1987. The four disposal facilities are the 300 Area Process Trenches, 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds, and Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste (NRDW) Landfill. This report is the fifth in a series of periodic status reports. During this reporting period, field activities consisted of completing repairs on five monitoring wells originally present around the 183-H Basins and completing construction of 25 monitoring wells around the 200 Area Burial Grounds. The 14 wells in the 200 East Area were completed by Kaiser Engineers Hanford (KEH) and the 11 wells in the 200 West Area were compelted by ONWEGO Well Drilling. The NRDW Landfill interim characterization report was submitted to the WDOE and the USEPA in August 1987. Analytical results for the 300 Area, 183-H, and the NRDW Landfill indicate no deviations from previously established trends. Results from the NRDW Land-fill indiate that the facility has no effect on the ground-water quality beneath the facility, except for the detection of coliform bacteria. A possible source of this contamination is the solid-waste lanfill (SWL) adjacent to the NRDW Landfill. Ground-water monitoring data for the NRDW and SWL will be evaluated together in the future. Aquifer testing was completed in the 25 new wells surrounding the 200 Area buiral grounds. 13 refs., 19 refs., 13 tabs.

  1. Colloid characterization and quantification in groundwater samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Stephen Kung

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for studying the groundwater colloids for the Yucca Mountain Project in conjunction with the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Colloidal particle size distributions and total particle concentration in groundwater samples are quantified and characterized. Colloid materials from cavity waters collected near underground nuclear explosion sites by HRMP field sampling personnel at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were quantified. Selected colloid samples were further characterized by electron microscope to evaluate the colloid shapes, elemental compositions, and mineral phases. The authors have evaluated the colloid size and concentration in the natural groundwater sample that was collected from the ER-20-5 well and stored in a 50-gallon (about 200-liter) barrel for several months. This groundwater sample was studied because HRMP personnel have identified trace levels of radionuclides in the water sample. Colloid results show that even though the water sample had filtered through a series of Millipore filters, high-colloid concentrations were identified in all unfiltered and filtered samples. They had studied the samples that were diluted with distilled water and found that diluted samples contained more colloids than the undiluted ones. These results imply that colloids are probably not stable during the storage conditions. Furthermore, results demonstrate that undesired colloids have been introduced into the samples during the storage, filtration, and dilution processes. They have evaluated possible sources of colloid contamination associated with sample collection, filtrating, storage, and analyses of natural groundwaters. The effects of container types and sample storage time on colloid size distribution and total concentration were studied to evaluate colloid stability by using J13 groundwater. The data suggests that groundwater samples should be analyzed for colloid size and concentration shortly after they have been collected. A prolonged waiting period after sampling will affect the colloid size distribution as well as colloid concentration resulting from the changes of water chemical properties. The data also shows that sample containers, filter materials, and labware that are used for colloid analyses should be cleaned by specially treated low-colloid-containing water. Water used for sample dilution should be verified for total colloidal particle concentration. They then analyzed freshly collected groundwater from NTS wells ER-20-5{number_sign}1 and {number_sign}3. Results show that these groundwater samples have similar colloid concentrations and particle size distributions. For the particle size range between 50- and 200-nm, about ten trillion (1E10) colloidal particles per liter are present in these water samples. Most of these colloidal particles are less than 100 mm in size. For example, more than 98% of the colloids are smaller than 100 nm in size in the ER-20-5 {number_sign}1 sample. Furthermore, it was found that the smaller the sizes of colloid, the higher the colloid concentration present in the water. For another site at NTS, Cheshire, they had analyzed two zones of groundwater samples. For water samples collected from the lower water zone (near the underground detonation cavity about 3,700 feet of slanted depth from the surface), the colloid concentration was about 5E12 particles per liter. About 20 times less than the lower zone of total colloids was found in water samples collected from the upper aquifer (around 2,511 feet of slanted depth), although colloid size distributions from these two zones appear to be rather similar.

  2. Oil spreading in surface waters with an ice cover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yapa, P.D.; Weerasuriya, S.A.; Belaskas, D.P.; Chowdhury, T.

    1993-02-01

    A study of oil spreading in surface waters in the presence of a floating ice cover is presented. The ice can be solid or fragmented. Both axi-symmetrical and uni-directional spreading are studied. The report describes the analytical and numerical model development, the experimental set-up, results from the laboratory experiments, and their comparison with the derived theory and the numerical simulation. To analyze the spreading of oil under solid ice, new equations are derived. These equations consider gravity (buoyancy) - inertia phase, gravity (buoyancy) - viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy - surface tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to termination of spreading is presented. The emphasis of the study is on the dominant spreading mechanism for oil under ice, which is the buoyancy-viscous phase.

  3. Novel Americium Treatment Process for Surface Water and Dust Suppression Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiepel, E.W.; Pigeon, P.; Nesta, S.; Anderson, J.

    2006-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production plant, has been remediated under CERCLA and decommissioned to become a National Wildlife Refuge. The site conducted this cleanup effort under the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) that established limits for the discharge of surface and process waters from the site. At the end of 2004, while a number of process buildings were undergoing decommissioning, routine monitoring of a discharge pond (Pond A-4) containing approximately 28 million gallons of water was discovered to have been contaminated with a trace amount of Americium-241 (Am-241). While the amount of Am-241 in the pond waters was very low (0.5 - 0.7 pCi/l), it was above the established Colorado stream standard of 0.15 pCi/l for release to off site drainage waters. The rapid successful treatment of these waters to the regulatory limit was important to the site for two reasons. The first was that the pond was approaching its hold-up limit. Without rapid treatment and release of the Pond A-4 water, typical spring run-off would require water management actions to other drainages onsite or a mass shuttling of water for disposal. The second reason was that this type of contaminated water had not been treated to the stringent stream standard at Rocky Flats before. Technical challenges in treatment could translate to impacts on water and secondary waste management, and ultimately, cost impacts. All of the technical challenges and specific site criteria led to the conclusion that a different approach to the treatment of this problem was necessary and a crash treatability program to identify applicable treatment techniques was undertaken. The goal of this program was to develop treatment options that could be implemented very quickly and would result in the generation of no high volume secondary waste that would be costly to dispose. A novel chemical treatment system was developed and implemented at the RFETS to treat Am-241 contaminated pond water, surface run-off and D and D dust suppression water during the later stages of the D and D effort at Rocky Flats. This novel chemical treatment system allowed for highly efficient, high-volume treatment of all contaminated waste waters to the very low stream standard of 0.15 pCi/1 with strict compliance to the RFCA discharge criteria for release to off-site surface waters. The rapid development and implementation of the treatment system avoided water management issues that would have had to be addressed if contaminated water had remained in Pond A-4 into the Spring of 2005. Implementation of this treatment system for the Pond A-4 waters and the D and D waters from Buildings 776 and 371 enabled the site to achieve cost-effective treatment that minimized secondary waste generation, avoiding the need for expensive off-site water disposal. Water treatment was conducted for a cost of less than $0.20/gal which included all development costs, capital costs and operational costs. This innovative and rapid response effort saved the RFETS cleanup program well in excess of $30 million for the potential cost of off-site transportation and treatment of radioactive liquid waste. (authors)

  4. EPA's groundwater protection strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J. )

    1992-06-01

    What the EPA, working jointly with the states, hopes to accomplish over the next ten years in order to integrate and coordinate all the groundwater programs within the agency is discussed. Although many other EPA programs such as Superfund, Clean Air Act, and Wetlands Management are often highlighted in the media, EPA does not down rate the importance of groundwater protection. Indeed as a resource, it is one of the most important commodities. Groundwater is the basis for life in this country. Recharge rates are no where near what the withdrawal rates are in many areas of the country. Twenty-five percent of all the potable water comes from groundwater. Groundwater supplies 50 percent of the needs for all the US population. If you include strictly rural areas, it supplies 95 percent of all the use. Something that most people who are not groundwater hydrologists would not think about is the fact that groundwater is a recharge mechanism that provides over 30 percent of the flow in streams and major rivers.

  5. Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

    2009-04-01

    Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

  6. Status of understanding of the saturated-zone ground-water flow system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as of 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckey, R.R.; Tucci, P.; Faunt, C.C.; Ervin, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, which is being studied extensively because it is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository, consists of a thick sequence of volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that are underlain, at least to the southeast, by carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age. Stratigraphic units important to the hydrology of the area include the alluvium, pyroclastic rocks of Miocene age (the Timber Mountain Group; the Paintbrush Group; the Calico Hills Formation; the Crater Flat Group; the Lithic Ridge Tuff; and older tuffs, flows, and lavas beneath the Lithic Ridge Tuff), and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The saturated zone generally occurs in the Calico Hills Formation and stratigraphically lower units. The saturated zone is divided into three aquifers and two confining units. The flow system at Yucca Mountain is part of the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek subbasin of the Death Valley groundwater basin. Variations in the gradients of the potentiometric surface provided the basis for subdividing the Yucca Mountain area into zones of: (1) large hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change at least 300 meters in a few kilometers; (2) moderate hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change about 45 meters in a few kilometers; and (3) small hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change only about 2 meters in several kilometers. Vertical hydraulic gradients were measured in only a few boreholes around Yucca Mountain; most boreholes had little change in potentiometric levels with depth. Limited hydraulic testing of boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area indicated that the range in transmissivity was more than 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in a particular hydrogeologic unit, and that the average values for the individual hydrogeologic units generally differed by about 1 order of magnitude. The upper volcanic aquifer seems to be the most permeable hydrogeologic unit, but this conclusion was based on exceedingly limited data.

  7. Oahu Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for the island of Oahu. Data is from the following sources: Rotzoll, K., A.I. El-Kadi. 2007. Numerical Ground-Water Flow Simulation for Red Hill Fuel Storage Facilities, NAVFAC Pacific, Oahu, Hawaii - Prepared TEC, Inc. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.; Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume VII – Island of Oahu Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2009. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. December 2009.

  8. Best Management Practice #14: Alternative Water Sources | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 14: Alternative Water Sources Best Management Practice #14: Alternative Water Sources Federal facilities may have water uses that can be met with non-potable water from alternative water sources. Alternative water sources are sustainable sources of water, not supplied from fresh surface water or groundwater, that offset the demand for freshwater. Examples of alternative water sources include: Harvested rainwater from roofs Onsite stormwater Graywater Discharged water from water

  9. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater, Surface Water, and Alternate Water Supply System Sampling at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site December 2013 LMS/RVT/S00913 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2013, Riverton, Wyoming December 2013 RIN 13095603 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Riverton, Wyoming, Sample Location Map

  10. groundwater | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Groundwater Monitoring at NETL-Albany Ground Water Testing Program NETL is committed to the safety and health of its employees and of nearby residents and to protecting the environment. As part of a DOE environmental protection program, NETL initiated a ground water monitoring program in 2001 with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) to evaluate the groundwater flowing beneath the Albany, OR facility. Ground water monitoring wells were installed at that time, and periodic samples

  11. Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nichols, Ralph L.; Widdowson, Mark A.; Mullinex, Harry; Orne, William H.; Looney, Brian B.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

  12. Microsoft Word - 2014_1Qtr_Water_Protection_010914.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EP2014-0002 LA-UR-14-20093 Groundwater Protection Surface Water Protection LANL Water Protection Status Report - Fiscal Year 2014 First Quarter (October to December 2013) * An...

  13. Linear relationship between water wetting behavior and microscopic interactions of super-hydrophilic surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Guo, Pan; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Wang, Chunlei; Shi, Guosheng Fang, Haiping

    2013-12-21

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show a fine linear relationship between surface energies and microscopic Lennard-Jones parameters of super-hydrophilic surfaces. The linear slope of the super-hydrophilic surfaces is consistent with the linear slope of the super-hydrophobic, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic surfaces where stable water droplets can stand, indicating that there is a universal linear behavior of the surface energies with the water-surface van der Waals interaction that extends from the super-hydrophobic to super-hydrophilic surfaces. Moreover, we find that the linear relationship exists for various substrate types, and the linear slopes of these different types of substrates are dependent on the surface atom density, i.e., higher surface atom densities correspond to larger linear slopes. These results enrich our understanding of water behavior on solid surfaces, especially the water wetting behaviors on uncharged super-hydrophilic metal surfaces.

  14. Hanford Story: Groundwater - Questions - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Hanford Story Hanford Story: Groundwater - Questions The Hanford Story Hanford Story: Groundwater - Questions Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size How did contamination get into the groundwater beneath the Hanford Site? What has caused the level of contamination to decrease over the years? What is the 2015 vision for Hanford? What is the goal of the water treatment systems and facilities? What is being done to treat groundwater to remove

  15. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B.; Ballard, Sanford

    1994-01-01

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow.

  16. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  17. Groundwater Withdrawal Permit Application | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Withdrawal Permit ApplicationLegal Abstract This application initiates the Drinking Water and Groundwater Protection Division's, a division of the Department of Environmental...

  18. Effect of Surface Oxidation on Interfacial Water Structure at a Pyrite (100) Surface as Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Jiaqi; Miller, Jan D.; Dang, Liem X.; Wick, Collin D.

    2015-06-01

    In the first part of this paper, a Scanning Electron Microscopy and contact angle study of a pyrite surface (100) is reported describing the relationship between surface oxidation and the hydrophilic surface state. In addition to these experimental results, the following simulated surface states were examined using Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS): fresh unoxidized (100) surface; polysulfide at the (100) surface; elemental sulfur at the (100) surface. Crystal structures for the polysulfide and elemental sulfur at the (100) surface were simulated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum chemical calculations. The well known oxidation mechanism which involves formation of a metal deficient layer was also described with DFT. Our MDS results of the behavior of interfacial water at the fresh and oxidized pyrite (100) surfaces without/with the presence of ferric hydroxide include simulated contact angles, number density distribution for water, water dipole orientation, water residence time, and hydrogen-bonding considerations. The significance of the formation of ferric hydroxide islands in accounting for the corresponding hydrophilic surface state is revealed not only from experimental contact angle measurements but also from simulated contact angle measurements using MDS. The hydrophilic surface state developed at oxidized pyrite surfaces has been described by MDS, on which basis the surface state is explained based on interfacial water structure. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the DOE funded work performed by Liem X. Dang. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES.

  19. Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W.; Reinhard, Martin

    2002-01-01

    A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

  20. Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer LANL maintains an extensive groundwater monitoring and surveillance program through sampling. August 1, 2013 Conceptual model of water movement and geology at Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual model of water movement and geology at Los Alamos National Laboratory RELATED IMAGES http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3749/9827580556_473a91fd78_t.jpg Enlarge http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2856/9804364405_b25f74cbb2_t.jpg En

  1. NMAC 20.6.2 Ground and Surface Water Protection | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    6.2 Ground and Surface Water Protection Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: NMAC 20.6.2 Ground and Surface...

  2. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will improve the capability of engineers to design heat pump systems that utilize surface water or standing column wells (SCW) as their heat sources and sinks.

  3. Radio-Ecological Conditions of Groundwater in the Area of Uranium Mining and Milling Facility - 13525

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titov, A.V.; Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Isaev, D.V.; Metlyaev, E.G. [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glagolev, A.V.; Klimova, T.I.; Sevtinova, E.B. [FSESP 'Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation)] [FSESP 'Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation); Zolotukhina, S.B.; Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)] [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Manmade chemical and radioactive contamination of groundwater is one of damaging effects of the uranium mining and milling facilities. Groundwater contamination is of special importance for the area of Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association, JSC 'PPMCA', because groundwater is the only source of drinking water. The paper describes natural conditions of the site, provides information on changes of near-surface area since the beginning of the company, illustrates the main trends of contaminators migration and assesses manmade impact on the quality and mode of near-surface and ground waters. The paper also provides the results of chemical and radioactive measurements in groundwater at various distances from the sources of manmade contamination to the drinking water supply areas. We show that development of deposits, mine water discharge, leakages from tailing dams and cinder storage facility changed general hydro-chemical balance of the area, contributed to new (overlaid) aureoles and flows of scattering paragenetic uranium elements, which are much smaller in comparison with natural ones. However, increasing flow of groundwater stream at the mouth of Sukhoi Urulyungui due to technological water infiltration, mixing of natural water with filtration streams from industrial reservoirs and sites, containing elevated (relative to natural background) levels of sulfate-, hydro-carbonate and carbonate- ions, led to the development and moving of the uranium contamination aureole from the undeveloped field 'Polevoye' to the water inlet area. The aureole front crossed the southern border of water inlet of drinking purpose. The qualitative composition of groundwater, especially in the southern part of water inlet, steadily changes for the worse. The current Russian intervention levels of gross alpha activity and of some natural radionuclides including {sup 222}Rn are in excess in drinking water; regulations for fluorine and manganese concentrations are also in excess. Possible ways to improve the situation are considered. (authors)

  4. Post-Closure Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the 1324-N Surface Impoundment and 1324-NA Percolation Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, Mary J.

    2004-04-02

    The 1324-N Surface Impoundment and the 1324-NA Percolation Pond, located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site, are regulated under the Resource Consevation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Surface and underground features of the facilities have been removed and laboratory analyses showed that soil met the closure performance standards. These sites have been backfilled and revegetated.

  5. Environmental Sciences Division Groundwater Program Office. Annual report, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    This first edition of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Annual Report summarizes the work carried out by the Energy Systems GWPO for fiscal year (FY) 1993. This introductory section describes the GWPO`s staffing, organization, and funding sources. The GWPO is responsible for coordination and oversight for all components of the groundwater program at the three Oak Ridge facilities [ORNL, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], and the PGDP and PORTS, respectively. Several years ago, Energy systems senior management recognized that the manner in which groundwater activities were conducted at the five facilities could result in unnecessary duplication of effort, inadequate technical input to decisions related to groundwater issues, and could create a perception within the regulatory agencies of a confusing and inconsistent approach to groundwater issues at the different facilities. Extensive interactions among management from Environmental Compliance, Environmental Restoration (ER), Environmental Sciences Division, Environmental Safety and Health, and the five facilities ultimately led to development of a net technical umbrella organization for groundwater. On April 25, 1991, the GWPO was authorized to be set up within ORNL thereby establishing a central coordinating office that would develop a consistent technical and administrative direction for the groundwater programs of all facilities and result in compliance with all relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations such as RCRA and Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as well as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and orders. For example, DOE Order 5400.1, issued on November 9, 1988, called for each DOE facility to develop an environmental monitoring program for all media (e.g., air, surface water, and groundwater).

  6. Environmental geochemistry for surface and subsurface waters in the Pajarito Plateau and outlying areas, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, W.D.; Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Counce, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report provides background information on waters in the Los Alamos and Santa Fe regions of northern New Mexico. Specifically, the presented data include major element, trace element, and isotope analyses of 130 water samples from 94 different springs, wells, and water bodies in the area. The region considered in this study extends from the western edge of the Valles Caldera to as far east as Santa Fe Lake. For each sample, the presented analysis includes fourteen different major elements, twenty-six trace elements, up to five stable isotopes, and tritium. In addition, this data base contains certain characteristics of the water that are calculated from the aforementioned raw data, including the water`s maximum and minimum residence times, as found from tritium levels assuming no contamination, the water`s recharge elevation, as found from stable isotopes, and the charge balance of the water. The data in this report are meant to provide background information for investigations in groundwater hydrology and geochemistry, and for environmental projects. For the latter projects, the presented information would be useful for determining the presence of contamination it any one location by enabling one to compare potential contaminant levels to the background levels presented here. Likely locations of interest are those possibly effected by anthropogenic activities, including locations in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory, White Rock Canyon, and developed areas in the Rio Grande Valley.

  7. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  8. Surface Water Sampling At Chena Geothermal Area (Waring, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    calcium and magnesium concentrations were measured, with elevated levels of silica and sulfate. Surface fumarole gases were tested with a flame to indicate carbon dioxide...

  9. Calendar Year 2007 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2007 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2007 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2007 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT), and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). In December 2007, the BWXT corporate name was changed to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12), which is applied to personnel and organizations throughout CY 2007 for this report. Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2007 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 GWPP including sampling locations and frequency; quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) sampling; sample collection and handling; field measurements and laboratory analytes; data management and data quality objective (DQO) evaluation; and groundwater elevation monitoring. However, this report does not include equivalent information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities associated with the monitoring programs implemented by BJC. Such details are deferred to the respective programmatic plans and reports issued by BJC (see Section 3.0). Collectively, the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 2007 by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC address DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) requirements for monitoring groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). Section 4 of this report presents a summary evaluation of the monitoring data with regard to the respective objectives of surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring, based on the analytical results for the principal groundwater and surface water contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. Section 5 of this report summarizes the most pertinent findings regarding the principal contaminants, along with recommendations proposed for ongoing groundwater and surface water quality monitoring performed under the Y-12 GWPP.

  10. NNSS Groundwater

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for a Cure NNSS Groundwater NvE employees Race for the Cure. NSTec designer turns student project into space quest. Devils Hole meeting puts focus on NNSS groundwater. See page 8. See page 7. Moniz Confirmed Energy Secretary; Replaces Chu Dr. Ernest Moniz was officially sworn in as the 13th Department of Energy Secretary on May 21. He replaces Dr. Steven Chu. "Today is a big day for the DOE family," said Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman during opening remarks at the ceremony. "This

  11. Geochemical and isotopic results for groundwater, drainage waters, snowmelt, permafrost, precipitation in Barrow, Alaska (USA) 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent; Heikoop, Jeff

    Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

  12. Geochemical and isotopic results for groundwater, drainage waters, snowmelt, permafrost, precipitation in Barrow, Alaska (USA) 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent; Heikoop, Jeff

    2012-07-18

    Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

  13. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and May 2014 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site June 2014 LMS/SHP/S00314 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-March and May 2014, Shiprock, New Mexico June 2014 RIN 14036011, 14036013, and 14056142 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site, Sample Location Map

  14. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site June 2015 LMS/SHP/S00315 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-March 2015, Shiprock, New Mexico June 2015 RIN 15036862 and 15036863 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site

  15. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    February 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Site April 2015 LMS/GJO/S00215 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-February 2015, Grand Junction, Colorado, Site April 2015 RIN 15026795 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Grand Junction, Colorado, Site Sample Location Map

  16. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site September 2014 LMS/GUP/S00414 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-April and June 2014, Gunnison, Colorado September 2014 RIN 14046058 and 14066262 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site Planned Sampling Map

  17. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site February 2016 LMS/GUP/S00415 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-April and July 2015, Gunnison, Colorado February 2016 RINs 15046911 and 15067187 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Data Assessment Summary

  18. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites December 2014 LMS/SRW/SRE/S00914 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2014, Slick Rock, Colorado December 2014 RIN 14096456 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites, Sample Location Map

  19. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock East and West, Colorado, Processing Sites November 2013 LMS/SRE/SRW/S0913 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2013, Slick Rock, Colorado November 2013 RIN 13095593 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Slick Rock East and West, Colorado, Processing Sites, Sample Location Map

  20. Calendar Year 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2008 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2008 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2008 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2008 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 GWPP including sampling locations and frequency; quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) sampling; sample collection and handling; field measurements and laboratory analytes; data management and data quality objective (DQO) evaluation; and groundwater elevation monitoring. However, this report does not include equivalent QA/QC or DQO evaluation information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities associated with the monitoring programs implemented by BJC. Such details are deferred to the respective programmatic plans and reports issued by BJC (see Section 3.0).

  1. Calendar Year 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2011-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2010 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2010 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2010 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 GWPP including sampling locations and frequency; quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) sampling; sample collection and handling; field measurements and laboratory analytes; data management and data quality objective (DQO) evaluation; and groundwater elevation monitoring. However, this report does not include equivalent QA/QC or DQO evaluation information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities associated with the monitoring programs implemented by BJC. Such details are deferred to the respective programmatic plans and reports issued by BJC (see Section 3.0). Collectively, the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 2010 by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC address DOE Order 450.1A (Environmental Protection Program) requirements for monitoring groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). Section 4 of this report presents a summary evaluation of the monitoring data with regard to the respective objectives of surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring, based on the analytical results for the principal groundwater contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. Section 5 of this report summarizes the most pertinent findings regarding the principal contaminants, along with recommendations proposed for ongoing groundwater and surface water quality monitoring performed under the Y-12 GWPP.

  2. Calendar Year 2011 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental LLC,

    2012-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2011 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. This report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and known extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2011 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) contractor responsible for environmental cleanup on the ORR. In August 2011, URS | CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) replaced Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) as the DOE EM contractor. For this report, BJC/UCOR will be referenced as the managing contractor for CY 2011. Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC/UCOR (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2011 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. This report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 GWPP including sampling locations and frequency; quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) sampling; sample collection and handling; field measurements and laboratory analytes; data management and data quality objective (DQO) evaluation; and groundwater elevation monitoring. However, this report does not include equivalent QA/QC or DQO evaluation information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities associated with the monitoring programs implemented by BJC/UCOR. Such details are deferred to the respective programmatic plans and reports issued by BJC. Collectively, the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 2011 by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC/UCOR address DOE Order 436.1 and DOE Order 458.1 requirements for monitoring groundwater and surface water quality in areas (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring) and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). This report presents a summary evaluation of the monitoring data with regard to the respective objectives of surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring, based on the analytical results for the principal groundwater contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. This report summarizes the most pertinent findings regarding the principal contaminants, along with recommendations proposed for ongoing groundwater and surface water quality monitoring performed under the Y-12 GWPP.

  3. Calendar Year 2001 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-03-31

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2001 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations within three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2001 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities in the Bear Creek, East Fork, and Chestnut Ridge Regimes. Section 2 identifies the sampling locations in each hydrogeologic regime and the corresponding sampling frequency during CY 2001, along with the associated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) sampling. Section 3 describes groundwater and surface water sample collection and Section 4 identifies the field measurements and laboratory analytes for each sampling location. Section 5 outlines the data management protocols and data quality objectives (DQOs). Section 6 describes the groundwater elevation monitoring in each regime during CY 2001 and Section 7 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational, regulatory, and technical information.

  4. Site characterization plan for groundwater in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R.R.; Curtis, A.H.; Houlberg, L.M.; Purucker, S.T.; Singer, M.L.; Tardiff, M.F.; Wolf, D.A.

    1994-07-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization to identify environmental contamination that may be present. This document, Site Characterization Report for Groundwater in Waste Area Grouping I at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identifies areas of concern with respect to WAG 1 groundwater and presents the rationale, justification, and objectives for conducting this continuing site characterization. This report summarizes the operations that have taken place at each of the areas of concern in WAG 1, summarizes previous characterization studies that have been performed, presents interpretations of previously collected data and information, identifies contaminants of concern, and presents an action plan for further site investigations and early actions that will lead to identification of contaminant sources, their major groundwater pathways, and reduced off-site migration of contaminated groundwater to surface water. Site characterization Activities performed to date at WAG I have indicated that groundwater contamination, principally radiological contamination, is widespread. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to an unknown extent. The general absence of radiological contamination in surface water at the perimeter of WAG 1 is attributed to the presence of pipelines and underground waste storage tank sumps and dry wells distributed throughout WAG 1 which remove more than about 40 million gal of contaminated groundwater per year.

  5. Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Michael Leonidovich; Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich; Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich; Smimova, Olga Alekseevna; Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich; Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan

    2008-08-26

    Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

  6. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  7. Effects of uranium-mining releases on ground-water quality in the Puerco River Basin, Arizona and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Wirt, L.; Lopes, T.J.; Ferguson, S.A.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to describe: (1) the water quality of the Puerco River alluvial aquifer, (2) the movement of water between the Puerco River and underlying alluvial aquifer, and (3) changes in the water quality of the alluvial and bedrock aquifers related to releases of contaminants by uranium-mining activities. This report focuses on the alluvial aquifer near the reach of the Puerco River that was subjected to continuous flow containing mine-dewatering effluents and to flow containing mine-dewatering effluents and to flow from the tailings-pond spill.

  8. Kauai Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Kauai. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report Volume IV Island of Kauai Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2015.

  9. Kauai Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Kauai. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume IV – Island of Kauai Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2015.

  10. 5 CCR 1002-31 Basic Standards and Methodologies for Surface Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: 5 CCR 1002-31 Basic Standards and Methodologies for Surface Water RegulationLegal Abstract...

  11. NMSA 72-5 Appropriation and Use of Surface Water | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 Appropriation and Use of Surface Water Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: NMSA 72-5 Appropriation and Use of...

  12. Clean Boiler Water-side Heat Transfer Surfaces - Steam Tip Sheet #7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on cleaning boiler water-side heat transfer surfaces provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  13. "Nanoengineered Surfaces for Efficiency Enhancements in Energy and Water",

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Professor Kripa Varansi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab October 24, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium "Nanoengineered Surfaces for Efficiency Enhancements in Energy and Water", Professor Kripa Varansi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Thermal-fluid-surface interactions are ubiquitous in multiple industries including Energy, Water, Agriculture, Transportation, Electronics Cooling, Buildings, etc. Over the years, these systems have been

  14. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Analysis of Interfacial Water at Selected Sulfide Mineral Surfaces under Anaerobic Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Jiaqi; Miller, Jan D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-04-10

    In this paper, we report on a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) study of the behavior of interfacial water at selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions. The study revealed the interfacial water structure and wetting characteristics of the pyrite (100) surface, galena (100) surface, chalcopyrite (012) surface, sphalerite (110) surface, and molybdenite surfaces (i.e., the face, armchair-edge, and zigzag-edge surfaces), including simulated contact angles, relative number density profiles, water dipole orientations, hydrogen-bonding, and residence times. For force fields of the metal and sulfur atoms in selected sulfide minerals used in the MDS, we used the universal force field (UFF) and another set of force fields optimized by quantum chemical calculations for interactions with interfacial water molecules at selected sulfide mineral surfaces. Simulation results for the structural and dynamic properties of interfacial water molecules indicate the natural hydrophobic character for the selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions as well as the relatively weak hydrophobicity for the sphalerite (110) surface and two molybdenite edge surfaces. Part of the financial support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Basic Science Grant No. DE-FG-03-93ER14315. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the DOE, funded work performed by Liem X. Dang. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES. The authors are grateful to Professor Tsun-Mei Chang for valuable discussions.

  15. Groundwater Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    program through sampling. August 1, 2013 Conceptual model of water movement and geology at Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual model of water movement and geology at...

  16. Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-11-14

    Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

  17. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  18. Appendix K Disposal Cell Groundwater Monitoring Plan

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Disposal Cell Groundwater Monitoring Plan

  19. Surface water supply for the Clearlake, California Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    It is proposed to construct a demonstration Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal plant in the vicinity of the City of Clearlake. An interim evaluation has been made of the availability of surface water to supply the plant. The evaluation has required consideration of the likely water consumption of such a plant. It has also required consideration of population, land, and water uses in the drainage basins adjacent to Clear Lake, where the HDR demonstration project is likely to be located. Five sources were identified that appear to be able to supply water of suitable quality in adequate quantity for initial filling of the reservoir, and on a continuing basis, as makeup for water losses during operation. Those sources are California Cities Water Company, a municipal supplier to the City of Clearlake; Clear Lake, controlled by Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Borax Lake, controlled by a local developer; Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, controlled by Lake County; and wells, ponds, and streams on private land. The evaluation involved the water uses, water rights, stream flows, precipitation, evaporation, a water balance, and water quality. In spite of California`s prolonged drought, the interim conclusion is that adequate water is available at a reasonable cost to supply the proposed HDR demonstration project.

  20. The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veirs, Douglas K.; Berg, John M.; Crowder, Mark L.

    2012-06-20

    The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

  1. Studies of the viscoelastic properties of water confined between surfaces of specified chemical nature.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, Jack E.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Moore, Nathan W.; Feibelman, Peter J.

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes the work completed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 10-0973 of the same title. Understanding the molecular origin of the no-slip boundary condition remains vitally important for understanding molecular transport in biological, environmental and energy-related processes, with broad technological implications. Moreover, the viscoelastic properties of fluids in nanoconfinement or near surfaces are not well-understood. We have critically reviewed progress in this area, evaluated key experimental and theoretical methods, and made unique and important discoveries addressing these and related scientific questions. Thematically, the discoveries include insight into the orientation of water molecules on metal surfaces, the premelting of ice, the nucleation of water and alcohol vapors between surface asperities and the lubricity of these molecules when confined inside nanopores, the influence of water nucleation on adhesion to salts and silicates, and the growth and superplasticity of NaCl nanowires.

  2. Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nichols, R.L.; Widdowson, M.A.; Mullinex, H.; Orne, W.H.; Looney, B.B.

    1994-03-15

    An apparatus is described for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations. 3 figures.

  3. Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

  4. Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

  5. Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    southeast Washington state. The material, an ion exchange resin, is used in groundwater treatment systems to strip contaminants from the water-in this case, hexavalent...

  6. Groundwater Sampling At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Cox...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    groundwater can be a useful geochemical indicator for geothermal exploration when other water chemistry techniques are ambiguous. This research was useful for locating some areas...

  7. Groundwater Monitoring Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Groundwater Monitoring Network Groundwater Monitoring Network The network includes 92 natural sources, 102 regional aquifer wells, 41 intermediate-depth wells and springs, and 67 wells in alluvium in canyons. August 1, 2013 Map of LANL's groundwater monitoring network Map of LANL's groundwater monitoring network

  8. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Data Evaluation Report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2000 in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). Prepared by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), this report addresses applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program) that require: (1) an evaluation of the quantity and quality of groundwater and surface water in areas that are, or could be, affected by Y-12 operations, (2) an evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas where contaminants from Y-12 operations are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) an evaluation of long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1 (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). Illustrations (maps and trend graphs) are presented in Appendix A. Brief data summary tables referenced in each section are contained within the sections. Supplemental information and extensive data tables are provided in Appendix B.

  9. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE INTERACTION OF GROUNDWATER WITH THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE 100-D AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PETERSEN SW

    2008-11-05

    Groundwater beneath much of Hanford's 100 Areas is contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) as a consequence of treating reactor cooling water to prevent corrosion. Several treatment systems are in place to remove Cr{sup +6} from the groundwater; however, these systems currently do not reduce Cr{sup +6} to concentrations below aquatic standards. Of concern is the transport of Cr{sup +6} to areas within the channel of the river, as sensitive species inhabit the river and its associated transition zone. The aquatic standard for Cr{sup +6} is currently 11 ug/l under the Record of Decision (ROD) for Interim Action and Department of Energy (DOE) currently plans to pursue remediation of the groundwater to achieve the 11 ug/l standard. Because the compliance wells used to monitor the current remediation systems are located some distance from the river, they may not provide an accurate indication of Cr{sup +6} concentrations in the water that reaches the riverbed. In addition, because salmon spawning areas are considered a high priority for protection from Hanford contaminants, it would be advantageous to understand (1) to what extent Cr{sup +6} discharged to the near-shore or river ecosystems is diluted or attenuated and (2) mechanisms that could mitigate the exposure of the river ecosystems to the discharging Cr{sup +6}. The current concentration target for Cr{sup +6} at near-river groundwater monitoring locations is 20 {micro}g/L; it is assumed that this groundwater mixes with river water that contains virtually no chromium to meet Washington Department of Ecology's (Ecology) water quality standard of 10 {micro}g/L in the river environment. This dynamic mixing process is believed to be driven by daily and seasonal changes in river stage and groundwater remediation system operations, and has been validated using analytical data from numerous groundwater samples obtained adjacent to and within the banks of the river. Although the mean mixing factor of river water and site groundwater in this zone has been estimated to be equal parts of groundwater and river water, a wide range of mixing ratios likely occurs at various times of the day and year. The degree of mixing and dilution appears to be greatly influenced by the river stage and other groundwater/surface water interaction. The extent of mixing, thus, has implications for the design and operation of the groundwater remediation systems. Improved understanding of this 'dilution' mechanism is needed to design an optimum 'systems approach' to accelerate remediation of the near-shore contaminant plumes. More information on the pathway from near-river mapped plumes to riverbed receptor locations is also needed to develop a defensible proposed plan for a future ROD for final remedial action of contaminated groundwater. In April 2008, an expert panel of scientists was convened to review existing information and provide observations and suggestions to improve the current understanding of groundwater surface water interactions in the 100 Areas (primarily focusing on 100-D Area), and to identify what additional analyses or approaches may provide critical information needed to design and implement remediation systems that will minimize impacts to river aquatic systems. Specific objectives provided to the panel included: (1) comment on approaches and methods to improve the current understanding of groundwater-surface water interactions, specifically how contaminated groundwater enters the riverbed and how this relates to remediation of chromate in the groundwater in the 100 Areas; (2) evaluate past and current data collection methods, data analysis techniques, assumptions, and groundwater transport and mixing mechanisms; (3) evaluate the current monitoring network (monitoring wells, aquifer tubes, and shoreline/river monitoring); (4) evaluate the role played by modeling; and (5) suggest additional research to fill data gaps and perform modeling.

  10. Recent California water transfers: Emerging options in water management. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lund, J.R.; Israel, M.

    1992-12-01

    Report examines the recent use of water transfers in California. Emphasis is on the use of water transfers during the current drought and how planners and operators of federal, state, and local systems can integrate water transfers into the planning and operations of their systems. Through the California experience, the study identifies motivations for incorporating water transfers into water supply systems, reviews a variety of water transfer types, and discusses the integration of water transfers with traditional supply argumentation and water conservation measures. Limitations, constraints, and difficulties for employing water transfers within existing systems are also discussed. The study focuses primarily on the technical, planning, and operational aspects of water transfers, rather than the legal, economic, and social implications. Water transfers, Water management, Water bank, Water supply, Water use, Water institutions, Infrastructure, California state water project, Water rights, Drought, Surface water, Groundwater.

  11. Electric double layer at metal oxide surfaces: Static properties of the cassiterite - Water Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Zhang, Zhan; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J

    2007-04-01

    The structure of water at the (110) surface of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) at ambient conditions was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray crystal truncation rod experiments and interpreted with the help of the revised MUSIC model of surface protonation. The interactions of the metal oxide in the simulations were described by a recently developed classical force field based on the SPC/E model of water. Two extreme cases of completely hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces were considered along with a mixed surface with 50% dissociation. To study the dependence of the surface properties on pH, neutral and negatively charged variants of the surfaces were constructed. Axial and lateral density distributions of water for different types of surfaces were compared to each other and to experimental axial density distributions found by X-ray experiments. Although significant differences were found between the structures of the studied interfaces, the axial distances between Sn and O atoms are very similar and therefore could not be clearly distinguished by the diffraction technique. The explanation of structures observed in the density distributions was provided by a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding in the interfacial region. It revealed qualitatively different hydrating patterns formed at neutral hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces and suggested a preference for the dissociative adsorption of water. At negatively charged surfaces, however, the situation can be reversed by the electric field stabilizing a hydrogen bond network similar to that found at the neutral nonhydroxylated surface. Comparison with previously studied rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) surfaces provided insight into the differences between the hydration of these two metal oxides, and an important role was ascribed to their different lattice parameters. A link to macroscopic properties was provided by the revised MUSIC surface protonation model. Explicit use of the Sn-O bond lengths based on ab initio calculations and H-bond configurations as inputs led to the prediction of a pH of zero net-proton induced surface charge (pH{sub pzc}) that agrees very well with those determined experimentally (about 4.4 at 298 K).

  12. Electric double layer at metal oxide surfaces:static properties of the cassiterite-water interface.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlcek, L.; Zhang, Z.; Machesky, M .L.; Fenter, P.; Rosenqvist, J.; Wesolowski, D. J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Predota, M.; Cummings, P. T.; Vanderbilt Univ.; ORNL; Univ. of South Bohimia; Illinois State Water Survey

    2007-03-24

    The structure of water at the (110) surface of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) at ambient conditions was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray crystal truncation rod experiments and interpreted with the help of the revised MUSIC model of surface protonation. The interactions of the metal oxide in the simulations were described by a recently developed classical force field based on the SPC/E model of water. Two extreme cases of completely hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces were considered along with a mixed surface with 50% dissociation. To study the dependence of the surface properties on pH, neutral and negatively charged variants of the surfaces were constructed. Axial and lateral density distributions of water for different types of surfaces were compared to each other and to experimental axial density distributions found by X-ray experiments. Although significant differences were found between the structures of the studied interfaces, the axial distances between Sn and O atoms are very similar and therefore could not be clearly distinguished by the diffraction technique. The explanation of structures observed in the density distributions was provided by a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding in the interfacial region. It revealed qualitatively different hydrating patterns formed at neutral hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces and suggested a preference for the dissociative adsorption of water. At negatively charged surfaces, however, the situation can be reversed by the electric field stabilizing a hydrogen bond network similar to that found at the neutral nonhydroxylated surface. Comparison with previously studied rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) surfaces provided insight into the differences between the hydration of these two metal oxides, and an important role was ascribed to their different lattice parameters. A link to macroscopic properties was provided by the revised MUSIC surface protonation model. Explicit use of the Sn-O bond lengths based on ab initio calculations and H-bond configurations as inputs led to the prediction of a pH of zero net-proton induced surface charge (pH{sub pzc}) that agrees very well with those determined experimentally (about 4.4 at 298 K).

  13. Economic consequences of land surface subsidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, L.C.

    1981-06-01

    Overdraft in the Santa Clara Valley, Calif., groundwater basin caused land surface subsidence over an area of 63,000 ha with a maximum depression of 3.6 m from 1912-67. Since cessation of overdraft and replenishment of groundwater levels in 1969, there has been no significant land surface subsidence. During the period of active subsidence, water well casings buckled, sewers lost capacity as a result of changes in slope, and roads and railroads had to be raised. These damages are estimated at over $130 million. (1 graph, 1 map, 6 photos, 2 references, 1 table)

  14. A Users Guide to the Comprehensive Water Quality Database for Groundwater in the Vicinity of the Nevada Test Site, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farnham, Irene

    2006-09-01

    This water quality database (viz.GeochemXX.mdb) has been developed as part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Program with the cooperation of several agencies actively participating in ongoing evaluation and characterization activities under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The database has been constructed to provide up-to-date, comprehensive, and quality controlled data in a uniform format for the support of current and future projects. This database provides a valuable tool for geochemical and hydrogeologic evaluations of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and surrounding region. Chemistry data have been compiled for groundwater within the NTS and the surrounding region. These data include major ions, organic compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, various field parameters, and environmental isotopes. Colloid data are also included in the database. The GeochemXX.mdb database is distributed on an annual basis. The extension ''XX'' within the database title is replaced by the last two digits of the release year (e.g., Geochem06 for the version released during the 2006 fiscal year). The database is distributed via compact disc (CD) and is also uploaded to the Common Data Repository (CDR) in order to make it available to all agencies with DOE intranet access. This report provides an explanation of the database configuration and summarizes the general content and utility of the individual data tables. In addition to describing the data, subsequent sections of this report provide the data user with an explanation of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) protocols for this database.

  15. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base (GWD) presents data as of 2003 for 221 groundwater plumes at 60 DOE sites and facilities. Note that Riley and Zachara analyzed the data from only 18 sites/facilities including 91 plumes. In this paper, we present the results of statistical analyses of the data in the GWD as guidance for planning future basic and applied research of groundwater contaminants within the DOE complex. Our analyses include the evaluation of a frequency and ranking of specific contaminants and contaminant groups, contaminant concentrations/activities and total contaminant masses and activities. We also compared the results from analyses of the GWD with those from the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The difference between our results and those summarized in the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara could be caused by not only additional releases, but also by the use of modern site characterization methods, which more accurately reveal the extent of groundwater contamination. Contaminated sites within the DOE complex are located in all major geographic regions of the United States, with highly variable geologic, hydrogeologic, soil, and climatic conditions. We assume that the information from the 60 DOE sites included in the GWD are representative for the whole DOE complex. These 60 sites include the major DOE sites and facilities, such as Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Savannah River Site, South Carolina; Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee; and Hanford Reservation, Washington. These five sites alone ccount for 71% of the value of the remediation work.

  16. Soil & Groundwater Home - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil & Groundwater Home Soil & Groundwater Home Annual Reports Environmental Data Access Administrative Record Soil & Groundwater Home Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text...

  17. A technical approach to groundwater contamination problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, J.C.; Leser, C.; Rose, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has been performing technical investigations at sites in Nebraska and Kansas that have identified groundwater contamination by carbon tetrachloride. This comprehensive program will ultimately provide the affected communities with safe drinking water. The first step in the program is to evaluate the available data and identify sites that will require an Alternate Water Supply Study (AWSS). The objective of the AWSS is to identify options for providing a safe drinking water supply to all users, in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. The AWSS consists of an engineering and cost evaluation followed by implementation of the selected alternative. For sites with contamination less than a specific concentration, the AWSS is regarded as a satisfactory long term solution, and no further action is taken. For those sites with concentrations above that specific limit, the AWSS implementation is regarded as only a stopgap measure, and the site is selected for additional remedial action. The first step of the remedial action is an Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The ESC was developed at Argonne to decrease the cost and time of the remedial investigation and feasibility study while producing a high-quality technical investigation. The ESC is designed to characterize the contaminant plume configuration and movement, which requires an understanding of the geological and hydrogeologic controls on groundwater movement as well as the nature and extent of any remaining carbon tetrachloride source in the soils. The ESC program uses a multidisciplinary technical approach that incorporates geology, geochemistry, geohydrology, and geophysics. Field activities include sampling, chemical analysis, and borehole and surface geophysical surveys.

  18. Beneficial effects of groundwater entry into liquid-dominated geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lippmann, M.J. ); Truesdell, A.H. )

    1990-04-01

    In all active liquid-dominated geothermal systems there is continuous circulation of mass and transfer of heat, otherwise they would slowly cool and fade away. In the natural state these systems are in dynamic equilibrium with the surrounding colder groundwater aquifers. The ascending geothermal fluids cool conductively, boil, or mix with groundwaters, and ultimately may discharge at the surface as fumaroles or hot springs. With the start of fluid production and the lowering of reservoir pressure, the natural equilibrium is disrupted and cooler groundwater tends to enter the reservoir. Improperly constructed or damaged wells, and wells located near the margins of the geothermal system, exhibit temperature reductions (and possibly scaling from mixing of chemically distinct fluids) as the cooler-water moves into the reservoir. These negative effects, especially in peripheral wells are, however, compensated by the maintenance of reservoir pressure and a reduction in reservoir boiling that might result in mineral precipitation in the formation pores and fractures. The positive effect of cold groundwater entry on the behavior of liquid-dominated system is illustrated by using simple reservoir models. The simulation results show that even though groundwater influx into the reservoir causes cooling of fluids produced from wells located near the cold-water recharge area, it also reduces pressure drawdown and boiling in the exploited zone, and sweeps the heat stored in the reservoir rocks toward production wells, thus increasing the productive life of the wells and field. 9 refs.

  19. Water balance in the Amazon basin from a land surface model ensemble

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Getirana, Augusto; Dutra, Emanuel; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Kam, Jonghun; Li, Hongyi; Decharme, Bertrand; Zhang, Zhengqiu J.; Ducharne, Agnes; Boone, Aaron; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Rodell, Matthew; Mounirou Toure, Ally; Xue, Yongkang; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Arsenault, Kristi Rae; Drapeau, Guillaume; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ronchail, Josyane; Sheffield, Justin

    2014-12-06

    Despite recent advances in modeling and remote sensing of land surfaces, estimates of the global water budget are still fairly uncertain. The objective of this study is to evaluate the water budget of the Amazon basin based on several state-of-the-art land surface model (LSM) outputs. Water budget variables [total water storage (TWS), evapotranspiration (ET), surface runoff (R) and baseflow (B)] are evaluated at the basin scale using both remote sensing and in situ data. Fourteen LSMs were run using meteorological forcings at a 3-hourly time step and 1-degree spatial resolution. Three experiments are performed using precipitation which has been rescaled to match monthly global GPCP and GPCC datasets and the daily HYBAM dataset for the Amazon basin. R and B are used to force the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme and simulated discharges are compared against observations at 165 gauges. Simulated ET and TWS are compared against FLUXNET and MOD16A2 evapotranspiration, and GRACE TWS estimates in different catchments. At the basin scale, simulated ET ranges from 2.39mm.d-1 to 3.26mm.d-1 and a low spatial correlation between ET and P indicates that evapotranspiration does not depend on water availability over most of the basin. Results also show that other simulated water budget variables vary significantly as a function of both the LSM and precipitation used, but simulated TWS generally agree at the basin scale. The best water budget simulations resulted from experiments using the HYBAM dataset, mostly explained by a denser rainfall gauge network the daily rescaling.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Withdrawal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Rosemary; Giroux, Brian; Pohll, Greg; Hershey, Ronald; Russell, Charles; Howcroft, William

    2004-01-28

    Alternative uses of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) may require large amounts of water to construct and/or operate. The only abundant source of water at the NTS is groundwater. This report describes preliminary modeling to quantify the amount of groundwater available for development from three hydrographic areas at the NTS. Modeling was conducted with a three-dimensional transient numerical groundwater flow model.

  1. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations.

  2. Tuning the interaction between propagating and localized surface plasmons for surface enhanced Raman scattering in water for biomedical and environmental applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shioi, Masahiko; Jans, Hilde; Lodewijks, Kristof; Van Dorpe, Pol; Lagae, Liesbet; Kawamura, Tatsuro

    2014-06-16

    With a view to biomedical and environmental applications, we investigate the plasmonic properties of a rectangular gold nanodisk array in water to boost surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects. To control the resonance wavelengths of the surface plasmon polariton and the localized surface plasmon, their dependence on the array period and diameter in water is studied in detail using a finite difference time domain method. A good agreement is obtained between calculated resonant wavelengths and those of gold nanodisk arrays fabricated using electron beam lithography. For the optimized structure, a SERS enhancement factor of 7.8 × 10{sup 7} is achieved in water experimentally.

  3. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and September 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Durango, Colorado, Disposal and Processing Sites March 2014 LMS/DUD/DUP/S00613 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-June and September 2013, Durango, Colorado March 2014 RIN 13055370 and 13085577 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Sample Location Map-June

  4. The Hanford Story: Groundwater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This second chapter of The Hanford Story explains how more than 100 square miles of groundwater under the Hanford Site became contaminated and what workers are doing to restore groundwater to its highest beneficial use.

  5. Nevada National Security Site Groundwater Program

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-10-28

    From 1951 to 1992, the Unites States government conducted 828 underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site. About one-third of these tests occurred near, below or within the water table - the very top portion of the groundwater layer where rock and soil are completely saturated with water. As a result, some groundwater was contaminated. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began exploring the effects of groundwater contamination in the 1970s. Though contamination from underground testing has never been detected on public land, the DOE was committed to developing an advanced, reliable monitoring network that ensures the long-term protection of the public. An intensive groundwater investigation program was launched in 1989.

  6. Watershed response and land energy feedbacks under climate change depend upon groundwater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, R M; Kollet, S J

    2008-06-10

    Human induced climate change will have a significant impact on the hydrologic cycle, creating changes in fresh water resources, land cover, and feedbacks that are difficult to characterize, which makes it an issue of global importance. Previous studies have not included subsurface storage in climate change simulations and feedbacks. A variably-saturated groundwater flow model with integrated overland flow and land surface model processes is used to examine the interplay between coupled water and energy processes under climate change conditions. A case study from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) USA, an important agricultural region that is susceptible to drought, is used as the basis for three scenarios simulations using a modified atmospheric forcing dataset to reflect predicted effects due to human-induced climate change. These scenarios include an increase in the atmospheric temperature and variations in rainfall amount and are compared to the present-day climate case. Changes in shallow soil saturation and groundwater levels are quantified as well as the corresponding energy fluxes at the land surface. Here we show that groundwater and subsurface lateral flow processes are critical in understanding hydrologic response and energy feedbacks to climate change and that certain regions are more susceptible to changes in temperature, while others to changes in precipitation. This groundwater control is critical for understanding recharge and drought processes, possible under future climate conditions.

  7. Stable water isotope simulation by current land-surface schemes:Results of IPILPS phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson-Sellers, A.; Fischer, M.; Aleinov, I.; McGuffie, K.; Riley, W.J.; Schmidt, G.A.; Sturm, K.; Yoshimura, K.; Irannejad, P.

    2005-10-31

    Phase 1 of isotopes in the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (iPILPS) compares the simulation of two stable water isotopologues ({sup 1}H{sub 2} {sup 18}O and {sup 1}H{sup 2}H{sup 16}O) at the land-atmosphere interface. The simulations are off-line, with forcing from an isotopically enabled regional model for three locations selected to offer contrasting climates and ecotypes: an evergreen tropical forest, a sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a mixed deciduous wood. Here we report on the experimental framework, the quality control undertaken on the simulation results and the method of intercomparisons employed. The small number of available isotopically-enabled land-surface schemes (ILSSs) limits the drawing of strong conclusions but, despite this, there is shown to be benefit in undertaking this type of isotopic intercomparison. Although validation of isotopic simulations at the land surface must await more, and much more complete, observational campaigns, we find that the empirically-based Craig-Gordon parameterization (of isotopic fractionation during evaporation) gives adequately realistic isotopic simulations when incorporated in a wide range of land-surface codes. By introducing two new tools for understanding isotopic variability from the land surface, the Isotope Transfer Function and the iPILPS plot, we show that different hydrological parameterizations cause very different isotopic responses. We show that ILSS-simulated isotopic equilibrium is independent of the total water and energy budget (with respect to both equilibration time and state), but interestingly the partitioning of available energy and water is a function of the models' complexity.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of solutions and interfaces containing nitrogen dioxide, water, and 1,4 dioxane: Evidence for repulsion of surface water by NO{sub 2} gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdachaew, Garold; Varner, Mychel E.; Veer, Wytze E. van der; Gerber, R. Benny; Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 ; Phillips, Leon F.

    2014-05-14

    The interaction of water, 1,4 dioxane, and gaseous nitrogen dioxide, has been studied as a function of distance measured through the liquid-vapour interface by Raman spectroscopy with a narrow (<0.1 mm) laser beam directed parallel to the interface. The Raman spectra show that water is present at the surface of a dioxane-water mixture when gaseous NO{sub 2} is absent, but is virtually absent from the surface of a dioxane-water mixture when gaseous NO{sub 2} is present. This is consistent with recent theoretical calculations that show NO{sub 2} to be mildly hydrophobic.

  9. Calendar Year 2002 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-03-31

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2002 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2002 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2002 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities in the Bear Creek, East Fork, and Chestnut Ridge Regimes. Section 2 describes the monitoring programs implemented by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC during CY 2002. Section 3 identifies the sampling locations in each hydrogeologic regime and the corresponding sampling frequency during CY 2002, along with the associated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) sampling. Section 4 describes groundwater and surface water sample collection and Section 5 identifies the field measurements and laboratory analytes for each sampling location. Section 6 outlines the data management protocols and data quality objectives (DQOs). Section 7 describes the groundwater elevation monitoring in each regime during CY 2002 and Section 8 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational, regulatory, and technical information.

  10. Calendar Year 2004 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2005-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2004 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2004 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2004 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). However, detailed analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the CY 2004 monitoring data is deferred to the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium (BWXT 2005). For each monitoring well, spring, and surface water sampling station included in this report, the GWPP Compendium provides: (1) pertinent well installation and construction information; (2) a complete sampling history, including sampling methods and distinguishing sampling characteristics; (3) an evaluation of hydrologic characteristics, based on pre-sampling groundwater elevations, along with a compilation of available test results (e.g., hydraulic conductivity test data); (4) a discussion of geochemical characteristics based on evaluation of the analytical results for the primary anions and cations; and (5) a detailed analysis and interpretation of the available data for the principal groundwater contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2004 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities in the Bear Creek, East Fork, and Chestnut Ridge Regime. Section 2 briefly describes the hydrogeologic system and generalized extent of groundwater contamination in each regime. Section 3 describes the monitoring programs implemented and associated sampling activities performed in each regime during CY 2004. Section 4 presents an a summary of the CY 2004 monitoring data with regard to the provisions of DOE Order 450.1 (surveillance and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring), including highlights of notable findings and time-series plots of data for CY 2004 sampling locations that provide representative examples of long-term contaminant concentration trends. Brief conclusions and proposed recommendations are provided in Section 5. Section 6 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational, regulatory, and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Monitoring well construction details are in Appendix C. Results of field measurements and laboratory analyses of the groundwater and surface water samples collected during CY 2004 are in Appendix D (Bear Creek Regime), Appendix E (East Fork Regime and surrounding areas), and Appendix F (Chestnut Ridge Regime). Appendix G contains data for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with monitoring performed in each regime by the Y-12 GWPP.

  11. Calendar Year 2005 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2005 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2005 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2005 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). However, detailed analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the CY 2005 monitoring data is deferred to the ''Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium'' (BWXT 2006). For each monitoring well, spring, and surface water sampling station included in this report, the GWPP Compendium provides: (1) pertinent well installation and construction information; (2) a complete sampling history, including sampling methods and distinguishing sampling characteristics; (3) an evaluation of hydrologic characteristics, based on pre-sampling groundwater elevations, along with a compilation of available test results (e.g., hydraulic conductivity test data); (4) a discussion of geochemical characteristics based on evaluation of the analytical results for the primary anions and cations; and (5) a detailed analysis and interpretation of the available data for the principal groundwater contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2005 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities in the Bear Creek, East Fork, and Chestnut Ridge Regime. Section 2 briefly describes the hydrogeologic system and generalized extent of groundwater contamination in each regime. Section 3 describes the monitoring programs implemented and associated sampling activities performed in each regime during CY 2005. Section 4 presents an a summary of the CY 2005 monitoring data with regard to the provisions of DOE Order 450.1 (surveillance and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring), including highlights of notable findings and time-series plots of data for CY 2005 sampling locations that provide representative examples of long-term contaminant concentration trends. Brief conclusions and proposed recommendations are provided in Section 5. Section 6 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational, regulatory, and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Monitoring well construction details are in Appendix C. Results of field measurements and laboratory analyses of the groundwater and surface water samples collected during CY 2005 are in Appendix D (Bear Creek Regime), Appendix E (East Fork Regime and surrounding areas), and Appendix F (Chestnut Ridge Regime). Appendix G contains data for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with monitoring performed in each regime by the Y-12 GWPP.

  12. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitler, J.D.; Culling, J.R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  13. West Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for West Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report Volume V Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  14. East Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for East Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  15. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

  16. West Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for West Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  17. Calendar Year 2006 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2007-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2006 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2006 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2006 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT), and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., preparing SAPs, coordinating sample collection, and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2006 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 GWPP including sampling locations and frequency; quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) sampling; sample collection and handling; field measurements and laboratory analytes; data management and data quality objective (DQO) evaluation; and groundwater elevation monitoring. However, this report does not include equivalent information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities associated with the monitoring programs implemented by BJC. Such details are deferred to the respective programmatic plans and reports issued by BJC (see Section 3.0). Collectively, the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 2006 by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC address DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) requirements for monitoring groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). Section 4 of this report presents a summary evaluation of the monitoring data with regard to the respective objectives of surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring, based on the analytical results for the principal groundwater and surface water contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. Section 5 of this report summarizes the most pertinent findings regarding the principal contaminants, along with recommendations proposed for ongoing groundwater and surface water quality monitoring performed under the Y-12 GWPP. Narrative sections of this report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Appendix C contains construction details for the wells in each regime that were sampled during CY 2006 by either the Y-12 GWPP or BJC. Field measurements recorded during collection of the groundwater and surface water samples and results of laboratory analyses of the samples are in Appendix D (Bear Creek Regime), Appendix E (East Fork Regime and surrounding areas), and Appendix F (Chestnut Ridge Regime). Appendix G contains data for the QA/QC samples associated with monitoring performed in each regime by the Y-12 GWPP.

  18. Effect of Cu2+ Activation on Interfacial Water Structure at the Sphalerite Surface as Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Jiaqi; Miller, Jan D.; Dang, Liem X.; Wick, Collin D.

    2015-12-10

    In the first part of this paper, an experimental contact angle study of the fresh and Cu2+ activated sphalerite-ZnS surface as well as the covellite-CuS (001) surface is reported describing the increased hydrophobic character of the surface during Cu2+ activation. In addition to these experimental results, the fresh sphalerite-ZnS (110), copper-zinc sulfide-CuZnS2 (110), villamaninite- CuS2 (100), and covellite-CuS (001) surfaces were examined using Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS). Our MDS results on the behavior of interfacial water at the fresh sphalerite-ZnS (110), copper-zinc sulfide-CuZnS2 (110), villamaninite-CuS2 (100), and covellite-CuS (001) surfaces include simulated contact angles, water number density distribution, water dipole orientation, water residence time, and hydrogen-bonding considerations. The copper content at the Cu2+ activated sphalerite surface seems to account for the increased hydrophobicity as revealed by both experimental and MD simulated contact angle measurements. The relatively greater hydrophobic character developed at the Cu2+ activated sphalerite surface and at the copper-zinc sulfide surface has been described by MDS, based on the structure of interfacial water and its dynamic properties. L.X.D. acknowledges funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  19. Groundwater Monitoring Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    92 natural sources, 102 regional aquifer wells, 41 intermediate-depth wells and springs, and 67 wells in alluvium in canyons. August 1, 2013 Map of LANL's groundwater...

  20. Soil and Groundwater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Legacy soil and groundwater remediation activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are conducted in accordance with regulatory requirements, DOE regulations, and other applicable environmental laws.

  1. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater, Surface Water, Produced Water, and Natural Gas Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site October 2014 LMS/GSB/S00614 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S.

  2. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site.

  3. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

  4. TRITIUM UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR SURFACE WATER SAMPLES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, R.

    2012-07-31

    Radiochemical analyses of surface water samples, in the framework of Environmental Monitoring, have associated uncertainties for the radioisotopic results reported. These uncertainty analyses pertain to the tritium results from surface water samples collected at five locations on the Savannah River near the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Uncertainties can result from the field-sampling routine, can be incurred during transport due to the physical properties of the sample, from equipment limitations, and from the measurement instrumentation used. The uncertainty reported by the SRS in their Annual Site Environmental Report currently considers only the counting uncertainty in the measurements, which is the standard reporting protocol for radioanalytical chemistry results. The focus of this work is to provide an overview of all uncertainty components associated with SRS tritium measurements, estimate the total uncertainty according to ISO 17025, and to propose additional experiments to verify some of the estimated uncertainties. The main uncertainty components discovered and investigated in this paper are tritium absorption or desorption in the sample container, HTO/H{sub 2}O isotopic effect during distillation, pipette volume, and tritium standard uncertainty. The goal is to quantify these uncertainties and to establish a combined uncertainty in order to increase the scientific depth of the SRS Annual Site Environmental Report.

  5. Calendar Year 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2010-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2009 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12. The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2009 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2009 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 GWPP including sampling locations and frequency; quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) sampling; sample collection and handling; field measurements and laboratory analytes; data management and data quality objective (DQO) evaluation; and groundwater elevation monitoring. However, this report does not include equivalent QA/QC or DQO evaluation information regarding the groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis activities associated with the monitoring programs implemented by BJC. Such details are deferred to the respective programmatic plans and reports issued by BJC (see Section 3.0). Collectively, the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 2009 by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC address DOE Order 450.1A (Environmental Protection Program) requirements for monitoring groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). Section 4 of this report presents a summary evaluation of the monitoring data with regard to the respective objectives of surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring, based on the analytical results for the principal groundwater contaminants at Y-12: nitrate, uranium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gross alpha activity, and gross beta activity. Section 5 of this report summarizes the most pertinent findings regarding the principal contaminants, along with recommendations proposed for ongoing groundwater and surface water quality monitoring performed under the Y-12 GWPP. Narrative sections of this report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Appendix C contains construction details for the wells in each regime that were sampled during CY 2009 by either the Y-12 GWPP or BJC. Field measurements recorded during collection of the groundwater and surface water samples and results of laboratory analyses of the samples are in Appendix D (Bear Creek Regime), Appendix E (East Fork Regime and surrounding areas), and Appendix F (Chestnut Ridge Regime). Appendix G contains data for the QA/QC samples associated with monitoring performed in each regime by the Y-12 GWPP.

  6. Projected Changes in Mean and Interannual Variability of Surface Water over Continental China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Guoyong; Tang, Qiuhong; Huang, Maoyi; Hong, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-05-01

    Five General Circulation Model (GCM) climate projections under the RCP8.5 emission scenario were used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to investigate the impacts of climate change on hydrologic cycle over continental China in the 21st century. The bias-corrected climatic variables were generated for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5) by the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). Results showed much larger fractional changes of annual mean Evaportranspiration (ET) per unit warming than the corresponding fractional changes of Precipitation (P) per unit warming across the country especially for South China, which led to notable decrease of surface water variability (P-E). Specifically, negative trends for annual mean runoff up to -0.33%/decade and soil moisture trends varying between -0.02 to -0.13%/decade were found for most river basins across China. Coincidentally, interannual variability for both runoff and soil moisture exhibited significant positive trends for almost all river basins across China, implying an increase in extremes relative to the mean conditions. Noticeably, the largest positive trends for runoff variability and soil moisture variability, which were up to 38 0.41%/decade and 0.90%/decade, both occurred in Southwest China. In addition to the regional contrast, intra-seasonal variation was also large for the runoff mean and runoff variability changes, but small for the soil moisture mean and variability changes. Our results suggest that future climate change could further exacerbate existing water-related risks (e.g. floods and droughts) across China as indicated by the marked decrease of surface water amounts combined with steady increase of interannual variability throughout the 21st century. This study highlights the regional contrast and intra-seasonal variations for the projected hydrologic changes and could provide muti-scale guidance for assessing effective adaptation strategies for the country on a river basin, regional, or as whole.

  7. Molecular dynamics study of saltsolution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2014-04-14

    The NaCl saltsolution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl saltsolution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a saltsolution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  8. Groundwater Level Status Report for Fiscal Year 2007 - Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon P. Allen, Richard J. Koch

    2008-03-17

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2007 is provided in this report. The Groundwater Level Monitoring Project was instituted in 2005 to provide a framework for the collection and processing of quality controlled groundwater level data. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 166 monitoring wells, including 45 regional aquifer wells, 25 intermediate wells, and 96 alluvial wells, and 11 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 133 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well.

  9. Implementation of ORR Groundwater Strategy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Manager Steve Haase, Ph.D., RSI Senior Geohydrologist June 10, 2015 www.energy.govEM 2 AGENDA: * Groundwater Strategy overview * Groundwater Strategy implementation status -...

  10. Correlation of Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse Silanized Surfaces and Relationship to Fluid Interfacial Tensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Dehoff, Karl J.; Warner, Marvin G.; Pittman, Jonathan W.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2012-02-24

    The use of air-water, {Theta}{sub wa}, or air-liquid contact angles is customary in surface science, while oil-water contact angles {Theta}{sub ow}, are of paramount importance in subsurface multiphase flow phenomena including petroleum reocovery, nonaqueous phase liquid fate and transport, and geological carbon sequestration. In this paper we determine both the air-water and oil-water contact angles of silica surfaces modified with a diverse selection of silanes, using hexadecane as the oil. The silanes included alkylsilanes, alkylarylsilanes, and silanes with alkyl or aryl groups that are functionalized with heteroatoms such as N, O, and S. These silanes yielded surfaces with wettabilities from water-wet to oil wet, including specific silanized surfaces functionalized with heteroatoms that yield intermediate wet surfaces. The oil-water contact angles for clean and silanized surfaces, excluding one partially fluorinated surface, correlate linearly with air-water contact angles with a slope of 1.41 (R = 0.981, n = 13). These data were used to examine a previously untested theoretical treatment relating air-water and oil-water contact angles in terms of fluid interfacial energies. Plotting the cosines of these contact angles against one another, we obtain a linear relationship in excellent agreement with the theoretical treatment; the data fit cos {Theta}{sub ow} = 0.667 cos {Theta}{sub ow} + 0.384 (R = 0.981, n = 13), intercepting cos {Theta}{sub ow} = -1 at -0.284. The theoretical slope, based on the fluid interfacial tensions {Theta}{sub wa}, {Theta}{sub ow}, and {Theta}{sub oa}, is 0.67. We also demonstrate how silanes can be used to alter the wettability of the interior of a pore network micromodel device constructed in silicon/silica with a glass cover plate. Such micromodels are used to study multiphase flow phenomena. The contact angle of the resulting interior was determined in situ. An intermediate wet micromodel gave a contact angle in excellent agreement with that obtained on an open planar silica surface using the same silane.

  11. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, David

    2015-02-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was analyzed for toxicity characteristic contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Beginning with the sample from July 31, 2013, pH and specific conductance were also measured. Leachate analysis results show no evidence of contamination. Results for toxicity characteristic contaminants are all below regulatory levels and analysis quantification limits. No quantifiable PCB levels were detected in any sample. Results for pH and specific conductance are also within expected ranges. After analysis, leachate was pumped from the collection tank and used in Cell 18 for dust control. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  12. Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W.; Ruiz, Roberto; Pico, Tristan M.

    2001-01-01

    A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

  13. Partial oxidation of landfill leachate in supercritical water: Optimization by response surface methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Yanmeng; Wang, Shuzhong; Xu, Haidong; Guo, Yang; Tang, Xingying

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Partial oxidation of landfill leachate in supercritical water was investigated. • The process was optimized by Box–Behnken design and response surface methodology. • GY{sub H2}, TRE and CR could exhibit up to 14.32 mmol·gTOC{sup −1}, 82.54% and 94.56%. • Small amounts of oxidant can decrease the generation of tar and char. - Abstract: To achieve the maximum H{sub 2} yield (GY{sub H2}), TOC removal rate (TRE) and carbon recovery rate (CR), response surface methodology was applied to optimize the process parameters for supercritical water partial oxidation (SWPO) of landfill leachate in a batch reactor. Quadratic polynomial models for GY{sub H2}, CR and TRE were established with Box–Behnken design. GY{sub H2}, CR and TRE reached up to 14.32 mmol·gTOC{sup −1}, 82.54% and 94.56% under optimum conditions, respectively. TRE was invariably above 91.87%. In contrast, TC removal rate (TR) only changed from 8.76% to 32.98%. Furthermore, carbonate and bicarbonate were the most abundant carbonaceous substances in product, whereas CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} were the most abundant gaseous products. As a product of nitrogen-containing organics, NH{sub 3} has an important effect on gas composition. The carbon balance cannot be reached duo to the formation of tar and char. CR increased with the increase of temperature and oxidation coefficient.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface waters of Alessandria District, South Eastern Piedmont (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trova, C.; Cossa, G.; Gandolfo, G.

    1992-10-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Because of the high toxicity of some polycyclic compounds, such as benzopyrenes, the determination of their levels in air, water, soil and aquatic organisms was the object of several papers. Anthropogenic pyrolitic and combustion processes, related to industrial plants, domestic heating, automobile traffic, are the major sources of these compounds; from these sources they enter atmospheric environment where their concentration is reduced by scavenging during precipitation events: rain, snow and fog in urban areas usually show high contents of PAHs. Dry and wet atmospheric polluted depositions effluents transport appreciable amounts of PAHs to aquatic environment, where they are rapidly taken up and accumulated by both fish and shellfish. Alessandria District, in South-Eastern Piedmont (Italy), lies in the middle of Torino-Milano-Genova industrial area: in addition to local sources, a relatively long range transport of polluted air masses may conduct to this region atmospheric contaminants, such as polynuclear compounds, that can enter fluvial environments through meteoric precipitation. The object of this work was to evaluate PAH content in surface waters flowing across the described territory. Samplings were carried on during winter season, when the concentration of these pollutants usually reaches the highest levels. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Paddy field, groundwater and land subsidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Through many years of research and technical interchange both at home and abroad, it is commonly recognized that paddy fields possess the functions of micro-climate adjustment, flood detection and prevention, soil and water conservation, river-flow stabilization, soil salinization prevention, water purification, groundwater recharge, rural area beautification and environmental protection which are all beneficial to the public. In recent years, the global environmental problems have become a series concern throughout the world. These include the broken ozone layer, green house effects, acid rain, land desertion, tropical rain forest disappearing etc. Among them, rain forest disappearing draws great attention. Both rain forests and paddy fields are in tropical areas. They have similar functions and are disappearing because of economic pressure. This paper describes the special functions of paddy fields on water purification, ground water recharge and prevention of land subsidence, and reiterates groundwater utilization and land subsidence prevention measures. In view of the importance of groundwater resources, paddy fields, which can not be replaced by any other artificial groundwater recharge facilities, should not be reduced in acreage, nor can they be left idle. Paddy fields shall be properly maintained and managed in order to strengthen their special functions in the years to come even under heavy pressure from foreign countries.

  16. Surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous solid water films: Confirmation of “top-down” crystallization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2016-01-11

    Here, the crystallization kinetics of nanoscale amorphous solid water (ASW) films are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). TPD measurements are used to probe surface crystallization and RAIRS measurements are used to probe bulk crystallization. Isothermal TPD results show that surface crystallization is independent of the film thickness (from 100 to 1000 ML). Conversely, the RAIRS measurements show that the bulk crystallization time increases linearly with increasing film thickness. These results suggest that nucleation and crystallization begin at the ASW/vacuum interface and then the crystallization growth front propagates linearly into the bulk. This mechanism wasmore » confirmed by selective placement of an isotopic layer (5% D2O in H2O) at various positions in an ASW (H2O) film. In this case, the closer the isotopic layer was to the vacuum interface, the earlier the isotopic layer crystallized. These experiments provide direct evidence to confirm that ASW crystallization in vacuum proceeds by a “top-down” crystallization mechanism.« less

  17. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent C. Tidwell; Barbara D. Moreland; Katie M. Zemlick; Barry L. Roberts; Howard D. Passell; Daniel Jensen; Christopher Forsgren; Gerald Sehlke; Margaret A. Cook; Carey W. King

    2014-06-01

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  18. Results of groundwater monitoring and vegetation sampling at Everest, Kansas, in 2009 .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-13

    In April 2008, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) conducted groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the existing network of monitoring points at Everest, Kansas (Argonne 2008). The objective of the 2008 investigation was to monitor the distribution of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater previously identified in CCC/USDA site characterization and groundwater sampling studies at Everest in 2000-2006 (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The work at Everest is being undertaken on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The findings of the 2008 investigation were as follows: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders demonstrated a consistent pattern of groundwater flow - and inferred contaminant migration - to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) The range of concentrations and the areal distribution of carbon tetrachloride identified in the groundwater at Everest in April 2008 were generally consistent with previous results. The results of the 2008 sampling (reflecting the period from 2006 to 2008) and the earlier investigations at Everest (representing the period from 2000 to 2006) show that no significant downgradient extension of the carbon tetrachloride plume occurred from 2000 to 2008. (3) The slow contaminant migration indicated by the monitoring data is qualitatively consistent with the low groundwater flow rates in the Everest aquifer unit estimated previously on the basis of site-specific hydraulic testing (Argonne 2006a,b). (4) The April 2008 and earlier sampling results demonstrate that the limits of the plume have been effectively, identified by the existing network of monitoring points and have not changed significantly during the CCC/USDA investigation program. The carbon tetrachloride distribution within the plume has continued to evolve, however, with relatively constant or apparently decreasing contaminant levels at most sampling locations. In response to these findings, the KDHE requested that the CCC/USDA develop a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water at Everest, to facilitate continued tracking of the carbon tetrachloride plume at this site (KDHE 2009a). A recommendation for annual sampling (for analyses of VOCs) of 16 existing groundwater monitoring points within and near the identified contaminant migration pathway and surface water sampling at 5 locations along the intermittent creek west (downgradient) of the identified plume was presented by the CCC/USDA (Appendix A) and approved by the KDHE (2009b) for implementation. The monitoring wells will be sampled according to the low-flow procedure, and sample preservation, shipping, and analysis activities will be consistent with previous work at Everest. The annual sampling will continue until identified conditions at the site indicate a technical justification for a change. This report summarizes the results of sampling and monitoring activities conducted at the Everest site since completion of the April 2008 groundwater sampling event (Argonne 2008). The investigations performed during the current review period (May 2008 to October 2009) were as follows: (1) With one exception, the KDHE-approved groundwater and surface water monitoring points were sampled on April 24-27, 2009. In this event, well PT1 was inadvertently sampled instead of the adjacent well MW04. This investigation represents the first groundwater and surface water sampling event performed under the current plan for annual monitoring approved by the KDHE. (2) Ongoing monitoring of the groundwater levels at Everest is performed with KDHE approval. The levels in selected monitoring wells are recorded continuously, by using downhole pressure sensors equipped with automatic data loggers, and periodically are also measured manually. Groundwater level data were recovered during the current review period on September 19, 2008, and on March 25, April 25-27, and October 20, 2009. (3) Argonne experience has demonstrated that the sampling and analysis (for VOCs) of native vegetation, and particularly tree tissues, often provides a sensitive indicator of possible carbon tetrachloride contamination in the surface water or shallow groundwater within the plant rooting zone. With the approval of the CCC/USDA, on August 28, 2009, samples of tree branch tissues were therefore collected for analyses at 18 locations along the intermittent creek west (downgradient) of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property.

  19. Analysis of Ground-Water Levels and Associated Trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Fenelon

    2005-10-05

    Almost 4,000 water-level measurements in 216 wells in the Yucca Flat area from 1951 to 2003 were quality assured and analyzed. An interpretative database was developed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in Yucca Flat. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes narratives that discuss the water-level history of each well. Water levels in 34 wells were analyzed for variability and for statistically significant trends. An attempt was made to identify the cause of many of the water-level fluctuations or trends. Potential causes include equilibration following well construction or development, pumping in the monitoring well, withdrawals from a nearby supply well, recharge from precipitation, earthquakes, underground nuclear tests, land subsidence, barometric pressure, and Earth tides. Some of the naturally occurring fluctuations in water levels may result from variations in recharge. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for these fluctuations generally is less than 2 feet. Long-term steady-state hydrographs for most of the wells open to carbonate rock have a very similar pattern. Carbonate-rock wells without the characteristic pattern are directly west of the Yucca and Topgallant faults in the southwestern part of Yucca Flat. Long-term steady-state hydrographs from wells open to volcanic tuffs or the Eleana confining unit have a distinctly different pattern from the general water-level pattern of the carbonate-rock aquifers. Anthropogenic water-level fluctuations were caused primarily by water withdrawals and nuclear testing. Nuclear tests affected water levels in many wells. Trends in these wells are attributed to test-cavity infilling or the effects of depressurization following nuclear testing. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for wells with anthropogenic trends can be large, ranging from several feet to hundreds of feet. Vertical water-level differences at 27 sites in Yucca Flat with multiple open intervals were compared. Large vertical differences were noted in volcanic rocks and in boreholes where water levels were affected by nuclear tests. Small vertical differences were noted within the carbonate-rock and valley-fill aquifers. Vertical hydraulic gradients generally are downward in volcanic rocks and from pre-Tertiary clastic rocks toward volcanic- or carbonate-rock units.

  20. POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, J; Walt Kubilius, W; Thomas Kmetz, T; D Noffsinger, D; Karen M Adams, K

    2006-11-17

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed from detection monitoring and plume characterization, to active groundwater remediation, and now to monitored natural attenuation and postclosure monitoring. Thus, the objectives of the groundwater monitoring have changed accordingly. Characterization monitoring evaluated what biogeochemical natural attenuation processes were occurring and determined that elevated levels of radium were naturally occurring. Process monitoring of the biosparging system required comprehensive sampling network up- and down-gradient of the horizontal wells to verify its effectiveness. Currently, the scope of monitoring and reporting can be significantly reduced as the objective is to demonstrate that the alternate concentration limits (ACL) are being met at the point of compliance wells and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is being met at the surface water point of exposure. The proposed reduction is estimated to save about $2M over the course of the remaining 25 years of postclosure monitoring.

  1. Radionuclide release from PWR fuels in a reference tuff repository groundwater subsquently changed to Radionuclide release from PWR fuels in J-13 well water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.; Oversby, V.M.

    1985-04-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project (NNWSI) is studying the suitability of the welded devitrified Topopah Spring tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, for potential use as a high level nuclear waste repository. In support of the Waste Package task of NNWSI, tests have been conducted under ambient air environment to measure radionuclide release from two pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuels in water obtained from the J-13 well near the Yucca Mountain site. Four specimen types, representing a range of fuel physical conditions that may exist in a failed waste canister containing a limited amount of water were tested. The specimen types were: (1) fuel rod sections split open to expose bare fuel particles; (2) rod sections with water-tight end fittings with a 2.5-cm long by 150-{mu}m wide slit through the cladding; (3) rod sections with water-tight end fittings and two 200-{mu}m diameter holes through the cladding; and (4) undefected rod segments with water-tight end fittings. Radionuclide release results from the first 223-day test runs on H.B. Robinson spent fuel specimens in J-13 water are reported and compared to results from a previous test series in which similar Turkey Point reactor spent fuel specimens were tested in deionized water. Selected initial results are also given for Turkey Point fuel specimens tested in J-13 water. Results suggest that the actinides Pu, Am, Cm and Np are released congruently with U as the UO{sub 2} spent fuel matrix dissolves. Fractional release of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 99}Tc was greater than that measured for the actinides. Generally, lower radionuclide releases were measured for the H.B. Robinson fuel in J-13 water than for Turkey Point Fuel in deionized water.

  2. ICDP Complex Groundwater Monitoring Plan REV 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahn, L. S.

    2007-08-09

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan, along with the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions, constitutes the sampling and analysis plan for groundwater and perched water monitoring at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF). A detection monitoring system was installed in the Snake River Plan Aquifer to comply with substantive requirements of "Releases from Solid Waste Management Units" of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This detection monitoring wells constructed in the Snake River Plain Aquifer.

  3. Plan for Using Solar-Powered Jack Pumps to Sample Groundwater at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Hudson, Charles Lohrstorfer, Bruce Hurley

    2007-05-03

    Groundwater is sampled from 39 monitoring wells on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as part of the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program. Many of these wells were not designed or constructed for long-term groundwater monitoring. Some have extensive completion zones and others have obstructions such as pumps and tubing. The high-volume submersible pumps in some wells are unsuitable for long-term monitoring and result in large volumes of water that may have to be contained and characterized before subsequent disposition. The configuration of most wells requires sampling stagnant well water with a wireline bailer. Although bailer sampling allows for the collection of depth-discrete samples, the collected samples may not be representative of local groundwater because no well purging is done. Low-maintenance, solar-powered jack pumps will be deployed in nine of these onsite monitoring wells to improve sample quality. These pumps provide the lift capacity to produce groundwater from the deep aquifers encountered in the arid environment of the NTS. The water depths in these wells range from 700 to 2,340 ft below ground surface. The considerable labor and electrical power requirements of electric submersible pumps are eliminated once these pumps are installed. Access tubing will be installed concurrent with the installation of the pump string to provide downhole access for water-level measurements or other wireline instruments. Micro-purge techniques with low pump rates will be used to minimize purge volumes and reduce hydraulic gradients. The set depths of the pumps will be determined by the borehole characteristics and screened interval.

  4. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}} ions and RaCl{sub 2} is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Groundwater - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size 200WPumpandTreat 200 West Pump and Treat The groundwater treatment project includes a number of injection and extraction wells feeding five pump and treat facilities in the ...

  6. RDX in Groundwater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the July 8, 2015 Committee meeting Tim Goering LANL, Provided Information on the RDX Groundwater Plume that is Located Under Technical Area 16 at Los Alamos. Information on Monitoring and Possible Clean-up Solutions was Given.

  7. Soil & Groundwater Remediation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) manages one of the largest groundwater and soil remediation efforts in the world.  The inventory at the DOE sites includes 6.5 trillion liters of contaminated...

  8. Structure of the NiFe2O4(001) surface in contact with gaseous O2 and water

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    vapor (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structure of the NiFe2O4(001) surface in contact with gaseous O2 and water vapor Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on August 3, 2017 Title: Structure of the NiFe2O4(001) surface in contact with gaseous O2 and water vapor Authors: Shi, Xiao Search SciTech Connect for author "Shi, Xiao" Search SciTech Connect for ORCID "0000000279925262" Search orcid.org for ORCID

  9. Surface Chemistry of GaP(001) and InP(001) in Contact with Water (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Surface Chemistry of GaP(001) and InP(001) in Contact with Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface Chemistry of GaP(001) and InP(001) in Contact with Water Authors: Wood, B C ; Schwegler, E ; Choi, W ; Ogitsu, T Publication Date: 2013-09-20 OSTI Identifier: 1130018 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-644315 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 118, no. 2,

  10. Characterization of uranium and plutonium in surface-waters and sediments collected at the Rocky Flats Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.; Aguilar, R.D.; Roensch, F.R.; Perrin, R.E.; Banar, J.C.

    1994-05-01

    This study was initiated to characterize actinides in environmental samples collected at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) measurement techniques were used to measure the plutonium and uranium content of water and sediment samples collected from the ponds used to control surface-waters on-site at RFP. TIMS was also used to separate the uranium into anthropogenic and naturally occurring components. The results of these studies are presented.

  11. Hydrated goethite ([alpha]-FeOOH) (1 0 0 ) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghose, Sanjit K.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Trainor, Thomas P.; Eng, Peter J.

    2010-03-16

    Goethite({alpha}-FeOOH), an abundant and highly reactive iron oxyhydroxide mineral, has been the subject of numerous studies of environmental interface reactivity. However, such studies have been hampered by the lack of experimental constraints on aqueous interface structure, and especially of the surface water molecular arrangements. Structural information of this type is crucial because reactivity is dictated by the nature of the surface functional groups and the structure or distribution of water and electrolyte at the solid-solution interface. In this study we have investigated the goethite (1 0 0) surface using surface diffraction techniques, and have determined the relaxed surface structure, the surface functional groups, and the three dimensional nature of two distinct sorbed water layers. The crystal truncation rod (CTR) results show that the interface structure consists of a double hydroxyl, double water terminated interface with significant atom relaxations. Further, the double hydroxyl terminated surface dominates with an 89% contribution having a chiral subdomain structure on the (1 0 0) cleavage faces. The proposed interface stoichiometry is ((H{sub 2}O)-(H{sub 2}O)-OH{sub 2}-OH-Fe-O-O-Fe-R) with two types of terminal hydroxyls; a bidentate (B-type) hydroxo group and a monodentate (A-type) aquo group. Using the bond-valence approach the protonation states of the terminal hydroxyls are predicted to be OH type (bidentate hydroxyl with oxygen coupled to two Fe{sup 3+} ions) and OH{sub 2} type (monodentate hydroxyl with oxygen tied to only one Fe{sup 3+}). A double layer three dimensional ordered water structure at the interface was determined from refinement of fits to the experimental data. Application of bond-valence constraints to the terminal hydroxyls with appropriate rotation of the water dipole moments allowed a plausible dipole orientation model as predicted. The structural results are discussed in terms of protonation and H-bonding at the interface, and the results provide an ideal basis for testing theoretical predictions of characteristic surface properties such as pK{sub a}, sorption equilibria, and surface water permittivity.

  12. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS` contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe {sup +6}) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern.

  13. Applying GIS characterizing and modeling contaminant transport in surface water at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.; Van Eeckhout, E.; David, N.A.; Irvine, J.M.

    1995-10-01

    During World War II, Los Alamos, New Mexico was chosen as the site for the secret development of the first atomic bomb. The remote location in the southwestern United States was ideal for such a project. After the war, research activities continued at the Los Alamos installation, focusing on new nuclear weapons models as well as greater effectiveness and reliability of existing weapons. Due to the emphasis on nuclear and non-nuclear weapons development as well as associated nuclear research, a large inventory of radionuclides and heavy metals have been tested, expended, and disposed of in the local environment, a high plateau of tuffaceous volcanic rocks incised by deep canyons in a semi-arid climate. In recent years an intensive evaluation of the environmental, impact of weapons testing at Los Alamos and elsewhere has been undertaken. GIS system utilization and image processing of past and current data has been an important part of this evaluation. Important problems can be more easily displayed and understood using this methodology. The main objective in this paper is to illustrate how transport of depleted uranium and associated heavy metals (copper in this case) used in dynamic testing of weapons components at open air firing sites can be evaluated and visualized. In our studies, surface water has been found to be the predominant transport mechanism. We have sampled soils, sediments, fallout, runoff water and snowmelt over a number of years in order to understand contaminant transport on- and offsite. Statistical analyses of these data have assisted in our characterization of issues such as contaminant variability, spatially and temporally, as well as in development of transport rates.

  14. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.2 Residential Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Residential Water Use by Source (Million Gallons per Day) Year 1980 3,400 1985 3,320 1990 3,390 1995 3,390 2000 (3) (3) 3,590 2005 3,830 Note(s): Source(s): 29,430 25,600 1) Public supply water use: water withdrawn by public and private water suppliers that furnish water to at least 25 people or have a minimum of 15 connections. 2) Self-supply water use: Water withdrawn from a groundwater or surface-water source by a user rather than being obtained from a public supply. 3) USGS did not provide

  15. Oxidative particle mixtures for groundwater treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegrist, Robert L.; Murdoch, Lawrence C.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is a method and a composition of a mixture for degradation and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater. The oxidative particle mixture and method includes providing a material having a minimal volume of free water, mixing at least one inorganic oxidative chemical in a granular form with a carrier fluid containing a fine grained inorganic hydrophilic compound and injecting the resulting mixture into the subsurface. The granular form of the inorganic oxidative chemical dissolves within the areas of injection, and the oxidative ions move by diffusion and/or advection, therefore extending the treatment zone over a wider area than the injection area. The organic contaminants in the soil and groundwater are degraded by the oxidative ions, which form solid byproducts that can sorb significant amounts of inorganic contaminants, metals, and radionuclides for in situ treatment and immobilization of contaminants. The method and composition of the oxidative particle mixture for long-term treatment and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater provides for a reduction in toxicity of contaminants in a subsurface area of contamination without the need for continued injection of treatment material, or for movement of the contaminants, or without the need for continuous pumping of groundwater through the treatment zone, or removal of groundwater from the subsurface area of contamination.

  16. Maybell Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Maybell Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Maybell Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Maybell Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports PDF icon Maybell - Maybell...

  17. Amchitka Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Amchitka Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Amchitka Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Amchitka Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports PDF icon Amchitka -...

  18. Ashtabula Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ashtabula Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Ashtabula Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Ashtabula Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports PDF icon Ashtabula -...

  19. Shiprock Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Shiprock Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Shiprock Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Shiprock Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports PDF icon Shiprock -...

  20. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site October 2015 LMS/RUL/S00515 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its

  1. Cumulative hydrologic impact assessments on surface-water in northeastern Wyoming using HEC-1; a pilot study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.J.; Eastwood, D.C.; Anderson, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 requires that areas in which multiple mines will affect one watershed be analyzed and the cumulative impacts of all mining on the watershed be assessed. The purpose of the subject study was to conduct a cumulative hydrologic impact assessment (CHIA) for surface-water on a watershed in northeastern Wyoming that is currently being impacted by three mines. An assessment of the mining impact`s affect on the total discharge of the watershed is required to determine whether or not material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur as a result of surface mining and reclamation. The surface-water model HEC-1 was used to model four separate rainfall-runoff events that occurred in the study basin over three years (1978-1980). Although these storms were used to represent pre-mining conditions, they occurred during the early stages of mining and the models were adjusted accordingly. The events were selected for completeness of record and antecedent moisture conditions (AMC). Models were calibrated to the study events and model inputs were altered to reflect post-mining conditions. The same events were then analyzed with the new model inputs. The results were compared with the pre-mining calibration. Peak flow, total discharge and timing of flows were compared for pre-mining and post-mining models. Data were turned over to the State of Wyoming for assessment of whether material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur.

  2. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, Brain B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  3. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon SequestrationSites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-06-17

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO{sub 2} may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO{sub 2} overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO{sub 2} bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s{sup -1} at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s{sup -1}. Liquid CO{sub 2} bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO{sub 2} bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} at three different seepage rates reveals that ebullition and bubble flow will be the dominant form of gas transport in surface water for all but the smallest seepage fluxes or shallowest water bodies. The solubility of the gas species in water plays a fundamental role in whether ebullition occurs. We used a solubility model to examine CO{sub 2} solubility in waters with varying salinity as a function of depth below a 200 m-deep surface water body. In this system, liquid CO{sub 2} is stable between the deep regions where supercritical CO{sub 2} is stable and the shallow regions where gaseous CO{sub 2} is stable. The transition from liquid to gaseous CO{sub 2} is associated with a large change in density, with corresponding large change in bubble buoyancy. The solubility of CO{sub 2} is lower in high-salinity waters such as might be encountered in the deep subsurface. Therefore, as CO{sub 2} migrates upward through the deep subsurface, it will likely encounter less saline water with increasing capacity to dissolve CO{sub 2} potentially preventing ebullition, depending on the CO{sub 2} leakage flux. However, as CO{sub 2} continues to move upward through shallower depths, CO{sub 2} solubility in water decreases strongly leading to greater likelihood of ebullition and bubble flow in surface water. In the case of deep density-stratified lakes in which ebullition is suppressed, enhanced mixing and man-made degassing schemes can alleviate the buildup of CO{sub 2} and related risk of dangerous rapid discharges. Future research efforts are needed to increase understanding of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage in surface water and saturated porous media. For example, we recommend experiments and field tests of CO{sub 2} migration in saturated systems to formulate bubble-driven water-displacement models and relative permeability functions that can be used in simulation models.

  4. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    The Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of the previous years, with tritium detected only in well HC-4. The tritium concentration in groundwater from well HC-4 remains far below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-established maximum contaminant level of 20,000 picocuries per liter. Concentrations of total uranium and gross alpha were also detected during this monitoring period, with uranium accounting for nearly all the gross alpha activity. The total uranium concentrations obtained from this monitoring period were consistent with previous results and reflect a slightly elevated natural uranium concentration, consistent with the mineralized geologic terrain. Isotopic ratios of uranium also indicate a natural source of uranium in groundwater, as opposed to a nuclear-test-related source. Water level trends obtained from the 2012 water level data were consistent with those of previous years. The corrective action strategy for the PSA is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the current monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. While water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network will be conducted when water levels at the site have stabilized.

  5. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  6. Influence of particle size and water coverage on the thermodynamic properties of water confined on the surface of SnO2 cassiterite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Elinor; Ross, Dr. Nancy; Parker, Stewart F.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Woodfield, Brian; Woodfield, K; Rytting, M; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data for SnO2 nanoparticles of three different sizes and varying hydration levels are presented. Data were recorded on five nanoparticle samples that had the following compositions: 2 nm SnO2*0.82H2O, 6 nm SnO2*0.055H2O, 6 nm SnO2*0.095H2O, 20 nm SnO2*0.072H2O, and 20 nm SnO2*0.092H2O. The isochoric heat capacity and vibrational entropy values at 298 K for the water confined on the surface of these nanoparticles were calculated from the vibrational density of states that were extracted from the INS data. This study has shown that the hydration level of the SnO2 nanoparticles influences the thermodynamic properties of the water layers and, most importantly, that there appears to be a critical size limit for SnO2 between 2 and 6 nm below which the particle size also affects these properties and above which it does not. These results have been compared with those for isostructural rutile-TiO2 nanoparticles [TiO2*0.22H2O and TiO2*0.37H2O], which indicated that water on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles is more tightly bound and experiences a greater degree of restricted motion with respect to water on the surface of SnO2 nanoparticles. This is believed to be a consequence of the difference in chemical composition, and hence surface properties, of these metal oxide nanoparticles.

  7. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; Borghese, J.V.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1996 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that affected groundwater quality on the site. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone during FY 1996 comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-gas monitoring, and electrical resistivity tomography. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1995 and June 1996. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Smaller plumes of strontium-90, technetium-99, and plutonium also were present at levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington interim drinking water standards. Uranium concentrations greater than the proposed drinking water standard were also observed. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichlomethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels. The nitrate plume is the most extensive. Three-dimensional, numerical, groundwater models were applied to the Hanford Site to predict contaminant-flow paths and the impact of operational changes on site groundwater conditions. Other models were applied to assess the performance of three separate pump-and-treat systems.

  8. Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Miamisburg Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports ...

  9. Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Fernald Environmental Management Project Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Fernald ...

  10. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  11. Effect of surface free energies on the heterogeneous nucleation of water droplet: A molecular dynamics simulation approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, W.; Lan, Z.; Peng, B. L.; Wen, R. F.; Ma, X. H.

    2015-02-07

    Heterogeneous nucleation of water droplet on surfaces with different solid-liquid interaction intensities is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The interaction potentials between surface atoms and vapor molecules are adjusted to obtain various surface free energies, and the nucleation process and wetting state of nuclei on surfaces are investigated. The results indicate that near-constant contact angles are already established for nano-scale nuclei on various surfaces, with the contact angle decreasing with solid-liquid interaction intensities linearly. Meanwhile, noticeable fluctuation of vapor-liquid interfaces can be observed for the nuclei that deposited on surfaces, which is caused by the asymmetric forces from vapor molecules. The formation and growth rate of nuclei are increasing with the solid-liquid interaction intensities. For low energy surface, the attraction of surface atoms to water molecules is comparably weak, and the pre-existing clusters can depart from the surface and enter into the bulk vapor phase. The distribution of clusters within the bulk vapor phase becomes competitive as compared with that absorbed on surface. For moderate energy surfaces, heterogeneous nucleation predominates and the formation of clusters within bulk vapor phase is suppressed. The effect of high energy particles that embedded in low energy surface is also discussed under the same simulation system. The nucleation preferably initiates on the high energy particles, and the clusters that formed on the heterogeneous particles are trapped around their original positions instead of migrating around as that observed on smooth surfaces. This feature makes it possible for the heterogeneous particles to act as fixed nucleation sites, and simulation results also suggest that the number of nuclei increases monotonously with the number of high energy particles. The growth of nuclei on high energy particles can be divided into three sub-stages, beginning with the formation of a wet-spot, increase of contact angle with near-constant contact line, and finally growth with constant contact angle. The growth rate of nuclei also increases with the size of high energy particles.

  12. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  13. 2011 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-01

    Gnome-Coach was the site of a 3-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1961. Surface and subsurface contamination resulted from the underground nuclear testing, post-test drilling, and groundwater tracer test performed at the site. The State of New Mexico is currently proceeding with a conditional certificate of completion for the surface. As for the subsurface, monitoring activities that include hydraulic head monitoring and groundwater sampling of the wells onsite are conducted as part of the annual site inspection. These activities were conducted on January 19, 2011. The site roads, monitoring well heads, and the monument at surface ground zero were observed as being in good condition at the time of the site inspection. An evaluation of the hydraulic head data obtained from the site indicates that water levels in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8 appear to respond to the on/off cycling of the dedicated pump in well USGS-1 and that water levels in wells LRL-7 and DD-1 increased during this annual monitoring period. Analytical results obtained from the sampling indicate that concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 were consistent with concentrations from historical sampling events.

  14. What waters does LANL protect?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    does LANL protect? Google Earth Tour: Waters around LANL Jemez Mountains Headwaters Watersheds The Rio Grande Buckman Direct Diversion Project Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer...

  15. 3D Simulation of Missing Pellet Surface Defects in Light Water Reactor Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; R.L. Williamson

    2012-09-01

    The cladding on light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods provides a stable enclosure for fuel pellets and serves as a first barrier against fission product release. Consequently, it is important to design fuel to prevent cladding failure due to mechanical interactions with fuel pellets. Cladding stresses can be effectively limited by controlling power increase rates. However, it has been shown that local geometric irregularities caused by manufacturing defects known as missing pellet surfaces (MPS) in fuel pellets can lead to elevated cladding stresses that are sufficiently high to cause cladding failure. Accurate modeling of these defects can help prevent these types of failures. Nuclear fuel performance codes commonly use a 1.5D (axisymmetric, axially-stacked, one-dimensional radial) or 2D axisymmetric representation of the fuel rod. To study the effects of MPS defects, results from 1.5D or 2D fuel performance analyses are typically mapped to thermo-mechanical models that consist of a 2D plane-strain slice or a full 3D representation of the geometry of the pellet and clad in the region of the defect. The BISON fuel performance code developed at Idaho National Laboratory employs either a 2D axisymmetric or 3D representation of the full fuel rod. This allows for a computational model of the full fuel rod to include local defects. A 3D thermo-mechanical model is used to simulate the global fuel rod behavior, and includes effects on the thermal and mechanical behavior of the fuel due to accumulation of fission products, fission gas production and release, and the effects of fission gas accumulation on thermal conductivity across the fuel-clad gap. Local defects can be modeled simply by including them in the 3D fuel rod model, without the need for mapping between two separate models. This allows for the complete set of physics used in a fuel performance analysis to be included naturally in the computational representation of the local defect, and for the effects of the local defect to be coupled with the global fuel rod model. This approach for modeling fuel with MPS defects is demonstrated and compared with alternative techniques. The effects of varying parameters of the MPS defect are studied using this technique and presented here.

  16. Surface topography of a palladium cathode after electrolysis in heavy water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silver, D.S. ); Dash, J.; Keefe, P.S. )

    1993-12-01

    Electrolysis was performed with a palladium cathode and an electrolyte containing both hydrogen and deuterium ions. The cathode bends toward the anode during this process. Examination of both the concave and the convex surfaces with the scanning electron microscope, scanning tunneling microscope, and atomic force microscope shows unusual surface characteristics. Rimmed craters with faceted crystals inside and multitextural surfaces were observed on an electrolyzed palladium cathode but not on palladium that has not been electrolyzed. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Paducah Site Undergoing Steady Groundwater Cleanup with Variety of Methods

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Undergoing Steady Groundwater Cleanup with Variety of Methods Paducah Site Undergoing Steady Groundwater Cleanup with Variety of Methods June 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis The yellow outline depicts an area southeast of the C-400 Cleaning Building, background, where electrical resistance heating will be used to remove trichloroethene (TCE) down to 60 feet below ground. Electrodes will heat the chemical into a vapor that can be pumped to the surface and treated in the white

  18. Geologic mapping for groundwater resource protection and assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, J.M. . Earth Sciences and Resources Inst.); Berg, R.C. )

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater is a vital natural resource in the US and around the world. In order to manage and protect this often threatened resource one must better understand its occurrence, extent, and susceptibility to contamination. Geologic mapping is a fundamental approach to developing more detailed and accurate assessments of groundwater resources. The stratigraphy and lithology of earth materials provide the framework for groundwater systems, whether they are deep confined aquifers or shallow, water table environments. These same earth materials control, in large part, the rates of migration of water and contaminants into and through groundwater systems thus establishing the potential yields of the systems and their vulnerability to contamination. Geologic mapping is used to delineate and display the vertical sequencing of earth materials either in cross-section or over lateral areas as in the stack-unit geologic map. These geologic maps, along with supportive hydrogeologic information, are used to identify the three-dimensional positioning and continuity of aquifer and non-aquifer earth materials. For example, detailed stack-unit mapping to a depth of 30 meters has been completed for a portion of a northern Illinois county. Groundwater contamination potentials were assigned to various vertical sequences of materials. Where aquifers are unconfined, groundwater contamination potentials are greatest. Conversely, other considerations being equal, the thicker the confining unit, the lower the contamination potential. This information is invaluable for land use decision-making; water supply assessment, development, and management; and environmental protection planning.

  19. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 5 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE ERWIN TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-23

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on August 21, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference, are tabulated. All DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations.

  20. COMPOUNDING EFFECTS OF FLUID CONFINEMENT AND SURFACE STRAIN ON THE WET-DRY TRANSITION AND DYNAMICS OF GRAPHENE-WATER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chialvo, Ariel A; Vlcek, Lukas; Cummings, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We studied the link between the water-mediated (tensile or compressive) strain-driven hydration free energy changes in the association process involving finite-size graphene surfaces, the resulting water-graphene interfacial behavior, and the combined effect of surface strain and fluid confinement on the thermodynamic response functions and the dynamics of water. We found that either small surface corrugation (compressive strain) or surface stretching (tensile strain) is able to enhance significantly the water-graphene hydrophobicity relative to that of the unstrained surface, an effect that exacerbates the confinement impact on the isothermal compressibility and isobaric thermal expansivity of confined water, as well as on the slowing down of its dynamics that gives rise to anomalous diffusivity.

  1. COMPOUNDING EFFECTS OF FLUID CONFINEMENT AND SURFACE STRAIN ON THE WET-DRY TRANSITION AND DYNAMICS OF GRAPHENE-WATER SYSTEMS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chialvo, Ariel A; Vlcek, Lukas; Cummings, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We studied the link between the water-mediated (tensile or compressive) strain-driven hydration free energy changes in the association process involving finite-size graphene surfaces, the resulting water-graphene interfacial behavior, and the combined effect of surface strain and fluid confinement on the thermodynamic response functions and the dynamics of water. We found that either small surface corrugation (compressive strain) or surface stretching (tensile strain) is able to enhance significantly the water-graphene hydrophobicity relative to that of the unstrained surface, an effect that exacerbates the confinement impact on the isothermal compressibility and isobaric thermal expansivity of confined water, as well as on themoreslowing down of its dynamics that gives rise to anomalous diffusivity.less

  2. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  3. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  4. Innovative Use of Cr(VI) Plume Depictions and Pump-and-Treat Capture Analysis to Estimate Risks of Contaminant Discharge to Surface Water at Hanford Reactor Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Chuck W.; Hanson, James P.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Tonkin, M.

    2015-01-14

    The Hanford Site nuclear reactor operations required large quantities of high-quality cooling water, which was treated with chemicals including sodium dichromate dihydrate for corrosion control. Cooling water leakage, as well as intentional discharge of cooling water to ground during upset conditions, produced extensive groundwater recharge mounds consisting largely of contaminated cooling water and resulted in wide distribution of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) contamination in the unconfined aquifer. The 2013 Cr(VI) groundwater plumes in the 100 Areas cover approximately 6 km2 (1500 acres), primarily in the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 groundwater operable units (OUs). The Columbia River is a groundwater discharge boundary; where the plumes are adjacent to the Columbia River there remains a potential to discharge Cr(VI) to the river at concentrations above water quality criteria. The pump-and-treat systems along the River Corridor are operating with two main goals: 1) protection of the Columbia River, and 2) recovery of contaminant mass. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the pump-and-treat systems was needed to determine if the Columbia River was protected from contamination, and also to determine where additional system modifications may be needed. In response to this need, a technique for assessing the river protection was developed which takes into consideration seasonal migration of the plume and hydraulic performance of the operating well fields. Groundwater contaminant plume maps are generated across the Hanford Site on an annual basis. The assessment technique overlays the annual plume and the capture efficiency maps for the various pump and treat systems. The river protection analysis technique was prepared for use at the Hanford site and is described in detail in M.J. Tonkin, 2013. Interpolated capture frequency maps, based on mapping dynamic water level observed in observation wells and derived water levels in the vicinity of extraction and injection wells, are developed initially. Second, simulated capture frequency maps are developed, based on transport modelling results. Both interpolated and simulated capture frequency maps are based on operation of the systems over a full year. These two capture maps are then overlaid on the plume distribution maps for inspection of the relative orientation of the contaminant plumes with the capture frequency. To quantify the relative degree of protection of the river from discharges of Cr(VI) (and conversely, the degree of threat) at any particular location, a systematic method of evaluating and mapping the plume/capture relationship was developed. By comparing the spatial relationship between contaminant plumes and hydraulic capture frequency, an index of relative protectiveness is developed and the results posted on the combined plume/capture plan view map. Areas exhibiting lesser degrees of river protection are identified for remedial process optimization actions to control plumes and prevent continuing discharge of Cr(VI) to the river.

  5. A groundwater flow and transport model of long-term radionuclide migration in central Frenchman flat, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwicklis, Edward Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Becker, Naomi M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruskauff, Gregory [NAVARRO-INTERA, LLC.; De Novio, Nicole [GOLDER AND ASSOC.; Wilborn, Bill [US DOE NNSA NSO

    2010-11-10

    A set of groundwater flow and transport models were created for the Central Testing Area of Frenchman Flat at the former Nevada Test Site to investigate the long-term consequences of a radionuclide migration experiment that was done between 1975 and 1990. In this experiment, radionuclide migration was induced from a small nuclear test conducted below the water table by pumping a well 91 m away. After radionuclides arrived at the pumping well, the contaminated effluent was discharged to an unlined ditch leading to a playa where it was expected to evaporate. However, recent data from a well near the ditch and results from detailed models of the experiment by LLNL personnel have convincingly demonstrated that radionuclides from the ditch eventually reached the water table some 220 m below land surface. The models presented in this paper combine aspects of these detailed models with concepts of basin-scale flow to estimate the likely extent of contamination resulting from this experiment over the next 1,000 years. The models demonstrate that because regulatory limits for radionuclide concentrations are exceeded only by tritium and the half-life of tritium is relatively short (12.3 years), the maximum extent of contaminated groundwater has or will soon be reached, after which time the contaminated plume will begin to shrink because of radioactive decay. The models also show that past and future groundwater pumping from water supply wells within Frenchman Flat basin will have negligible effects on the extent of the plume.

  6. In situ treatment of arsenic contaminated groundwater by aquifer iron coating: Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Pi, Kunfu; Liu, Chongxuan; Li, Junxia; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Mengyu

    2015-09-15

    In situ arsenic removal from groundwater by an iron coating method has great potential to be a cost effective and simple groundwater remediation technique, especially in rural and remote areas where groundwater is used as the main source of drinking water. The in situ arsenic removal technique was first optimized by simulating arsenic removal in various quartz sand columns under anoxic conditions., Its effectiveness was then evaluated in an actual high-arsenic groundwater environment. The mechanism of arsenic removal by the iron coating was investigated under different conditions using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/X-ray absorption spectroscopy, an electron microprobe, and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. A 4-step alternative cycle aquifer iron coating method was developed. A continuous injection of 5 mmol/L FeSO4 and 2.5 mmol/L NaClO for 96 hours can create a uniform coating of crystalline goethite on the surface of quartz sand in the columns without causing clogging. At a flow rate of 0.45 cm/min of the injection reagents (vi), the time for arsenic (as Na2HAsO4) to pass through the iron-coated quartz sand column was approximately 35 hours, which was much longer than that for tracer fluorescein sodium (approximately 2 hours). The retardation factor of arsenic was 23, and its adsorption capacity was 0.11 mol As per mol Fe, leading to an excellent arsenic removal. In situ arsenic removal from groundwater in an aquifer was achieved by simultaneous injections of As (V) and Fe (II) reagents. When the arsenic content in the groundwater was 233 ?g/L, the aqueous phase arsenic was completely removed with an arsenic adsorption of 0.05 mol As per mol Fe. Arsenic fixation resulted from a process of adsorption/co-precipitation, in which arsenic and iron likely formed the arsenic-bearing iron mineral phases with poor crystallinity by way of bidentate binuclear complexes. Thus, the high arsenic removal efficiency of the technique likely resulted from the expanded specific iron oxide/hydroxide surface area with poor crystallinity and from coprecipitation.

  7. Surface water processes in the Indonesian Throughflow as documented by a high-resolution coral (Delta)14C record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fallon, S J; Guilderson, T P

    2008-04-23

    To explore the seasonal to decadal variability in surface water masses that contribute to the Indonesian Throughflow we have generated a 115-year bi-monthly coral-based radiocarbon time-series from a coral in the Makassar Straits. In the pre-bomb (pre-1955) era from 1890 to 1954, the radiocarbon time series occasionally displays a small seasonal signal (10-15{per_thousand}). After 1954 the radiocarbon record increases rapidly, in response to the increased atmospheric {sup 14}C content caused by nuclear weapons testing. From 1957 to 1986 the record displays clear seasonal variability from 15 to 60{per_thousand} and the post-bomb peak (163 per mil) occurred in 1974. The seasonal cycle of radiocarbon can be attributed to variations of surface waters passing through South Makassar Strait. Southern Makassar is under the influence of the Northwest Monsoon, which is responsible for the high Austral summer radiocarbon (North Pacific waters) and the Southeast Monsoon that flushes back a mixture of low (South Pacific and upwelling altered) radiocarbon water from the Banda Sea. The coral record also shows a significant {sup 14}C peak in 1955 due to bomb {sup 14}C water advected into this region in the form of CaCO{sub 3} particles (this implies that the particles were advected intact and then become entrapped in the coral skeleton--is this what we really mean? Wouldn't even fine particles settle out over the inferred transit time from Bikini to MAK?) or water particles with dissolved labeled CO{sub 2} produced during fallout from the Castle tests in 1954.

  8. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): Newmark Groundwater Contamination Site, San Bernardino, CA, August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-04

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Newmark Operable Unit, Newmark Groundwater Contamination Superfund site. EPA has selected an interim remedy for the Newmark plume of groundwater contamination in the Newmark Groundwater Contamination Superfund Site. This portion of the site cleanup is referred to as the Newmark Operable Unit (OU). The Newmark OU is an interim action focusing on contamination in the undergound water supply in the Bunker Hill Basin of San Bernardino, north and east of the Shandin Hills.

  9. Environmental Groundwater Monitoring Report

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    -460 Environmental Groundwater Monitoring Report Third Quarter, 1997 October 1997 Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. Environmental Restoration U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. 1 - I : ~vailablk to DOE and DOE contractors from the. Office of Scientific - and Technical .Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 3783 1 ; prices available from (423) 576-840 1. Available to the public

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  11. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Everest, Kansas in 2011.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-12-19

    Everest, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 300) located in the southeast corner of Brown County, in the northeastern corner of Kansas. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination in groundwater at Everest was initially identified in 1997 as a result of testing performed under the Commodity Credit Corporation/U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) private well sampling program conducted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The KDHE collected samples from seven private wells in and near Everest. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were found in only one of the wells, the Donnie Nigh domestic well (owned at that time by Tim Gale), approximately 3/8 mi northwest of the former Everest CCC/USDA facility. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were detected at 121 {mu}g/L and 4 {mu}g/L, respectively. Nitrate was found at 12.62 mg/L. The USDA subsequently connected the Nigh residence to the Everest public water supply system. The findings of the 2011 monitoring at Everest support the following conclusions: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually during annual monitoring in 2009-2011 (and through the use of automatic recorders in 2002-2010) have consistently indicated an initial direction of groundwater flow from the former CCC/USDA facility to the north-northwest and toward the Nigh property, then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) At most of the monitored locations, carbon tetrachloride concentrations decreased in April 2011 relative to 2010 results. Noteworthy decreases of > 50% occurred at locations MW4, MW60, and MW88, in the most concentrated part of the plume. (3) Comparison of accumulated data demonstrates that the area of the carbon tetrachloride plume with concentrations > 200 {mu}g/L has decreased markedly over time and suggests a generally decreasing trend in contaminant levels. (4) The trace increases in carbon tetrachloride concentrations observed in 2010 at locations SB63 and SB64 were notable because of the locations proximity to the downgradient intermittent creek. However, these increases were not confirmed in sampling in 2011. (5) The results of the April 2011 monitoring event continue to support the interpretation, made during the 9-yr observation period from 2001 to 2010, that the migration rate for contamination in groundwater toward the intermittent creek is very slow. (6) No carbon tetrachloride was detected in five samples of surface water collected from the intermittent creek west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property, or in tree branch tissue samples collected at locations along the banks of the creek. These observations indicate that the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified at Everest has, to date, not impacted the surface waters of the intermittent creek.

  12. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  13. User`s Guide: Database of literature pertaining to the unsaturated zone and surface water-ground water interactions at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, L.F.

    1993-05-01

    Since its beginnings in 1949, hydrogeologic investigations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have resulted in an extensive collection of technical publications providing information concerning ground water hydraulics and contaminant transport within the unsaturated zone. Funding has been provided by the Department of Energy through the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office in a grant to compile an INEL-wide summary of unsaturated zone studies based on a literature search. University of Idaho researchers are conducting a review of technical documents produced at or pertaining to the INEL, which present or discuss processes in the unsaturated zone and surface water-ground water interactions. Results of this review are being compiled as an electronic database. Fields are available in this database for document title and associated identification number, author, source, abstract, and summary of information (including types of data and parameters). AskSam{reg_sign}, a text-based database system, was chosen. WordPerfect 5.1{copyright} is being used as a text-editor to input data records into askSam.

  14. Decoupling Bulk and Surface Contributions in Water- Splitting Photocatalysts by In Situ Ultrafast Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Mingzhao, Liu; Black, Charles T.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2015-05-10

    By performing ultrafast emission spectroscopy in an operating, bias-controlled photoelectrochemical cell, we distinguish between bulk (charge transport) and surface (chemical reaction) recombination processes in a nanostructured photocatalyst and correlate its electronic properties directly with its incident-photon-to-current efficiency.

  15. Forest Irrigation Of Tritiated Water: A Proven Tritiated Water Management Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, Karen; Blount, Gerald; Kmetz, Thomas; Prater, Phil

    2012-11-08

    Tritium releases from the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) at the SRS in South Carolina has impacted groundwater and surface water. Tritiated groundwater plumes discharge into Fourmile Branch which is a small tributary of the Savannah River, a regional water resource. Taking advantage of the groundwater flow paths and the local topography a water collection and irrigation system was constructed and has been used at the SRS for over a decade to reduce these tritiated water releases to Fourmile Branch. The tritiated water is transferred to the atmosphere by evaporation from the pond surface, and after irrigation, wetted surface evaporation and evapotranspiration through the forest vegetation. Over the last decade SRS has irrigated over 120,000,000 gallons of tritiated water, which diverted over 6000 curies away from Fourmile Branch and the Savannah River. The system has been effective in reducing the flux of tritiated groundwater by approximately 70%. Mass balance studies of tritium in the forest soils before operations and over the last decade indicate that approximately 90% of the tritiated water that is irrigated is transferred to the atmosphere. Dose studies indicate that exposure to site workers and offsite maximally exposed individual is very low, approximately 6 mrem/year and 0.004 mrem/year, respectively. To consistently meet the flux reduction goal of tritium into Fourmile Branch optimization activities are proposed. These efforts will increase irrigation capacity and area. An additional 17 acres are proposed for an expansion of the area to be irrigated and a planting of approximately 40 acres of pine forest plantations is underway to expand irrigation capacity. Co-mingled with the tritiated groundwater are low concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs), and 1,4-dioxane. Research studies and SRS field data indicate the forest irrigation system may have an added benefit of reducing the mass of these co-contaminants via degradation. This semi-passive system makes use of natural processes of hydrology and evapotranspiration to manage tritium-contaminated water by reducing its entrance into site streams and the Savannah River, as well as treating low levels of co-mingled VOCs. SRS expects to operate the system until the tritium decays to levels that represent a minimal impact to Fourmile Branch and the Savannah River, and meets the stakeholder expectations.

  16. Environmental Aspects of Two Volatile Organic Compound Groundwater Treatment Designs at the Rocky Flats Site - 13135

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalski, Casey C.; DiSalvo, Rick; Boylan, John

    2013-07-01

    DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado is a former nuclear weapons production facility that began operations in the early 1950's. Because of releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priorities List in 1989. The final remedy was selected in 2006. Engineered components of the remedy include four groundwater treatment systems that were installed before closure as CERCLA-accelerated actions. Two of the systems, the Mound Site Plume Treatment System and the East Trenches Plume Treatment System, remove low levels of volatile organic compounds using zero-valent iron media, thereby reducing the loading of volatile organic compounds in surface water resulting from the groundwater pathway. However, the zero-valent iron treatment does not reliably reduce all volatile organic compounds to consistently meet water quality goals. While adding additional zero-valent iron media capacity could improve volatile organic compound removal capability, installation of a solar powered air-stripper has proven an effective treatment optimization in further reducing volatile organic compound concentrations. A comparison of the air stripper to the alternative of adding additional zero-valent iron capacity to improve Mound Site Plume Treatment System and East Trenches Plume Treatment System treatment based on several key sustainable remediation aspects indicates the air stripper is also more 'environmentally friendly'. These key aspects include air pollutant emissions, water quality, waste management, transportation, and costs. (authors)

  17. Classification of groundwater at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    Groundwater occurring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has been classified according to the ``Guidelines for Ground-Water Classification Under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Ground-Water Protection Strategy`` (June 1988). All of the groundwater units at the NTS are Class II, groundwater currently (IIA) or potentially (IIB) a source of drinking water. The Classification Review Area (CRA) for the NTS is defined as the standard two-mile distance from the facility boundary recommended by EPA. The possibility of expanding the CRA was evaluated, but the two-mile distance encompasses the area expected to be impacted by contaminant transport during a 10-year period (EPA,s suggested limit), should a release occur. The CRA is very large as a consequence of the large size of the NTS and the decision to classify the entire site, not individual areas of activity. Because most activities are located many miles hydraulically upgradient of the NTS boundary, the CRA generally provides much more than the usual two-mile buffer required by EPA. The CRA is considered sufficiently large to allow confident determination of the use and value of groundwater and identification of potentially affected users. The size and complex hydrogeology of the NTS are inconsistent with the EPA guideline assumption of a high degree of hydrologic interconnection throughout the review area. To more realistically depict the site hydrogeology, the CRA is subdivided into eight groundwater units. Two main aquifer systems are recognized: the lower carbonate aquifer system and the Cenozoic aquifer system (consisting of aquifers in Quaternary valley fill and Tertiary volcanics). These aquifer systems are further divided geographically based on the location of low permeability boundaries.

  18. Remediation of Organic and Inorganic Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater using a Nonocrystalline TiO2 Based Adsorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, C.; Meng, X; Calvache, E; Jiang, G

    2009-01-01

    A nanocrystalline TiO2-based adsorbent was evaluated for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in contaminated groundwater. Batch experimental results show that As adsorption followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics. The competitive adsorption was described with the charge distribution multi-site surface complexation model (CD-MUSIC). The groundwater containing an average of 329 ?g L-1 As(III), 246 ?g L-1 As(V), 151 ?g L-1 MMA, and 202 ?g L-1 DMA was continuously passed through a TiO2 filter at an empty bed contact time of 6 min for 4 months. Approximately 11 000, 14 000, and 9900 bed volumes of water had been treated before the As(III), As(V), and MMA concentration in the effluent increased to 10 ?g L-1. However, very little DMA was removed. The EXAFS results demonstrate the existence of a bidentate binuclear As(V) surface complex on spent adsorbent, indicating the oxidation of adsorbed As(III). A nanocrystalline TiO2-based adsorbent could be used for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA in contaminated groundwater.

  19. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  20. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  1. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 2 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-01-21

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on November 15, 2012. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and the results are compared using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER {<=} 3 indicates that, at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2012). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, all DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations.

  2. Modelling On Photogeneration Of Hydroxyl Radical In Surface Waters And Its Reactivity Towards Pharmaceutical Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Radha; Vione, Davide; Rubertelli, Francesca; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio; Barbati, Stephane; Chiron, Serge

    2010-10-26

    This paper reports a simple model to describe the formation and reactivity of hydroxyl radicals in the whole column of freshwater lakes. It is based on empirical irradiation data and is a function of the water chemical composition (the photochemically significant parameters NPOC, nitrate, nitrite, carbonate and bicarbonate), the lake conformation best expressed as the average depth, and the water absorption spectrum in a simplified Lambert-Beer approach. The purpose is to derive the lifetime of dissolved molecules, due to reaction with OH, on the basis of their second-order rate constants with the hydroxyl radical. The model was applied to two compounds of pharmaceutical wastes ibuprofen and carbamazepine, for which the second-order rate constants for reaction with the hydroxyl radical were measured by means of the competition kinetics with 2-propanol. The measured values of the rate constants are 1.0x10{sup 10} and 1.6x10{sup 10} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} for ibuprofen and carbamazepine, respectively. The model suggests that the lifetime of a given compound can be very variable in different lakes, even more than the lifetime of different compounds in the same lake. It can be concluded that as far as the reaction with OH, is concerned the concepts of photolability and photostability, traditionally attached to definite compounds, are ecosystem-dependent at least as much as they depend on the molecule under consideration.

  3. Groundwater Periodic Monitoring Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Groundwater Periodic Monitoring Reports Groundwater Periodic Monitoring Reports Topic: David Rhodes DOE, Provided Information on the Watersheds at LANL and the Monitoring Schedule ...

  4. California Groundwater Management Plans | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Groundwater Management Plans Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: California Groundwater Management PlansLegal Published...

  5. Anatomy of a Groundwater Uranium Plume

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Groundwater containing legacy contaminants (pollutants that remain after their sources have been controlled) moves through aquifers in response to the hydraulic gradient. As the groundwater moves,...

  6. 300 Area Process Trenches Groundwater Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindberg, Jonathan W.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2001-08-13

    This document is a proposed groundwater monitoring plan for the 300 Area process trenches to comply with RCRA final status, corrective action groundwater monitoring.

  7. TWDB Groundwater Conservation Districts website | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TWDB Groundwater Conservation Districts website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: TWDB Groundwater Conservation...

  8. Groundwater surveillance plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forstrom, J.M.; Smith, E.D.; Winters, S.L.; Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.; McMaster, W.M.

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the preparation of environmental monitoring plans and implementation of environmental monitoring programs for all DOE facilities. The order identifies two distinct components of environmental monitoring, namely effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. In general, effluent monitoring has the objectives of characterizing contaminants and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, whereas environmental surveillance has the broader objective of monitoring the effects of DOE activities on on- and off-site environmental and natural resources. The purpose of this document is to support the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) by describing the groundwater component of the environmental surveillance program for the DOE facilities on the ORR. The distinctions between groundwater effluent monitoring and groundwater surveillance have been defined in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Surveillance Strategy. As defined in the strategy, a groundwater surveillance program consists of two parts, plant perimeter surveillance and off-site water well surveillance. This document identifies the sampling locations, parameters, and monitoring frequencies for both of these activities on and around the ORR and describes the rationale for the program design. The program was developed to meet the objectives of DOE Order 5400.1 and related requirements in DOE Order 5400.5 and to conform with DOE guidance on environmental surveillance and the Energy Systems Groundwater Surveillance Strategy.

  9. Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T.

    2013-07-01

    There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink{sup R} technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO{sup TM} automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated sampler. In addition, automated rain gauges will be tied into this technology for immediate notification of rain at storm-water locations further enhancing the automation of environmental data collection. These technological improvements at SRS have led to data-quality improvements while reducing the field technician time in the field and costs for maintaining the traditional environmental monitoring applications. (authors)

  10. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface Radar and Satellite Data in Support of ARM SCM Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guosheng

    2013-03-15

    Single-column modeling (SCM) is one of the key elements of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research initiatives for the development and testing of various physical parameterizations to be used in general circulation models (GCMs). The data required for use with an SCM include observed vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water, as well as the large-scale vertical motion and tendencies of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water due to horizontal advection. Surface-based measurements operated at ARM sites and upper-air sounding networks supply most of the required variables for model inputs, but do not provide the horizontal advection term of condensed water. Since surface cloud radar and microwave radiometer observations at ARM sites are single-point measurements, they can provide the amount of condensed water at the location of observation sites, but not a horizontal distribution of condensed water contents. Consequently, observational data for the large-scale advection tendencies of condensed water have not been available to the ARM cloud modeling community based on surface observations alone. This lack of advection data of water condensate could cause large uncertainties in SCM simulations. Additionally, to evaluate GCMs’ cloud physical parameterization, we need to compare GCM results with observed cloud water amounts over a scale that is large enough to be comparable to what a GCM grid represents. To this end, the point-measurements at ARM surface sites are again not adequate. Therefore, cloud water observations over a large area are needed. The main goal of this project is to retrieve ice water contents over an area of 10 x 10 deg. surrounding the ARM sites by combining surface and satellite observations. Built on the progress made during previous ARM research, we have conducted the retrievals of 3-dimensional ice water content by combining surface radar/radiometer and satellite measurements, and have produced 3-D cloud ice water contents in support of cloud modeling activities. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) area measurement. That is, the study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements (particularly cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements) at the point of the ARM sites. We use the cloud ice water characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain a satellite retrieval algorithm, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the 3-D cloud ice water distributions within an 10° (latitude) x 10° (longitude) area. During the research period, we have developed, validated and improved our cloud ice water retrievals, and have produced and archived at ARM website as a PI-product of the 3-D cloud ice water contents using combined satellite high-frequency microwave and surface radar observations for SGP March 2000 IOP and TWP-ICE 2006 IOP over 10 deg. x 10 deg. area centered at ARM SGP central facility and Darwin sites. We have also worked on validation of the 3-D ice water product by CloudSat data, synergy with visible/infrared cloud ice water retrievals for better results at low ice water conditions, and created a long-term (several years) of ice water climatology in 10 x 10 deg. area of ARM SGP and TWP sites and then compared it with GCMs.

  11. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  12. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODS) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regime`s, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This Remedial Investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the Feasibility Study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  13. Inorganic soil and groundwater chemistry near Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, G.K.

    1995-03-01

    Near-surface soils, boreholes, and sediments near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) were sampled in 1989-91 as were monitoring wells, TVA wells, and privately-owned wells. Most wells were sampled two or three times. The resulting chemical analyses have been published in previous reports and have been previously described (CH2M HILL 1991, 1992; Clausen et al. 1992). The two reports by CH2M HILL are controversial, however, because, the concentrations of some constituents were reported to exceed background levels or drinking water standards and because both on-site (within the perimeter fence at PGDP) and off-site pollution was reported to have occurred. The groundwater samples upon which these interpretations were based may not be representative, however. The CH2M HILL findings are discussed in the report. The purpose of this report is to characterize the inorganic chemistry of groundwater and soils near PGDP, using data from the CH2M HILL reports (1991, 1992), and to determine whether or not any contamination has occurred. The scope is limited to analysis and interpretation of data in the CH2M HILL reports because previous interpretations of these data may not be valid, because samples were collected in a relatively short period of time at several hundred locations, and because the chemical analyses are nearly complete. Recent water samples from the same wells were not considered because the characterization of inorganic chemistry for groundwater and soil requirements only one representative sample and an accurate analysis from each location.

  14. Groundwater Availability Within the Salton Sea Basin Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompson, A; Demir, Z; Moran, J; Mason, D; Wagoner, J; Kollet, S; Mansoor, K; McKereghan, P

    2008-01-11

    It is widely recognized that increasing demands for water in Southern California are being affected by actions to reduce and redirect the amount of water imported from the Colorado River. In the Imperial Valley region, for example, import reductions will not only affect agricultural users but also could produce significant collateral impacts on the level and quality of water in the Salton Sea, its regional ecology, or even the long term air quality in the greater basin. The notion of using groundwater in the Imperial Valley as an additional source for agricultural or domestic needs, energy production, or Salton Sea restoration efforts, so as to offset reductions in imported water, is not a new concept. Even though it has been discussed recently (e.g., LLNL, 2002), the idea goes back, in part, to several studies performed by the US Department of Interior and other agencies that have indicated that there may be substantial, usable amounts of groundwater in some portions of the Imperial Valley. It has been estimated, for example, that between 1.1 and 3 billion acre-feet (AF) of groundwater lie within the extended, deep basin underlying the valley and Salton Sea region, even though much of it may be unrecoverable or too poor in its quality (Imperial County, 1997). This is a significant volume with respect to the total annual precipitation volume received in California, whose average is close to 200 million (or 0.2 billion) AF per year (DWR, 1998), and especially with respect to the total annual precipitation received in the Salton Sea watershed itself, which we estimate (Appendix A) to be approximately 2.5 million acre feet (MAF) per year. Clearly, a thorough appraisal of the groundwater resources in the Imperial Valley and Salton Sea region--i.e., an assessment of their overall physical availability--will be needed to determine how they can be used and managed to suit new or redirected demands in the region. Development of an improved or updated groundwater assessment in the Salton Sea Basin is the subject of the project described in this report. Much of the project work was done in cooperation with the US Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region Office ('Reclamation'), which manages the Salton Sea Restoration project for the US Department of the Interior, and complements other recent assessment efforts (e.g., Imperial County, 1995). In this context, the notion of groundwater availability is defined by four separate, but interrelated concepts or components: (1) Volume and Capacity--This refers to the volume of groundwater available in storage in (or the related storage capacity of) the sediments and geologic media that comprise a groundwater basin. The volume of groundwater in a basin will vary in time as a function of recharge, well production, and land subsidence. (2) Producibility--This refers to the ease or difficulty of extracting groundwater in a basin from wells. Groundwater producibility will be affected by well depth and the formation permeability surrounding the open intervals in wells. (3) Quality--This refers to the extent that water produced from wells is potable or otherwise suitable for domestic or other uses. It may also refer to the chemical compositions of groundwater that are unrelated to potability or suitability issues. Groundwater quality will be affected by its residence time and flow pathway in the formation and will also be influenced by the quality of its original source before entering the groundwater regime. (4) Renewability and Recharge--This refers to the extent that groundwater is recharged to the basin as part of the natural hydrologic cycle or other artificial means. Groundwater renewability is normally a function of recharge derived from precipitation (and thus a function of regional climate), but may also be affected in local areas by irrigation, leaking canals, aquifer storage and recovery operations, and so forth. Along with the other factors, renewability will strongly affect how much water can be safely produced from a basin from one year to the next. In this report, we specifically consider two categories of information that comprise, are pertinent to, or facilitate such a groundwater assessment. The first category includes the vast assortment of descriptive geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and climatic data related to the regional groundwater aquifers in the Salton Sea area and the occurrence, movement, production, and quality of groundwater. We will refer to these as Hard Data. They may include, for example, spatially distributed geologic or lithologic information, operational wells, water level monitoring data, and well production reports, groundwater quality information, other land use information, historical precipitation and climatic records, and so forth. The second category includes more interpretive or analytic information based upon, or derived from these data and knowledge of related geologic, hydrologic, chemical, or climatic processes.

  15. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1995-01-24

    An apparatus and method are described for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants. An oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth. Withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene. 3 figures.

  16. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

  17. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry C.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  18. Groundwater heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use. Volume II. Appendix D, state hydrogeologic descriptions and maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armitage, Dana M.; Bacon, Douglas J.; Massey-Norton, John T.; Miller, James M.

    1980-11-01

    This appendix to the groundwater heat pump report contains hydrogeologic descriptions of the 48 conterminous US with data on ground water quality.

  19. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    Gnome-Coach was the site of a 3-kiloton underground nuclear test conducted in 1961. Surface and subsurface contamination resulted from the underground nuclear testing, post-test drilling, and a groundwater tracer test performed at the site. Surface reclamation and remediation began after the underground testing. A Completion Report was prepared, and the State of New Mexico is currently proceeding with a conditional certificate of completion for the surface. Subsurface corrective action activities began in 1972 and have generally consisted of annual sampling and monitoring of wells near the site. In 2008, the annual site inspections were refined to include hydraulic head monitoring and collection of samples from groundwater monitoring wells onsite using the low-flow sampling method. These activities were conducted during this monitoring period on January 18, 2012. Analytical results from this sampling event indicate that concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 were generally consistent with concentrations from historical sampling events. The exceptions are the decreases in concentrations of strontium-90 in samples from wells USGS-4 and USGS-8, which were more than 2.5 times lower than last year's results. Well USGS-1 provides water for livestock belonging to area ranchers, and a dedicated submersible pump cycles on and off to maintain a constant volume in a nearby water tank. Water levels in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8 respond to the on/off cycling of the water supply pumping from well USGS-1. Well LRL-7 was not sampled in January, and water levels were still increasing when the transducer data were downloaded in September. A seismic reflection survey was also conducted this year. The survey acquired approximately 13.9 miles of seismic reflection data along 7 profiles on and near the site. These activities were conducted from February 23 through March 10, 2012. The site roads, monitoring well heads, and the monument at surface ground zero were in good condition at the time of the site inspection. However, it was reported in September 2012 that the USGS-1 well head had been damaged by a water truck in April 2012.

  20. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 4 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUELS SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-08-15

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on June 12, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and Table 1 presents the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER ≤ 3 indicates at a 99% confidence interval that split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report specifies 95% confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2013). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, most DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations. The gross beta result for sample 5198W0014 was the exception. The ORAU gross beta result of 6.30 ± 0.65 pCi/L from location NRD is well above NFS's non-detected result of 1.56 ± 0.59 pCi/L. NFS's data package includes no detected result for any radionuclide at location NRD. At NRC's request, ORAU performed gamma spectroscopic analysis of sample 5198W0014 to identify analytes contributing to the relatively elevated gross beta results. This analysis identified detected amounts of naturally-occurring constituents, most notably Ac-228 from the thorium decay series, and does not suggest the presence of site-related contamination.

  1. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  2. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, first quarter 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During first quarter 1989 (January--March), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the first quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from first quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  3. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  4. Groundwater contamination. Volume 2: Management, containment, risk assessment and legal issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rail, C.D.

    2000-07-01

    This book explains in a comprehensive way the sources for groundwater contamination, the regulations governing it, and the technologies for abating it. Volume 2 discusses aquifer management, including technologies to control and stabilize multiple influxes into the water table. This volume outlines strategies for stormwater control and groundwater restoration and presents numerous case histories of site analysis and remediation based on DOE and state documents. Among the many new features of this edition are a full discussion of risk assessment, the preparation of groundwater protection plans, and references linking the text to over 2,300 water-related Web sites.

  5. Groundwater Report Goes Online, Interactive

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – EM’s Richland Operations Office (RL) has moved its 1,200-page annual report on groundwater monitoring to a fully online and interactive web application.

  6. NNSS Hosts Groundwater Open House

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Survey of the Bay Area NNSS Hosts Groundwater Open House A RSL helicopter spent part of August conducting aerial radiation flyovers in the California Bay Area. The team rocked the competition and chiseled out an impressive second place finish recently in the Security Protection Officer competition. Groundwater was the topic of discussion at a recent open house. See page 12. See page 5. See page 8. Enterprise Publication "ONEVOICE" Replaces Spotlight and SiteLines The Nevada National

  7. Water resources development in Santa Clara Valley, California: insights into the human-hydrologic relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Jesse L.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    2000-06-01

    Groundwater irrigation is critical to food production and, in turn, to humankind's relationship with its environment. The development of groundwater in Santa Clara Valley, California during the early twentieth century is instructive because (1) responses to unsustainable resource use were largely successful; (2) the proposals for the physical management of the water, although not entirely novel, incorporated new approaches which reveal an evolving relationship between humans and the hydrologic cycle; and (3) the valley serves as a natural laboratory where natural (groundwater basin, surface watershed) and human (county, water district) boundaries generally coincide. Here, I investigate how water resources development and management in Santa Clara Valley was influenced by, and reflective of, a broad understanding of water as a natural resource, including scientific and technological innovations, new management approaches, and changing perceptions of the hydrologic cycle. Market demands and technological advances engendered reliance on groundwater. This, coupled with a series of dry years and laissez faire government policies, led to overdraft. Faith in centralized management and objective engineering offered a solution to concerns over resource depletion, and a group dominated by orchardists soon organized, fought for a water conservation district, and funded an investigation to halt the decline of well levels. Engineer Fred Tibbetts authored an elaborate water salvage and recharge plan that optimized the local water resources by integrating multiple components of the hydrologic cycle. Informed by government investigations, groundwater development in Southern California, and local water law cases, it recognized the limited surface storage possibilities, the spatial and temporal variability, the relatively closed local hydrology, the interconnection of surface and subsurface waters, and the value of the groundwater basin for its storage, transportation, and treatment abilities. The proposal was typically described as complementing an already generous nature, not simply subduing it. Its implementation was limited by political tensions, and fifteen years later, a scaled-down version was constructed. Well levels recovered, but within a decade were declining due to increasing withdrawals. I assert that the approach in Santa Clara Valley was a forerunner to more recent innovations in natural resource management in California and beyond.

  8. Groundwater recharge from Long Lake, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isiorho, S.A.; Beeching, F.M. (Indiana Univ., Fort Wayne, IN (United States). Geosciences Dept.); Whitman, R.L.; Stewart, P.M. (National Park Services, Porter, IN (United States). Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore); Gentleman, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Long Lake, located between Lake Michigan and the Dune-complexes of Indiana Dunes, was formed during Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. The lake is currently being studied to understand the detailed hydrology. One of the objective of the study is to understand the hydrologic relationship between the lake and a water treatment holding pond to the northeast. Understanding the water movement between the two bodies of water, if any, would be very important in the management and protection of nature preserves in the area. Seepage measurement and minipiezometric tests indicate groundwater recharge from Long Lake. The groundwater recharge rate is approximately 1.40 to 22.28 x 10[sup [minus]4] m/day. An estimate of the amount of recharge of 7.0 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3]/y may be significant in terms of groundwater recharge of the upper aquifer system of the Dunes area. The water chemistry of the two bodies of water appears to be similar, however, the pH of the holding pond is slightly alkaline (8.5) while that of Long Lake is less alkaline (7.7). There appears to be no direct contact between the two bodies of water (separated by approximately six meters of clay rich sediment). The geology of the area indicates a surficial aquifer underlying Long Lake. The lake should be regarded as a recharge area and should be protected from pollutants as the degradation of the lake would contaminate the underlying aquifer.

  9. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Hildebrand, R. Douglas; Schatz, Aaron L.; Conley, S. F.; Brown, W. L.

    2013-01-22

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) manages the groundwatermonitoring programs at the Department of Energy's 586-square-mile Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. Each year, more than 1,500 wells are accessed for a variety of reasons.

  10. Tracer advection by steady groundwater flow in a stratified aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sposito, Garrison; Weeks, Scott W.

    1997-01-02

    The perfectly stratified aquifer has often been investigated as a simple, tractable model for exploring new theoretical issues in subsurface hydrology. Adopting this approach, we show that steady groundwater flows in the perfectly stratified aquifer are always confined to a set of nonintersecting permanent surfaces, on which both streamlines and vorticity lines lie. This foliation of the flow domain exists as well for steady groundwater flows in any isotropic, spatially heterogeneous aquifer. In the present model example it is a direct consequence of the existence of a stream function, we then demonstrate that tracer plume advection by steady groundwater flow in a perfectly stratified aquifer is never ergodic, regardless of the initial size of the tracer plume. This nonergodicity, which holds also for tracer advection in any isotropic, spatially heterogeneous aquifer, implies that stochastic theories of purely advective tracer plume movement err in assuming ergodic behavior to simplify probabilistic calculations of plume spatial concentration moments.

  11. Communication: Salt-induced water orientation at a surface of non-ionic surfactant in relation to a mechanism of Hofmeister effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hishida, Mafumi; Kaneko, Yohei; Okuno, Masanari; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Ishibashi, Taka-aki; Saito, Kazuya

    2015-05-07

    The behavior of water molecules at the surface of nonionic surfactant (monomyristolein) and effects of monovalent ions on the behavior are investigated using the heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy. It is found that water molecules at the surface are oriented with their hydrogen atoms pointing to the bulk, and that the degree of orientation depends on the anion strongly but weakly on the cation. With measured surface potentials in those saline solutions, it is concluded that the heterogeneous distribution of anions and cations in combination with the nonionic surfactant causes the water orientation. This heterogeneous distribution well explains the contrasting order of anions and cations with respect to the ion size in the Hofmeister series.

  12. EM Soil and Groundwater Database Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EM Soil and Groundwater Database Reports EM Soil and Groundwater Database Reports Brookhaven National Laboratory - HFBR Tritium Groundwater Database Report - Brookhaven National ...

  13. Field site investigation: Effect of mine seismicity on groundwater hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofoegbu, G.I.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Philip, J.

    1995-04-01

    The results of a field investigation on the groundwater-hydrologic effect of mining-induced earthquakes are presented in this report. The investigation was conducted at the Lucky Friday Mine, a silver-lead-zinc mine in the Coeur d`Alene Mining District of Idaho. The groundwater pressure in sections of three fracture zones beneath the water table was monitored over a 24-mo period. The fracture zones were accessed through a 360-m-long inclined borehole, drilled from the 5,700 level station of the mine. The magnitude, source location, and associated ground motions of mining-induced seismic events were also monitored during the same period, using an existing seismic instrumentation network for the mine, augmented with additional instruments installed specifically for the project by the center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). More than 50 seismic events of Richter magnitude 1.0 or larger occurred during the monitoring period. Several of these events caused the groundwater pressure to increase, whereas a few caused it to decrease. Generally, the groundwater pressure increased as the magnitude of seismic event increased; for an event of a given magnitude, the groundwater pressure increased by a smaller amount as the distance of the observation point from the source of the event increased. The data was examined using regression analysis. Based on these results, it is suggested that the effect of earthquakes on groundwater flow may be better understood through mechanistic modeling. The mechanical processes and material behavior that would need to be incorporated in such a model are examined. They include a description of the effect of stress change on the permeability and water storage capacity of a fracture rock mass; transient fluid flow; and the generation and transmission of seismic waves through the rock mass.

  14. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: Reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, Joao C.M.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The Dutch Building Material Decree (BMD) was used to APC residues from MSWI. > BMD is a straightforward tool to calculate expectable loads to the environment of common pollutants. > Chloride load to the environment lead to classification of building material not allowed. > At least a pre-treatment (e.g. washing) is required in order to remove soluble salts. > The stabilization with phosphates or silicates eliminate the problem of heavy metals. - Abstract: Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of 'building material not allowed'. The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required.

  15. COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR QUARTER 3 SURFACE WATER SPLIT SAMPLES COLLECTED AT THE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICES SITE, ERWIN, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-05-28

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, collected split surface water samples with Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) representatives on March 20, 2013. Representatives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation were also in attendance. Samples were collected at four surface water stations, as required in the approved Request for Technical Assistance number 11-018. These stations included Nolichucky River upstream (NRU), Nolichucky River downstream (NRD), Martin Creek upstream (MCU), and Martin Creek downstream (MCD). Both ORAU and NFS performed gross alpha and gross beta analyses, and Table 1 presents the comparison of results using the duplicate error ratio (DER), also known as the normalized absolute difference. A DER {<=} 3 indicates that at a 99% confidence interval, split sample results do not differ significantly when compared to their respective one standard deviation (sigma) uncertainty (ANSI N42.22). The NFS split sample report does not specify the confidence level of reported uncertainties (NFS 2013). Therefore, standard two sigma reporting is assumed and uncertainty values were divided by 1.96. In conclusion, most DER values were less than 3 and results are consistent with low (e.g., background) concentrations. The gross beta result for sample 5198W0012 was the exception. The ORAU result of 9.23 ± 0.73 pCi/L from location MCD is well above NFS's result of -0.567 ± 0.63 pCi/L (non-detected). NFS's data package included a detected result for U-233/234, but no other uranium or plutonium detection, and nothing that would suggest the presence of beta-emitting radionuclides. The ORAU laboratory reanalyzed sample 5198W0012 using the remaining portion of the sample volume and a result of 11.3 ± 1.1 pCi/L was determined. As directed, the laboratory also counted the filtrate using gamma spectrometry analysis and identified only naturally occurring or ubiquitous man-made constituents, including beta emitters that are presumably responsible for the elevated gross beta values.

  16. A Coupled Modeling System to Simulate Water Resources in the Rio Grande Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossert, J.E.; Breshears, D.D.; Campbell, K.; Costigan, K.R.; Greene, R.K.; Keating, E.H.; Kleifgen, L.M.; Langley, D.L.; Martens, S.N.; Sanderson, J.G.; Springer, E.P.; Stalker, J.R.; Tartakovsky, D.M.; Winter, C.L.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1999-01-11

    Limited availability of fresh water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world requires prudent management strategies from accurate, science-based assessments. These assessments demand a thorough understanding of the hydrologic cycle over long time periods within the individual water-sheds that comprise large river basins. Measurement and simulation of the hydrologic cycle is a tremendous challenge, involving a coupling between global to regional-scale atmospheric precipitation processes with regional to local-scale land surface and subsurface water transport. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a detailed modeling system of the hydrologic cycle and applying this tool at high resolution to assess the water balance within the upper Rio Grande river basin. The Rio Grande is a prime example of a river system in a semiarid environment, with a high demand from agricultural, industrial, recreational, and municipal interests for its water supply. Within this river basin, groundwater supplies often augment surface water. With increasing growth projected throughout the river basin, however, these multiple water users have the potential to significantly deplete groundwater resources, thereby increasing the dependence on surface water resources.

  17. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1999-03-24

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year (FY) 1998 on the Word Site, Washington. Soil-vapor extraction in the 200-West Area removed 777 kg of carbon tetrachloride in FY 1998, for a total of 75,490 kg removed since remediation began in 1992. Spectral gamma logging and evaluation of historical gross gamma logs near tank farms and liquid-disposal sites in the 200 Areas provided information on movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1997 and June 1998. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes in groundwater were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of technetium-99, uranium, strontium-90, and carbon-14 also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Plutonium and cesium-137 exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for tritium, uranium, strontium-90, and plutonium in small plumes or single wells. One well completed in the basalt-confined aquifer beneath the 200-East Area exceeded the drinking water standard for technetium-99. Nitrate is the most extensive chemical contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, cis-l, Z-dichloroethylene, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Cyanide concentrations were elevated in one area but were below the maximum contaminant level. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded its maximum contaminant level in several wells in the 300 Area for the first time since the 1980s. Metals such as aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, and nickel exceeded their maximum contaminant levels in filtered samples from numerous wells; they are believed to represent natural components of groundwater. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 groundwater monitoring continued at 25 waste management areas during FY 1998: 17 under detection programs and data indicate that they are not adversely affecting groundwater, 6 under interim-status groundwater-quality-assessment programs to assess possible contamination, and 2 under final-status corrective-action programs. Groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued to reduce the amount of strontium-90 (100-N) and chromium (100-K, D, and H) reaching the Columbia River. Two systems in the 200-West Area operated to prevent the spread of carbon tetrachloride and technetide uranium plumes. Groundwater monitoring continued at these sites and at other sites where there is no active remediation. A three-dimensional, numerical groundwater model was applied to simulate radionuclide movement from sources in the 200 Areas following site closure in 2050. Contaminants will continue to move toward the southeast and north (through Gable Gap), but the areas with levels exceeding drinking water standards will diminish.

  18. Groundwater quality assessment plan for the 1324-N/NA Site: Phase 1 (first determination)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1998-05-01

    The 1324-N Surface Impoundment and 1324-NA Percolation Pond (1324-N/NA Site) are treatment/storage/disposal sites regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). They are located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site, and were used to treat and dispose of corrosive waste from a water treatment plant. Groundwater monitoring under an interim-status detection program compared indicator parameters from downgradient wells to background values established from an upgradient well. One of the indicator parameters, total organic carbon (TOC), exceeded its background value in one downgradient well, triggering an upgrade from a detection program to an assessment program. This plan presents the first phase of the assessment program.

  19. Use of serospecific biocarrier compositions for enhanced biodegradation and bioremediation of groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    A composition and method for using the composition for degrading pollutants in-situ is presented. The composition comprises a biocarrier coated with an antigen-specific antibody that attracts and binds pollution-degrading antigens. The biocarrier, which is preferably in the form of glass microspheres, is coated with one or more strains of antibody. The antibody may be placed into the ground in or near the source of pollutants where it may attract antigens present and bind them, or the antibodies may be first exposed to the antigens and then placed in the ground. Alternatively, the coated biocarriers may be used to degrade pollutants in ground water pumped to the surface and through a biofilter containing the biocarriers. The remediated groundwater can then be returned to the soil.

  20. Use of serospecific biocarrier compositions for enhanced biodegradation and bioremediation of groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    1999-01-01

    A composition and method for using the composition for degrading pollutants in-situ. The composition comprises a biocarrier coated with an antigen-specific antibody that attracts and binds pollution-degrading antigens. The biocarrier, which is preferably in the form of glass microspheres, is coated with one or more strains of antibody. The antibody may be placed into the ground in or near the source of pollutants where it may attract antigens present and bind them, or the antibodies may be first exposed to the antigens and then placed in the ground. Alternatively, the coated biocarriers may be used to degrade pollutants in ground water pumped to the surface and through a biofilter containing the biocarriers. The remediated groundwater can then be returned to the soil.

  1. Quantum calculations of the IR spectrum of liquid water using ab initio and model potential and dipole moment surfaces and comparison with experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.

    2015-05-21

    The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H{sub 2}O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previous spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0–4000 cm{sup −1} is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.

  2. Environmental Tracers for Determining Water Resource Vulnerability to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleton, M

    2009-07-08

    Predicted changes in the climate will have profound impacts on water availability in the Western US, but large uncertainties exist in our ability to predict how natural and engineered hydrological systems will respond. Most predictions suggest that the impacts of climate change on California water resources are likely to include a decrease in the percentage of precipitation that falls as snow, earlier onset of snow-pack melting, and an increase in the number of rain on snow events. These processes will require changes in infrastructure for water storage and flood control, since much of our current water supply system is built around the storage of winter precipitation as mountain snow pack. Alpine aquifers play a critical role by storing and releasing snowmelt as baseflow to streams long after seasonal precipitation and the disappearance of the snow pack, and in this manner significantly impact the stream flow that drives our water distribution systems. Mountain groundwater recharge and, in particular, the contribution of snowmelt to recharge and baseflow, has been identified as a potentially significant effect missing from current climate change impact studies. The goal of this work is to understand the behavior of critical hydrologic systems, with an emphasis on providing ground truth for next generation models of climate-water system interactions by implementing LLNL capabilities in environmental tracer and isotopic science. We are using noble gas concentrations and multiple isotopic tracers ({sup 3}H/{sup 3}He, {sup 35}S, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) in groundwater and stream water in a small alpine catchment to (1) provide a snapshot of temperature, altitude, and physical processes at the time of recharge, (2) determine subsurface residence times (over time scales ranging from months to decades) of different groundwater age components, and (3) deconvolve the contribution of these different groundwater components to alpine stream baseflow. This research is showing that groundwater in alpine areas spends between a few years to several decades in the saturated zone below the surface, before feeding into streams or being pumped for use. This lag time may act to reduce the impact on water resources from extreme wet or dry years. Furthermore, our measurements show that the temperature of water when it reaches the water table during recharge is 4 to 9 degrees higher than would be expected for direct influx of snowmelt, and that recharge likely occurs over diffuse vegetated areas, rather than along exposed rock faces and fractures. These discoveries have implications for how alpine basins will respond to climate effects that lead to more rain than snow and earlier snow pack melting.

  3. A NEW SOURCE OF CO{sub 2} IN THE UNIVERSE: A PHOTOACTIVATED ELEY-RIDEAL SURFACE REACTION ON WATER ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Cooke, Ilsa R.; Yates, John T. Jr.

    2014-08-20

    CO{sub 2} is one of the most abundant components of ices in the interstellar medium; however, its formation mechanism has not been clearly identified. Here we report an experimental observation of an Eley-Rideal-type reaction on a water ice surface, where CO gas molecules react by direct collisions with surface OH radicals, made by photodissociation of H{sub 2}O molecules, to produce CO{sub 2} ice on the surface. The discovery of this source of CO{sub 2} provides a new mechanism to explain the high relative abundance of CO{sub 2} ice in space.

  4. Final report : groundwater monitoring at Morrill, Kansas, in September 2005 and March 2006, with expansion of the monitoring network in January 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-06-30

    This document reports the results of groundwater monitoring in September 2005 and March 2006 at the grain storage facility formerly operated at Morrill, Kansas, by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). These activities were the first and second twice yearly sampling events of the two-year monitoring program approved by the CCC/USDA and Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) project managers. The monitoring network sampled in September 2005 consisted of 9 monitoring wells (MW1S-MW5S and MW1D [installed in the mid 1990s] and MW6S-MW8S [installed in 2004]), plus 3 private wells (Isch, Rillinger, and Stone). The groundwater samples collected in this first event were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), dissolved hydrogen, and additional groundwater parameters to aid in evaluating the potential for reductive dechlorination processes. After the monitoring in September 2005, Argonne recommended expansion of the initial monitoring network. Previous sampling (August 2004) had already suggested that the initial network was inadequate to delineate the extent of the carbon tetrachloride plume. With the approval of the CCC/USDA and KDHE project managers, the monitoring network was expanded in January 2006 through the installation of 3 additional monitoring wells (MW9S-MW11S). Details of the monitoring well installations are reported in this document. The expanded monitoring network of 12 monitoring wells (MW1S-MW11S and MW1D) and 3 private wells (Isch, Rillinger, and Stone) was sampled in March 2006, the second monitoring event in the planned two-year program. Results of analyses for VOCs showed minor increases or decreases in contaminant levels at various locations but indicated that the leading edge of the contaminant plume is approaching the intermittent stream leading to Terrapin Creek. The groundwater samples collected in March 2006 were also analyzed for additional groundwater parameters to aid in the evaluation of the potential for reductive dechlorination processes. Preliminary screening of groundwater parameters provided inadequate evidence that reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride is taking place at some locations on the former CCC/USDA property. Groundwater levels measured manually in October 2005, March 2006, and June 2006 were used to map the potentiometric surface at Morrill. The results were generally consistent with each other and with previous measurements, indicating a groundwater flow direction to the south-southeast from the former CCC/USDA facility. Data recorders installed in wells MW1S-MW8S in July 2004 are gathering long-term data on the groundwater elevation and gradient. Data downloaded in August 2004, March 2005, October 2005, and June 2006 indicate that two relatively upgradient wells near the former CCC/USDA facility responded distinctly to apparent rainfall/recharge events. In contrast, two downgradient wells south of the former facility showed virtually no response, probably because of the damping influence of the nearby surface drainages and shallow groundwater at their locations. The first two monitoring events of the planned two-year monitoring program for Morrill have demonstrated no clear pattern of changes in carbon tetrachloride concentrations, though the contaminated zone has expanded toward the intermittent stream. Argonne recommends that the monitoring program continue as approved and that surface water samples be collected in future monitoring events (September 2006, March 2007, and September 2007).

  5. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2004-04-12

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2003 (October 2002 through September 2003) on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes in groundwater are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. The largest portions of these plumes are migrating from the central Hanford Site to the southeast, toward the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium, nitrate, and some other contaminants continued to exceed drinking water standards in groundwater discharging to the river in some locations. However, contaminant concentrations in river water remained low and were far below standards. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the central part of the Hanford Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in smaller plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath all but one of the reactor areas, and technetium-99 and uranium are present in the 200 Areas. Uranium exceeds standards in the 300 Area in the south part of the Hanford Site. Minor contaminant plumes with concentrations greater than standards include carbon-14, cesium-137, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, cyanide, fluoride, plutonium, and trichloroethene. Monitoring for the ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act'' is conducted in 11 groundwater operable units. The purpose of this monitoring is to define and track plumes and to monitor the effectiveness of interim remedial actions. Interim groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued with the goal of reducing the amount of chromium (100-K, 100-D, and 100-H) and strontium-90 (100-N) reaching the Columbia River. The objective of two interim remediation systems in the 200 West Area is to prevent the spread of carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99/uranium plumes. ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' groundwater monitoring continued at 24 waste management areas during fiscal year 2003: 15 under interim or final status detection programs and data indicate that they are not adversely affecting groundwater; 7 under interim status groundwater quality assessment programs to assess contamination; and 2 under final status corrective-action programs. During calendar year 2003, drillers completed seven new RCRA monitoring wells, nine wells for CERCLA, and two wells for research on chromate bioremediation. Vadose zone monitoring, characterization, and remediation continued in fiscal year 2003. Remediation and associated monitoring continued at a soil-vapor extraction system in the 200 West Area, which removes gaseous carbon tetrachloride from the vadose zone. Soil vapor also was sampled to locate carbon tetrachloride sites with the potential to impact groundwater in the future. DOE uses geophysical methods to monitor potential movement of contamination beneath single-shell tank farms. During fiscal year 2003, DOE monitored selected boreholes within each of the 12 single-shell tank farms. In general, the contaminated areas appeared to be stable over time. DOE drilled new boreholes at the T Tank Farm to characterize subsurface contamination near former leak sites. The System Assessment Capability is a set of computer modules simulating movement of contaminants from waste sites through the vadose zone and groundwater. In fiscal year 2003, it was updated with the addition of an atmospheric transport module and with newer versions of models including an updated groundwater flow and transport model.

  6. Time-resolved surface infrared spectroscopy during atomic layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sperling, Brent A. Hoang, John; Kimes, William A.; Maslar, James E.; Steffens, Kristen L.; Nguyen, Nhan V.

    2014-05-15

    Atomic layer deposition of titanium dioxide using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium (TDMAT) and water vapor is studied by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) with a time resolution of 120 ms. At 190 °C and 240 °C, a decrease in the absorption from adsorbed TDMAT is observed without any evidence of an adsorbed product. Ex situ measurements indicate that this behavior is not associated with an increase in the impurity concentration or a dramatic change in the growth rate. A desorbing decomposition product is consistent with these observations. RAIRS also indicates that dehydroxylation of the growth surface occurs only among one type of surface hydroxyl groups. Molecular water is observed to remain on the surface and participates in reactions even at a relatively high temperature (110 °C) and with long purge times (30 s)

  7. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

  8. Water resources and the urban environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loucks, E.D.

    1998-07-01

    140 abstracts from the conference cover topics such as urban stormwater management; geographic information systems, hydrologic and hydraulic computer modeling; groundwater analysis and management; drinking water supply and quality; and international water resources issues.

  9. Isobaric groundwater well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    1999-01-01

    A method of measuring a parameter in a well, under isobaric conditions, including such parameters as hydraulic gradient, pressure, water level, soil moisture content and/or aquifer properties the method as presented comprising providing a casing having first and second opposite ends, and a length between the ends, the casing supporting a transducer having a reference port; placing the casing lengthwise into the well, second end first, with the reference port vented above the water table in the well; and sealing the first end. A system is presented for measuring a parameter in a well, the system comprising a casing having first and second opposite ends, and a length between the ends and being configured to be placed lengthwise into a well second end first; a transducer, the transducer having a reference port, the reference port being vented in the well above the water table, the casing being screened across and above the water table; and a sealing member sealing the first end. In one embodiment, the transducer is a tensiometer transducer and in other described embodiments, another type transducer is used in addition to a tensiometer.

  10. South Valley Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy South Valley Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports South Valley Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports South Valley Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports PDF icon South Valley - South Valley Plume More Documents & Publications Slick Rock Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Tuba City Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Spook Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports

  11. Spook Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Spook Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Spook Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Spook Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports PDF icon Spook - Spook More Documents & Publications Tuba City Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Slick Rock Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Weldon Spring Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports

  12. Final_Groundwater_flowchart_June07.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REMEDIATE AND RESTORE GROUNDWATER TO HIGHEST BENEFICIAL USE ■ Groundwater is to be cleaned up and restored to the highest bene cial use.* ■ Restoration should be within a reasonable time frame, commensurate with risk and Tri-Party Agreement timelines. ■ Ongoing groundwater remediation activities and review processes should be fully funded. ■ Technology development should continually be pursued to remediate and restore groundwater to highest bene cial use.* ■ The public and tribes must

  13. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Tucci

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the saturated-zone, site-scale flow and transport model (CRWMS M&O 2000) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for model calibration. The previous analysis was presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01, Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (USGS 2001). This analysis is designed to use updated water-level data as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain. The objectives of this revision are to develop computer files containing (1) water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002), (2) a table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS0109083 12332.003), and (3) a potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternate concept from that presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01 for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and data from borehole USW WT-24. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow and transport model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for ground-water management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model, as well as provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral ground-water flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment.

  14. Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Commercial Water Use by Source (Million Gallons per Day) Year 1980 - - - 1985 5,710 1,230 1990 5,900 2,390 1995 6,690 2,890 2000 (3) 7,202 3,111 2005 (3) 7,102 3,068 Note(s): Source(s): 10,314 10,171 1) Public supply water use: water withdrawn by public and private water suppliers that furnish water to at least 25 people or have a minimum of 15 connections. 2) Self-supply water use: Water withdrawn from a groundwater or surface-water source by a user rather than being obtained from a public

  15. K Basins Groundwater Monitoring Task, K Basins Closure Project: Report for July, August, and September 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Robert E.

    2006-12-08

    This report provides information on groundwater monitoring at the K Basins during July, August, and September 2006. Conditions remain very similar to those reported in the previous quarterly report, with no evidence in monitoring results to suggest groundwater impact from current loss of basin water to the ground. The K Basins monitoring network will be modified in the coming quarters as a consequence of remedial action at KE Basin, i.e., removal of sludge and basin demolition.

  16. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  17. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-06-29

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

  18. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  19. Theoretical foundation for measuring the groundwater age distribution.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, William Payton; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we use PFLOTRAN, a highly scalable, parallel, flow and reactive transport code to simulate the concentrations of 3H, 3He, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 39Ar, 81Kr, 4He and themean groundwater age in heterogeneous fields on grids with an excess of 10 million nodes. We utilize this computational platform to simulate the concentration of multiple tracers in high-resolution, heterogeneous 2-D and 3-D domains, and calculate tracer-derived ages. Tracer-derived ages show systematic biases toward younger ages when the groundwater age distribution contains water older than the maximum tracer age. The deviation of the tracer-derived age distribution from the true groundwater age distribution increases with increasing heterogeneity of the system. However, the effect of heterogeneity is diminished as the mean travel time gets closer the tracer age limit. Age distributions in 3-D domains differ significantly from 2-D domains. 3D simulations show decreased mean age, and less variance in age distribution for identical heterogeneity statistics. High-performance computing allows for investigation of tracer and groundwater age systematics in high-resolution domains, providing a platform for understanding and utilizing environmental tracer and groundwater age information in heterogeneous 3-D systems. Groundwater environmental tracers can provide important constraints for the calibration of groundwater flow models. Direct simulation of environmental tracer concentrations in models has the additional advantage of avoiding assumptions associated with using calculated groundwater age values. This study quantifies model uncertainty reduction resulting from the addition of environmental tracer concentration data. The analysis uses a synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and the calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method. Results indicate a significant reduction in the uncertainty in permeability with the addition of environmental tracer data, relative to the use of hydraulic measurements alone. Anthropogenic tracers and their decay products, such as CFC11, 3H, and 3He, provide significant constraint oninput permeability values in the model. Tracer data for 39Ar provide even more complete information on the heterogeneity of permeability and variability in the flow system than the anthropogenic tracers, leading to greater parameter uncertainty reduction.

  20. Surface water sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses surface water monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Surface water monitoring will be conducted at nine sites within WAG 6. Activities to be conducted will include the installation, inspection, and maintenance of automatic flow-monitoring and sampling equipment and manual collection of various water and sediment samples. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the surface water monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and will be used in calculations to establish relationships between contaminant concentration (C) and flow (Q). The C-Q relationship will be used in calculating the cumulative risk associated with the off-WAG migration of contaminants.

  1. Final report : groundwater monitoring at Centralia, Kansas, inSeptember-October 2005 and March 2006, with expansion of the monitoringnetwork in January 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2006-12-07

    This document reports the results of groundwater sampling in September-October 2005 and March 2006 at the grain storage facility formerly operated at Centralia, Kansas, by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). These activities were the first and second twice yearly sampling events of the two-year monitoring program approved by the CCC/USDA and Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) project managers. The initial monitoring network sampled in September and October 2005 consisted of six monitoring wells (MW1-MW6) installed in 2004, plus five groundwater piezometers (SB01, SB04, SB05, SB08, SB09) installed in 2002. The combined September-October 2005 sampling was the first monitoring event in the planned two-year program for Centralia. The groundwater samples collected in both September and October were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and samples collected in September were analyzed for dissolved hydrogen and additional groundwater parameters to aid in evaluating the potential for reductive dechlorination processes. After the monitoring in September-October 2005, Argonne recommended expansion of the initial monitoring network. Previous sampling (August 2004) had already suggested that this network of six monitoring wells and five piezometers was inadequate to delineate the extent of the carbon tetrachloride plume. With the approval of the CCC/USDA and KDHE project managers, the monitoring network was expanded in January 2006 through the installation of four additional monitoring wells (MW7-MW10) and one new piezometer (SB07R) to replace a damaged piezometer (the former SB07). Details of the monitoring well and piezometer installations are reported in this document. The expanded monitoring network of ten monitoring wells (MW01-MW10) and six piezometers (SB01, SB04, SB05, SB07R, SB08, and SB09) was sampled in March 2006. This March 2006 sampling was the second monitoring event in the planned two-year program. Results of analyses for VOCs showed further increases in contaminant levels and expansion of the carbon tetrachloride plume toward the south and west from the former CCC/USDA facility. The groundwater samples collected in March 2006 were also analyzed for additional groundwater parameters to aid in the evaluation of the potential for reductive dechlorination processes. Preliminary screening of groundwater parameters provided limited evidence that reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride is taking place at some locations on the former CCC/USDA facility. Groundwater levels measured manually in September 2005, March 2006, and June 2006 were used to map the potentiometric surface at Centralia. Overall, these results were consistent with each other and with previous measurements, generally indicating a groundwater flow direction toward the south-southwest from the former CCC/USDA facility. Data recorders installed in wells MW01-MW06 in August 2004 are gathering long-term data on the groundwater elevation and gradient. Data downloaded in March 2005, September 2005, and June 2006 indicate that two wells north and west of the former CCC/USDA facility boundary show distinct, transient and seasonal water level variations. In contrast, two different wells southwest and south of the former facility boundary show virtually no response to the same events. The first two monitoring events of the planned two-year monitoring program for Centralia have demonstrated increased carbon tetrachloride concentrations and lateral expansion of the contaminated zone. Argonne recommends that the CCC/USDA and KDHE project managers consider development and approval of a work plan to expedite the selection and implementation of an active remedial alternative addressing the concentrated areas of groundwater contamination before the end of the two-year monitoring program in 2007.

  2. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-05-01

    This report for first quarter 1992 contains sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring data for the Savannah River Plant. The data tables presented in this report are copies of draft analytical results and therefore do contain errors. These errors will be corrected when the finalized data is received from the laboratory.

  3. Surface water and atmospheric underway carbon data obtained during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean survey cruises (R/V Knorr, December 1998--January 1996)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozyr, A.; Allison, L.

    1997-11-01

    This data documentation presents the results of the surface water and atmospheric underway measurements of mole fraction of carbon dioxide (xCO{sub 2}), sea surface salinity, and sea surface temperature, obtained during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Indian Ocean survey cruises (December 1994--January 1996). Discrete and underway carbon measurements were made by members of the CO{sub 2} survey team. The survey team is a part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study supported by the US Department of Energy to make carbon-related measurements on the WOCE global survey cruises. Approximately 200,000 surface seawater and 50,000 marine air xCO{sub 2} measurements were recorded.

  4. Review of present groundwater monitoring programs at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershey, R.L.; Gillespie, D.

    1993-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is conducted to detect the presence of radionuclides produced by underground nuclear testing and to verify the quality and safety of groundwater supplies as required by the State of Nevada and federal regulations, and by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. Groundwater is monitored at water-supply wells and at other boreholes and wells not specifically designed or located for traditional groundwater monitoring objectives. Different groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS are conducted by several DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) contractors. Presently, these individual groundwater monitoring programs have not been assessed or administered under a comprehensive planning approach. Redundancy exists among the programs in both the sampling locations and the constituents analyzed. Also, sampling for certain radionuclides is conducted more frequently than required. The purpose of this report is to review the existing NTS groundwater monitoring programs and make recommendations for modifying the programs so a coordinated, streamlined, and comprehensive monitoring effort may be achieved by DOE/NV. This review will be accomplished in several steps. These include: summarizing the present knowledge of the hydrogeology of the NTS and the potential radionuclide source areas for groundwater contamination; reviewing the existing groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS; examining the rationale for monitoring and the constituents analyzed; reviewing the analytical methods used to quantify tritium activity; discussing monitoring network design criteria; and synthesizing the information presented and making recommendations based on the synthesis. This scope of work was requested by the DOE/NV Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and satisfies the 1993 (fiscal year) HRMP Groundwater Monitoring Program Review task.

  5. Bore II - Advanced Wellbore Technology Characterizes Groundwater Flow and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contamination - Energy Innovation Portal Geothermal Geothermal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Bore II - Advanced Wellbore Technology Characterizes Groundwater Flow and Contamination Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryBore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and

  6. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-02-11

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2012 results. During 2012, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 21, August 7, August 21, and September 11, 2012, and static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 19, June 6, August 2, and October 15, 2012. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Final results from samples collected in 2012 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  7. Updated Conceptual Model for the 300 Area Uranium Groundwater Plume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Last, George V.; Peterson, Robert E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2012-11-01

    The 300 Area uranium groundwater plume in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit is residual from past discharge of nuclear fuel fabrication wastes to a number of liquid (and solid) disposal sites. The source zones in the disposal sites were remediated by excavation and backfilled to grade, but sorbed uranium remains in deeper, unexcavated vadose zone sediments. In spite of source term removal, the groundwater plume has shown remarkable persistence, with concentrations exceeding the drinking water standard over an area of approximately 1 km2. The plume resides within a coupled vadose zone, groundwater, river zone system of immense complexity and scale. Interactions between geologic structure, the hydrologic system driven by the Columbia River, groundwater-river exchange points, and the geochemistry of uranium contribute to persistence of the plume. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) to document characterization of the 300 Area uranium plume and plan for beginning to implement proposed remedial actions. As part of the RI/FS document, a conceptual model was developed that integrates knowledge of the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties of the 300 Area and controlling processes to yield an understanding of how the system behaves and the variables that control it. Recent results from the Hanford Integrated Field Research Challenge site and the Subsurface Biogeochemistry Scientific Focus Area Project funded by the DOE Office of Science were used to update the conceptual model and provide an assessment of key factors controlling plume persistence.

  8. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2013-07-01

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg. C (1,500 deg. F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total of four units to batch treat concrete rubble and soil. Post treatment sampling verified that the activity in the treated soil and concrete met the treatment standards for each medium which allowed the treated concrete rubble and soil to be disposed of on-site as backfill. During testing and operations a total of 1,261-m{sup 3} (1,650-yd{sup 3}) of contaminated concrete and soils were treated with an actual incurred cost of $3,980,000. This represents a unit treatment cost of $3,156/m{sup 3} ($2,412/yd{sup 3}). In 2011 the project was recognized with an e-Star Sustainability Award by DOE's Office of Environmental Management. (authors)

  9. Method and device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

    2002-01-01

    A device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system includes a generally cylindrical push-rod defining an internal recess therein. The push-rod includes first and second end portions and an external liquid collection surface. A liquid collection member is detachably connected to the push-rod at one of the first and second end portions thereof. The method of the present invention for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a contaminated groundwater system includes providing a lance including an external hydrophobic liquid collection surface, an internal recess, and a collection chamber at the bottom end thereof. The lance is extended into the groundwater system such that the top end thereof remains above the ground surface. The liquid is then allowed to collect on the liquid collection surface, and flow downwardly by gravity into the collection chamber to be pumped upwardly through the internal recess in the lance.

  10. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MJ Hartman; LF Morasch; WD Webber

    2000-05-10

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 1999 on the US. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Measurements for site-wide maps were conducted in June in past years and are now measured in March to reflect conditions that are closer to average. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1998 and March 1999. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes in groundwater were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of carbon-14, strontium-90, technetium-99, and uranium also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Cesium-137 and plutonium exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in US Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for plutonium, strontium-90, tritium, and uranium in small plumes or single wells. Nitrate and carbon tetrachloride are the most extensive chemical contaminants. Chloroform, chromium, cis-1,2dichloroethylene, cyanide, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Metals such as aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, and nickel exceeded their maximum contaminant levels in filtered samples from numerous wells; however, in most cases, they are believed to represent natural components of groundwater. ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976'' groundwater monitoring continued at 25 waste management areas during fiscal year 1999: 16 under detection programs and data indicate that they are not adversely affecting groundwater; 6 under interim status groundwater quality assessment programs to assess contamination; and 2 under final status corrective-action programs. Another site, the 120-D-1 ponds, was clean closed in fiscal year 1999, and monitoring is no longer required. Groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued with the goal of reducing the amount of chromium (100 K, D, and H) and strontium-90 (100 N) reaching the Columbia River. The objective of two remediation systems in the 200 West Area is to prevent the spread of carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99/uranium plumes. Groundwater monitoring continued at these sites and at other sites where there is no active remediation. Subsurface source characterization and vadose zone monitoring, soil-vapor monitoring, sediment sampling and characterization, and vadose zone remediation were conducted in fiscal year 1999. Baseline spectral gamma-ray logging at two single-shell tank farms was completed, and logging of zones at tank farms with the highest count rate was initiated. Spectral gamma-ray logging also occurred at specific retention facilities in the 200 East Area. These facilities are some of the most significant potential sources of remaining vadose zone contamination. Finally, remediation and monitoring of carbon tetradoride in the 200 West Area continued, with an additional 972 kilograms of carbon tetrachloride removed from the vadose zone in fiscal year 1999.

  11. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Rehfeldt

    2004-10-08

    This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for groundwater management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model and provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral groundwater flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment (TSPA).

  12. Interplay of confinement and surface energetics in the interaction of water with a metal–organic framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2016-03-24

    Here, the enthalpy of water adsorption (Δh) on the metal–organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 has been determined directly by calorimetry. The most exothermic value of Δh [–119.4 ± 0.5 kJ/(mol of water)] occurs at zero coverage and perhaps represents water confinement in the smallest (4-Å) cages. An intermediate Δh value of –50.2 ± 1.8 kJ/(mol of water) at higher loading probably corresponds to the binding of water on the available Cu nodes and subsequent filling of the largest (11-Å) pores. The weakest interactions take place in the medium (10-Å) cages, showing weak inclusion of water clusters in a limited hydrophobic environment.more » By combining ethanol adsorption calorimetry, mathematical analysis of the slope of the water adsorption isotherm, and the differential enthalpy of water adsorption curve, we are able not only to develop an approach to separate energetically multistage guest–host interactions in complex MOF architectures but also to distinguish a sequence of interactions with very similar energetic effects.« less

  13. MEASUREMENTS OF PAST 14C LEVELS AND 13C/12C RATIOS IN THE SURFACE WATERS OF THE WORLD'S SUBPOLAR OCEANS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T A

    2010-04-22

    Under this project we have developed methods that allow the reconstruction of past {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean by measuring the {sup 14}C contents of archived salmon scales. The overall goal of this research was to reduce of the uncertainty in the uptake of fossil CO{sub 2} by the oceans and thereby improve the quantification of the global carbon cycle and to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs), with their three dimensional global spatial coverage and temporal modeling capabilities, provide the best route to accurately calculating the total uptake of CO{sub 2} by the oceans and, hence, to achieving the desired reduction in uncertainty. {sup 14}C has played, and continues to play, a central role in the validation of the OGCMs calculations, particularly with respect to those model components which govern the uptake of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and the transport of this carbon within the oceans. Under this project, we have developed time-series records of the {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of three areas of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean. As the previously available data on the time-history of oceanic surface water {sup 14}C levels are very limited, these time-series records provide significant new {sup 14}C data to constrain and validate the OGCMs.

  14. Work plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory groundwater program: Continuous groundwater collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The continuous collection of groundwater data is a basic and necessary part of Lockeheed Martin Energy Systems` ORNL Environmental Restoration Area-Wide Groundwater Program. Continuous groundwater data consist primarily of continually recorded groundwater levels, and in some instances, specific conductivity, pH, and/or temperature measurements. These data will be collected throughout the ORNL site. This Work Plan (WP) addresses technical objectives, equipment requirements, procedures, documentation requirements, and technical instructions for the acquisition of the continuous groundwater data. Intent of this WP is to provide an approved document that meets all the necessary requirements while retaining the flexibility necessary to effectively address ORNL`s groundwater problems.

  15. Materials for light-induced water splitting: In situ controlled surface preparation of GaPN epilayers grown lattice-matched on Si(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Supplie, Oliver; May, Matthias M.; Stange, Helena; Hhn, Christian; Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim; Hannappel, Thomas

    2014-03-21

    Energy storage is a key challenge in solar-driven renewable energy conversion. We promote a photochemical diode based on dilute nitride GaPN grown lattice-matched on Si(100), which could reach both high photovoltaic efficiencies and evolve hydrogen directly without external bias. Homoepitaxial GaP(100) surface preparation was shown to have a significant impact on the semiconductor-water interface formation. Here, we grow a thin, pseudomorphic GaP nucleation buffer on almost single-domain Si(100) prior to GaPN growth and compare the GaP{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02}/Si(100) surface preparation to established P- and Ga-rich surfaces of GaP/Si(100). We apply reflection anisotropy spectroscopy to study the surface preparation of GaP{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02} in situ in vapor phase epitaxy ambient and benchmark the signals to low energy electron diffraction, photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. While the preparation of the Ga-rich surface is hardly influenced by the presence of the nitrogen precursor 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), we find that stabilization with UDMH after growth hinders well-defined formation of the V-rich GaP{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02}/Si(100) surface. Additional features in the reflection anisotropy spectra are suggested to be related to nitrogen incorporation in the GaP bulk.

  16. Groundwater Under Review Marathon Man

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Under Review Marathon Man NNSS team welcomes peer review of groundwater program. Nevada Teams compete in the National Science Bowl in Washington. NSTec runner finishes first Boston Marathon. See page 7. See page 6. NNSS Roads Getting a Fresh Makeover Highways, roads, parking lots - any place that has seen at least 60 years of traffic like the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has - will experience some normal wear and tear. That is why National Security Technologies (NSTec) is doing some

  17. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Gnome-Coach (Gnome) Site in New Mexico (Figure 1). Groundwater monitoring consisted of collecting hydraulic head data and groundwater samples from the wells on site. Historically, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had conducted these annual activities under the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP). LM took over the sampling and data collection activities in 2008 but continues to use the EPA Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, to analyze the water samples. This report summarizes groundwater monitoring and site investigation activities that were conducted at the site during calendar year 2010.

  18. URANIUM-SERIES CONSTRAINTS ON RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AND GROUNDWATER FLOW AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. J. Goldstein, S. Luo, T. L. Ku, and M. T. Murrell

    2006-04-01

    Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the vicinity of the Nopal I uranium ore deposit are used to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes at this site, and also, by analogy, at Yucca Mountain. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 suggest that groundwater flow rates are low (< 10 m/yr). Field tests, well productivity, and uranium isotopic constraints also suggest that groundwater flow and mixing is limited at this site. The uranium isotopic systematics for water collected in the mine adit are consistent with longer rock-water interaction times and higher uranium dissolution rates at the front of the adit where the deposit is located. Short-lived nuclide data for groundwater wells are used to calculate retardation factors that are on the order of 1,000 for radium and 10,000 to 10,000,000 for lead and polonium. Radium has enhanced mobility in adit water and fractures near the deposit.

  19. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-09-30

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The plan describes the technical approach that will be implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 which provide the most useful hydrologic and water-quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well (Section 2.0). Under this approach, wells granted ''active'' status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater sampling (Section 3.0), whereas well granted ''inactive'' status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also determines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP (Section 4.0). Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans and procedures (Section 5.0). This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes (Figure 1): the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV and, for the purposes of this plan, includes a section of Union Valley east of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary along Scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime is directly south of Y-12 and encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge that is bound to the west by a surface drainage feature (Dunaway Branch) and by Scarboro Road to the east. The GWPP maintains an extensive database of construction details and related information for the monitoring wells in each hydrogeologic regime (including wells that have been destroyed or intentionally plugged and abandoned); the most recent hardcopy version of the database was issued in February 2003 (BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. [BWXT] 2003). This plan does not apply to temporary piezometers or other specialized groundwater monitoring/sampling devices that have been or may be installed for research purposes, hydrologic tests, pilot studies, or short-term investigations. This plan will be reviewed and updated in accordance with the schedule required in the Y-12 GWPP Management Plan (BWXT 2001). Between scheduled updates of this plan, any substantial changes or modifications to the plan, including changes in the GWPP status designation for each monitoring well identified in the plan, will be described in addenda issued by the GWPP Manager (or authorized designee). Information included in the addenda will be incorporated into the plan during the next scheduled update.

  20. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-12-01

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). The plan describes the technical approach that will be implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 that provide the most useful hydrologic and water-quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well (Section 2.0). Under this approach, wells granted ''active'' status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater quality sampling (Section 3.0), whereas wells granted ''inactive'' status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also defines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP (Section 3.0). Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans and procedures (Section 4.0). This plan applies to groundwater wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management areas and facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes (Figure A.1): the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV and, for the purposes of this plan, includes a section of Union Valley east of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary along Scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12 that is bound on the west by a surface drainage feature (Dunaway Branch) and on the east by Scarboro Road. For this plan, the Chestnut Ridge Regime includes an area known as the South Campus Facility that is located west of Scarboro Road and south of Bethel Valley Road. The GWPP maintains an extensive database of construction details and related information for the monitoring wells in each hydrogeologic regime (including wells that have been destroyed or intentionally plugged and abandoned); the most recent hardcopy version of the database was issued in February 2003 (BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. [BWXT] 2003). This plan does not apply to temporary piezometers or other specialized groundwater monitoring/sampling devices that have been or may be installed for research purposes, hydrologic tests, pilot studies, or short-term investigations. This plan will be reviewed and updated every three years, as specified in the ''Y-12 GWPP Management Plan'' (BWXT 2004). Between scheduled updates of this plan, addenda issued by the GWPP Manager (or authorized designee) will document any substantial changes or modifications to the plan, including changes in the GWPP status designation for each monitoring well identified in the plan. The addenda, numbered in consecutive ascending order, will be forwarded to all personnel included on the distribution list for this plan. The addenda are inserted in Appendix C pending the next scheduled update of the plan, which will incorporate the information included in the addenda.

  1. ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sea surface temperature The temperature of sea water near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  2. A validation of the [sup 3]H/[sup 3]He method for determining groundwater recharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, D.K. ); Schiff, S.L. ); Poreda, R.J. ); Clarke, W.B. )

    1993-09-01

    Tritium and He isotopes have been measured at a site where groundwater flow is nearly vertical for a travel time of 100 years and where recharge rates are spatially variable. Because the mid-1960s [sup 3]H peak (arising from aboveground testing of thermonuclear devices) is well-defined, the vertical groundwater velocity is known with unusual accuracy at this site. Utilizing [sup 3]H and its stable daughter [sup 3]He to determine groundwater ages, we compute a recharge rate of 0.16 m/yr, which agrees to within about 5% of the value based on the depth of the [sup 3]H peak (measured both in 1986 and 1991) and two-dimensional modeling in an area of high recharge. Zero [sup 3]H/[sup 3]He age occurs at a depth that is approximately equal to the average depth of the annual low water table, even though the capillary fringe extends to land surface during most of the year at the study site. In an area of low recharge (0.05 m/yr) where the [sup 3]H peak (and hence the vertical velocity) is also well-defined, the [sup 3]H/[sup 3]He results could not be used to compute recharge because samples were not collected sufficiently far above the [sup 3]H peak; however, modeling indicates that the [sup 3]H/[sup 3]He age gradient near the water table is an accurate measure of vertical velocities in the low-recharge area. Because [sup 3]H and [sup 3]He have different diffusion coefficients, and because the amount of mechanical mixing is different in the area of high recharge than in the low-recharge area, we have separated the dispersive effects of mechanical mixing from molecular diffusion. We estimate a longitudinal dispersivity of 0.07 m and effective diffusion coefficients for [sup 3]H ([sup 3]HHO) and [sup 3]He of 2.4 x 10[sup [minus]5] and 1.3 x 10[sup [minus]4] m[sup 2]/day, respectively. 26 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Groundwater monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehrman, R.; Broberg, K.; Tatro, G.; Richardson, R.; Dasczcyszak, W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GPM) being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The Regulatory and Environmental Programs (REP) section of the Environment, Safety and Health department (ES H) is responsible for conducting environmental monitoring at the WIPP. Groundwater monitoring is one of the ongoing environmental activities currently taking place. The REP section includes water quality sampling and water level monitoring. The WIPP Project is a research and develop facility designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-generated waste in a geologic repository. Water quality sampling for physical, chemical, and radiological parameters has been an ongoing activity at the WIPP site for the past six years, and will continue through the life of the project. The water quality of a well is sampled while the well is continuously pumped. Serial samples of the pumped water are collected and tested for pH, Eh, temperature, specific gravity, specific conductivity, alkalinity, chlorides, divalent cations, ferrous iron, and total iron. Stabilization of serial sampling parameters determined if a representative sample is being obtained, Representative samples are sent to contract laboratories and analyzed for general chemistry, major cations and anions, and radionuclides. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Geologic Water Storage in Pre-Columbian Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairley Jr., Jerry P.

    1997-07-14

    Agriculture in the arid and semi-arid regions that comprise much of present-day Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile is heavily dependent on irrigation; however, obtaining a dependable water supply in these areas is often difficult. The precolumbian peoples of Andean South America adapted to this situation by devising many strategies for transporting, storing, and retrieving water to insure consistent supply. I propose that the ''elaborated springs'' found at several Inka sites near Cuzco, Peru, are the visible expression of a simple and effective system of groundwater control and storage. I call this system ''geologic water storage'' because the water is stored in the pore spaces of sands, soils, and other near-surface geologic materials. I present two examples of sites in the Cuzco area that use this technology (Tambomachay and Tipon) and discuss the potential for identification of similar systems developed by other ancient Latin American cultures.

  5. NNSS Groundwater Program Welcomes Peer Review Team

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 18, 2014 NNSS Groundwater Program Welcomes Peer Review Team Recently, an independent peer review team was invited to assess the groundwater characterization program at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). This nationally recognized group of experts, from various external organizations, will examine the computer modeling approach developed to better understand how historic underground nuclear testing in Yucca Flat affected the groundwater. From April 7th to 11th, 2014, five peer

  6. Groundwater Update K. Michael Thompson Soil and Groundwater Division Richland Operations Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Update Jon Peschong Richland Operations Office May 2015 2 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater treated tons of contaminants removed in all pump and treat systems since the facilities began operating 12 171 HANFORD SITE GROUNDWATER NUMBERS billion of gallons of groundwater treated in 2014 1.95 tons of contaminants removed in 2014 62 3 Groundwater Key Focus Areas * Expand pump and treat systems - Continue pump and treat operations - Install and connect new and existing wells to maximize

  7. Direct Push Groundwater Circulation Wells for Remediation of BTEX and Volatile Organics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borden, R. E.; Cherry, Robert Stephen

    2000-09-01

    Direct push groundwater circulation wells (DP-GCW) are a promising technology for remediation of groundwater contaminated with dissolved hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. In these wells, groundwater is withdrawn from the formation at the bottom of the well, aerated and vapor stripped and injected back into the formation at or above the water table. Previous field studies have shown that: (a) GCWs can circulate significant volumes of groundwater; and (b) GCWs can effectively remove volatile compounds and add oxygen. In this work, we describe the development and field-testing of a system of DP-GCWs for remediation of volatile organics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and toluene (BTEX). The GCWs were constructed with No. 20 slotted well screen (2.4 cm ID) and natural sand pack extending from 1.5 to 8.2 m below grade. Air is introduced ~7.5 m below grade via 0.6 cm tubing. Approximately 15% of the vertical length of the air supply tubing is wrapped in tangled mesh polypropylene geonet drainage fabric to provide surface area for biological growth and precipitation of oxidized iron. These materials were selected to allow rapid installation of the GCWs using 3.8 cm direct push Geoprobe® rods, greatly reducing well installation costs. Laboratory testing of these sparged wells and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling showed that these wells, although they used only about 1 L/min of air, could circulate about 1 L/min of water through the surrounding aquifer. This flow was sufficient to capture all of a flowing contaminant if the wells are sufficiently closely together, about 1 meter on center depending on the air flow rate supplied, in a line across the plume. The CFD work showed the details of this ability to capture, and also showed that unforeseen heterogeneities in the aquifer such as a gradient of permeability or a thin impermeable layer (such as a clay layer) did not prevent the system from working largely as intended. The system was tested in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Rocky Point, NC. The contaminant plume there is approximately 10 m deep, 50 m wide and contains up to 4 µg/L total BTEX and 75 µg/L dissolved iron. An extensive pilot test was first performed to estimate the zone of influence for a single well. At this site an air injection rate of 1.2 L/min resulted in a water flow rate of 1 to 2 L/min based on bromide dilution tests in the GCW. The GCW increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the discharge water to between 6 and 8 µg/L and reduced contaminant concentrations to less than 20 µg/L total BTEX. Monitoring results from a 73 day pilot test were then used to define the zone of influence for a single DP-GCW and to design a full scale barrier system.

  8. Direct Push Groundwater Circulation Wells for Remediation of BTEX and Volatile Organics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borden, R.C.; Cherry, R.S.

    2000-09-30

    Direct push groundwater circulation wells (DP-GCW) are a promising technology for remediation of groundwater contaminated with dissolved hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. In these wells, groundwater is withdrawn from the formation at the bottom of the well, aerated and vapor stripped and injected back into the formation at or above the water table. Previous field studies have shown that: (a) GCWs can circulate significant volumes of groundwater; and (b) GCWs can effectively remove volatile compounds and add oxygen. In this work, we describe the development and field-testing of a system of DP-GCWs for remediation of volatile organics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and toluene (BTEX). The GCWs were constructed with No. 20 slotted well screen (2.4 cm ID) and natural sand pack extending from 1.5 to 8.2 m below grade. Air is introduced {approximately}7.5 m below grade via 0.6 cm tubing. Approximately 15% of the vertical length of the air supply tubing is wrapped in tangled mesh polypropylene geonet drainage fabric to provide surface area for biological growth and precipitation of oxidized iron. These materials were selected to allow rapid installation of the GCWs using 3.8 cm direct push Geoprobe{reg_sign} rods, greatly reducing well installation costs. Laboratory testing of these sparged wells and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling showed that these wells, although they used only about 1 L/min of air, could circulate about 1 L/min of water through the surrounding aquifer. This flow was sufficient to capture all of a flowing contaminant if the wells are sufficiently closely together, about 1 meter on center depending on the air flow rate supplied, in a line across the plume. The CFD work showed the details of this ability to capture, and also showed that unforeseen heterogeneities in the aquifer such as a gradient of permeability or a thin impermeable layer (such as a clay layer) did not prevent the system from working largely as intended. The system was tested in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Rocky Point, NC. The contaminant plume there is approximately 10 m deep, 50 m wide and contains up to 4 {micro}g/L total BTEX and 75 {micro}g/L dissolved iron. An extensive pilot test was first performed to estimate the zone of influence for a single well. At this site an air injection rate of 1.2 L/min resulted in a water flow rate of 1 to 2 L/min based on bromide dilution tests in the GCW. The GCW increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the discharge water to between 6 and 8 {micro}g/L and reduced contaminant concentrations to less than 20 {micro}g/L total BTEX. Monitoring results from a 73 day pilot test were then used to define the zone of influence for a single DP-GCW and to design a full scale barrier system.

  9. DEQ Groundwater Permitting Guidebook | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: DEQ Groundwater Permitting GuidebookPermittingRegulatory GuidanceGuide...

  10. Montana Groundwater Information Center Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Center Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Groundwater Information Center Webpage Abstract Provides access to...

  11. Hanford Treats Record Amount of Groundwater

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    September 13, 2011 Hanford Treats Record Amount of Groundwater RICHLAND, Wash. - Workers have treated more than 800 million gallons of groundwater at the Hanford Site so far this year, a record annual amount. Last year, workers with DOE contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company treated 600 mil- lion gallons of groundwater at the site. "It's great to know the amount of treated groundwater is increasing. We are meeting our goals, which means we are protecting the Columbia River,"

  12. Vermont Groundwater Withdrawal Report | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Vermont Groundwater Withdrawal Report Citation Vermont Agency of Natural...

  13. Surface Complexation of Neodymium at the Rutile-Water Interface: A Potentiometric and Modeling Study in NaCl Media to 250C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridley, Mora K.; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J; Palmer, Donald

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption of Nd{sup 3+} onto rutile surfaces was examined by potentiometric titration from 25 to 250 C, in 0.03 and 0.30m NaCl background electrolyte. Experimental results show that Nd{sup 3+} sorbs strongly, even at low temperature, with adsorption commencing below the pHznpc of rutile. In addition, there is a systematic increase in Nd{sup 3+} adsorption with increasing temperature. The experimental results were rationalized and described using surface oxygen proton affinities computed from the MUlti SIte Complexation or MUSIC model, coupled with a Stern-based three-layer description of the oxide/water interface. Moreover, molecular-scale information was incorporated successfully into the surface complexation model, providing a unique geometry for the adsorption of Nd{sup 3+} on rutile. The primary mode of Nd{sup 3+} adsorption was assumed to be the tetradentate configuration found for Y{sup 3+} adsorption on the rutile (110) surface from previously described in situ X-ray standing wave experiments, wherein the sorbing cations bond directly with two adjacent ''terminal'' and two adjacent ''bridging'' surface oxygen atoms. Similarly, the adsorption of Na{sup +} counterions was also assumed to be tetradentate, as supported by MD simulations of Na{sup +} interactions with the rutile (110) surface, and by analogous X-ray standing wave results for Rb{sup +} adsorption on rutile. Fitting parameters for Nd{sup 3+} adsorption included binding constants for the tetradentate adsorption complex and capacitance values for the inner-sphere binding plane. In addition, hydrolysis of the tetradentate adsorption complex was permitted and resulted in significantly improved model fits at higher temperature and pH values. The modeling results indicate that the Stern-based MUSIC surface-complexation model adequately accommodates molecular-scale information to uniquely rationalize and describe multivalent ion adsorption systematically into the hydrothermal regime.

  14. Water adsorption onto Y and V sites at the surface of the YVO{sub 4} photocatalyst and related electronic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshikiri, Mitsutake; Matsushita, Akiyuki; Ye, Jinhua; Boero, Mauro

    2009-07-21

    The dynamics of water molecules and the adsorption properties at the V and Y sites on the surface of the photocatalyst YVO{sub 4} have been investigated by first principles molecular dynamics. This system has shown an excellent performance in the production of both hydrogen and oxygen in the ultraviolet region. Yet, its catalytic properties, related to the electronic structure, are poorly understood. Here we show that imperfectly oxygen coordinated V sites (i.e., not fourfold oxygen coordinated vanadium but threefold oxygen coordinated vanadium) exposed on the catalyst surface play a central role in the dissociation of water molecules. By simulating the H{sub 2}O adsorption process and by performing an analysis of the electronic structure of the unoccupied orbitals corresponding to the lowest unoccupied energy level of the system, we can infer that the dissociation of water at these imperfectly oxygen coordinated V sites can promote the proton reduction and is expected to trigger the H{sub 2} generation.

  15. Groundwater monitoring program plan and conceptual site model for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center in Iraq.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copland, John Robin; Cochran, John Russell

    2013-07-01

    The Radiation Protection Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Environment is developing a groundwater monitoring program (GMP) for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located near Baghdad, Iraq. The Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center was established in about 1960 and is currently being cleaned-up and decommissioned by Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology. This Groundwater Monitoring Program Plan (GMPP) and Conceptual Site Model (CSM) support the Radiation Protection Center by providing:A CSM describing the hydrogeologic regime and contaminant issues,recommendations for future groundwater characterization activities, anddescriptions of the organizational elements of a groundwater monitoring program. The Conceptual Site Model identifies a number of potential sources of groundwater contamination at Al-Tuwaitha. The model also identifies two water-bearing zones (a shallow groundwater zone and a regional aquifer). The depth to the shallow groundwater zone varies from approximately 7 to 10 meters (m) across the facility. The shallow groundwater zone is composed of a layer of silty sand and fine sand that does not extend laterally across the entire facility. An approximately 4-m thick layer of clay underlies the shallow groundwater zone. The depth to the regional aquifer varies from approximately 14 to 17 m across the facility. The regional aquifer is composed of interfingering layers of silty sand, fine-grained sand, and medium-grained sand. Based on the limited analyses described in this report, there is no severe contamination of the groundwater at Al-Tuwaitha with radioactive constituents. However, significant data gaps exist and this plan recommends the installation of additional groundwater monitoring wells and conducting additional types of radiological and chemical analyses.

  16. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2010 results. During 2010, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 10 and August 10, 2010; at UE5PW-2 on March 10, August 10, and August 25, 2010; and at UE5PW-3 on March 31, August 10, and August 25, 2010. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, April 26, August 9, and November 9, 2010. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2010 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  17. Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    program through sampling. August 1, 2013 Conceptual model of water movement and geology at Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual model of water movement and geology at...

  18. Survey of reinjection experience from groundwater cooling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, M.; Lee, C.H.

    1980-09-01

    The use of groundwater for cooling applications is a common practice throughout the country wherever an adequate supply of water exists. However, the reinjection of the cooling water to water-bearing strata is not as widely practiced. The literature pertaining to reinjection of heated water is not well documented. To fulfill the need for more information, a study was conducted to identify and document at least 30 sites where reinjection of grundwater from cooling applications was being (or had been) performed. The information obtained on each site was compiled and analyzed, the site described briefly and cooling and reinjection problems characterized. The end result of this study was to establish a data base of reinjection experience based on a variety of sites around the country with different hydrogeologic characteristics and cooling systems. These data are presented.

  19. Microsoft Word - 2014_1Qtr_Water_Protection_010914.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EP2014-0002 LA-UR-14-20093 Groundwater Protection Surface Water Protection LANL Water Protection Status Report - Fiscal Year 2014 First Quarter (October to December 2013) * An event is a single-screen well location, each individual well screen for multiscreen wells, spring, or base-flow location. ** San Ildefonso locations included in both the IFGMP and San Ildefonso MOU are identified as San Ildefonso locations for this report. FY13, 4 th Quarter (Jul-Sep) Analytical Summary: Analysis of the 84

  20. Wadter Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin and Statewide Project Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synaptic sites, and partial-record sites; and (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake- and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures ga through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two to three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  1. Hanford Treats Groundwater Ahead of Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Treats Groundwater Ahead of Schedule Hanford Treats Groundwater Ahead of Schedule September 30, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis A team of drillers installs a well to support groundwater treatment operations at the Hanford site. A team of drillers installs a well to support groundwater treatment operations at the Hanford site. Shown here is the exterior of the 200 West Groundwater Treatment Facility, DOE’s largest system for treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford site. Contractor CH2M HILL

  2. Hanford Treats Record Amount of Groundwater | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford Treats Record Amount of Groundwater Hanford Treats Record Amount of Groundwater Workers have treated more than 800 million gallons of groundwater at the Hanford Site so far this year, a record annual amount. Last year, workers with DOE contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company treated 600 million gallons of groundwater at the site. PDF icon Hanford Treats Record Amount of Groundwater More Documents & Publications Recovery Act Supports Construction of Site's Largest Groundwater

  3. Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

  4. Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Archived Soil & Groundwater Master Reports Rocky...

  5. Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site Millions of Dollars Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site Millions of Dollars November 25, ...

  6. Savannah River Site - L-Area Southern Groundwater | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    L-Area Southern Groundwater Savannah River Site - L-Area Southern Groundwater January 1, ... InstallationName, State: Savannah River Site, SC Responsible DOE Office: Savannah River ...

  7. Savannah River Site - R-Area Groundwater Operable Unit | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R-Area Groundwater Operable Unit Savannah River Site - R-Area Groundwater Operable Unit ... InstallationName, State: Savannah River Site, SC Responsible DOE Office: Savannah River ...

  8. Evaluation of Pre- and Post-Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Evaluation of Pre- and Post-Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical Analyses from LM Monitoring Wells Evaluation of Pre- and Post-Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical Analyses from LM ...

  9. Structure and Groundwater Flow in the Espanola Basin Near Rio...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Structure and Groundwater Flow in the Espanola Basin Near Rio Grande and Buckman Wellfield Structure and Groundwater Flow in the Espanola Basin Near Rio Grande and Buckman...

  10. Recommendation 222: Recommendations on Additional Off-site Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2: Recommendations on Additional Off-site Groundwater Migration Studies Recommendation 222: Recommendations on Additional Off-site Groundwater Migration Studies ORSSAB recommends...

  11. Determination of ecologically vital groundwaters at selected sites in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinikour, W.S.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1989-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is classifying groundwaters at sites in its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Of particular concern is the potential presence of groundwaters that are highly vulnerable to contamination and that are either (1) irreplaceable sources of drinking water or (2) ecologically vital. Conditions at nine FUSRAP sites were evaluated to determine if ecologically vital groundwaters are present. The sites evaluated were Wayne Interim Storage Site, Maywood Interim Storage Site, and Middlesex Sampling Plant in New Jersey; Ashland 2 Site, Seaway Industrial Park, Colonie Interim storage Site, and Niagara Falls Storage Site in New York; and the St. Louis Airport Site and Hazelwood Interim Storage Site in Missouri. The analyses indicated that groundwaters are vulnerable to contamination at all but two of the sites -- the Ashland 2 and Seaway Industrial Park sites in New York. Groundwater discharge points were identified within a 2-mile radius (i.e., the classification review area) of all of the sites. No ecologically vital groundwater areas exist in the vicinities of any of the nine FUSRAP sites evaluated. 35 refs., 17 figs.

  12. Nevada National Security Site Integrated Groundwater Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marutzky, Sam; Farnham, Irene

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan) is to provide a comprehensive, integrated approach for collecting and analyzing groundwater samples to meet the needs and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. Implementation of this Plan will provide high-quality data required by the UGTA Activity for ensuring public protection in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The Plan is designed to ensure compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (QAP). The Plan’s scope comprises sample collection and analysis requirements relevant to assessing the extent of groundwater contamination from underground nuclear testing. This Plan identifies locations to be sampled by corrective action unit (CAU) and location type, sampling frequencies, sample collection methodologies, and the constituents to be analyzed. In addition, the Plan defines data collection criteria such as well-purging requirements, detection levels, and accuracy requirements; identifies reporting and data management requirements; and provides a process to ensure coordination between NNSS groundwater sampling programs for sampling of interest to UGTA. This Plan does not address compliance with requirements for wells that supply the NNSS public water system or wells involved in a permitted activity.

  13. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Group of the Health Protection Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1988 (October--December), routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations was performed. The drinking water samples were collected from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. Two sets of flagging criteria were established in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  14. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Dresel, P Evan; Lindberg, Jonathan W.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Thornton, Edward C.

    2000-10-18

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The U.S. Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/ frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories: plume and trend tracking, treatment/ storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently.

  15. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newcomer, D.R.; Thornton, E.C.; Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.

    1999-10-06

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The US Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories plume and trend tracking, treatment/storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently.

  16. Nevada Test Site 2009 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-01-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2009 results. During 2009, groundwater at each of the three pilot wells was sampled on March 10, 2009, and August 18, 2009, and water levels at each of the three pilot wells were measured on February 17, May 6, August 17, and November 10, 2009. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2009 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  17. Annual hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek Watershed: Water Year 1990 (October 1989--September 1990)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Moore, G.K.; Watts, J.A.; Broders, C.C.; Bednarek, A.T.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes, for the Water Year 1990 (October 1989-- September 1990), the dynamic hydrologic data collected on the Whiteoak Creek (WOC) Watershed's surface and subsurface flow systems. These systems affect the quality or quantity of surface water and groundwater. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to 1. characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow system, 2. plan and assess remedial action activities, and 3. provide long-term availability of data and assure quality. Characterizing the hydrology of the WOC watershed provides a better understanding of the processes which drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identifying of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. Hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. The majority of the data summarized in this report are available from the Remedial Action Programs Data and Information Management System data base. Surface water data available within the WOC flow system include discharge and runoff, surface water quality, radiological and chemical contamination of sediments, and descriptions of the outfalls to the WOC flow system. Climatological data available for the Oak Ridge area include precipitation, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction. Information on groundwater levels, aquifer characteristics, and groundwater quality are presented. Anomalies in the data and problems with monitoring and accuracy are discussed. 58 refs., 54 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, L.P.; Killey, D.R.W.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, P.C.F.

    1992-09-01

    A project to remove groundwater contaminants by an improved treatment process was performed during 1990 October--1992 March by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the United States Department of Energy, managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The goal was to generate high-quality effluent while minimizing secondary waste volume. Two effluent target levels, within an order of magnitude, or less than the US Drinking Water Limit, were set to judge the process effectiveness. The program employed mixed waste feeds containing cadmium, uranium, lead, iron, calcium, strontium-85-90, cesium-137, benzene and trichlorethylene in simulated and actual groundwater and soil leachate solutions. A combination of process steps consisting of sequential chemical conditioning, cross-flow microfiltration and dewatering by low temperature-evaporation, or filter pressing were effective for the treatment of mixed waste having diverse physico-chemical properties. A simplified single-stage version of the process was implemented to treat ground and surface waters contaminated with strontium-90 at the Chalk River Laboratories site. Effluent targets and project goals were met successfully.

  19. Radioiodine Biogeochemistry and Prevalence in Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Denham, Miles E.; Zhang, Saijin; Yeager, Chris; Xu, Chen; Schwehr, Kathy; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Wellman, Dawn M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2014-08-03

    129I is commonly either the top or among the top risk drivers, along with 99Tc, at radiological waste disposal sites and contaminated groundwater sites where nuclear material fabrication or reprocessing has occurred. The risk stems largely from 129I having a high toxicity, a high bioaccumulation factor (90% of all the bodys iodine concentrates in the thyroid), a high inventory at source terms (due to its high fission yield), an extremely long half-life (16M yr), and rapid mobility in the subsurface environment. Another important reason that 129I is a key risk driver is that there is the uncertainty regarding its biogeochemical fate and transport in the environment. We typically can define 129I mass balance and flux at sites, but cannot predict accurately its response to changes in the environment. As a consequence of some of these characteristics, 129I has a very low Drinking Water Standard, DWS, which is set at 1 pCi/L, the lowest of all radionuclides in the Federal Register. Recently, significant advancements have been made in detecting iodine species at ambient groundwater concentrations, defining the nature of the organic matter and iodine bond, and quantifying the role of naturally occurring sediment microbes to promote iodine oxidation and reduction. These recent studies have led to a more mechanistic understanding of radioiodine biogeochemistry. The objective of this review is to describe these advances and to provide a state of the science of radioiodine biogeochemistry relevant to its fate and transport in the terrestrial environment and provide information useful for making decisions regarding the stewardship and remediation of 129I contaminated sites. As part of this review, knowledge gaps were identified that would significantly advance the goals of basic and applied research programs for accelerating 129I environmental remediation and reducing uncertainty associated with disposal of 129I waste. Together the information gained from addressing these knowledge gaps will not alter the observation that 129I is primarily mobile, but it will likely permit demonstration that the entire 129I pool in the source term is not moving at the same rate and some may be tightly bound to the sediment, thereby smearing the modeled 129I peak and reducing maximum calculated risk.

  20. inner-sphere complexation of cations at the rutile-water interface: A concise surface structural interpretation with the CD and MUSIC model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridley, Mora K.; Hiemstra, T; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H.; Machesky, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Acid base reactivity and ion-interaction between mineral surfaces and aqueous solutions is most frequently investigated at the macroscopic scale as a function of pH. Experimental data are then rationalized by a variety of surface complexation models. These models are thermodynamically based which in principle does not require a molecular picture. The models are typically calibrated to relatively simple solid-electrolyte solution pairs and may provide poor descriptions of complex multicomponent mineral aqueous solutions, including those found in natural environments. Surface complexation models may be improved by incorporating molecular-scale surface structural information to constrain the modeling efforts. Here, we apply a concise, molecularly-constrained surface complexation model to a diverse suite of surface titration data for rutile and thereby begin to address the complexity of multi-component systems. Primary surface charging curves in NaCl, KCl, and RbCl electrolyte media were fit simultaneously using a charge distribution (CD) and multisite complexation (MUSIC) model [Hiemstra T. and Van Riemsdijk W. H. (1996) A surface structural approach to ion adsorption: the charge distribution (CD) model. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 179, 488 508], coupled with a Basic Stern layer description of the electric double layer. In addition, data for the specific interaction of Ca2+ and Sr2+ with rutile, in NaCl and RbCl media, were modeled. In recent developments, spectroscopy, quantum calculations, and molecular simulations have shown that electrolyte and divalent cations are principally adsorbed in various inner-sphere configurations on the rutile 110 surface [Zhang Z., Fenter P., Cheng L., Sturchio N. C., Bedzyk M. J., Pr edota M., Bandura A., Kubicki J., Lvov S. N., Cummings P. T., Chialvo A. A., Ridley M. K., Be ne zeth P., Anovitz L., Palmer D. A., Machesky M. L. and Wesolowski D. J. (2004) Ion adsorption at the rutile water interface: linking molecular and macroscopic properties. Langmuir 20, 4954 4969]. Our CD modeling results are consistent with these adsorbed configurations provided adsorbed cation charge is allowed to be distributed between the surface (0-plane) and Stern plane (1-plane). Additionally, a complete description of our titration data required inclusion of outer-sphere binding, principally for Cl which was common to all solutions, but also for Rb+ and K+. These outer-sphere species were treated as point charges positioned at the Stern layer, and hence determined the Stern layer capacitance value. The modeling results demonstrate that a multi-component suite of experimental data can be successfully rationalized within a CD and MUSIC model using a Stern-based description of the EDL. Furthermore, the fitted CD values of the various inner-sphere complexes of the mono- and divalent ions can be linked to the microscopic structure of the surface complexes and other data found by spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics (MD). For the Na+ ion, the fitted CD value points to the presence of bidenate inner-sphere complexation as suggested by a recent MD study. Moreover, its MD dominance quantitatively agrees with the CD model prediction. For Rb+, the presence of a tetradentate complex, as found by spectroscopy, agreed well with the fitted CD and its predicted presence was quantitatively in very good agreement with the amount found by spectroscopy.

  1. 25 Years Of Environmental Remediation In The General Separations Area Of The Savannah River Site: Lessons Learned About What Worked And What Did Not Work In Soil And Groundwater Cleanup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, Gerald; Thibault, Jeffrey; Millings, Margaret; Prater, Phil

    2015-03-16

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned and administered by the US Department of Energy (DOE). SRS covers an area of approximately 900 square kilometers. The General Separation Area (GSA) is located roughly in the center of the SRS and includes: radioactive material chemical separations facilities, radioactive waste tank farms, a variety of radioactive seepage basins, and the radioactive waste burial grounds. Radioactive wastes were disposed in the GSA from the mid-1950s through the mid-1990s. Radioactive operations at the F Canyon began in 1954; radioactive operations at H Canyon began in 1955. Waste water disposition to the F and H Seepage Basins began soon after operations started in the canyons. The Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) began operations in 1952 to manage solid waste that could be radioactive from all the site operations, and ceased receiving waste in 1972. The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) received radioactive solid waste from 1969 until 1995. Environmental legislation enacted in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s led to changes in waste management and environmental cleanup practices at SRS. The US Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1970, and the Clean Water Act in 1972; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted in 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) was enacted by Congress in 1980; the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) was signed into law in 1992. Environmental remediation at the SRS essentially began with a 1987 Settlement Agreement between the SRS and the State of South Carolina (under the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control - SCDHEC), which recognized linkage between many SRS waste management facilities and RCRA. The SRS manages several of the larger groundwater remedial activities under RCRA for facilities recognized early on as environmental problems. All subsequent environmental remediation projects tend to be managed under tri-party agreement (DOE, Environmental Protection Agency, and SCDHEC) through the Federal Facilities Agreement. During 25 years of environmental remediation SRS has stabilized and capped seepage basins, and consolidated and capped waste units and burial grounds in the GSA. Groundwater activities include: pump and treat systems in the groundwater, installation of deep subsurface barrier systems to manage groundwater flow, in situ chemical treatments in the groundwater, and captured contaminated groundwater discharges at the surface for management in a forest irrigation system. Over the last 25 years concentrations of contaminants in the aquifers beneath the GSA and in surface water streams in the GSA have dropped significantly. Closure of 65 waste sites and 4 RCRA facilities has been successfully accomplished. Wastes have been successfully isolated in place beneath a variety of caps and cover systems. Environmental clean-up has progressed to the stage where most of the work involves monitoring, optimization, and maintenance of existing remedial systems. Many lessons have been learned in the process. Geotextile covers outperform low permeability clay caps, especially with respect to the amount of repairs required to upkeep the drainage layers as the caps age. Passive, enhanced natural processes to address groundwater contamination are much more cost effective than pump and treat systems. SRS operated two very large pump and treat systems at the F and H Seepage Basins to attempt to limit the release of tritium to Fourmile Branch, a tributary of the Savannah River. The systems were designed to extract contaminated acidic groundwater, remove all contamination except tritium (not possible to remove the tritium from the water), and inject the tritiated groundwater up-gradient of the source area and the plume. The concept was to increase the travel time of the injected water for radioactive decay of the tritium. The two systems were found to be non-effective and potentially mobilizing more contamination. SRS invested approximately $50 million in construction and approximately $100 million in 6 years of operation. The H Seepage Basin pump and treat system was replaced by a series of subsurface barriers that alters the groundwater velocity; the F Seepage Basin pump and treat system was replaced by subsurface barriers forming a funnel and gate augmented by chemical treatment within the gates. These replacement systems are mostly passive and cost approximately $13 million to construct, and have reduced the tritium flux to Fourmile Branch, in these plumes, by over 70%. SRS manages non-acidic tritiated groundwater releases to Fourmile Branch from the southwest plume of the MWMF with a forest irrigation system. Tritiated water is captured with a sheetpile dam below the springs that caused releases to Fourmile Branch. Water from the irrigation pond is pumped to a filter plant prior to irrigation of approximately 26 hectares of mixed forest and developing pine plantation. SRS has almost achieved a 70% reduction in tritium flux to the Branch from this plume. The system cost approximately $5 million to construct with operation cost of approximately $500K per year. In conclusion, many lessons have been learned in 25 years of relatively aggressive remedial activities in the GSA. Geotextile covers outperform low permeability clay caps, especially with respect to the amount of repairs required to upkeep the drainage layers as the caps age. Passive, enhanced natural processes to address groundwater contamination are much more cost effective than pump and treat systems. In water management situations with non-accumulative contaminants (tritium, VOCs, etc.) irrigation in a forest setting can be very effective.

  2. Final report on isotope tracer investigations in the Forebay of the Orange County groundwater basin.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M; Woodside, G

    2003-12-13

    California is currently faced with some critical decisions about water resource infrastructure development in highly urbanized regions, whose outcome will dictate the future long-term viability of plentiful water. Among these is developing and safely implementing the reuse of advanced treated waste water. One of the most reliable strategies for this water resource is its indirect reuse via groundwater recharge and storage, with particular emphasis on supplementing annual water demand or during drought relief. The Orange County Water District (District) is currently implementing the first phase of a large-scale water reuse project that will advance-treat up to 60 million gallons per day of waste water and recharge it into existing percolation basins in the Forebay region of the Orange County groundwater basin. In order for the District to protect public health, the fate and potability of this recharged waste water needs to be understood. In particular, the direction and rates of flow into underlying aquifers need to be characterized so that changes in water quality can be quantified between the recharge basins and points of production. Furthermore, to ensure compliance to California Department of Health Services (DHS) draft regulations, the direction and rate of recharged waste water from these basins need to be understood to sufficient detail that small mixtures can be delineated in monitoring and production wells. Under proposed DHS guidelines, consumptive use of recycled water is permissive only if its residence time in an aquifer exceeds a specified six-month time-frame. DHS guidelines also limit the percentage of recycled water at production wells. However, attaining such detail using current hydrogeological and computer-assisted modeling tools is either cost-prohibitive or results in uncertainties too large to achieve regulatory confidence. To overcome this technical barrier, the District funded Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from 1995-2001 to directly measure groundwater ages and perform two artificial tracer studies using isotope methods to quantify flowpath directions, groundwater residence times, and the rate and extent of recharge water and groundwater mixing. In addition, Jordan Clark at University of California, Santa Barbara also performed an artificial tracer experiment using sulfur-hexafluoride, whose results have been integrated into the LLNL findings.

  3. DOE Responds to Advisory Board Recommendation on Groundwater Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Office of Environmental Management responds to an ORSSAB recommendation on additional groundwater studies.

  4. Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Soybean oil used for groundwater and wastewater remediation Soybean oil used for groundwater and wastewater remediation Technology Marketing Summary Scientists have developed a groundwater treatment technique that employs agricultural oils to stimulate endogenous microbes which accelerates the cleanup. The oils tested include canola oil,

  5. Audit of groundwater monitoring at Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations is responsible for ensuring that its contractors` tasks are mission oriented and are completed at the least cost to the DOE. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Richland was effectively managing its groundwater monitoring activities so that unnecessary duplication would not occur. The audit`s objective was accomplished by: reviewing laws and regulations; interviewing DOE and contractor personnel; examining procurement and accounting procedures; reviewing plans, budgets, and actual expenditures; reviewing utilization of the DOE drilling equipment; observing well drilling activities; comparing drilling cost to other DOE sites; analyzing groundwater monitoring activities; and, reviewing and comparing groundwater reports.

  6. Groundwater Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorne, Paul D.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Williams, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky L.

    2006-01-31

    This report presents data and interpreted information that supports the groundwater module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) used in Hanford Assessments. The objective of the groundwater module is to predict movement of radioactive and chemical contaminants through the aquifer to the Columbia River or other potential discharge locations. This data package is being revised as part of the deliverables under the Characterization of Systems Project (#49139) aimed at providing documentation for assessments being conducted under the Hanford Assessments Project (#47042). Both of these projects are components of the Groundwater Remediation and Closure Assessments Projects, managed by the Management and Integration Project (#47043).

  7. Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah. Implications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... We contrast Utah's approach with efforts undertaken in neighboring states and by the ... Language: English Subject: 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY Word Cloud More Like ...

  8. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

  9. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  10. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, first quarter 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During first quarter 1989 (January--March), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the first quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from first quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  11. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  12. Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan for Operable Unit 10-08

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. S. Roddy

    2007-05-01

    This plan describes the groundwater sampling and water level monitoring that will be conducted to evaluate contaminations in the Snake River Plain Aquifer entering and leaving the Idaho National Laboratory. The sampling and monitoring locations were selected to meet the data quality objectives detailed in this plan. Data for the Snake River Plain Aquifer obtained under this plan will be evaluated in the Operable Unit 10-08 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study report and will be used to support the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide groundwater model.

  13. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, David B

    2014-02-13

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.

  14. K Basins Groundwater Monitoring Task, K Basins Closure Project: Report for October, November, and December 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Robert E.

    2007-03-22

    This report provides information on groundwater monitoring at the K Basins during October, November, and December 2006. Conditions remained very similar to those reported in the previous quarterly report, with no evidence in monitoring results to suggest groundwater impact from current loss of basin water to the ground. The K Basins monitoring network will be modified in the coming months as a consequence of new wells having been installed near KW Basin as part of a pump-and-treat system for chromium contamination, and new wells installed between the KE Basin and the river to augment long-term monitoring in that area.

  15. Groundwater Makes a Splash NNSS Groundwater Experts Meet at Devils Hole

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration Groundbreaking at National Ignition Facility Groundbreaking at National Ignition Facility Livermore, CA Secretary Pena participates in the ground breaking ceremony for the National Ignition Facility, a centerpiece of the stockpile stewardship program, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    May 15, 2013 Groundwater Makes a Splash NNSS Groundwater Experts Meet at Devils Hole Groundwater was a major topic at this year's Devils Hole Workshop at the Furnace Creek Ranch

  16. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD THE NEXT STEP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CONNELL CW; CONLEY SF; HILDEBRAND RD; CUNNINGHAM DE; R_D_Doug_Hildebrand@rl.gov; DeVon_E_Cunningham@rl.gov

    2010-01-21

    Historically, the groundwater monitoring activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State have been very "people intensive." Approximately 1500 wells are sampled each year by field personnel or "samplers." These individuals have been issued pre-printed forms showing information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from 2 official electronic databases: the Hanford Well information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and other personnel posted the collected information onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. A pilot project for automating this extremely tedious process was lauched in 2008. Initially, the automation was focused on water-level measurements. Now, the effort is being extended to automate the meta-data associated with collecting groundwater samples. The project allowed electronic forms produced in the field by samplers to be used in a work flow process where the data is transferred to the database and electronic form is filed in managed records - thus eliminating manually completed forms. Elimating the manual forms and streamlining the data entry not only improved the accuracy of the information recorded, but also enhanced the efficiency and sampling capacity of field office personnel.

  17. Analysis of Aquifer Response, Groundwater Flow, and PlumeEvolution at Site OU 1, Former Fort Ord, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Preston D.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Su, Grace W.

    2005-02-24

    This report presents a continuation from Oldenburg et al. (2002) of analysis of the hydrogeology, In-Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS) results, aquifer response, and changes in the trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume at Operational Unit 1 (OU 1) adjacent to the former Fritzsche Army Airfield at the former Fort Ord Army Base, located on Monterey Bay in northern Monterey County. Fuels and solvents were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area (FDA) during airport fire suppression training between 1962 and 1985. This activity resulted in soil and groundwater contamination in the unconfined A-aquifer. In the late 1980's, soil excavation and bioremediation were successful in remediating soil contamination at the site. Shortly thereafter, a groundwater pump, treat, and recharge system commenced operation. This system has been largely successful at remediating groundwater contamination at the head of the groundwater plume. However, a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume extends approximately 3000 ft (900 m) to the northwest away from the FDA. In the analyses presented here, we augment our prior work (Oldenburg et al., 2002) with new information including treatment-system totalizer data, recent water-level and chemistry data, and data collected from new wells to discern trends in contaminant migration and groundwater flow that may be useful for ongoing remediation efforts. Some conclusions from the prior study have been modified based on these new analyses, and these are pointed out clearly in this report.

  18. Tritium monitoring in groundwater and evaluation of model predictions for the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, D.B.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R.; Freshley, M.D.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1997-08-01

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model and reevaluation of the monitoring well network one year from the first detection of tritium in groundwater. This document is written primarily to satisfy these requirements and to report on analytical results for tritium in the SALDS groundwater monitoring network through April 1997. The document also recommends an approach to continued groundwater monitoring for tritium at the SALDS. Comparison of numerical groundwater models applied over the last several years indicate that earlier predictions, which show tritium from the SALDS approaching the Columbia River, were too simplified or overly robust in source assumptions. The most recent modeling indicates that concentrations of tritium above 500 pCi/L will extend, at most, no further than {approximately}1.5 km from the facility, using the most reasonable projections of ETF operation. This extent encompasses only the wells in the current SALDS tritium-tracking network.

  19. Soil & Groundwater Remediation News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soil & Groundwater Remediation News Soil & Groundwater Remediation News February 25, 2016 New groundwater contamination treatment equipment sits outside the C-612 Northwest Pump-and-Treat facility. Paducah Site Modernizes Equipment to Treat Off-Site Groundwater Contamination PADUCAH, Ky. - EM recently completed upgrades to modernize a key facility that reduces off-site groundwater contamination at the former Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site. December 29, 2015 Tour participants are

  20. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanonl and petroleum gasoline.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.; Arora, S.; Energy Systems

    2009-01-30

    The production of energy feedstocks and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass, and agricultural residues need water for growth and conversion to ethanol, but petroleum feedstocks like crude oil and oil sands also require large volumes of water for drilling, extraction, and conversion into petroleum products. Moreover, in many cases, crude oil production is increasingly water dependent. Competing uses strain available water resources and raise the specter of resource depletion and environmental degradation. Water management has become a key feature of existing projects and a potential issue in new ones. This report examines the growing issue of water use in energy production by characterizing current consumptive water use in liquid fuel production. As used throughout this report, 'consumptive water use' is the sum total of water input less water output that is recycled and reused for the process. The estimate applies to surface and groundwater sources for irrigation but does not include precipitation. Water requirements are evaluated for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from Canadian oil sands, Saudi Arabian crude, and U.S. conventional crude from onshore wells. Regional variations and historic trends are noted, as are opportunities to reduce water use.

  1. Analysis of the toxicity in Rocky Flats Plant surface water through a correlation between the whole effluent toxicity test and the Microtox assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, S.M.; Wolaver, H.A.; Figueroa, L.A.

    1992-07-01

    Results were correlated from the Microtox assay and the whole effluent acute toxicity test for effluents from the (1) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and (2) terminal ponds located at the Rocky Flats Plant. Literature reviews indicate that Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox assay) may be used as screening test for the reaction of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas to toxins present in effluents. This study indicates that the Microtox is less sensitive to toxins present in the WWTP effluent than other test organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). Toxicity appears to be from unionized ammonia. Ten months of data reveal that the surface water effluents which leave Rocky Flats boundaries are non-toxic when judged by all three test organisms.

  2. Analysis of the toxicity in Rocky Flats Plant surface water through a correlation between the whole effluent toxicity test and the Microtox assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, S.M.; Wolaver, H.A. ); Figueroa, L.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Results were correlated from the Microtox assay and the whole effluent acute toxicity test for effluents from the (1) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and (2) terminal ponds located at the Rocky Flats Plant. Literature reviews indicate that Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox assay) may be used as screening test for the reaction of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas to toxins present in effluents. This study indicates that the Microtox is less sensitive to toxins present in the WWTP effluent than other test organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). Toxicity appears to be from unionized ammonia. Ten months of data reveal that the surface water effluents which leave Rocky Flats boundaries are non-toxic when judged by all three test organisms.

  3. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  4. Agency of Natural Resources Groundwater Withdrawal Reporting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Groundwater Withdrawal Reporting and Permitting RulesLegal Abstract This rule and strategy is adopted under the authority of 10 Vermont Statutes Annotated (V.S.A.) 1390-1394.10...

  5. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program's activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  6. Treatability Test for Removing Technetium-99 from 200-ZP-1 Groundwater, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrnes, M.E.; Petersen, S.W. [Fluor Hanford, Inc., Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project, Richland, WA (United States); Tortoso, A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, W.S. [Environmental Quality Management, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) is one of two groundwater OUs located within the 200 West groundwater aggregate area of the Hanford Site. The primary risk-driving contaminants within the 200-ZP-1 OU include carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99 (Tc-99). A pump-and-treat system for this OU was initially installed in 1995 to control the 0.002 kg /m{sup 3} (2000 {mu}g/L) contour of the carbon tetrachloride plume. Carbon tetrachloride is removed from groundwater with the assistance of an air-stripping tower. Ten extraction wells and three injection wells operate at a combined rate of approximately 0.017m{sup 3}/s (17.03 L/s). In 2005, groundwater from two of the extraction wells (299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44) began to show concentrations greater than twice the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of Tc-99 (33,309 beq/m{sup 3} or 900 pCi/L). The Tc-99 groundwater concentrations from all ten of the extraction wells when mixed were more than one-half of the MCL and were slowly increasing. If concentrations continued to rise and the water remained untreated for Tc-99, there was concern that the water re-injected into the aquifer could exceed the MCL standard. Multiple treatment technologies were reviewed for selectively removing Tc-99 from the groundwater. Of the treatment technologies, only ion exchange was determined to be highly selective, commercially available, and relatively low in cost. Through research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the ion-exchange resin Purolite{sup R} A-530E1 was found to successfully remove Tc-99 from groundwater, even in the presence of competing anions. For this and other reasons, Purolite{sup R} A-530E ion exchange resin was selected for treatability testing. The treatability test required installing resin columns on the discharge lines from extraction wells 299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44. Preliminary test results have concluded that the Purolite{sup R} A-530E1 resin is effective at removing Tc-99 from groundwater to below detection limits even in the presence of competing anions (e.g., nitrate and sulfate) at concentrations five to six magnitudes higher than Tc-99. (authors)

  7. Appendix IGP: Individual and Groundwater Protection Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IGP-2014 Individual and Groundwater Protection Requirements United States Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Compliance Recertification Application 2014 Appendix IGP-2014 Individual and Groundwater Protection Requirements Table of Contents IGP-1.0 Introduction IGP-2.0 Individual Protection Requirements IGP-2.1 Compliance Assessment of Undisturbed Performance IGP-2.2 Dose Calculation IGP-2.2.1 Transport Pathway IGP-2.2.2 Bounding Analysis

  8. Ultrasonic process for remediation of organics-contaminated groundwater/wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.M.; Peters, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    A technology is being developed that employs ultrasonic-wave energy for remediation of groundwater/wastewater contaminated with volatile organic compounds such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) and trichloroethylene (TCE). This paper presents the updated results of a laboratory investigation of ultrasonic groundwater remediation using synthetic groundwaters prepared with laboratory deionized water. Key process parameters investigated included steady-state temperature, contaminant concentration, solution pH, sonication time, and intensity of the applied ultrasonics-wave energy. High destruction efficiencies of the target contaminants were achieved, and the sonication time required for a given degree of destruction decreased with increasing intensity of the applied ultrasonic energy. The sonication time can be further reduced by adding a chemical oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide.

  9. K Basins Groundwater Monitoring Task, K Basins Closure Project: Report for April, May, and June 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Robert E.

    2007-08-08

    This report provides information on groundwater monitoring near the K Basins during April, May, and June 2007. Conditions remained similar to those reported in the previous quarters report, with no evidence in monitoring results to suggest groundwater impact from current loss of shielding water from either basin to the ground. During the current quarter, the first results from two new wells installed between KE Basin and the river became available. Groundwater conditions at each new well are reasonably consistent with adjacent wells and expectations, with the exception of anomalously high chromium concentrations at one of the new wells. The K Basins monitoring network will be modified for FY 2008 to take advantage of new wells recently installed near KW Basin as part of a pump-and-treat system for chromium contamination, and also the new wells recently installed between the KE Basin and the river, which augment long-term monitoring capability in that area.

  10. 2008 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-01-13

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) including calendar year 2008 results. Each of the three Pilot Wells was sampled on March 11, 2008, and September 10, 2008. These wells were sampled for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also monitored. Results from all samples collected in 2008 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Other information in the report includes an updated Cumulative Chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  11. Supplement to a hydrologic framework for the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Summary of groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, G.K.; Toran, L.E.

    1992-11-01

    The information in this report should prove useful for flow and contaminant-transport modeling of groundwater and for evaluating the alternatives for remedial action. New data on porosity and permeability have been analyzed and interpreted to produce a better understanding of the relationships between unfractured rock, low permeability intervals, and relatively permeable intervals. Specifically, the dimensions, orientations, depths, and spacings of pervious fractures have been measured or calculated; the depths and directions of subsurface flow paths (Solomon et al. 1992, pp. 3--21 to 3--23) have been corroborated with new data; fractures near the water table have been shown to have different characteristics than those at deeper levels; and the relationships between groundwater flows in fractures and flows in the continuum have been described. This is the information needed for the numerical modeling of groundwater flows. Other information in this report should result in a better understanding of spatial and temporal differences in water chemistry, including changes in contaminant concentrations. Temporal changes in groundwater chemistry have been shown to occur mostly near the water table. These changes consist of a periodic dilution of chemical constituents by recharge and a slow increase in constituent concentrations between recharge events. At discharge locations, spatial differences in groundwater chemistry are integrated by mixing. The monitoring of water chemistry in streams near contaminant sources may produce a better indication of contaminant releases and trends than do the records obtained from a few upgradient and downgradient wells.

  12. Groundwater quality assessment plan for single-shell waste management area B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SM Narbutovskih

    2000-03-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a first determination groundwater quality assessment at the Hanford Site. This work was performed for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement during the time period 1996--1998. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY had entered the groundwater at levels above the drinking water standards (DWS). The resulting assessment report documented evidence demonstrating that waste from the WMA has, most likely, impacted groundwater quality. Based on 40 CFR 265.93 [d] paragraph (7), the owner-operator must continue to make the minimum required determinations of contaminant level and of rate/extent of migrations on a quarterly basis until final facility closure. These continued determinations are required because the groundwater quality assessment was implemented prior to final closure of the facility.

  13. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Factors influencing the transport of actinides in the groundwater environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, J.C.; Kittrick, J.A.

    1983-07-31

    This report summarizes investigations of factors that significantly influence the transport of actinide cations in the groundwater environment. Briefly, measurements of diffusion coefficients for Am(III), Cm(III), and Np(V) in moist US soils indicated that diffusion is negligible compared to mass transport in flowing groundwater. Diffusion coefficients do, however, indicate that, in the absence of flowing water, actinide elements will migrate only a few centimeters in a thousand years. The remaining investigations were devoted to the determination of distribution ratios (K/sub d/s) for representative US soils, factors influencing them, and chemical and physical processes related to transport of actinides in groundwaters. The computer code GARD was modified to include complex formation to test the importance of humic acid complexing on the rate of transport of actinides in groundwaters. Use of the formation constant and a range of humic acid, even at rather low concentrations of 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -6/ molar, significantly increases the actinide transport rate in a flowing aquifer. These computer calculations show that any strong complexing agent will have a similar effect on actinide transport in the groundwater environment. 32 references, 9 figures.

  15. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  16. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): Newmark Groundwater Contamination Superfund Site, Muscoy Plume Operable Unit, San Bernardino, CA, March 24, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Muscoy Plume Operable Unit, Newmark Groundwater Contamination Superfund site. The Muscoy Plume OU is an interim action focusing on contamination in the underground water supply in the Bunker Hill Basin of San Bernardino, west of the Shandin Hills. The remedy involves groundwater extraction (pumping) and treatment of 6,200 gallons per minute (gpm) in San Bernardino at the leading edge of the contaminant plume. All the extracted contaminated groundwater shall be treated to remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) by either of two proven treatment technologies: granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration or air stripping. The treated water will be transferred to a public water supply agency for distribution. Groundwater monitoring wells will be installed and sampled regularly to help evaluate the effectiveness of the remedy.

  17. Replacement of tritiated water from irradiated fuel storage bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.; Kennedy, B.; Minichilli, A.; Mitchell, T.

    2015-03-15

    Recently, AECL developed a novel method to reduce tritium emissions (to groundwater) and personnel doses at the NRU (National Research Universal) reactor irradiated fuel storage bay (also known as rod or spent fuel bay) through a water swap process. The light water in the fuel bay had built up tritium that had been transferred from the heavy water moderator through normal fuel transfers. The major advantage of the thermal stratification method was that a very effective tritium reduction could be achieved by swapping a minimal volume of bay water and warm tritiated water would be skimmed off the bay surface. A demonstration of the method was done that involved Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of the swap process and a test program that showed excellent agreement with model prediction for the effective removal of almost all the tritium with a minimal water volume. Building on the successful demonstration, AECL fabricated, installed, commissioned and operated a full-scale system to perform a water swap. This full-scale water swap operation achieved a tritium removal efficiency of about 96%.

  18. Groundwater Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    500 mL), whereas analysis for stable isotopes that are present in greater abundance in natural samples requires less water to be sampled by a full order of magnitude (approximately...

  19. Groundwater Level Status Report for 2005 Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.P. Allen; R.J. Koch

    2006-05-15

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2005 is provided in this report. The Groundwater Level Monitoring Project was instituted in 2005 to provide a framework for the collection and processing of quality controlled groundwater level data. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 137 monitoring wells, including 41 regional aquifer wells, 22 intermediate wells, and 74 alluvial wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 118 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well.

  20. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle; Mattson, Earl

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and visualization techniques of the Piceance Basin structure spatial distribution of the oil shale resources. The sur- face water/groundwater models quantify the water shortage and better understanding the spatial distribution of the available water resources. The energy resource development systems model reveals the phase shift of water usage and the oil shale production, which will facilitate better planning for oil shale development. Detailed descriptions about the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research will be given in the sec- tion of “ACCOMPLISHMENTS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION” of this report.

  1. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-27

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2011 results. During 2011, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 8, August 2, August 24, and October 19, 2011; at UE5PW-2 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011; and at UE5PW-3 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, June 7, August 1, and October 17, 2011. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Initial total organic carbon and total organic halides results for samples collected in August 2011 were above previous measurements and, in some cases, above the established investigation limits. However, after field sample pumps and tubing were disinfected with Clorox solution, the results returned to normal levels. Final results from samples collected in 2011 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  2. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan at waste area grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This document is the Groundwater Level Monitoring Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Note that this document is referred to as a SAP even though no sampling and analysis will be conducted. The term SAP is used for consistency. The procedures described herein are part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for WAG 6, which also includes monitoring tasks for seeps and springs, groundwater quality, surface water, and meteorological parameters. Separate SAPs are being issued concurrently to describe each of these monitoring programs. This SAP has been written for the use of the field personnel responsible for implementation of the EMP, with the intent that the field personnel will be able to take these documents to the field and quickly find the appropriate steps required to complete a specific task. In many cases, Field Operations Procedures (FOPs) will define the steps required for an activity. The FOPs for the EMP are referenced and briefly described in the relevant sections of the SAPs, and are contained within the FOP Manual. Both these documents (the SAP and the FOP Manual) will be available to personnel in the field.

  3. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  4. Addressing Chromium in Groundwater WATER Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-HDBK-1211-2014 April 2014 DOE HANDBOOK ACTIVITY-LEVEL WORK PLANNING AND CONTROL IMPLEMENTATION U.S. Department of Energy AREA HDBK Washington, DC 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-HDBK-1211-2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD .......................................................................................................................... v 1.0.

  5. Multi-resolution integrated modeling for basin-scale water resources management and policy analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Hoshin V. (Hoshin Vijai),; Brookshire, David S.; Springer, E. P.; Wagener, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    Approximately one-third of the land surface of the Earth is considered to be arid or semi-arid with an annual average of less than 12-14 inches of rainfall. The availability of water in such regions is of course, particularly sensitive to climate variability while the demand for water is experiencing explosive population growth. The competition for available water is exerting considerable pressure on the water resources management. Policy and decision makers in the southwestern U.S. increasingly have to cope with over-stressed rivers and aquifers as population and water demands grow. Other factors such as endangered species and Native American water rights further complicate the management problems. Further, as groundwater tables are drawn down due to pumping in excess of natural recharge, considerable (potentially irreversible) environmental impacts begin to be felt as, for example, rivers run dry for significant portions of the year, riparian habitats disappear (with consequent effects on the bio-diversity of the region), aquifers compact resulting in large scale subsidence, and water quality begins to suffer. The current drought (1999-2002) in the southwestern U.S. is raising new concerns about how to sustain the combination of agricultural, urban and in-stream uses of water that underlie the socio-economic and ecological structure in the region. The water stressed nature of arid and semi-arid environments means that competing water uses of various kinds vie for access to a highly limited resource. If basin-scale water sustainability is to be achieved, managers must somehow achieve a balance between supply and demand throughout the basin, not just for the surface water or stream. The need to move water around a basin such as the Rio Grande or Colorado River to achieve this balance has created the stimulus for water transfers and water markets, and for accurate hydrologic information to sustain such institutions [Matthews et al. 2002; Brookshire et al 2003; Krause, Chermak Brookshire, 2003].

  6. Insights into the effect of dilute acid, hot water and alkaline pretreatment on cellulose accessible surface area and overall porosity of Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Sun, Qining; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-06-19

    Pretreatment is known to render biomass more reactive to cellulase by altering the chemical compositions as well as physical structures of biomass. Simons stain technique along with mercury porosimetry were applied on the acid, neutral, and alkaline pretreated materials to measure the accessible surface area of cellulose and pore size distribution of Populus. Results indicated that acid pretreatment is much more effective than water and alkaline pretreatment in terms of cellulose accessibility increase. Further investigation suggests that lignin does not dictate cellulose accessibility to the extent that hemicellulose does, but it does restrict xylan accessibility which in turn controls the access of cellulase to cellulose. The most interesting finding is that severe acid pretreatment significantly decreases the average pore size, i.e., 90% average size decrease could be observed after 60 min dilute acid pretreatment at 160 °C; moreover, the nano-pore space formed between coated microfibrils is increased after pretreatment, especially for the acid pretreatment, suggesting this particular type of biomass porosity is probably the most fundamental barrier to effective enzymatic hydrolysis.

  7. Insights into the effect of dilute acid, hot water and alkaline pretreatment on cellulose accessible surface area and overall porosity of Populus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Sun, Qining; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-06-19

    Pretreatment is known to render biomass more reactive to cellulase by altering the chemical compositions as well as physical structures of biomass. Simons stain technique along with mercury porosimetry were applied on the acid, neutral, and alkaline pretreated materials to measure the accessible surface area of cellulose and pore size distribution of Populus. Results indicated that acid pretreatment is much more effective than water and alkaline pretreatment in terms of cellulose accessibility increase. Further investigation suggests that lignin does not dictate cellulose accessibility to the extent that hemicellulose does, but it does restrict xylan accessibility which in turn controls themore » access of cellulase to cellulose. The most interesting finding is that severe acid pretreatment significantly decreases the average pore size, i.e., 90% average size decrease could be observed after 60 min dilute acid pretreatment at 160 °C; moreover, the nano-pore space formed between coated microfibrils is increased after pretreatment, especially for the acid pretreatment, suggesting this particular type of biomass porosity is probably the most fundamental barrier to effective enzymatic hydrolysis.« less

  8. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip; Gu, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  9. Method to Remove Uranium/Vanadium Contamination from Groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzler, Donald R.; Morrison Stanley

    2004-07-27

    A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

  10. Sustainable Groundwater Management Act of 2014 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Groundwater Management Act of 2014 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- BillBill: Sustainable Groundwater Management Act of 2014Legal...

  11. Method to remove uranium/vanadium contamination from groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzler, Donald R.; Morrison, Stanley

    2004-07-27

    A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

  12. Microsoft Word - HAB Adv #145 Groundwater.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Subject: Groundwater Strategy and Groundwater Protection Adopted: April 4, 2003 Page 1 Apr. 4, 2003 Keith Klein, Manager U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations P.O. Box...

  13. TCEQ - Map of Texas Groundwater Conservation Districts | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map of Texas Groundwater Conservation Districts Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Map: TCEQ - Map of Texas Groundwater Conservation DistrictsInfo...

  14. Groundwater Data Package for the 2004 Composite Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-08-11

    This report presents data and information that supports the groundwater module. The conceptual model of groundwater flow and transport at the Hanford Site is described and specific information applied in the numerical implementation module is provided.

  15. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    2000-03-13

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999.

  16. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Wylie, Allan H.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  17. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  18. Determining flow, recharge, and vadose zonedrainage in anunconfined aquifer from groundwater strontium isotope measurements, PascoBasin, WA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    mjsingleton@lbl.gov

    2004-06-29

    Strontium isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr) measured in groundwater samples from 273 wells in the Pasco Basin unconfined aquifer below the Hanford Site show large and systematic variations that provide constraints on groundwater recharge, weathering rates of the aquifer host rocks, communication between unconfined and deeper confined aquifers, and vadose zone-groundwater interaction. The impact of millions of cubic meters of wastewater discharged to the vadose zone (103-105 times higher than ambient drainage) shows up strikingly on maps of groundwater 87Sr/86Sr. Extensive access through the many groundwater monitoring wells at the site allows for an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate the strontium geochemistry of a major aquifer, hosted primarily in unconsolidated sediments, and relate it to both long term properties and recent disturbances. Groundwater 87Sr/86Sr increases systematically from 0.707 to 0.712 from west to east across the Hanford Site, in the general direction of groundwater flow, as a result of addition of Sr from the weathering of aquifer sediments and from diffuse drainage through the vadose zone. The lower 87Sr/86Sr groundwater reflects recharge waters that have acquired Sr from Columbia River Basalts. Based on a steady-state model of Sr reactive transport and drainage, there is an average natural drainage flux of 0-1.4 mm/yr near the western margin of the Hanford Site, and ambient drainage may be up to 30 mm/yr in the center of the site assuming an average bulk rock weathering rate of 10-7.5 g/g/yr.

  19. A comparative analysis of the impacts of climate change and irrigation on land surface and subsurface hydrology in the North China Plain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Guoyong; Tang, Qiuhong; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-02-01

    The Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4) was used to investigate and compare the effects of climate change and irrigation on terrestrial water cycle. Three climate change scenarios and one irrigation scenario (IRRIG) were simulated in the North China Plain (NCP), which is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change and human perturbations in China. The climate change scenarios consist of (1) HOT (i.e. temperature increase by 2oC); (2) HOTWET (same with HOT but with an increase of precipitation by 15%); (3) HOTDRY (same with HOT but with a decrease of precipitation by 15%). In the IRRIG scenario, the irrigation scheme was calibrated to simulate irrigation amounts that match the actual irrigation amounts and irrigation was divided between surface water and groundwater withdrawals based on census data. Our results show that the impacts of climate change were more widespread while those of irrigation were concentrated only over the agricultural regions. Specifically, the mean water table depth was simulated to decline persistently by over 1 m annually due to groundwater exploitation during the period of 1980-2000, while much smaller effects were induced by climate change. Although irrigation has comparable effects on surface fluxes and surface soil moisture as climate change, it has much greater effects on water table depth and groundwater storage. Moreover, irrigation has much larger effects on the top layer soil moisture whereas increase in precipitation associated with climate change exerts more influence on lower layer soil moisture. This study emphasizes the need to accurately account for irrigation impacts in adapting to climate change.

  20. Oak Ridge Removes Laboratory's Greatest Source of Groundwater

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Contamination | Department of Energy Removes Laboratory's Greatest Source of Groundwater Contamination Oak Ridge Removes Laboratory's Greatest Source of Groundwater Contamination May 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers remove the 4,000-gallon Tank W-1A, which was ORNL’s greatest source of groundwater contamination. Workers remove the 4,000-gallon Tank W-1A, which was ORNL's greatest source of groundwater contamination. Workers load boxes containing contaminated soil that surrounded Tank