National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ground level ozone

  1. Potential for savings in compliance costs for reducing ground-level ozone possible by instituting seasonal versus annual nitric oxide emission limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lookman, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    Ground-level ozone is formed in the atmosphere from its precursor emissions, namely nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), with its rate of formation dependent on atmospheric conditions. Since ozone levels tend to be highest during the summer months, seasonal controls of precursors have been suggested as a means of reducing the costs of decreasing ozone concentrations to acceptable levels. This paper attempts to quantify what the potential savings if seasonal control were instituted for coal-fired power plants, assuming that only commercially available NO{sub x} control technologies are used. Cost savings through seasonal control is measured by calculating the total annualized cost of NO{sub x} removal at a given amount of seasonal control for different target levels of annual control. For this study, it is assumed that trading of NO{sub x} emissions will be allowed, as has been proposed by the Ozone Transportation Commission (OTC). The problem has been posed as a binary integer linear programming problem, with decision variables being which control to use at each power plant. The results indicate that requiring annual limits which are lower than seasonal limits can substantially reduce compliance costs. These savings occur because requiring stringent compliance only on a seasonal basis allows power plants to use control methods for which the variable costs are paid for only part of the year, and through the use of gas-based controls, which are much cheaper to operate in the summer months.

  2. Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels You are...

  3. Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Authors:...

  4. Ozone depletion, developing countries, and human rights: Seeking better ground on which to fight for protection of the ozone layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, V.

    1995-12-31

    I urge you not to take a complacent view of the situation. The state of depletion of the ozone layer continues to be alarming... In February, 1993, the ozone levels over North America and most of Europe were 20 percent below normal... Even now, millions of tons of CFC [chlorofluorocarbon] products are en route to their fatal stratospheric rendezvous... This exponential increase calls for increased reflection on the state of the ozone layer and calls for bold decisions.

  5. Impacts from a fossil fuel power plant on ozone levels in Memphis, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, S.F.; Bailey, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Allen power plant is located on the Mississippi River in the southwest corner of Memphis, Tennessee. Allen has three coal-fired cyclone boilers with a rated capacity of 272 MW each. It is a Phase 2 plant under Title IV of the Clean Air Act and is the largest single source of NO{sub x} in the Memphis area. TVA plans to reduce Allen NOx emissions through a combination of burning low-sulfur coal (which has the benefit of reducing NO{sub x} emissions while also reducing SO{sub 2} emissions) and installing gas re-burn technology. A modeling study using the SAI, Inc., UAM-V photochemical model was conducted to examine the potential impacts of NO{sub x} reductions on ozone levels in the Memphis area. A series of four model simulations were made in which different Allen emissions scenarios were examined. The focus period of the photochemical modeling was 11--14 July 1995 when measurements in and near Memphis indicated peak hourly ozone levels of 135--140 ppb. This analysis primarily examined computed impacts within 50 km of Memphis. Allen was computed to contribute as much as 20--30 ppb to ground ozone levels 20-50 km downwind using its NO{sub x} emission rate before Title IV compliance. After compliance it was computed to contribute only about 10--20 ppb. At the same time, maximum daily ozone reductions due to Allen NO{sub x} titration of ozone were between 30 and 60 ppb. These benefits will be reduced by 30--50% after Title IV compliance, and are expected to occur within 30 km of the plant. More model grid cells indicated dis-benefits (net ground-level ozone increases) than benefits on three of the four episode days using the Title IV compliance emission rate. Significant ozone dis-benefits were expected because of the well-documented NO titration of ozone within plumes having a high ratio of NO to volatile organic compounds.

  6. Report card on low level ozone in urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onischak, M.

    1994-12-31

    It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved.

  7. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions Summary and Implications for Air Quality Impacts The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment

  8. Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

    2006-06-20

    The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

  9. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_lawson.pdf (221.69 KB) More Documents & Publications Weekend/Weekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions … Summary and Implications for Air

  10. ARM - Ozone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ozone Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Ozone In the stratosphere, ozone, is not only a greenhouse gas but also shields us from ultraviolet light. There has been a loss of stratospheric ozone, especially in the Antarctic region. During the Antarctic springtime, ozone levels

  11. THE IMPACT OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherburne, Carol; Osterberg, Paul; Johnson, Tom; Frawely, Thomas

    2013-01-23

    The Savannah River Site, in conjunction with AREVA Federal services, has designed a process to treat dissolved radioactive waste solids with ozone. It is known that in this radioactive waste process, radionuclides radiolytically break down water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, which presents a well defined flammability hazard. Flammability limits have been established for both ozone and hydrogen separately; however, there is little information on mixtures of hydrogen and ozone. Therefore, testing was designed to provide critical flammability information necessary to support safety related considerations for the development of ozone treatment and potential scale-up to the commercial level. Since information was lacking on flammability issues at low levels of hydrogen and ozone, a testing program was developed to focus on filling this portion of the information gap. A 2-L vessel was used to conduct flammability tests at atmospheric pressure and temperature using a fuse wire ignition source at 1 percent ozone intervals spanning from no ozone to the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) of ozone in the vessel, determined as 8.4%(v/v) ozone. An ozone generator and ozone detector were used to generate and measure the ozone concentration within the vessel in situ, since ozone decomposes rapidly on standing. The lower flammability limit of hydrogen in an ozone-oxygen mixture was found to decrease from the LFL of hydrogen in air, determined as 4.2 % (v/v) in this vessel. From the results of this testing, Savannah River was able to develop safety procedures and operating parameters to effectively minimize the formation of a flammable atmosphere.

  12. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  13. GROUND LEVEL INVESTIGATION OF ANOMALOUS RADIATION LEVELS IN NIAGARA FALLS, NEW YORK

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    GROUND LEVEL INVESTIGATION OF ANOMALOUS RADIATION LEVELS IN NIAGARA FALLS, NEW YORK W. D. Cottrell, D. J. Christian, and F. F. Haywood ,d ;v ~ !;);;J;$ '9;) -i, - 'L." ; i--j -7,) ;3 i, Work performed by Health and Safety Research Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37630 O&J. 2,7 +, / 7&y' March 1979 \ operated by UNION CARBIDE CORPORATIOII for the DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites- Remedial Action Program

  14. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  15. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  16. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).

  17. Ground Water Levels for NGEE Areas A, B, C and D, Barrow, Alaska, 2012-2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    2015-06-08

    Ice wedge polygonal tundra water levels were measured at a total of 45 locations representing polygon centers and troughs during three summers. Early season water levels, which were still affected by ice and snow, are represented by manual measurements only. Continuous (less than hourly) measurements followed through early fall (around mid-Sep). The data set contains inundation depth (cm), absolute water level and local ground surface elevation (masl).

  18. Modeling analyses of the effects of changes in nitrogen oxides emissions from the electric power sector on ozone levels in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edith Gego; Alice Gilliland; James Godowitch

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, we examine the changes in ambient ozone concentrations simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for summer 2002 under three different nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission scenarios. Two emission scenarios represent best estimates of 2002 and 2004 emissions; they allow assessment of the impact of the NOx emissions reductions imposed on the utility sector by the NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) Call. The third scenario represents a hypothetical rendering of what NOx emissions would have been in 2002 if no emission controls had been imposed on the utility sector. Examination of the modeled median and 95th percentile daily maximum 8-hr average ozone concentrations reveals that median ozone levels estimated for the 2004 emission scenario were less than those modeled for 2002 in the region most affected by the NOx SIP Call. Comparison of the 'no-control' with the '2002' scenario revealed that ozone concentrations would have been much higher in much of the eastern United States if the utility sector had not implemented NOx emission controls; exceptions occurred in the immediate vicinity of major point sources where increased NO titration tends to lower ozone levels. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Geologic Descriptions for the Solid-Waste Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.

    2007-09-23

    This document provides the stratigraphic framework and six hydrogeologic cross sections and interpretations for the solid-waste Low Level Burial Grounds on the Hanford Site. Four of the new cross sections are located in the 200 West Area while the other two are located within the 200 East Area. The cross sections display sediments of the vadose zone and uppermost unconfined aquifer.

  20. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  1. The transition from the open minimum to the ring minimum on the ground state and on the lowest excited state of like symmetry in ozone: A configuration interaction study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Theis, Daniel; Ivanic, Joseph; Windus, Theresa L.; Ruedenberg, Klaus

    2016-03-10

    The metastable ring structure of the ozone 11A1 ground state, which theoretical calculations have shown to exist, has so far eluded experimental detection. An accurate prediction for the energy difference between this isomer and the lower open structure is therefore of interest, as is a prediction for the isomerization barrier between them, which results from interactions between the lowest two 1A1 states. In the present work, valence correlated energies of the 11A1 state and the 21A1 state were calculated at the 11A1 open minimum, the 11A1 ring minimum, the transition state between these two minima, the minimum of the 21A1more » state, and the conical intersection between the two states. The geometries were determined at the full-valence multi-configuration self-consistent-field level. Configuration interaction (CI) expansions up to quadruple excitations were calculated with triple-zeta atomic basis sets. The CI expansions based on eight different reference configuration spaces were explored. To obtain some of the quadruple excitation energies, the method of CorrelationEnergy Extrapolation by Intrinsic Scaling was generalized to the simultaneous extrapolation for two states. This extrapolation method was shown to be very accurate. On the other hand, none of the CI expansions were found to have converged to millihartree (mh) accuracy at the quadruple excitation level. The data suggest that convergence to mh accuracy is probably attained at the sextuple excitation level. On the 11A1 state, the present calculations yield the estimates of (ring minimum—open minimum) ~45–50 mh and (transition state—open minimum) ~85–90 mh. For the (21A1–1A1) excitation energy, the estimate of ~130–170 mh is found at the open minimum and 270–310 mh at the ring minimum. At the transition state, the difference (21A1–1A1) is found to be between 1 and 10 mh. The geometry of the transition state on the 11A1 surface and that of the minimum on the 21A1 surface nearly coincide

  2. EA-1203: Trench 33 Widening in 218-W-5 Low-level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to widen and operate the unused Trench 33 in the 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground at the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations...

  3. Code System for Performance Assessment Ground-water Analysis for Low-level Nuclear Waste.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-02-09

    Version 00 The PAGAN code system is a part of the performance assessment methodology developed for use by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. In this methodology, PAGAN is used as one candidate approach for analysis of the ground-water pathway. PAGAN, Version 1.1 has the capability to model the source term, vadose-zone transport, and aquifer transport of radionuclides from a waste disposal unit. It combines themore » two codes SURFACE and DISPERSE which are used as semi-analytical solutions to the convective-dispersion equation. This system uses menu driven input/out for implementing a simple ground-water transport analysis and incorporates statistical uncertainty functions for handling data uncertainties. The output from PAGAN includes a time- and location-dependent radionuclide concentration at a well in the aquifer, or a time- and location-dependent radionuclide flux into a surface-water body.« less

  4. GIANT GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT OF RELATIVISTIC SOLAR PROTONS ON 2005 JANUARY 20. I. SPACESHIP EARTH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.; Saiz, A.; Ruffolo, D. E-mail: clem@bartol.udel.edu E-mail: pyle@bartol.udel.edu E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th

    2013-07-10

    A ground level enhancement (GLE) is a solar event that accelerates ions (mostly protons) to GeV range energies in such great numbers that ground-based detectors, such as neutron monitors, observe their showers in Earth's atmosphere above the Galactic cosmic ray background. GLEs are of practical interest because an enhanced relativistic ion flux poses a hazard to astronauts, air crews, and aircraft electronics, and provides the earliest direct indication of an impending space radiation storm. The giant GLE of 2005 January 20 was the second largest on record (and largest since 1956), with up to 4200% count rate enhancement at sea level. We analyzed data from the Spaceship Earth network, supplemented to comprise 13 polar neutron monitor stations with distinct asymptotic viewing directions and Polar Bare neutron counters at South Pole, to determine the time evolution of the relativistic proton density, energy spectrum, and three-dimensional directional distribution. We identify two energy-dispersive peaks, indicating two solar injections. The relativistic solar protons were initially strongly beamed, with a peak maximum-to-minimum anisotropy ratio over 1000:1. The directional distribution is characterized by an axis of symmetry, determined independently for each minute of data, whose angle from the magnetic field slowly varied from about 60 Degree-Sign to low values and then rose to about 90 Degree-Sign . The extremely high relativistic proton flux from certain directions allowed 10 s tracking of count rates, revealing fluctuations of period {approx}> 2 minutes with up to 50% fractional changes, which we attribute to fluctuations in the axis of symmetry.

  5. Coordinated NO{sub x} control strategies: Phase II Title IV, ozone transport region and ozone transport assessment group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, W.F.; Dunn, R.M.; Baublis, D.C.

    1998-12-31

    Many electric utilities are faced with future nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) reduction requirements. In some instances, these utilities will be affected by multiple regulatory programs. For example, numerous fossil fired plants must comply with Phase II of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), state NO{sub x} rules as a result of the recommendations of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) and future requirements of the Proposed Rule for Reducing Regional Transport of Ground-Level Ozone (Ozone Transport SIP Rulemaking). This paper provides an overview of NO{sub x} regulatory programs, NO{sub x} compliance planning concepts, and NO{sub x} control technology options that could be components of an optimized compliance strategy.

  6. Nonaqueous ozonation of vulcanized rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Serkiz, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has the surface functional groups oxidized by ozonation using a nonpolar solvent. The ozonation process renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures.

  7. Measurement of the solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level in Bangi, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aljawi, Ohoud; Gopir, Geri; Duay, Abdul Basit

    2015-04-24

    Understanding the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation received by human, plant, and animal organisms near the earth’s surface is important to a wide range of fields such as cancer research, agriculture and forestry. The solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance at ground level was measured using the Avantes spectrometer for the period of January to March 2014 at Bangi (2°55´N, 101°46´E, 50 m above sea level) in Malaysia. These data were used to estimate the diurnal variation of UV irradiance (300 – 400 nm). The maximum irradiance of UV radiation was 45 W m{sup −2} on horizontal surface. The maximum irradiance of UV received in the local noon time, and the minimum values of UV irradiance was received in the local morning time. It is found a bigger value of UV radiation was observed on clear sky in January. The estimation of daily flux average of UV irradiance was (921± 91) kJ m{sup −2}.

  8. EA-1276: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste at the U.S. Department of...

  9. Improved Potential Energy Surface of Ozone Constructed Using the Fitting by Permutationally Invariant Polynomial Function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ayouz, Mehdi; Babikov, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    New global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of ozone is constructed at the complete basis set level of the multireference configuration interaction theory. A method of fitting the data points by analytical permutationally invariant polynomial function is adopted. A small set of 500 points is preoptimized using the old surface of ozone. In this procedure the positions of points in the configuration space are chosen such that the RMS deviation of the fit is minimized. New ab initio calculations are carried out at these points and are used to build new surface. Additional points are addedmore » to the vicinity of the minimum energy path in order to improve accuracy of the fit, particularly in the region where the surface of ozone exhibits a shallow van der Waals well. New surface can be used to study formation of ozone at thermal energies and its spectroscopy near the dissociation threshold.« less

  10. Ozone and acid rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-10-09

    The roles of ozone and other oxidizing agents are discussed. The major polluting emissions are SO/sub 2/, NO, and volatile organic chemicals. In the usual ambient concentrations, these substances are relatively harmless. However, when SO/sub 2/ and NO are oxidized, they are converted into more acid, more toxic, substances. Oxidants, including OH, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, HO/sub 2/, and organic peroxides, arise out of complex photochemistry that involves the ozone, the nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic chemicals. Were SO/sub 2/ the only pollutant, most of it would escape unchanged to the western Atlantic Ocean where it would be so diluted as to have no effect. At present about 35 percent of the SO/sub 2/ produced in the United States leaves the continent. In contrast, because of higher rates of reaction with oxidants, most of the NO is converted into nitric acid and deposited on land. The nitrogen oxides are involved in the production of ozone, some of which is naturally present. But particularly in urban settings where concentrations of NO/sub x/ are elevated and volatile organic chemicals such as those in gasoline are present, ozone concentrations may rise to levels deleterious to health. The Environmental Protection Agency has set standards for levels not to be exceeded, but nearly half of urban communities are not in compliance. The NO/sub x/ involved in the formation of urban ozone comes mostly from vehicular emissions.

  11. GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT IN THE 2014 JANUARY 6 SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thakur, N.; Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Mkel, P.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Davila, J. M.

    2014-07-20

    We present a study of the 2014 January 6 solar energetic particle event which produced a small ground level enhancement (GLE), making it the second GLE of this unusual solar cycle 24. This event was primarily observed by the South Pole neutron monitors (increase of ?2.5%) while a few other neutron monitors recorded smaller increases. The associated coronal mass ejection (CME) originated behind the western limb and had a speed of 1960kms{sup 1}. The height of the CME at the start of the associated metric type II radio burst, which indicates the formation of a strong shock, was measured to be 1.61 Rs using a direct image from STEREO-A/EUVI. The CME height at the time of the GLE particle release (determined using the South Pole neutron monitor data) was directly measured as 2.96 Rs based on STEREO-A/COR1 white-light observations. These CME heights are consistent with those obtained for GLE71, the only other GLE of the current cycle, as well as cycle-23 GLEs derived using back-extrapolation. GLE72 is of special interest because it is one of only two GLEs of cycle 24, one of two behind-the-limb GLEs, and one of the two smallest GLEs of cycles 23 and 24.

  12. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  13. Excitations of {sup 1}P levels of zinc by electron impact on the ground state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Panajotovic, R.; Sevic, D.; Pejcev, V.; Marinkovic, B.P.; Filipovic, D.M.

    2005-07-15

    We present results of a joint theoretical and experimental investigation of electron scattering from the 4s{sup 2} {sup 1}S ground state of zinc. The 4s4p {sup 1}P{sup o} and 4s5p {sup 1}P{sup o} differential cross sections were measured at scattering angles between 10 degree sign and 150 degree sign and electron-energies of 15, 20, 25, 40, and 60 eV. Corresponding convergent close-coupling calculations have been performed and are compared with experiment.

  14. DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions Summary and Implications for Air Quality Impacts Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S.

  15. ARM - Measurement - Ozone Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Ozone Concentration The atmospheric concentration or volume mixing ratio (mole fraction) of Ozone Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is...

  16. Observation of stratospheric trace gases related to ozone depletion in the Antarctic spring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Zafra, R.L.; Parrish, A.; Solomon, P.; Barrett, J.W.; Connor, B.; Jaramillo, M. )

    1987-01-01

    During the first National Ozone Expedition (NOZE I), which ran from 21 August to early November 1986 at McMurdo Station, the authors made frequent measurements of chlorine monoxide (CIO), ozone (O{sub 3}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and occasional measurements of hydrogen cyanide. Observations were made with a ground-based millimeters wave spectrometer capable of detecting and measuring the pressure broadened rotational emission lines of these molecules in the 260-280 gigahertz frequency range. The spectral bandpass and resolution of the instrument is sufficient to recover altitude distributions over a range of approximately 20-55 kilometers and to detect emission from as low as approximately 13-15 kilometers. Results are given and discussed on the levels of chlorine monoxide, nitrous oxide, and ozone found.

  17. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  18. ARM - Instrument - ozone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsozone Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Ozone Monitor (OZONE) Instrument Categories Aerosols An in-situ Ozone Monitor measures atmospheric ozone concentration, typically by ultraviolet photometry in a dual absorption cell. The OZONE is part of the Aerosol Observing System (AOS). Locations Eastern North Atlantic ENA C1 Browse Data Browse Plots Graciosa Island,

  19. Ozone transport commission developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    On September 27, 1994, the states of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) signed an important memorandum of understanding (MOU) agreeing to develop a regional strategy for controlling stationary sources of nitrogen oxide emissions. Specifically, the states of the Ozone Transport Region, OTR, agreed to propose regulations for the control of NOx emissions from boilers and other indirect heat exchangers with a maximum gross heat input rate of at least 250 million BTU per hour. The Ozone Transport Region was divided into Inner, Outer and Northern Zones. States in the Outer Zone agreed to reduce NOx emissions by 55%. States in the Inner Zone agreed to reduce NOx emissions 65%. Facilities in both zones have the option to emit NOx at a rate no greater than 0.2 pounds per million Btu by May 1, 1999. This option provides fairness for the gas-fired plants which already have relatively low NOx emissions. Additionally, States in the Inner and Outer Zones agreed to reduce their NOx emissions by 75% or to emit NOx at a rate no greater than 0.15 pounds per million BTU by May 1, 2003. The Northern Zone States agree to reduce their rate of NOx emissions by 55% from base year levels by May 1, 2003, or to emit NOx at a rate no greater than 0.2 pounds per million BTU. As part of this MOU, States also agreed to develop a regionwide trading mechanism to provide a cost-effective mechanism for implementing the reductions.

  20. Ground-level spectral distribution of solar direct-normal irradiance and marine aerosol attenuation coefficients at Reunion Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaxelaire, P.; Leveau, J.; Baldy, S. ); Menguy, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The ground-level spectral distribution of direct solar irradiance at Reunion Island was measured for six bands covering the spectrum of solar radiation. The measurements, distributed over one year, were made under clear sky conditions with a pyrheliometer (Eppley, NIP) and six large pass-band flat filters. Good stability of spectral irradiances as a function of solar height allows us to propose approximate relationships which significantly characterize the irradiance into each spectral band. Measurements at Reunion vary significantly from data obtained with the same apparatus in a northern hemisphere continental area (Lyon). The determination of aerosol attenuation coefficients, for different spectral bands, allows the establish of a mean curve, for these coefficients as a function of wavelength, characteristic for marine aerosols.

  1. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ozone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsozone Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Ozone Monitor (OZONE) Instrument...

  2. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 east area burial grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-15

    A performance assessment analysis was completed for the 200 East Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) to satisfy compliance requirements in DOE Order 5820.2A. In the analysis, scenarios of radionuclide release from the 200 East Area Low-Level waste facility was evaluated. The analysis focused on two primary scenarios leading to exposure. The first was inadvertent intrusion. In this scenario, it was assumed that institutional control of the site and knowledge of the disposal facility has been lost. Waste is subsequently exhumed and dose from exposure is received. The second scenario was groundwater contamination.In this scenario, radionuclides are leached from the waste by infiltrating precipitation and transported through the soil column to the underlying unconfined aquifer. The contaminated water is pumped from a well 100 m downstream and consumed,causing dose. Estimates of potential contamination of the surrounding environment were developed and the associated doses to the maximum exposed individual were calculated. The doses were compared with performance objective dose limits, found primarily in the DOE order 5850.2A. In the 200 East Area LLBG,it was shown that projected doses are estimated to be well below the limits because of the combination of environmental, waste inventory, and disposal facility characteristics of the 200 East Area LLBG. Waste acceptance criteria were also derived to ensure that disposal of future waste inventories in the 200 East Area LLBG will not cause an unacceptable increase in estimated dose.

  3. Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from 1977 to 1984 near settling ponds on adjacent industrial property at the western end of the Cowles Unit. Since 1980, when the settling pond bottoms were sealed, these intradunal lowlands contained standing water only during periods of high snowmelt or rainfall. Water level declines following the cessation of seepage ranged from 6 feet at the eastern-most settling pond to nearly 14 feet at the western-most pond. No general pattern of water table decline was observed in the Great Marsh or in the shoreline dune complex at distances > 3,000 ft east or north of the settling ponds. Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow ground-water downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow groundwater in areas unaffected by settling pond seepage. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Ground difference compensating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-10-25

    A method of ground level compensation includes measuring a voltage of at least one signal with respect to a primary ground potential and measuring, with respect to the primary ground potential, a voltage level associated with a secondary ground potential. A difference between the voltage level associated with the secondary ground potential and an expected value is calculated. The measured voltage of the at least one signal is adjusted by an amount corresponding to the calculated difference.

  5. Case Study of Anomalies Encountered During Remediation of Mixed Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds in the 100 and 300 Areas of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haass, M.J.; Zacharias, P.E.; Zacharias, A.E.

    2007-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's River Corridor Closure Project, Washington Closure Hanford has completed remediation of more than 10 mixed low-level waste burial grounds in the 100 and 300 Areas of the Hanford Site. The records of decision for the burial grounds required excavation, characterization, and transport of contaminated material to a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976-compliant hazardous waste landfill. This paper discusses a sample of the anomalous waste found during remediation and provides an overview of the waste excavation activities. The 100 Area burial grounds received plutonium production reactor waste and waste associated with various test programs. Examples of 100 Area anomalies include spent nuclear fuel, elemental mercury, reactor hardware, and the remains of animals used in testing the effects of radionuclides on living organisms. The 300 Area burial grounds received waste from research and development laboratories and fuel manufacturing operations. Of the seven 300 Area burial grounds remediated to date, the most challenging has been the 618-2 Burial Ground. It presented significant challenges because of the potential for airborne alpha contamination and the discovery of plutonium in an isotopically pure form. Anomalies encountered in the 618-2 Burial Ground included a combination safe that contained gram quantities of plutonium, miscellaneous containers of unknown liquids, and numerous types of shielded shipping casks. Information presented in this paper will be an aid to those involved in remediation activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy complex and at other nuclear waste disposal sites. (authors)

  6. Stratospheric ozone protection: The Montreal Protocol and Title VI of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babst, C.R. III

    1993-08-01

    The stratospheric ozone layer protects the surface of the Earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation, which has been causally linked to skin cancer and cataracts, suppression of the human immune system, damage to crops and aquatic organisms, the formation of ground-level zone and the rapid weathering of outdoor plastics. In recent years, scientists have observed a significant deterioration of the ozone layer, particularly over the poles, but increasingly over populated regions as well. This deterioration has been attributed to the atmospheric release of certain man-made halocarbons, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Once used extensively as propellants for aerosol sprays (but generally banned for such purposes since 1978), CFCs are widely used today as refrigerants, foams and solvents. All of these chlorinated (CFC, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) and brominated (halon) compounds are classified for regulatory purposes as Class I substances because of their significant ozone-depleting potential. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), developed as alternatives to CFCs and halons for many different applications, have been classified for regulatory purposes as Class II substances because of their relatively less destructive impact on stratospheric ozone. This paper describes the following regulations to reduce destruction of the ozone layer: the Montreal Protocol; Title VI of the Clean air Act Amendments of 1990; Accelerated Phase-out schedules developed by the countries which signed the Montreal Protocol; Use restrictions; Recycling and Emission reduction requirements; Servicing of motor vehicle air conditions; ban on nonessential products; labeling requirements; safe alternatives. 6 refs.

  7. THE EFFECT OF THE PRESENCE OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherburne, C.

    2012-01-12

    The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process uses ozone to effect the oxidation of metal oxalates produced during the dissolution of sludge in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks. The ozone reacts with the metal oxalates to form metal oxide and hydroxide precipitants, and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and any unreacted O{sub 3} gases are discharged into the vapor space. In addition to the non-radioactive metals in the waste, however, the SRS radioactive waste also contains a variety of radionuclides, hence, hydrogen gas is also present in the vapor space of the ECC system. Because hydrogen is flammable, the impact of this resultant gas stream on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of hydrogen must be understood for all possible operating scenarios of both normal and off-normal situations, with particular emphasis at the elevated temperatures and pressures of the typical ECC operating conditions. Oxygen is a known accelerant in combustion reactions, but while there are data associated with the behavior of hydrogen/oxygen environments, recent, relevant studies addressing the effect of ozone on the flammability limit of hydrogen proved scarce. Further, discussions with industry experts verified the absence of data in this area and indicated that laboratory testing, specific to defined operating parameters, was needed to comprehensively address the issue. Testing was thus designed and commissioned to provide the data necessary to support safety related considerations for the ECC process. A test matrix was developed to envelope the bounding conditions considered credible during ECC processing. Each test consists of combining a gas stream of high purity hydrogen with a gas stream comprised of a specified mixture of ozone and oxygen in a temperature and pressure regulated chamber such that the relative compositions of the two streams are controlled. The gases are then stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture and ignition attempted by applying 10J of energy to a

  8. Valuing the ozone-related health benefits of methane emission controls

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sarofim, Marcus C.; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anenberg, Susan C.

    2015-06-29

    Methane is a greenhouse gas that oxidizes to form ground-level ozone, itself a greenhouse gas and a health-harmful air pollutant. Reducing methane emissions will both slow anthropogenic climate change and reduce ozone-related mortality. We estimate the benefits of reducing methane emissions anywhere in the world for ozone-related premature mortality globally and for eight geographic regions. Our methods are consistent with those used by the US Government to estimate the social cost of carbon (SCC). We find that the global short- and long-term premature mortality benefits due to reduced ozone production from methane mitigation are (2011) $790 and $1775 per tonnemore » methane, respectively. These correspond to approximately 70 and 150 % of the valuation of methane’s global climate impacts using the SCC after extrapolating from carbon dioxide to methane using global warming potential estimates. Results for monetized benefits are sensitive to a number of factors, particularly the choice of elasticity to income growth used when calculating the value of a statistical life. The benefits increase for emission years further in the future. Regionally, most of the global mortality benefits accrue in Asia, but 10 % accrue in the United States. As a result, this methodology can be used to assess the benefits of methane emission reductions anywhere in the world, including those achieved by national and multinational policies.« less

  9. Valuing the ozone-related health benefits of methane emission controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarofim, Marcus C.; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anenberg, Susan C.

    2015-06-29

    Methane is a greenhouse gas that oxidizes to form ground-level ozone, itself a greenhouse gas and a health-harmful air pollutant. Reducing methane emissions will both slow anthropogenic climate change and reduce ozone-related mortality. We estimate the benefits of reducing methane emissions anywhere in the world for ozone-related premature mortality globally and for eight geographic regions. Our methods are consistent with those used by the US Government to estimate the social cost of carbon (SCC). We find that the global short- and long-term premature mortality benefits due to reduced ozone production from methane mitigation are (2011) $790 and $1775 per tonne methane, respectively. These correspond to approximately 70 and 150 % of the valuation of methane’s global climate impacts using the SCC after extrapolating from carbon dioxide to methane using global warming potential estimates. Results for monetized benefits are sensitive to a number of factors, particularly the choice of elasticity to income growth used when calculating the value of a statistical life. The benefits increase for emission years further in the future. Regionally, most of the global mortality benefits accrue in Asia, but 10 % accrue in the United States. As a result, this methodology can be used to assess the benefits of methane emission reductions anywhere in the world, including those achieved by national and multinational policies.

  10. Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California ...

  11. Weekend/Weekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emissions Control Experiment Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California

  12. ARM - Measurement - Ozone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsOzone ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ozone Ozone measurements are given in Dobson units and are integers with 3 significant figures. A Dobson Unit represents the physical thickness of the ozone layer if it were brought to the Earth's surface. A value of 300 Dobson units equals three millimeters. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered

  13. Electrosorption on carbon aerogel electrodes as a means of treating low-level radioactive wastes and remediating contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Tri Duc; Farmer, Joseph C.; DePruneda, Jean H.; Richardson, Jeffery H.

    1997-07-01

    A novel separation process based upon carbon aerogel electrodes has been recently developed for the efficient removal of ionic impurities from aqueous streams. This process can be used as an electrical y- regenerated alternative to ion exchange, thereby reducing-the need for large quantities of chemical regenerants. Once spent (contaminated), these regenerants contribute to the waste that must be disposed of in landfills. The elimination of such wastes is especially beneficial in situations involving radioactive contaminants, and pump and treat processing of massive volumes of ground water. A review and analysis of potential applications will be presented.

  14. Experimental differential cross sections, level densities, and spin cutoffs as a testing ground for nuclear reaction codes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Voinov, Alexander V.; Grimes, Steven M.; Brune, Carl R.; Burger, Alexander; Gorgen, Andreas; Guttormsen, Magne; Larsen, Ann -Cecilie; Massey, Thomas N.; Siem, Sunniva

    2013-11-08

    Proton double-differential cross sections from 59Co(α,p)62Ni, 57Fe(α,p)60Co, 56Fe(7Li,p)62Ni, and 55Mn(6Li,p)60Co reactions have been measured with 21-MeV α and 15-MeV lithium beams. Cross sections have been compared against calculations with the empire reaction code. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the Gilbert and Cameron [A. Gilbert and A. G. W. Cameron, Can. J. Phys. 43, 1446 (1965)] level density model is best to reproduce experimental data. Level densities and spin cutoff parameters for 62Ni and 60Co above the excitation energy range of discrete levels (in continuum) have been obtained with a Monte Carlo technique. Furthermore,more » excitation energy dependencies were found to be inconsistent with the Fermi-gas model.« less

  15. Jeff Grounds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jeff Grounds Jeff Grounds jeffgrounds-sm.jpg Jeff Grounds Facilities Manager JTGrounds@lbl.gov Phone: (510) 486-7197 Mobile: (510) 207-2273 Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:57

  16. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site.

  17. Tropospheric ozone in east Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadnis, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of the observed data for the tropospheric ozone at mid latitudes in east Asia is done. There are three ways by which the tropospheric ozone is calculated, namely: (1) Ozonesonde measurements, (2) Fishman`s method of Residual Ozone and (3) TOMS measurements - an indirect method of calculating tropospheric ozone. In addition the surface ozone values at the network sites in Japan is also considered. The analysis of data is carried out for a period of twelve years from 1979 to 1991. In general it is observed that the tropospheric ozone is more in summer than winter, obviously because of the larger tropopause height in summer. On an average for the period of the analysis, the ozone values are at a high of about 60 DU (dobson units). While in winter the values go down to around 30 DU. Also a time series analysis shows an increasing trend in the values over the years. The ozonesonde values are correlated more to the TOMS tropospheric ozone values. For the stations analyzed in Japan, the TOMS tropospheric ozone values are generally greater than the ozonesonde values. The analysis of the average monthly surface ozone in Japan shows highs in spring and lows in summer. This can be attributed to movement of pollutant laden fronts towards Japan during spring. The highs for surface ozone are about 50 DU while the lows are around 20 DU.

  18. Ozone decomposing filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L.

    1999-01-01

    In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

  19. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield

  20. Accurate high level ab initio-based global potential energy surface and dynamics calculations for ground state of CH{sub 2}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y. Q.; Zhang, P. Y.; Han, K. L.

    2015-03-28

    A global many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the electronic ground state of CH{sub 2}{sup +} by fitting high level ab initio energies calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pV6Z basis set. The topographical features of the new global potential energy surface are examined in detail and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. In turn, in order to validate the potential energy surface, a test theoretical study of the reaction CH{sup +}(X{sup 1}Σ{sup +})+H({sup 2}S)→C{sup +}({sup 2}P)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) has been carried out with the method of time dependent wavepacket on the title potential energy surface. The total integral cross sections and the rate coefficients have been calculated; the results determined that the new potential energy surface can both be recommended for dynamics studies of any type and as building blocks for constructing the potential energy surfaces of larger C{sup +}/H containing systems.

  1. Ozone Risk Assessment Utilities

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-08-10

    ORAMUS is a user-friendly, menu-driven software system that calculates and displays user-selected risk estimates for health effects attributable to short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone. Inputs to the risk assessment are estimates of exposure to ozone and exposure-response relationships to produce overall risk estimates in the form of probability distributions. Three fundamental models are included: headcount risk, benchmark risk, and hospital admissions. Exposure-response relationships are based on results of controlled human exposure studies. Exposure estimates aremore » based on the EPA''s probabilistic national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exposure model, pNEM/Osub3, which simulates air quality associated with attainment of alternative NAAQS. Using ORAMUS, risk results for 27 air quality scenarios, air quality in 9 urban areas, 33 health endpoints, and 4 chronic health endpoints can be calculated.« less

  2. Ozone in the free atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitten, R.C.; Prasad, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    Experts in the field discuss the state of the ozone layer - its elements, distribution, functions, and biological and climatic effects of perturbations.

  3. Appendix D Surface Water and Ground Water Time-Concentration...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Surface Water and Ground Water Time-Concentration Plots, Stream Discharge Measurements, Ground Water Level Data, and Ground Water Well Hydrographs This page intentionally left ...

  4. Process-scale modeling of elevated wintertime ozone in Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Holdridge, D. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-12-31

    Measurements of meteorological variables and trace gas concentrations, provided by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality for Daniel, Jonah, and Boulder Counties in the state of Wyoming, were analyzed for this project. The data indicate that highest ozone concentrations were observed at temperatures of -10 C to 0 C, at low wind speeds of about 5 mph. The median values for nitrogen oxides (NOx) during these episodes ranged between 10 ppbv and 20 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during these periods were insufficient for quantitative analysis. The few available VOCs measurements indicated unusually high levels of alkanes and aromatics and low levels of alkenes. In addition, the column ozone concentration during one of the high-ozone episodes was low, on the order of 250 DU (Dobson unit) as compared to a normal column ozone concentration of approximately 300-325 DU during spring for this region. Analysis of this observation was outside the scope of this project. The data analysis reported here was used to establish criteria for making a large number of sensitivity calculations through use of a box photochemical model. Two different VOCs lumping schemes, RACM and SAPRC-98, were used for the calculations. Calculations based on this data analysis indicated that the ozone mixing ratios are sensitive to (a) surface albedo, (b) column ozone, (c) NOx mixing ratios, and (d) available terminal olefins. The RACM model showed a large response to an increase in lumped species containing propane that was not reproduced by the SAPRC scheme, which models propane as a nearly independent species. The rest of the VOCs produced similar changes in ozone in both schemes. In general, if one assumes that measured VOCs are fairly representative of the conditions at these locations, sufficient precursors might be available to produce ozone in the range of 60-80 ppbv under the conditions modeled.

  5. Climatological simulations of ozone and atmospheric aerosols in the Greater Cairo region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, A. L.; Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Zakey, A. S.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Salah, Z.; Solmon, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2014-04-16

    An integrated chemistry-climate model (RegCM4-CHEM) simulates present-day climate, ozone and tropospheric aerosols over Egypt with a focus on Greater Cairo (GC) region. The densley populated GC region is known for its severe air quality issues driven by high levels of anthropogenic pollution in conjuction with natural sources such as dust and agricultural burning events. We find that current global emission inventories underestimate key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and anthropogenic aerosol species. In the GC region, average-ground-based NO2 observations of 40-60 ppb are substantially higher than modeled estimates (5-10 ppb), likely due to model grid resolution, improper boundary layer representation, and poor emissions inventories. Observed ozone concentrations range from 35 ppb (winter) to 80 ppb (summer). The model reproduces the seasonal cycle fairly well, but modeled summer ozone is understimated by approximately 15 ppb and exhibits little interannual variability. For aerosols, springtime dust events dominate the seasonal aerosol cycle. The chemistry-climate model captures the springtime peak aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.7-1 but is slightly greater than satellite-derived AOD. Observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events in the Nile Delta, yet the model underestimates this fall observed AOD peak, as standard emissions inventories underestimate this burning and the resulting aerosol emissions. Our comparison of modeled gas and particulate phase atmospheric chemistry in the GC region indicates that improved emissions inventories of mobile sources and other anthropogenic activities are needed to improve air quality simulations in this region.

  6. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-02-11

    This environmental assessment was prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste. Information contained herein will be used by the Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1508.27. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act of1969'', as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for ''National Environmental Polio Act'' (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021). The following is a description of each section of this environmental assessment. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This section provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S, Department of Energy is addressing with the Proposed Action. Background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. This section provides a description of the Proposed Action with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. This section describes reasonable,alternative actions to the Proposed Action, which addresses the Purpose and Need. A No Action Alternative, as required by Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021

  7. Promising Technology: Ozone Laundry System for Multiload Clothes Washers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These laundry systems use ozone as the chemical cleaning agent. The system generates ozone by electrifying oxygen in the air, and then dissolves the ozone in water.

  8. ARM - Measurement - Ozone Column Abundance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Column Abundance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ozone Column Abundance The vertically integrated amount of ozone (commonly measured in Dobson Unit, 1 DU = 134 mmol/m^2) Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all

  9. Relation between Atmospheric Ozone and Geomagnetic Disturbances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This involves a decrease of ozone in the 50 to 65 deg N region and an increase south of 50 deg N. Two or three days after the storm, the ozone amount increases in the 50 to 65 deg ...

  10. Analysis of Ground-Water Levels and Associated Trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Fenelon

    2005-10-05

    Almost 4,000 water-level measurements in 216 wells in the Yucca Flat area from 1951 to 2003 were quality assured and analyzed. An interpretative database was developed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in Yucca Flat. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes narratives that discuss the water-level history of each well. Water levels in 34 wells were analyzed for variability and for statistically significant trends. An attempt was made to identify the cause of many of the water-level fluctuations or trends. Potential causes include equilibration following well construction or development, pumping in the monitoring well, withdrawals from a nearby supply well, recharge from precipitation, earthquakes, underground nuclear tests, land subsidence, barometric pressure, and Earth tides. Some of the naturally occurring fluctuations in water levels may result from variations in recharge. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for these fluctuations generally is less than 2 feet. Long-term steady-state hydrographs for most of the wells open to carbonate rock have a very similar pattern. Carbonate-rock wells without the characteristic pattern are directly west of the Yucca and Topgallant faults in the southwestern part of Yucca Flat. Long-term steady-state hydrographs from wells open to volcanic tuffs or the Eleana confining unit have a distinctly different pattern from the general water-level pattern of the carbonate-rock aquifers. Anthropogenic water-level fluctuations were caused primarily by water withdrawals and nuclear testing. Nuclear tests affected water levels in many wells. Trends in these wells are attributed to test-cavity infilling or the effects of

  11. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakatsuka, Suguru

    2000-01-01

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  12. Mario Molina, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Ozone Depletion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prize-winning Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) The Science and Policies of the Ozone Layer -- A Historical Perspective, IDEaS - Nobel Laureate Mario J....

  13. Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimization of ozone dose and contact time for CT calculations was performed in the pilot ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Ozone: Science and Engineering (The Journal of the ...

  14. Reformulated Gasoline Use Under the 8-Hour Ozone Rule

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact on gasoline price and supply when additional ozone non-attainment areas come under the new 8-hour ozone standard.

  15. Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium...

  16. A Variable Trajectory Plume Segment Model to Assess Ground-Level Air Concentrations and Depositions of Routine Effluent Releases from Nuclear Power Facilities.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1986-05-27

    Version: 00 MESODIF-II, which embodies a variable trajectory plume segment atmospheric transport model, is designed to predict normalized air concentrations and deposition of radioactive, but otherwise non-reactive, effluents released from one or two levels over the same position in an xy-plane. In such a model, calculated particle trajectories vary as synoptic scale wind varies. At all sampling times, the particles are connected to form a segmented plume centerline. The lateral and vertical dimensions of themore » plume are determined by a parameterization of turbulence scale diffusion. The impetus for the development of this model arose from the need of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assess radiological effects resulting from routine nuclear power reactor operations, as outlined in U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.111.« less

  17. Ground-water in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1985-01-01

    Amount 61% of the water used by Texans is ground-water. Some areas, both municipal and rural, depend entirely on ground-water. In many areas long term withdrawal is lowering the water levels, causing surface land subsidence, salt-water encroachment, and reducing future reservoir availability. The increasing probability of seepage from radioactive and toxic wastes, herbicide residues, septic systems, and oilfield brines is threatening dangerous contamination of fresh ground-water reservoirs. The Texas Department of Water Resources, the Texas Department of Health, State and private colleges and universities, the US Geological Survey, the Environmental Protection Agency, various underground water districts, among others, are cooperating with concerned hydrologists in a concentrated program to increase the efficiency of ground-water use and development, preserve the aquifer reservoirs, and decrease the pollution potential. 88 references.

  18. The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2003_deer_lawson.pdf (335.4 KB) More Documents & Publications Weekend/Weekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a

  19. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  20. Climatology of regional ozone: Meteorologieal effects on ozone exceedences in the southeast United States. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, J.R.

    1996-12-09

    A statistical anlysis of ozone (O3) concentrations and meterorogical parameters was performed to determine the effect of meteorological changes on ambient O3 concentrations in the urban and semi-urban environment on a regional basis in the Southeast United States. The correlation between average daily maximum O3 concentration and various meteorological varibles was analyzed on a monthly basis from April through October 1980-1994. Positive correlation was found between O3 concentration and temperature and dewpoint temperature depression, while negative correlation was found between O3 concentration and relative humidity and the minimum Pasquill Stability Index. The correlations were strongest during the summer months, particularly June, July, and August. High pressure stagnation was found to be positively correlated with O3 concentrations, although not at a statistically significant level. Regional analysis indicates that the location of areas of high pressure stagnation may play an important role in the resultant ambient concentrations of O3 throughout the region. Analysis of long term O3 concentration trends indicates increasing trends during the 1980s and decreasing trends during the 1990s. Trends for meteorological parameters that demonstrate positive (negative) correlation with O3 increase (decrease) during the 1980s, however causal relationship between these trends and those for O3 cannot be determined based on this analysis. A regional model was developed to forecast ozone concentration based on the previous day`s ozone concentration and meteorological parameters.

  1. Study of air pollution: Effects of ozone on neuropeptide-mediated responses in human subjects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boushey, H.A.

    1991-11-01

    The study examined the hypothesis that ozone inactivates the enzyme, neutral endopeptidase, responsible for limiting the effects of neuropeptides released from afferent nerve endings. Cough response of capsaicin solution delivered from a nebulizer at 2 min. intervals until two or more coughs were produced. Other endpoints measured included irritative symptoms as rated by the subjects on a nonparametric scale, spirometry, of each concentration of ozone were compared to those of filtered air in a single-blind randomized sequence. The results indicate that a 2 h. exposure to 0.4 ppm of ozone with intermittent light exercise alters the sensitivity of airway nerves that mediate the cough response to inhaled materials. This dose of ozone also caused a change in FEV1. A lower level of ozone, 0.02 ppm, caused a change in neither cough threshold nor FEV1, even when the duration of exposure was extended to three hours. The findings are consistent with the author's hypothesis that ozone may sensitize nerve endings in the airways by inactivating neutral endopeptidase, an enzyme that regulates their activity, but they do not demonstrate that directly examining an effect directly mediated by airway nerves allows detection of effects of ozone at doses below those causing effects detected by standard tests of pulmonary function.

  2. Review of atmospheric ozone and current thinking on the Antarctic ozone hole. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fix, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    A general review of the formation, global distribution and concentration variations on different temporal scales of atmospheric ozone is presented. The nature and extent of the recently discovered Antarctic ozone hole is discussed, and summaries of the various theories that have been advanced to account for this phenomenon are reviewed.

  3. The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications WeekendWeekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California Real-World Studies of ...

  4. Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Ozone is used commercially for treatment of potable and non-potable water, and as an industrial oxidant. ISU and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a method for using iron in ozone oxidation that significantly improves the speed of oxidation reactions. Description Ozone is recognized as potent and effective oxidizing agent, and has a

  5. Electrical grounding prong socket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leong, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a socket for a grounding prong used in a three prong electrical plug and a receptacle for the three prong plug. The socket being sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having a ridge to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket.

  6. Development of pollution reduction strategies for Mexico City: Estimating cost and ozone reduction effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Hardie, R.W.; Barrera-Roldan, A.

    1993-12-31

    This reports on the collection and preparation of data (costs and air quality improvement) for the strategic evaluation portion of the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI). Reports written for the Mexico City government by various international organizations were used to identify proposed options along with estimates of cost and emission reductions. Information from appropriate options identified by SCAQMD for Southem California were also used in the analysis. A linear optimization method was used to select a group of options or a strategy to be evaluated by decision analysis. However, the reduction of ozone levels is not a linear function of the reduction of hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} emissions. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was required for ozone. An equation for a plane on an isopleth calculated with a trajectory model was obtained using two endpoints that bracket the expected total ozone precursor reductions plus the starting concentrations for hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}. The relationship between ozone levels and the hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} concentrations was assumed to lie on this plane. This relationship was used in the linear optimization program to select the options comprising a strategy.

  7. Secondary Pollutants from Ozone Reaction with Ventilation Filters and Degradation of Filter Media Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jérémie; Brunner, Gregory; Zhang, Jianshun; Fisk, William J.

    2011-05-01

    , rather than ozonolysis, is the main formaldehyde source in those filters. Emission rates of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were not found to be large enough to substantially increase indoor concentrations in typical building scenarios. Nevertheless, ozone reactions on HVAC filters cannot be ignored as a source of low levels of indoor irritants.

  8. METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macleish, K.G.

    1958-02-11

    ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

  9. Ozone and other air quality related variables affecting visibility in the southeast United States. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brittig, J.S.

    1997-07-11

    An analysis of ozone (03) concentrations and several other air quality related variables was performed to assess their relationship with visibility at five urban and semi-urban locations in the Southeast United States during the summer seasons of 1980 to 1996. The role and impact of ozone on aerosols was investigated to ascertain a relationship with visibility. Regional trend analysis of the 1980s reveals an increase in maximum ozone concentration coupled with a decrease in visibility. However, the 1990s shows a leveling off of both ozone and visibility; in both cases the results were not statistically significant at the 5% level. Site specific trends at Nashville Tennessee followed similar trends. To better ascertain the relationships and forcing mechanisms, the analysis was changed from yearly to daily and hourly averaged values. This increased resolution showed a statistically significant inverse relationship between visibility and ozone. Additionally, by performing back trajectory analysis, it was observed that the visibility degraded both by airmass migration over polluted areas and chemical kinetics.

  10. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Zachery Warren; Zevenbergen, Gary Allen

    2012-07-17

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and a voltage attenuator. The first electrode and the second electrode are both electrically connected to the voltage attenuator. A means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential is connected to the voltage attenuator. The device and method further comprises a means for enabling one or more alarms upon the detection of the dangerous ground potential. Preferably, a first transmitter/receiver is connected to the means for enabling one or more alarms. Preferably, a second transmitter/receiver, comprising a button, is electromagnetically connected to the first transmitter/receiver. Preferably, the means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential comprises a means for determining the true RMS voltage at the output of the voltage attenuator, a transient detector connected to the output of the voltage attenuator, or a combination thereof.

  11. Influence of ozone on pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, J.A.; Menzel, D.B.; Mole, M.L.; Miller, F.J.; Gardner, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    It had been shown that 3- to 5-hr exposures to ambient concentrations of ozone (O/sub 3/) increase pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in female mice, hamsters, and rats without decreasing heptatic cytochrome P-450 levels or selected mixed function oxidases. To elucidate potential mechanisms involved, clearance of pentobarbital from the blood of O/sub 3/-exposed mice was examined. Pentobarbital clearance followed first-order kinetics with a one-compartment model. Mice exposed to 1960 micrograms per cu. m. (1ppm) for 5 hr had a 71% increase in the plasma half-life of pentobarbital. It therefore appears possible that pentobarbital-induced sleeping time is increased due to a decrease in hepatic metabolism of pentobarbital.

  12. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. ... measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. ...

  13. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, through December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Camera, Richard J.; Locke, Glenn L.; Munson, Rodney H.

    1999-07-30

    Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals from a variety of ground-water sources in the study area are reported for calendar year 1997.

  14. Substation grounding programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S. . Electric Power Lab.)

    1992-05-01

    This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 5, is an applications guide of the three computer programs. SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS, for the purpose of designing a safe substation grounding system. The applications guide utilizes four example substation grounding systems for the purpose of illustrating the application of the programs, SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS. The examples are based on data provided by four contributing utilities, namely, Houston Lighting and Power Company, Southern Company Services, Puget Sound Power and Light Company, and Arizona Public Service Company. For the purpose of illustrating specific capabilities of the computer programs, the data have been modified. As a result, the final designs of the four systems do not necessarily represent actual grounding system designs by these utilities. The example system 1 is a 138 kV/35 kV distribution substation. The example system 2 is a medium size 230 kV/115 kV transmission substation. The third example system is a generation substation while the last is a large 525 kV/345 kV/230 kV transmission substation. The four examples cover most of the practical problems that a user may encounter in the design of substation grounding systems.

  15. Double hull grounding experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodd, J.L.; Sikora, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years the public and governments of many nations have become increasingly aware of the need for improving oil tanker safety. The requirements for double hull tankers are an attempt to address this need through legislation. Even though a number of investigations on the mechanics of collisions have been done in the past, until recently very little research supported the development of structural improvements to reduce oil tanker damage during grounding and stranding accidents. An aggressive evaluation of double hull tanker crashworthiness in stranding and grounding accidents is underway at CD/NSWC (formerly the David Taylor Research Center). The ability to predict damage from grounding accidents accurately is not currently available. The objective of this paper is to present qualitatively the structural failure mechanisms associated with stranding and grounding events for candidate double hull tanker structures and to present some simple methods for comparing damage scenarios. A comparison of the structural performance of key features in several very different designs will provide useful information toward this understanding.

  16. MTX (Microwave Tokamak Experiment) facility and machine grounding plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, H.H.; Rice, B.W.; Petersen, D.E.; Herrera, C.H.

    1987-10-07

    A key issue in the design of fusion research experiments and their related facilities is the control of ground currents. Because of the large magnetic field, high voltages and high currents present in most of these installations, it is essential to avoid ground loops, and to control ground currents during both normal operations and fault conditions. This paper describes the grounding policy that was developed for MTX. The vault area was divided into zones, and each of the four walls was treated as a separate grounding area. Cable runs and magnet buss bars were run into the machine radially. The paper also describes the steps taken to isolate diagnostic signals and power for pumps and instruments. The paper outlines some of the field calculations used to predict problem areas, and to reveal voltage isolation levels that were required. The paper includes the active ground fault detection system used to insure the integrity of the ground system. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Evaluation of microporous carbon filters as catalysts for ozone decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whinnery, L.; Coutts, D.; Shen, C.; Adams, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Quintana, C.; Showalter, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Ozone is produced in small quantities in photocopiers and laser printers in the workplace and large quantities in industrial waste water treatment facilities. Carbon filters are commonly used to decompose this unwanted ozone. The three most important factors in producing a filter for this purpose are flow properties, efficiency, and cost. Most ozone decomposition applications require very low back-pressure at modest flow rates. The tradeoff between the number of pores and the size of the pores will be discussed. Typical unfiltered emissions in the workplace are approximately 1 ppm. The maximum permissible exposure limit, PEL, for worker exposure to ozone is 0.1 ppm over 8 hours. Several methods have been examined to increase the efficiency of ozone decomposition. Carbon surfaces were modified with catalysts, the surface activated, and the surface area was increased, in attempts to decompose ozone more effectively. Methods to reduce both the processing and raw material costs were investigated. Several sources of microporous carbon were investigated as ozone decomposition catalysts. Cheaper processing routes including macropore templating, faster drying and extracting methods were also studied.

  18. Effects of ozone on the respiratory health, allergic sensitization, and cellular immune system in children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwick, H.; Popp, W.; Wagner, C.; Reiser, K.; Schmoeger, J.B.; Boeck, A.H.; Herkner, K.; Radunsky, K. )

    1991-11-01

    To investigate the lasting effects of high ozone concentrations under environmental conditions, we examined the respiratory health, pulmonary function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, allergic sensitization, and lymphocyte subpopulations of 10- to 14-yr-old children. A total of 218 children recruited from an area with high ozone concentrations (Group A) were tested against 281 children coming from an area with low ozone concentrations (Group B). As to subjective complaints, categorized as 'usually cough with or without phlegm,' 'breathlessness,' and 'susceptibility to chest colds,' there was no difference between the two groups. The lung function parameters were similar, but in Group A subjects' bronchial hyperresponsiveness occurred more frequently and was found to be more severe than in Group B (29.4 versus 19.9%, p less than 0.02; PD20 2,100 {plus minus} 87 versus 2,350 {plus minus} 58 micrograms, p less than 0.05). In both groups the number of children who had been suffering from allergic diseases and sensitization to aeroallergens, found by means of the skin test, was the same. Comparison of the total IgE levels showed no difference at all between the two groups. As far as the white blood cells are concerned, the total and differential cell count was the same, whereas lymphocyte subpopulations showed readily recognizable changes.

  19. A new feature in the internal heavy isotope distribution in ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, S. K. Liang, Mao-Chang; Savarino, Joel; Michalski, G.

    2014-10-07

    Ozone produced by discharge or photolysis of oxygen has unusually heavy isotopic composition ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O ratio) which does not follow normal mass fractionation rule: δ{sup 17}O ∼ 0.52{sup *}δ{sup 18}O, expressed as an anomaly Δ{sup 17}O = δ{sup 17}O − 0.52{sup *}δ{sup 18}O. Ozone molecule being an open isosceles triangle can have the heavy isotope located either in its apex or symmetric (s) position or the base or asymmetric (as) position. Correspondingly, one can define positional isotopic enrichment, written as δ{sup 18}O (s) or δ{sup 18}O (as) (and similarly for δ{sup 17}O) as well as position dependent isotope anomaly Δ{sup 17}O (s) and Δ{sup 17}O (as). Marcus and co-workers have proposed a semi-empirical model based in principle on the RRKM model of uni-molecular dissociation but with slight modification (departure from statistical randomness assumption for symmetrical molecules) which explains many features of ozone isotopic enrichment. This model predicts that the bulk isotope anomaly is contained wholly in the asymmetric position and the Δ{sup 17}O (s) is zero. Consequently, Δ{sup 17}O (as) = 1.5 {sup *} Δ{sup 17}O (bulk) (named here simply as the “1.5 rule”) which has been experimentally confirmed over a range of isotopic enrichment. We now show that a critical re-analysis of the earlier experimental data demonstrates a small but significant departure from this 1.5 rule at the highest and lowest levels of enrichments. This departure provides the first experimental proof that the dynamics of ozone formation differs from a statistical model constrained only by restriction of symmetry. We speculate over some possible causes for the departure.

  20. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  1. Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory function and symptoms in Mexico City schoolchildren

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castillejos, M.; Gold, D.R.; Dockery, D.; Tosteson, T.; Baum, T.; Speizer, F.E. )

    1992-02-01

    The effects of ambient ozone (O3) on respiratory function and acute respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 143 7- to 9-yr-old schoolchildren followed longitudinally at 1- to 2-wk intervals over a period of 6 months at three schools in Pedregal, Mexico City. The maximum O3 level exceeded the World Health Organization guideline of 80 ppb and the U.S. standard of 120 ppb in every week. For an increase from lowest to highest in the mean O3 level during the 48 hr before spirometry (53 ppb), logistic regression estimated relative odds of 1.7 for a child reporting cough/phlegm on the day of spirometry. For the full population, the mean O3 level during the hour before spirometry, not adjusted for temperature and humidity, predicted a significant decrement in FVC but not in FEV1 or FEF25-75. In contrast, the mean O3 level during the previous 24-, 48-, and 168-h periods predicted significant decrements in FEV1 and FEF25-75 but not in FVC. Ozone was consistently associated with a greater decrement in lung function for the 15 children with chronic phlegm as compared with the children without chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or wheeze. Ozone in the previous 24-, 48-, and 168-h periods predicted decrements in FEV1 for children of mothers who were current or former smokers, but not for children of mothers who were never smokers. Many of these effects were reduced in multiple regression analyses including temperature and humidity, as temperature and O3 were highly correlated.

  2. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+δ by ozone and vacuum annealing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leng, Xiang; Bozovic, Ivan

    2014-11-21

    In this study we performed a series of ozone and vacuum annealing experiments on epitaxial La2-xSrxCuO4+δ thin films. The transition temperature after each annealing step has been measured by the mutual inductance technique. The relationship between the effective doping and the vacuum annealing time has been studied. Short-time ozone annealing at 470 °C oxidizes an underdoped film all the way to the overdoped regime. The subsequent vacuum annealing at 350 °C to 380 °C slowly brings the sample across the optimal doping point back to the undoped, non-superconducting state. Several ozone and vacuum annealing cycles have been done on themore » same sample and the effects were found to be repeatable and reversible Vacuum annealing of ozone-loaded LSCO films is a very controllable process, allowing one to tune the doping level of LSCO in small steps across the superconducting dome, which can be used for fundamental physics studies.« less

  3. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+δ by ozone and vacuum annealing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leng, Xiang; Bozovic, Ivan

    2014-11-21

    In this study we performed a series of ozone and vacuum annealing experiments on epitaxial La2-xSrxCuO4+δ thin films. The transition temperature after each annealing step has been measured by the mutual inductance technique. The relationship between the effective doping and the vacuum annealing time has been studied. Short-time ozone annealing at 470 °C oxidizes an underdoped film all the way to the overdoped regime. The subsequent vacuum annealing at 350 °C to 380 °C slowly brings the sample across the optimal doping point back to the undoped, non-superconducting state. Several ozone and vacuum annealing cycles have been done on themore »same sample and the effects were found to be repeatable and reversible Vacuum annealing of ozone-loaded LSCO films is a very controllable process, allowing one to tune the doping level of LSCO in small steps across the superconducting dome, which can be used for fundamental physics studies.« less

  4. Grounded Renewable Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grounded Renewable Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Grounded Renewable Energy Place: Carbondale, Colorado Zip: 81623 Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar Product: Grounded...

  5. Category:Ground Magnetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Magnetics Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Ground Magnetics page? For detailed information on Ground...

  6. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Zachery W.; Zevenbergen, Gary A.

    2012-04-03

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising positioning a first electrode and a second electrode at a distance from each other into the earth. The voltage of the first electrode and second electrode is attenuated by an attenuation factor creating an attenuated voltage. The true RMS voltage of the attenuated voltage is determined creating an attenuated true RMS voltage. The attenuated true RMS voltage is then multiplied by the attenuation factor creating a calculated true RMS voltage. If the calculated true RMS voltage is greater than a first predetermined voltage threshold, a first alarm is enabled at a local location. If user input is received at a remote location acknowledging the first alarm, a first alarm acknowledgment signal is transmitted. The first alarm acknowledgment signal is then received at which time the first alarm is disabled.

  7. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing

  8. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  9. Projections of Future Summertime Ozone over the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfister, G. G.; Walters, Stacy; Lamarque, J. F.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barth, Mary; Wong, John; Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy

    2014-05-05

    This study uses a regional fully coupled chemistry-transport model to assess changes in surface ozone over the summertime U.S. between present and a 2050 future time period at high spatial resolution (12 km grid spacing) under the SRES A2 climate and RCP8.5 anthropogenic pre-cursor emission scenario. The impact of predicted changes in climate and global background ozone is estimated to increase surface ozone over most of the U.S; the 5th - 95th percentile range for daily 8-hour maximum surface ozone increases from 31-79 ppbV to 30-87 ppbV between the present and future time periods. The analysis of a set of meteorological drivers suggests that these mostly will add to increasing ozone, but the set of simulations conducted does not allow to separate this effect from that through enhanced global background ozone. Statistically the most robust positive feedbacks are through increased temperature, biogenic emissions and solar radiation. Stringent emission controls can counteract these feedbacks and if considered, we estimate large reductions in surface ozone with the 5th-95th percentile reduced to 27-55 ppbV. A comparison of the high-resolution projections to global model projections shows that even though the global model is biased high in surface ozone compared to the regional model and compared to observations, both the global and the regional model predict similar changes in ozone between the present and future time periods. However, on smaller spatial scales, the regional predictions show more pronounced changes between urban and rural regimes that cannot be resolved at the coarse resolution of global model. In addition, the sign of the changes in overall ozone mixing ratios can be different between the global and the regional predictions in certain regions, such as the Western U.S. This study confirms the key role of emission control strategies in future air quality predictions and demonstrates the need for considering degradation of air quality with future

  10. Grounding and shielding in the accelerator environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerns, Q.

    1991-12-31

    Everyday features of the accelerator environment include long cable runs, high power and low level equipment sharing building space, stray electromagnetic fields and ground voltage differences between the sending and receiving ends of an installation. This paper pictures some Fermilab installations chosen to highlight significant features and presents practices, test methods and equipment that have been helpful in achieving successful shielding. Throughout the report are numbered statements aimed at summarizing good practices and avoiding pitfalls.

  11. Ground Magnetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Ground Magnetics Details Activities (25) Areas (19) Regions (0) NEPA(1) Exploration...

  12. Morphological basis of tolerance to ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, M.J.; Dekker, N.P.; Cabral-Anderson, L.J.; Shami, S.G.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to study Type 1 epithelial cells in the ozone (O/sub 3/)-tolerant lung epithelium. Rats were made tolerant by exposure to 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ for 2 days and allowed to recover in air. Reexposure to a lethal concentration of O/sub 3/ (6 ppm) at 3, 7, and 15 days of recovery revealed that tolerance was present at 3 days but almost absent at 7 and 15 days of recovery. Using Type 2 cell proliferation as a means of quantitating Type 1 cell injury, it was observed that when the preexposed rats were reexposed to 0.5 ppm at 3, 7, and 15 days, very little Type 1 cell injury occurred at 3 days. However, at 7 and 15 days the amount of Type 1 cell injury was the same as that associated with the original exposure. To determine whether there was any change in the alveolar epithelial cell populations between the periods of tolerance (3 days) and its decline (7 and 15 days), the percentage of tritiated thymidine (( /sup 3/H)TdR-labeled Type 1 and 2 cells at these times were determined. There was a significant decrease in (/sup 3/H)TdR-labeled Type 1 and 2 cells between the third and fifteenth days of recovery as excess cells were sloughed off and the tissue returned to normal. Using electron microscopic morphometry, Type 1 and 2 cells were then studied during the decline of tolerance. No change was found in the morphology of Type 2 cells; however, the morphology of Type 1 cells revealed a 58% decrease in surface area and a 25% increase in the arithmetic mean thickness when tolerance was present at 3 days. As tolerance declined (7 and 15 days), Type 1 cell morphology returned to normal. It was concluded that tolerance exists when the surface area of a cell exposed to a particular concentration of ozone is small enough so that the existing antioxidant mechanism contained within that cell volume can protect it from damage.

  13. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  14. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+δ by ozone and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+ by ozone and vacuum annealing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+ by ozone ...

  15. P ORNiiTM-7004 Results of Ground Level Radiation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    from a program initiated in 1974 by the Atomic Energy CoNnissiOn (AEC) for ... GAMMA-RAY EXPOSURE RATES (pRhr.) Fig. 5. On-site locations and mean external exposure ...

  16. Effect of ozonation on the composition of crude coal-tar benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F.

    2007-05-15

    The effect of ozonation on the composition of crude benzene produced by the coal-tar chemical industry was studied.

  17. DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2002_deer_lawson.pdf (393.04 KB) More Documents & Publications The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions … Summary and Implications for Air Quality

  18. Genotypic variability in ponderosa pine responses to combined ozone and drought stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temple, P.J.

    1995-06-01

    Five-year-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) seedlings from 18 half-sib and one full-sib families obtained from the California Tree Improvement Program were harvested after 1, 2, and 3 growing seasons of exposure to three levels of ozone (O{sub 3}) and two levels of available soil water (ASW) in open-top chambers in the California Sierras. Seedlings were evaluated for O{sub 3} injury symptoms, biomass, and radial growth in response to these stresses. Ozone injury responses were highly variable across families, but family rankings for O{sub 3} injury were consistent across years. Family rankings for O{sub 3} injury were highly correlated with those for reductions in biomass and radial growth for trees in the high ASW treatment, but drought-stressed trees showed no consistent relation between foliar 03 injury and reductions in growth. After three seasons of exposure to 88 ppb O{sub 3}, foliar biomass of the three most susceptible families averaged 60% less than trees in the low-O{sub 3} control, while O{sub 3} had no effect on growth of the three most resistant families. Variability across families of growth responses to drought was significantly less than the variability in seedling responses to O{sub 3}.

  19. Impact of heterogeneous chemistry on model predictions of ozone changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granier, C.; Brasseur, G. )

    1992-11-20

    A two-dimensional chemical/transport model of the middle atmosphere is used to assess the importance of chemical heterogeneous processes in the polar regions (on polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs)) and at other latitudes (on sulfate aerosols). When conversion on type I and type II PSCs of N[sub 2]O[sub 5] into HNO[sub 3] and of CIONO[sub 2] into reactive forms of chlorine is taken into account, enhanced CIO concentrations lead to the formation of a springtime ozone hole over the Antarctic continent; no such major reduction in the ozone column is found in the Arctic region. When conversion of nitrogen and chlorine compounds is assumed to occur on sulfate particles in the lower stratosphere, significant perturbations in the chemistry are also found. For background aerosol conditions, the concentration of nitric acid is enhanced and agrees with observed values, while that of nitrogen oxides is reduced and agrees less than if heterogeneous processes are ignored in the calculations. The concentration of the OH radical is significantly increased. Ozone number density appears to become larger between 16 and 30 km but smaller below 16 km, especially at high latitudes. The ozone column is only slightly modified, except at high latitudes where it is substantially reduced if the CIONO[sub 2] conversion into reactive chlorine is considered. After a large volcanic eruption these changes are further exacerbated. The ozone budget in the lower stratrosphere becomes less affected by nitrogen oxides but is largely controlled by the CIO[sub x] and HO[sub x] chemistries. A substantial decrease in the ozone column is predicted as a result of the Pinatubo volcanic eruption, mostly in winter at middle and high latitudes. 62 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Abiotic ozone and oxygen in atmospheres similar to prebiotic Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Segura, Antígona; Claire, Mark W.; Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-09-10

    The search for life on planets outside our solar system will use spectroscopic identification of atmospheric biosignatures. The most robust remotely detectable potential biosignature is considered to be the detection of oxygen (O{sub 2}) or ozone (O{sub 3}) simultaneous to methane (CH{sub 4}) at levels indicating fluxes from the planetary surface in excess of those that could be produced abiotically. Here we use an altitude-dependent photochemical model with the enhanced lower boundary conditions necessary to carefully explore abiotic O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} production on lifeless planets with a wide variety of volcanic gas fluxes and stellar energy distributions. On some of these worlds, we predict limited O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} buildup, caused by fast chemical production of these gases. This results in detectable abiotic O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} features in the UV-visible, but no detectable abiotic O{sub 2} features. Thus, simultaneous detection of O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} by a UV-visible mission is not a strong biosignature without proper contextual information. Discrimination between biological and abiotic sources of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} is possible through analysis of the stellar and atmospheric context—particularly redox state and O atom inventory—of the planet in question. Specifically, understanding the spectral characteristics of the star and obtaining a broad wavelength range for planetary spectra should allow more robust identification of false positives for life. This highlights the importance of wide spectral coverage for future exoplanet characterization missions. Specifically, discrimination between true and false positives may require spectral observations that extend into infrared wavelengths and provide contextual information on the planet's atmospheric chemistry.

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - 1999 Northeast Corridor Ozone & Particulate Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Northeast Corridor Ozone & Particulate Study ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 1999 Northeast Corridor Ozone & Particulate Study 1999.07.23 - 1999.08.11 Lead Scientist : Larry Kleinman For data sets, see below. Abstract As part of the 1999 NARSTO Northeast Corridor Oxidant and Particulate Study (NEC-OPS) field campaign, the DOE G-1 aircraft sampled trace gases and aerosols in and

  2. Update of national ozone study: Where are we now?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. It addresses the issue of national ozone research in focusing on the regional task force, Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG). The overall objectives of the OTAG initiatives are reported. These include development of a comprehensive regional emissions inventory, selection of research models and protocols, identification of criteria for selecting emissions control strategies, and development of a framework for a NO{sub x} trading system. Findings from preliminary modeling runs and analyses are presented. 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  4. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. Ozone metabolic effects

  5. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Task Force on Effective Grounding, ITFEG), led by Brian Lydic of Fronius USA, for providing the test plan that served as the basis for the test procedure used in this study. ...

  6. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  7. Engineering characterization of ground motion. Task II. Observational data on spatial variations of earthquake ground motion. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.Y.; Power, M.S.; Idriss, I.M.; Somerville, P.G.; Silva, W.; Chen, P.C.

    1986-02-01

    This report presents the results of part of a two-task study on the engineering characterization of earthquake ground motion for nuclear power plant design. The overall objective of this research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) is to develop recommendations for methods for selecting design response spectra or acceleration time histories to be used to characterize motion at the foundation level of nuclear power plants. Volume 3 presents observational data on spatial variations of earthquake ground motion.

  8. Document Number Q0029500 Ground Water Model 3.0 Ground Water...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ground Water Model 3.0 Ground Water Model This section presents a steady-state ground water flow model and a coupled solute transport model (ground water model) for the alluvial ...

  9. Tritium Ground Water Issues | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ground Water Issues Tritium Ground Water Issues Presentation from the 35th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Princeton, New Jersey on May 05-07, 2015. Tritium Ground Water Issues ...

  10. Colorado Ground Water Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Ground Water Commission Jump to: navigation, search Name: Colorado Ground Water Commission Place: Colorado Website: water.state.co.usgroundwater References: Colorado...

  11. Ground Source Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kingdom Zip: NG22 9GW Sector: Buildings Product: UK-based installer of ground source energy systems to domestic and commercial buildings. References: Ground Source...

  12. Appendix B Ground Water Management Policy

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ground Water Management Policy for the Monticello Mill Tailings Site and Adjacent Areas ... OF NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION OF WATER RIGHTS Ground-Water Management Policy for ...

  13. Ozone-forming potential of a series of oxygenated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J.; Rudy, S.J.; Chang, Tai Y. )

    1991-03-01

    An incremental reactivity approach has been used to assess the relative ozone-forming potentials of various important oxygenated fuels/fuel additives, i.e., tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), in a variety of environments. Calculations were performed using a single-cell trajectory model, combined with the Lurmann-Carter-Coyner chemical mechanism, with (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratios ranging from 4 to 20. This work provides the first quantitative assessment of the air quality impact of release of these important oxygenated compounds. ETBE and DEE are the two most reactive compounds on a per carbon equivalent basis, while TBA is the least reactive species. At a (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratio of 8, which is generally typical of polluted urban areas in the United States, TBA, DME, MTBE, and ETBE all have incremental reactivities less than or equal to that of the urban NMHC mix. Thus, use of these additives in fuels may have a beneficial impact on urban ozone levels.

  14. Isotope separation of {sup 17}O by photodissociation of ozone with near-infrared laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayashida, Shigeru; Kambe, Takashi; Sato, Tetsuya; Igarashi, Takehiro; Kuze, Hiroaki

    2012-04-01

    Oxygen-17 is a stable oxygen isotope useful for various diagnostics in both engineering and medical applications. Enrichment of {sup 17}O, however, has been very costly due to the lack of appropriate methods that enable efficient production of {sup 17}O on an industrial level. In this paper, we report the first {sup 17}O-selective photodissociation of ozone at a relatively high pressure, which has been achieved by irradiating a gas mixture of 10 vol% O{sub 3}-90 vol% CF{sub 4} with narrowband laser. The experiment was conducted on a pilot-plant scale. A total laser power of 1.6 W was generated by external-cavity diode lasers with all the laser wavelengths fixed at the peak of an absorption line of {sup 16}O{sup 16}O{sup 17}O around 1 {mu}m. The beams were introduced into a 25 -m long photoreaction cell under the sealed-off condition with a total pressure of 20 kPa. Lower cell temperature reduced the background decomposition of ozone, and at the temperature of 158 K, an {sup 17}O enrichment factor of 2.2 was attained.

  15. LINE-ABOVE-GROUND ATTENUATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.

    1957-09-24

    The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.

  16. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  17. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+? by ozone and vacuum annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Xiang; Bozovic, Ivan

    2014-11-21

    In this study we performed a series of ozone and vacuum annealing experiments on epitaxial La2-xSrxCuO4+? thin films. The transition temperature after each annealing step has been measured by the mutual inductance technique. The relationship between the effective doping and the vacuum annealing time has been studied. Short-time ozone annealing at 470 C oxidizes an underdoped film all the way to the overdoped regime. The subsequent vacuum annealing at 350 C to 380 C slowly brings the sample across the optimal doping point back to the undoped, non-superconducting state. Several ozone and vacuum annealing cycles have been done on the same sample and the effects were found to be repeatable and reversible Vacuum annealing of ozone-loaded LSCO films is a very controllable process, allowing one to tune the doping level of LSCO in small steps across the superconducting dome, which can be used for fundamental physics studies.

  18. Ground-state structures of Hafnium clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Wei Chun; Yoon, Tiem Leong; Lim, Thong Leng

    2015-04-24

    Hafnium (Hf) is a very large tetra-valence d-block element which is able to form relatively long covalent bond. Researchers are interested to search for substitution to silicon in the semi-conductor industry. We attempt to obtain the ground-state structures of small Hf clusters at both empirical and density-functional theory (DFT) levels. For calculations at the empirical level, charge-optimized many-body functional potential (COMB) is used. The lowest-energy structures are obtained via a novel global-minimum search algorithm known as parallel tempering Monte-Carlo Basin-Hopping and Genetic Algorithm (PTMBHGA). The virtue of using COMB potential for Hf cluster calculation lies in the fact that by including the charge optimization at the valence shells, we can encourage the formation of proper bond hybridization, and thus getting the correct bond order. The obtained structures are further optimized using DFT to ensure a close proximity to the ground-state.

  19. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  20. Meeting the New Ozone Standard: Challenges and Opportunities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation by Anna Garcia, executive director of the Ozone Transport Commission, was part of the July 2008 Webcast sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative that was titled Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Improving Air Quality and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals on High Electric Demand Days.

  1. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+δ by ozone and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+ by ozone and vacuum annealing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling superconductivity in ...

  2. Age-dependent inhibition of pentobarbital sleeping time by ozone in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canada, A.T.; Calabrese, E.J.; Leonard, D.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of age on the metabolism of pentobarbital in mice and rats was investigated following exposure to 0.3 ppm of ozone for 3.75 hr. Young animals were 2.5 months of age and the mature were 18 months. The pentobarbital sleeping time was significantly prolonged following the ozone exposure in both the mice and rats when compared with an air control. No ozone effect on sleeping time was found in the young animals. The results indicate that there may be an age-related sensitivity to the occurrence of ozone-related inhibition of pentobarbital metabolism.

  3. Ground control for highwall mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipf, R.K.; Mark, C.

    2007-09-15

    Perhaps the greatest risk to both equipment and personnel associated with highwall mining is from ground control. The two most significant ground control hazards are rock falls from highwall and equipment entrapment underground. In the central Appalachians, where the majority of highwall mining occurs in the USA, hillseams (or mountain cracks) are the most prominent structure that affects highwall stability. The article discusses measures to minimise the risk of failure associated with hillstreams. A 'stuck' or trapped highwall miner, and the ensuring retrieval or recovery operation, can be extremely disruptive to the highwall mining process. Most entrapment, are due to roof falls in the hole. The options for recovery are surface retrieval, surface excavation or underground recovery. Proper pillar design is essential to maintain highwall stability and prevent entrapments. NIOSH has developed the Analysis of Retreat Mining Pillar stability-Highwall Mining (ARMPS-HWM) computer program to help mine planners with this process. 10 figs.

  4. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, Andy; Nelson, Austin; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Chebahtah, Justin; Wang, Trudie; McCarty, Michael

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  5. In-Ground Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    2006-10-29

    Vertically oriented radiation detectors may not provide sufficient screening in rail or aviation applications. Railcars can be heavily shielded on the sides, reducing the sensitivity of vertically mounted monitors. For aviation, the distance required for wingspan clearance reduces a vertical detector’s coverage of the fuselage. To surmount these, and other, challenging operational and sensitivity issues, we have investigated the use of in-ground radiation detectors. (PIET-43741-TM-605).

  6. Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heating andor cooling system that takes advantage of the relatively constant year-round ground temperature to pump heat to or from the ground. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle...

  7. Ground Source Heat Pump Subprogram Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This overview of GTP's Ground Source Heat Pump subprogram was given at GTP's Program Peer Review on May 18, 2010.

  8. Ground Magnetics (Nannini, 1986) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Magnetics (Nannini, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration...

  9. Peak Ground Velocities for Seismic Events at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coppersmith; R. Quittmeyer

    2005-02-16

    This report describes a scientific analysis to bound credible horizontal peak ground velocities (PGV) for the repository waste emplacement level at Yucca Mountain. Results are presented as a probability distribution for horizontal PGV to represent uncertainties in the analysis. The analysis also combines the bound to horizontal PGV with results of ground motion site-response modeling (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027]) to develop a composite hazard curve for horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level. This result provides input to an abstraction of seismic consequences (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169183]). The seismic consequence abstraction, in turn, defines the input data and computational algorithms for the seismic scenario class of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). Planning for the analysis is documented in Technical Work Plan TWP-MGR-GS-000001 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171850]). The bound on horizontal PGV at the repository waste emplacement level developed in this analysis complements ground motions developed on the basis of PSHA results. In the PSHA, ground motion experts characterized the epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability in their ground motion interpretations. To characterize the aleatory variability they used unbounded lognormal distributions. As a consequence of these characterizations, as seismic hazard calculations are extended to lower and lower annual frequencies of being exceeded, the ground motion level increases without bound, eventually reaching levels that are not credible (Corradini 2003 [DIRS 171191]). To provide credible seismic inputs for TSPA, in accordance with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 63.102(j) [DIRS 156605], this complementary analysis is carried out to determine reasonable bounding values of horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level for annual frequencies of exceedance as low as 10{sup -8}. For each realization of the TSPA seismic scenario, the results of this analysis provide a constraint on the values sampled from the

  10. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Saewung; Kim, So-Young; Lee, Meehye; Shim, Heeyoun; Wolfe, Glenn; Guenther, Alex B.; He, Amy; Hong, Youdeog; Han, Jinseok

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Gangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical concentrations, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational dataset of CO, NOX, SO2, ozone, HONO, and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa Research Forest (TRF) near the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh BVOC emissions. With the dataset, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated with the University of Washington Chemical Box Model (UWCM v 2.1). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that 1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOX distributions especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times) and 2) radical destruction (HO2+HO2 or HO2+RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (HO2+NO) especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone-VOC-NOX sensitivity and oxidation product formation rates. Overall, the VOC limited regime in ozone photochemistry is predicted but the degree of sensitivity can significantly vary depending on the model scenarios. The model results also suggest that RO2 levels are positively correlated with OVOCs production that is not routinely

  11. Ozone response relationships in healthy nonsmokers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Hebel, J.R.; Chatham, M.D.

    1985-07-01

    Significant concentration responses were observed in FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75, SGaw, IC, and TLC in 20 healthy, nonsmoking volunteers exposed randomly to 0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 ppm O/sub 3/. In addition, significant response changes for FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75 were shown with time over the 2-h exposure. Intermittent, heavy exercise (VE, 68 L/min) lasting 14 min was employed every 30 min during exposure. Inspection of the concentration and time response curves suggests that the threshold for the group response is at or below 0.15 ppm O/sub 3/. Six subjects experienced decreases greater than 5% in FEV1 or greater than 15% in SGaw at 0.15 ppm. This concentration is only slightly higher than the 1-h O/sub 3/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard. A dose-related response was also seen for cough, nose and throat irritation, and chest discomfort. The work load, length of exposure, and individual sensitivity must be considered for establishing a safe O/sub 3/ exposure level.

  12. Ozone-response relationships in healthy nonsmokers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Hebel, J.R.; Chatham, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Significant concentration responses were observed in FVC1 FEV1, FEF 25-75, SGaw, IC, and TLC in 20 healthy, nonsmoking volunteers exposed randomly to 0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 ppm O3. In addition, significant response changes for FVC1 FEV1, FEF25-75 were shown with time over the 2-h exposure. Intermittent, heavy exercise (VE1 68L/min) lasting 14 min was employed every 30 min during exposure. Inspection of the concentration and time-response curves suggests that the threshold for the group response is at or below 0.15 ppm O/sub 3/. Six subjects experienced decreases > 5% in SGaw at 0.15 ppm. The concentration is only slightly higher than the 1-h O/sub 3/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard. A dose-related response was also seen for cough, nose and throat irritation, and chest discomfort. The work load, length of exposure, and individual sensitivity must be considered for establishing a safe O/sub 3/ exposure level.

  13. Classical and alternative macrophage activation in the lung following ozone-induced oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Shen, Jianliang; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-09-01

    Ozone is a pulmonary irritant known to cause oxidative stress, inflammation and tissue injury. Evidence suggests that macrophages play a role in the pathogenic response; however, their contribution depends on the mediators they encounter in the lung which dictate their function. In these studies we analyzed the effects of ozone-induced oxidative stress on the phenotype of alveolar macrophages (AM). Exposure of rats to ozone (2 ppm, 3 h) resulted in increased expression of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in AM. Whereas 8-OHdG was maximum at 24 h, expression of HO-1 was biphasic increasing after 3 h and 4872 h. Cleaved caspase-9 and beclin-1, markers of apoptosis and autophagy, were also induced in AM 24 h post-ozone. This was associated with increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, demonstrating alveolar epithelial injury. Ozone intoxication resulted in biphasic activation of the transcription factor, NF?B. This correlated with expression of monocyte chemotactic protein?1, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase?2, markers of proinflammatory macrophages. Increases in arginase-1, Ym1 and galectin-3 positive anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages were also observed in the lung after ozone inhalation, beginning at 24 h (arginase-1, Ym1), and persisting for 72 h (galectin-3). This was associated with increased expression of pro-surfactant protein-C, a marker of Type II cell proliferation and activation, important steps in wound repair. These data suggest that both proinflammatory/cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages are activated early in the response to ozone-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury. -- Highlights: ? Lung macrophages are highly sensitive to ozone induced oxidative stress. ? Ozone induces autophagy and apoptosis in lung macrophages. ? Proinflammatory and wound repair macrophages are activated early after ozone

  14. North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps Overview: Installation of Ground Source Heat Pumps. Replacement of Aging Heat Pumps. Alignment with ...

  15. Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Below are the project presentations and respective peer review results for Ground ...

  16. Operating Ground Rules - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The Department of Energy, as required by FACA, provides funding levels adequate to cover or provide: technical assistance sufficiently adequate for independent review of all major ...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    the VALE Program is to reduce ground level emissions at commercial service airports located in designated ozone and carbon monoxide air quality nonattainment and maintenance areas. ...

  18. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of ozone formation and transport for a Central California air pollution episode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Ling; Tonse, Shaheen; Cohan, Daniel S.; Mao, Xiaoling; Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2009-05-15

    CMAQ-HDDM is used to determine spatial and temporal variations in ozone limiting reagents and local vs upwind source contributions for an air pollution episode in Central California. We developed a first- and second- order sensitivity analysis approach with the Decoupled Direct Method to examine spatial and temporal variations of ozone-limiting reagents and the importance of local vs upwind emission sources in the San Joaquin Valley of central California for a five-day ozone episode (29th July-3rd Aug, 2000). Despite considerable spatial variations, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission reductions are overall more effective than volatile organic compound (VOC) control for attaining the 8-hr ozone standard in this region for this episode, in contrast to the VOC control that works better for attaining the prior 1-hr ozone standard. Inter-basin source contributions of NO{sub x} emissions are limited to the northern part of the SJV, while anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) emissions, especially those emitted at night, influence ozone formation in the SJV further downwind. Among model input parameters studied here, uncertainties in emissions of NO{sub x} and AVOC, and the rate coefficient of the OH + NO{sub 2} termination reaction, have the greatest effect on first-order ozone responses to changes in NO{sub x} emissions. Uncertainties in biogenic VOC emissions only have a modest effect because they are generally not collocated with anthropogenic sources in this region.

  20. Service Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Service Levels Service Levels NERSC Supported Services Model NERSC supports various services at various levels of support. This document outlines the different levels of support that can be expected for a given service. Production Services All production services at NERSC have the following characteristics: Monitored by NERSC Operations with automated tools (Nagios). Outages are announced on the MOTD and must follow the rules defined in System Outages document. User facing documentation

  1. Promising Technology: Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) use the constant temperature of the Earth as the heat exchange medium instead of the outside air temperature. During the winter, a GSHP uses the ground as a heat source to provide heating, and during the summer, a GSHP uses the ground as a heat sink to provide cooling. Although more expensive than air-source heat pumps, GSHP’s are much more efficient, especially in cold temperatures.

  2. The role of developing countries in protecting the ozone layer: An ethical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zatz, M.N.

    1994-12-31

    In an effort to reduce the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, the nations of the world joined together in a landmark effort to address this most important problem. Unlike many environmental issues which are localized, ozone depletion is an environmental problem which must be addressed on a global scale. In order to successfully halt the depletion of the ozone layer, it is imperative that all countries amend their current practices and reduce their consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This necessity presents an ethical dilemma when assigning responsibility for ozone layer protection among nations. This paper will address the difficulties in dealing with ozone depletion on a global scale and will discuss the ethically correct role which should be assumed by developing countries. After presenting a brief history of the problem of ozone depletion and the measures which have been taken to halt it, this paper will describe an ethical framework in which ozone layer protection policies in developing countries should be evaluated. This framework is based on the concept of balancing morally-correct policies with economically-sound policies. It illustrates, in detail, how the environmental impacts of policies must be considered in conjunction with the impacts of such policies on the lives and well-being of the country`s citizens. The paper presents an ethical analysis of three primary policy options. These options address the phaseout of ozone-depleting substances (such as CFCs) and include: the no-phaseout option, the developed country accelerated phaseout schedule, and the delayed phaseout schedule. Each option is examined within the ethical framework presented earlier in the paper. Finally, the paper concludes by addressing the ethical responsibilities of developed countries. It discusses the various ways in which developed countries should provide aid.

  3. Ozone in sea water. Part 1: Chemistry; Part 2: Corrosion of metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyllie, W.E. II; Brown, B.E.; Duquette, D.J.

    1995-12-01

    Ozonation of sea water for biofouling control is being utilized in desalination processes, heat exchange systems, as well as in salt water aquariums. The chemistry of ozone in sea water is much more complex than in fresh water due to the high concentration of easily oxidizable, ozone-demanding species and the formation of secondary oxidants. The major secondary oxidant is bromine in the form of hypobromite and hypobromous acid (BrO{sup {minus}}/HOBr) which are formed by oxidation of the bromide ion (Br{sup {minus}}), naturally found in sea water in concentrations of 65 mg/L. HOBr can react again with ozone to return Br{sup {minus}}, resulting in accelerated decomposition of ozone, or to form bromate (BrO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) The BrO ion is known to interfere with the measurement of residual ozone in sea water, so it is important that the feed gas conditions, solution pH, and the hypobromous and bromate concentrations be reported to quantify the amount of ozone introduced into a system. In 0.5 N NaCl and sea water solutions, ozone appears to stabilize the passivity of passivating metals, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion appears to increase in the same environments. The effect of BrO{sup {minus}}/HOBr on the corrosion of metals in sea water is believed to be similar to chlorine and ozone, in that it acts as a strong oxidizer. However, it is not certain whether BrO{sup {minus}}/HOBr and BrO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} have any damaging effects on protective metal films.

  4. Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Grounds Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-08-05

    FEMP Water Efficiency Best Management Practice #4 and #5: Case study overview of the grounds maintenance program for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  6. Ground Gravity Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Et Al., 2000) Dixie Valley Geothermal Area 1999 2000 Precise Gravimetry and Geothermal Reservoir Management Ground Gravity Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Blackwell, Et...

  7. Earth resistivity measurement near substation ground grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lodwig, S.G.; Mateja, S.A.

    1996-11-01

    Proper substation grounding grid design requires good, accurate soil resistivity measurements. This data is essential to model the substation ground grid to design a safe ground grid with a satisfactory ground grid resistance at minimum cost. For substations with several decades of service, there is some concern that a grid may have deteriorated, been damaged during equipment installation or excavation, or that initial soil resistivity measurements were lost or may not have been correctly performed. Ground grid conductors change the substation surface voltage distribution. Any voltage measurements taken at the complete substation will also vary from the tests made without conductors present. During testing, current was injected in the soil by probes placed near the ground grid. The current tends to follow the ground grid conductors since copper is a far better conductor than the soil it is placed in. Resistance readings near grids will be lower than readings in undisturbed soil. Since computer models were unavailable for many years, analyzing the effect of the grid conductors on soil resistivity measurements was very difficult. As a result, soil resistivity measurements made close to substations were of little use to the engineer unless some means of correcting the measured values could be developed. This paper will present results of soil resistivity measurements near a substation ground grid before and after a ground grid has been installed and describes a means of calculating the undisturbed soil model.

  8. Enclosed ground-flare incinerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiseman, Thomas R.

    2000-01-01

    An improved ground flare is provided comprising a stack, two or more burner assemblies, and a servicing port so that some of the burner assemblies can be serviced while others remain in operation. The burner assemblies comprise a burner conduit and nozzles which are individually fitted to the stack's burner chamber and are each removably supported in the chamber. Each burner conduit is sealed to and sandwiched between a waste gas inlet port and a matching a closure port on the other side of the stack. The closure port can be opened for physically releasing the burner conduit and supplying sufficient axial movement room for extracting the conduit from the socket, thereby releasing the conduit for hand removal through a servicing port. Preferably, the lower end of the stack is formed of one or more axially displaced lower tubular shells which are concentrically spaced for forming annular inlets for admitting combustion air. An upper tubular exhaust stack, similarly formed, admits additional combustion air for increasing the efficiency of combustion, increasing the flow of exhausted for improved atmospheric dispersion and for cooling the upper stack.

  9. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vadnais, Kenneth G.; Bashforth, Michael B.; Lewallen, Tricia S.; Nammath, Sharyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  10. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  11. Strategic Ground Delivery Services | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategic Ground Delivery Services Strategic Ground Delivery Services Use of New Strategically Source Agreement UPS.pdf.pdf (96.79 KB) More Documents & Publications POLICY FLASH 2010-42 Use of New Strategically Sourced Blanket Purchase Agreement for Domestic Delivery Services with United Parcel Service Minutes from the Print and Mail Managers Exchange Forum Teleconferences

  12. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 He from ENSDF E x (MeV ± keV) J π ; T Γ (MeV) a Decay b g.s. 1 2 + ; 5 2 n ≈ 1.1 MeV 1 2 - 0.10 ± 0.06 ≈ 2.26 MeV 0.7 ± 0.2 (4.20 ± 150) ≈ 5.0 MeV (8.0) MeV a From 9 Be( 14 C, 14 O) (1999BO26). b %n = 100 for ground state. Decay mode for excited states is probably %n=100 based on Q-value; no mode is reported.

  13. Collection of liquid from below-ground location

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Steven J.; Alexander, Robert G.

    1995-01-01

    A method of retrieving liquid from a below-ground collection area by permitting gravity flow of the liquid from the collection area to a first closed container; monitoring the level of the liquid in the closed container; and after the liquid reaches a given level in the first closed container, transferring the liquid to a second closed container disposed at a location above the first closed container, via a conduit, by introducing into the first closed container a gas which is substantially chemically inert with respect to the liquid, the gas being at a pressure sufficient to propel the liquid from the first closed container to the second closed container.

  14. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  15. A global analysis of the ozone deficit in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Allen, M. )

    1993-01-20

    The global measurements of temperature, ozone, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide acquired by the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS), supplemented by a precomputed distribution of chlorine monoxide, are used to test the balance between odd oxygen production and loss in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. An efficient photochemical equilibrium model, validated by comparison with the results from a fully time-dependent one-dimensional model at selected latitudes, is used in the calculations. The computed ozone abundances are systematically lower than observations for May 1-7, 1979, which suggests, contrary to the conclusions of other recent studies, a problem in model simulations of stratospheric ozone. The ozone deficit' at 30[degrees]N is smaller than previous analyses of LIMS data have indicated. In the stratosphere, this reduction in the deficit is due to the fact that CIO abundances for the 1979 period utilized in this study are much lower than in earlier work, mainly as a result of lower Cl[sub y] concentrations. In the mesosphere, a correlation of the ozone deficit with the distribution of water vapor is indicated. The ozone deficit in the stratosphere can be eliminated by modifying only one model reaction rate: either by decreasing the rate of odd oxygen loss or by increasing the rate of odd oxygen production Cl[sub y] increasing the photodissociation rate of molecular oxygen primarily in the Herzberg continuum and/or invoking photolysis of vibrationally excited molecular oxygen. With the ozone abundances thus increased, a small residual deficit in the lower mesophere can be eliminated by reducing, within the recommended kinetic uncertainties, the efficiency of odd hydrogen-catalyzed odd oxygen loss. With the adjusted model, the calculated ozone abundances for the week of January 1-7. 1979, outside of winter latitudes, also agree with the LIMS observations to within 10%. 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change in Twentieth Century Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate Change in Twentieth Century Zuev, V Institute of Atmospheric Optics Zueva, N. Institute of Atmospheric Optics Bondarenko, S Institute of Atmospheric Optics Category: Atmospheric State and Surface It is shown that during long-term total ozone decrease everywhere at middle and high latitudes there takes place the destruction of balance in global carbon cycle first of all due to reduction of

  17. Quantitative risk of oil tanker groundings. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amrozowicz, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    The culture, design, and operation of the maritime industry all contribute to create an error-inducing system. As oil tankers have become larger, the tolerance for error has decreased as the consequences have increased. Tankers are the largest contributor by vessel type to worldwide oil spill volume. Human error has consistently been attributed to 80 percent of the marine accidents. A closer look reveals that many accidents attributed to human error are system errors. In fact, the term human error is unwarranted in many high-risk accidents and its use is a perforation of the context. The maritime industry has been identified as a high risk operation, requiring an active risk management program. A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) provides a formal process of determining the full range of possible adverse occurrences, probabilities, and expected costs for any undesirable event. A PRA can identify those areas that offer the greatest risk-reducing potential. This thesis focuses on the first level of a proposed three-level risk model to determine the probability of a tanker grounding. The approach utilizes fault trees and event trees and incorporates The Human Error Rate Prediction data to quantify individual errors. The result allows the identification of high-leverage factors in order to determine the most effective and efficient use of resources to reduce the probability of grounding; showing that the development of the Electronic Chart Display and Information System incorporated with the International Safety Management Code can significantly reduce the probability of grounding.

  18. Evaluation of Bare Ground on Rangelands using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins

    2011-01-01

    Attention is currently being given to methods that assess the ecological condition of rangelands throughout the United States. There are a number of different indicators that assess ecological condition of rangelands. Bare Ground is being considered by a number of agencies and resource specialists as a lead indicator that can be evaluated over a broad area. Traditional methods of measuring bare ground rely on field technicians collecting data along a line transect or from a plot. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an alternative to collecting field data, can monitor a large area in a relative short period of time, and in many cases can enhance safety and time required to collect data. In this study, both fixed wing and helicopter UAVs were used to measure bare ground in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem. The data were collected with digital imagery and read using the image analysis software SamplePoint. The approach was tested over seven different plots and compared against traditional field methods to evaluate accuracy for assessing bare ground. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho in locations where there is very little disturbance by humans and the area is grazed only by wildlife. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

  19. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  20. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li from ENSDF E x (MeV ± keV) J π ; T Γ 0.0 ± 25 a (1 - , 2 - ); 2 0.210 ± 40 b 1 + 100 ± 70 keV 0.470 ± 30 c 360 ± 20 keV 0.670 ± 200 d (2 - ) 0.1 ± 0.1 MeV 1.370 ± 80 b (2 - , 1 - ) 200 ± 70 keV ≈ 1.6 MeV e 2.330 ± 100 b (1 + , 3 + ) 1.2 ± 0.4 MeV 2.820 ± 70 b (1 - , 2 + ) 0.3 ± 0.2 MeV 4.160 ± 100 b 120 ± 80 keV 4.600 ± 100 b (3 - , 2 + ) 0.2 ± 0.1 MeV 5.2 ± 200 f ≈ 0.4 MeV 5.7 ± 100 b 200 ± 100 keV a Ground state is at E rel ( 9 Li + n) = 25 keV (2003AU03); %n =

  1. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well injection at Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Grand Junction ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site; modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

  2. Ground Source Heat Pump Subprogram Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EGS Demonstration s, 51.4 Innovative Exploration Technologies, 98.1 Ground Source Heat Pumps, ... chiller, VAV air handling system, and gas-fired hot water boiler *54 GHP units, 200 ...

  3. Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    efficient when cooling your home. Not only does this save energy and money, it reduces air pollution. GSHP System Ground source heat pump systems consist of three parts: the...

  4. 118-K-1 Burial Ground - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim ...

  5. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  6. Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

  7. The combined effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on crop systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.E.; Heagle, A.S.; Shafer, S.R.; Heck, W.W.

    1994-12-31

    Concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) in the troposphere have risen in the last century due to industrialization. Current levels of tropospheric O{sub 3} suppress growth of crops and other plants, and O{sub 3} concentrations may continue to rise with changes in global climate. On the other hand, projected increases in atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the next 50 to 100 years are expected to cause significant increases in growth of most species. Since elevated concentrations of these gases will co-occur, it is important to understand their joint action. Until recently, however, the combined effects of O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} have received little attention. Most publications on combined CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} effects have described experiments conducted in greenhouse or controlled-environment facilities. To date, data on responses of agricultural species to the combined gases have come from experiments with radish, tomato, white clover, tobacco, or wheat. In most cases, CO{sub 2} stimulated and O{sub 3} suppressed growth of the plant tissues studied, and CO{sub 2} usually attenuated development of O{sub 3}-induced visible injury. Some data have indicated a tendency for CO{sub 2}, in concentrations up to double the current ambient level, to attenuate effects of O{sub 3} on growth, but statistical analyses of such data often have not supported such a conclusion. In this paper, the results of a recent field experiment with soybean are reported, and the results are compared to other similar research with elevated atmospheric concentrations of both O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}.

  8. U.S. NO₂ trends (2005–2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng

    2015-06-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and, subsequently, atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) have decreased over the U.S. due to a combination of environmental policies and technological change. Consequently, NO₂ levels have decreased by 30–40% in the last decade. We quantify NO₂ trends (2005–2013) over the U.S. using surface measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) and an improved tropospheric NO₂ vertical column density (VCD) data product from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite.We demonstrate that the current OMI NO₂ algorithm is of sufficient maturity to allow a favorable correspondence of trends and variations in OMI and AQS data. Our trend model accounts for the non-linear dependence of NO₂ concentration on emissions associated with the seasonal variation of the chemical lifetime, including the change in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle associated with the significant change in NOx emissions that occurred over the last decade. The direct relationship between observations and emissions becomes more robust when one accounts for these non-linear dependencies. We improve the OMI NO₂ standard retrieval algorithm and, subsequently, the data product by using monthly vertical concentration profiles, a required algorithm input, from a high-resolution chemistry and transport model (CTM) simulation with varying emissions (2005-2013). The impact of neglecting the time-dependence of the profiles leads to errors in trend estimation, particularly in regions where emissions have changed substantially. For example, trends calculated from retrievals based on time-dependent profiles offer 18% more instances of significant trends and up to 15% larger total NO₂ reduction versus the results based on profiles for 2005. Using a CTM, we explore the theoretical relation of the trends estimated from NO₂ VCDs to those estimated from ground-level concentrations

  9. U.S. NO₂ trends (2005–2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng

    2015-06-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and, subsequently, atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) have decreased over the U.S. due to a combination of environmental policies and technological change. Consequently, NO₂ levels have decreased by 30–40% in the last decade. We quantify NO₂ trends (2005–2013) over the U.S. using surface measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) and an improved tropospheric NO₂ vertical column density (VCD) data product from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite.We demonstrate that the current OMI NO₂ algorithm is of sufficient maturity to allow a favorable correspondence of trendsmore » and variations in OMI and AQS data. Our trend model accounts for the non-linear dependence of NO₂ concentration on emissions associated with the seasonal variation of the chemical lifetime, including the change in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle associated with the significant change in NOx emissions that occurred over the last decade. The direct relationship between observations and emissions becomes more robust when one accounts for these non-linear dependencies. We improve the OMI NO₂ standard retrieval algorithm and, subsequently, the data product by using monthly vertical concentration profiles, a required algorithm input, from a high-resolution chemistry and transport model (CTM) simulation with varying emissions (2005-2013). The impact of neglecting the time-dependence of the profiles leads to errors in trend estimation, particularly in regions where emissions have changed substantially. For example, trends calculated from retrievals based on time-dependent profiles offer 18% more instances of significant trends and up to 15% larger total NO₂ reduction versus the results based on profiles for 2005. Using a CTM, we explore the theoretical relation of the trends estimated from NO₂ VCDs to those estimated from ground-level concentrations. The model

  10. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-11-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  11. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  12. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  13. Overview of ozone human exposure and health risk analyses used in the U.S. EPA's review of the ozone air quality standard.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, R. G.

    1999-03-04

    This paper presents an overview of the ozone human exposure and health risk analyses developed under sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These analyses are being used in the current review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The analyses consist of three principal steps: (1) estimating short-term ozone exposure for particular populations (exposure model); (2) estimating population response to exposures or concentrations (exposure-response or concentration-response models); and (3) integrating concentrations or exposure with concentration-response or exposure-response models to produce overall risk estimates (risk model). The exposure model, called the probabilistic NAAQS exposure model for ozone (pNEM/03), incorporates the following factors: hourly ambient ozone concentrations; spatial distribution of concentrations; ventilation state of individuals at time of exposure; and movement of people through various microenvironments (e.g., outdoors, indoors, inside a vehicle) of varying air quality. Exposure estimates are represented by probability distributions. Exposure-response relationships have been developed for several respiratory symptom and lung function health effects, based on the results of controlled human exposure studies. These relationships also are probabilistic and reflect uncertainties associated with sample size and variability of response among subjects. The analyses also provide estimates of excess hospital admissions in the New York City area based on results from an epidemiology study. Overall risk results for selected health endpoints and recently analyzed air quality scenarios associated with alternative 8-hour NAAQS and the current 1-hour standard for outdoor children are used to illustrate application of the methodology.

  14. levelized costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    levelized costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  15. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. FIELD TEST AND EVALUATION OF RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TEST AND EVALUATION OF RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS USING ALTERNATIVE VERTICAL-BORE GROUND HEAT EXCHANGERS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FIELD TEST AND ...

  17. 2012 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2012 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring ...

  18. Ground Gravity Survey At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Clear Lake Area...

  19. Ground Gravity Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Coso Geothermal...

  20. Ground Gravity Survey At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Crump's Hot...

  1. Ground Gravity Survey At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Biehler...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Biehler, 1964) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At...

  2. Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey...

  3. Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO, 1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey...

  4. Ground Gravity Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Snake River...

  5. Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey...

  6. Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Broyles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Broyles, Et Al., 1979) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity...

  7. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water ...

  8. Department of Veterans Affairs, FONSI - Ground mounted solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ground mounted solar photovoltaic power at San Joaquin National Cemetery Department of Veterans Affairs, FONSI - Ground mounted solar photovoltaic power at San Joaquin National ...

  9. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems Project objective: Create a new ...

  10. Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System Permit Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Pollution Control System Permit Application Forms Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Ground Water Pollution...

  11. Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System Information Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Pollution Control System Information Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System...

  12. EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control Program) webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - Ground Water...

  13. Microarcsecond relative astrometry from the ground with a diffractive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ground with a diffractive pupil Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microarcsecond relative astrometry from the ground with a diffractive pupil Authors: Ammons, S M ; ...

  14. Category:Ground Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Ground Electromagnetic Techniques page? For...

  15. Water Quality Surface and Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Surface and Ground Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterQualitySurfaceandGround&oldid612197" Feedback...

  16. Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Comparison of building energy use before and after ...

  17. Post-treatment of fly ash by ozone in a fixed bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim Hougaard Pedersen; Merc Casanovas Meli; Anker Degn Jensen; Kim Dam-Johansen

    2009-01-15

    The residual carbon in fly ash produced from pulverized coal combustion can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete. This behavior of the ash can be suppressed by exposing the fly ash to oxidizing species, which oxidizes the carbon surface and thus prevents the AEA to be adsorbed. In the present work, two fly ashes have been ozonated in a fixed bed reactor and the results showed that ozonation is a potential post-treatment method that can lower the AEA requirements of a fly ash up to 6 times. The kinetics of the carbon oxidation by ozone was found to be fast. A kinetic model has been formulated, describing the passivation of carbon, and it includes the stoichiometry of the ozone consumption (0.8 mol of O{sub 3}/kg of C) and an ineffective ozone loss caused by catalytic decomposition. The simulated results correlated well with the experimental data. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

  19. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Cline, C.S.; Jensen, E.J.; Liikala, T.L.; Oster, K.R.

    1984-07-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents contain low level of radioactive and chemical substances. During 1983, 328 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Three of these constituents, specifically tritium, nitrate, and gross beta activity, were selected for detailed discussion in this report because they are more readily transported in the ground water than some of the other constituents. Transport of these constituents in the ground water has resulted in the formation of plumes that can be mapped by contouring the analytical data obtained from the monitoring wells. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium, nitrate and gross beta plumes. Changes or trends in contaminant levels in wells located within both the main plumes (originating from the 200 Areas) and the smaller plumes are discussed in this report. Two potential pathways for radionuclide transport from the ground water to the environmental are discussed in this report, and the radiological impacts are examined. In addition to describing the present status of the ground water beneath the Hanford Site, this report contains the results of studies conducted in support of the ground-water surveillance effort during CY 1983. 21 references, 26 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey; Ordaz, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  1. Substation grounding programs. Volume 5, Applications manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S.

    1992-05-01

    This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 5, is an applications guide of the three computer programs. SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS, for the purpose of designing a safe substation grounding system. The applications guide utilizes four example substation grounding systems for the purpose of illustrating the application of the programs, SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS. The examples are based on data provided by four contributing utilities, namely, Houston Lighting and Power Company, Southern Company Services, Puget Sound Power and Light Company, and Arizona Public Service Company. For the purpose of illustrating specific capabilities of the computer programs, the data have been modified. As a result, the final designs of the four systems do not necessarily represent actual grounding system designs by these utilities. The example system 1 is a 138 kV/35 kV distribution substation. The example system 2 is a medium size 230 kV/115 kV transmission substation. The third example system is a generation substation while the last is a large 525 kV/345 kV/230 kV transmission substation. The four examples cover most of the practical problems that a user may encounter in the design of substation grounding systems.

  2. Water relations of differentially irrigated cotton exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temple, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The field study was conducted to test the hypothesis that plants chronically exposed to O{sub 3} may be more susceptible to drought because O{sub 3} typically inhibits root growth and increases shoot-root ratios in plants. Cotton was grown in open-top chambers on Hanford coarse sandy loam in Riverside, CA. Plants were grown under three irrigation regimes: Optimum water for lint production (OW), suboptimum or moderate drought stress (SO), and severely drought stressed (SS) and were exposed to seasonal 12 h (0800-2000) O{sub 3} centrations of 0.015, 0.074, 0.094, or 0.111/microLL. Leaf xylem pressure potentials Psi(sub 1) and soil water content Theta(sub v) were measured weekly from June to October. Mean seasonal Psi(sub 1) increased from -1.89 MPa to -1.72 MPa in low to high O{sub 3} treatments, averaged across soil water regimes. Ozone had no effect on seasonal water use of cotton, but water use efficiency was significantly reduced by O{sub 3} in OW and SO, but not in SS treatments. Drought-stressed plants extracted proportionally greater amounts of water from deeper in the soil profile than OW cotton, and O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on this redistribution of roots in the soil. Since O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on the ability of drought-stressed cotton to maintain Psi(sub 1) and to increase root growth relative to shoot growth, this suggests that O{sub 3} may have little or no effect on the potential of cotton to adapt to or tolerate drought.

  3. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for SR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Sun

    2000-04-07

    This analysis demonstrates that a satisfactory ground control system can be designed for the Yucca Mountain site, and provides the technical basis for the design of ground support systems to be used in repository emplacement and non-emplacement drifts. The repository ground support design was based on analytical methods using acquired computer codes, and focused on the final support systems. A literature review of case histories, including the lessons learned from the design and construction of the ESF, the studies on the seismic damages of underground openings, and the use of rock mass classification systems in the ground support design, was conducted (Sections 6.3.4 and 6.4). This review provided some basis for determining the inputs and methodologies used in this analysis. Stability of the supported and unsupported emplacement and non-emplacement drifts was evaluated in this analysis. The excavation effects (i.e., state of the stress change due to excavation), thermal effects (i.e., due to heat output from waste packages), and seismic effects (i.e., from potential earthquake events) were evaluated, and stress controlled modes of failure were examined for two in situ stress conditions (k_0=0.3 and 1.0) using rock properties representing rock mass categories of 1 and 5. Variation of rock mass units such as the non-lithophysal (Tptpmn) and lithophysal (Tptpll) was considered in the analysis. The focus was on the non-lithophysal unit because this unit appears to be relatively weaker and has much smaller joint spacing. Therefore, the drift stability and ground support needs were considered to be controlled by the design for this rock unit. The ground support systems for both emplacement and non-emplacement drifts were incorporated into the models to assess their performance under in situ, thermal, and seismic loading conditions. Both continuum and discontinuum modeling approaches were employed in the analyses of the rock mass behavior and in the evaluation of the

  4. Record of Decision for Ground Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Record of Decision for Ground Water Record of Decision for Ground Water Record of Decision for Ground Water (April 1997) Record of Decision for Ground Water (625.12 KB) More Documents & Publications EIS-0198: Record of Decision EIS-0170: Record of Decision (April 1997) EIS-0251: Second Record of Decision (May 1997)

  5. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  6. Collection of liquid from below-ground location

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.

    1995-05-30

    A method is described for retrieving liquid from a below-ground collection area by permitting gravity flow of the liquid from the collection area to a first closed container; monitoring the level of the liquid in the closed container; and after the liquid reaches a given level in the first closed container, transferring the liquid to a second closed container disposed at a location above the first closed container, via a conduit, by introducing into the first closed container a gas which is substantially chemically inert with respect to the liquid, the gas being at a pressure sufficient to propel the liquid from the first closed container to the second closed container. 3 figs.

  7. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  8. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  9. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water Volumes I & II (October 1996) Optical character recognition has been applied to these files, but full search capabilities are not guaranteed. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water-Volume I (10.79 MB) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water-Volume II

  10. Evaluation of the US Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program in Hawaii, 1992. Water-resources investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1997-12-31

    This report describes an evaluation of the 1992 USGS ground-water data-collection program in Hawaii. The occurrence of ground water in the Hawaiian islands is briefly described. Objectives for the data-collection program are identified followed by a description of well networks needed to prepare maps of water levels and chloride concentrations. For the islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii, the wells in the 1992 ground-water data-collection program are described followed by maps showing the distribution and magnitude of pumpage, and the distribution of proposed pumped wells. Wells in the 1992 USGS ground-water data-collection program that provide useful data for mapping water levels and chloride concentrations are identified followed by locations where additional wells are needed for water-level and chloride-concentration data. In addition, a procedure to store and review data is described.

  11. U.S. Department of Energy UMTRA Ground Water Project Ground Water Pumping and Monitoring Plan

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    GWMON 1.12-1 U.S. Department of Energy UMTRA Ground Water Project Ground Water Pumping and Monitoring Plan for the Land Farm Pilot Test Monument Valley, Arizona August 2000 Prepared by U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Ofice Grand Junction, Colorado Project Number UGW-5 1 1-001 5-21-000 Document Number U0106701 This page intentionally left blank Document Number U0106701 Contents Contents 1.0 Introduction

  12. The Impact of Emission and Climate Change on Ozone in the United States under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S.; Drake, John B.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Liu, Yang

    2013-09-27

    Dynamical downscaling was applied in this study to link the global climate-chemistry model Community Atmosphere Model (CAM-Chem) with the regional models: Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ). Two Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) were used to evaluate the climate impact on ozone concentrations in 2050s. Ozone concentrations in the lower-mid troposphere (surface to ~300 hPa), from mid- to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), show decreasing trends in RCP 4.5 between 2000s and 2050s, with the largest decrease of 4-10 ppbv occurring in the summer and the fall; and increasing trends (2-12 ppbv) in RCP 8.5 resulting from the increased methane emissions. In RCP 8.5, methane emissions increase by ~60% by the end of 2050s, accounting for more than 90% of ozone increases in summer and fall, and 60-80% in spring and winter. Under the RCP 4.5 scenario, in the summer when photochemical reactions are the most active, the large ozone precursor emissions reduction leads to the greatest decrease of downscaled surface ozone concentrations, ranging from 6 to 10 ppbv. However, a few major cities show ozone increases of 3 to 7 ppbv due to weakened NO titration. Under the RCP 8.5 scenario, in winter, downscaled ozone concentrations increase across nearly the entire continental US in winter, ranging from 3 to 10 ppbv due to increased methane emissions and enhanced stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE). More intense heat waves are projected to occur by the end of 2050s in RCP 8.5, leading to more than 8 ppbv of the maximum daily 8-hour daily average (MDA8) ozone during the heat wave days than other days; this indicates the dramatic impact heat waves exert on high frequency ozone events.

  13. SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, M.; Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

    1998-01-21

    Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities.

  14. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  15. Posters Ground-Based Radiometric Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Posters Ground-Based Radiometric Observations of Atmospheric Water for Climate Research J. B. Snider, D. A. Hazen, A. J. Francavilla, W. B. Madsen, and M. D. Jacobson National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction Surface-based microwave and infrared radiometers have been employed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Environmental Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) in climate research since 1987. The ability

  16. Compression of ground-motion data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    Ground motion data has been recorded for many years at Nevada Test Site and is now stored on thousands of digital tapes. The recording format is very inefficient in terms of space on tape. This report outlines a method to compress the data onto a few hundred tapes while maintaining the accuracy of the recording and allowing restoration of any file to the original format for future use. For future digitizing a more efficient format is described and suggested.

  17. Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Radiosonde Comparisons During the WVIOP2000 Field Experiment D. Cimini University of L'Aquila L'Aquil, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Y. Han Science System Applications National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland S. Keihm

  18. Breaking New Ground The Answer Is....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Ground The Answer Is.... NSTec enters groundbreaking science partnership. CTOS leads the way at FEMA training symposium. Middle School Science Bowl hailed a success. See page 6. See page 8. Use Restriction - What does it Mean? Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (EM) Program has been identifying and addressing areas on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that have been impacted by historical nuclear testing. To date, EM has successfully closed more than

  19. Mechanical interface having multiple grounded actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Kenneth M.; Levin, Mike D.; Rosenberg, Louis B.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for interfacing the motion of a user-manipulable object with a computer system includes a user object physically contacted or grasped by a user. A 3-D spatial mechanism is coupled to the user object, such as a stylus or a medical instrument, and provides three degrees of freedom to the user object. Three grounded actuators provide forces in the three degrees of freedom. Two of the degrees of freedom are a planar workspace provided by a closed-loop linkage of members, and the third degree of freedom is rotation of the planar workspace provided by a rotatable carriage. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between actuators and the user object and include drums coupled to the carriage, pulleys coupled to grounded actuators, and flexible cables transmitting force between the pulleys and the drums. The flexibility of the cable allows the drums to rotate with the carriage while the pulleys and actuators remain fixed to ground. The interface also may include a floating gimbal mechanism coupling the linkage to the user object. The floating gimbal mechanism includes rotatably coupled gimbal members that provide three degrees of freedom to the user object and capstan mechanisms coupled between sensors and the gimbal members for providing enhanced sensor resolution.

  20. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Kim, S. -Y.; Lee, M.; Shim, H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Guenther, A. B.; He, A.; Hong, Y.; Han, J.

    2015-04-29

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas, and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational data set of CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, HONO, and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa research forest (TRF) near the Seoul metropolitan area in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. With the data set, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated using the University of Washington chemical box model (UWCM v2.1) with near-explicit VOC oxidation mechanisms from MCM v3.2 (Master Chemical Mechanism). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that (1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOx distributions, especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times), and (2) radical destruction (HO2 + HO2 or HO2 + RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (RO2 + NO), especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone–VOC–NOx sensitivity and VOC oxidation product

  1. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, S.; Kim, S. -Y.; Lee, M.; Shim, H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Guenther, A. B.; He, A.; Hong, Y.; Han, J.

    2015-04-29

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas, and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational data set of CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, HONO,more » and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa research forest (TRF) near the Seoul metropolitan area in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. With the data set, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated using the University of Washington chemical box model (UWCM v2.1) with near-explicit VOC oxidation mechanisms from MCM v3.2 (Master Chemical Mechanism). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that (1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOx distributions, especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times), and (2) radical destruction (HO2 + HO2 or HO2 + RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (RO2 + NO), especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone–VOC–NOx sensitivity and VOC oxidation product formation rates. Overall, the NOx limited regime is assessed except for the morning hours (8 a.m. to 12 p.m. local standard time), but the degree of sensitivity

  2. Appendix E Supporting Information for Ground Water Modeling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Supporting Information for Ground Water Modeling This page intentionally left blank Contents Section Geologic Map of Site Area ........................................................................................................ E1.O Stream Flow Measurements ...................................................................................................... E2.0 Estimates of Ground Water Flow .............................................................................................. E3.0

  3. 5-MW Dynamometer Ground Breaking | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5-MW Dynamometer Ground Breaking 5-MW Dynamometer Ground Breaking December 19, 2011 - 3:04pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2011 edition of the Wind Program R&D ...

  4. Designated Ground Water Basin Map | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Designated Ground Water Basin Map Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Designated Ground Water Basin Map Abstract This webpage provides...

  5. CONSTRUCTION OF KEY CLEANUP PROJECT GAINS GOOD GROUND AT SRS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONSTRUCTION OF KEY CLEANUP PROJECT GAINS GOOD GROUND AT SRS CONSTRUCTION OF KEY CLEANUP PROJECT GAINS GOOD GROUND AT SRS June 1, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis CONSTRUCTION OF KEY CLEANUP ...

  6. Final Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    458 Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Slick Rock, Colorado, UMTRA ... DE-AC13-02GJ79491 DOE Grand Junction Office EA of Ground Water Compliance at the Slick ...

  7. Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, Colorado...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    GJO-2000-177-TAR MAC-GWRFL 1.9 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, ... GJO-2000-177-TAR MAC-GWRFL 1.9 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, ...

  8. A ground state depleted laser in neodymium doped yttrium orthosilicate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Solarz, R.; Krupke, W.; Comaskey, B.; Mitchell, S.; Brandle, C.; Berkstresser, G.

    1990-01-16

    A ground state depleted (GSD){sup 1,2} laser has been demonstrated in the form of a Q-switched oscillator operating at 912 nm. Using Nd{sup 3+} as the active ion and Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} as the host material, the laser transition is from the lowest lying stark level of the Nd{sup 3t}F{sub 3/2} level to a stark level 355 cm{sup {minus}1} above the lowest lying one in the {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold. The necessity of depleting the ground {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold is evident for this level scheme as transparency requires a 10% inversion. To achieve the high excitation levels required for the efficient operation of this laser, bleach wave pumping using an alexandrite laser at 745 nm has been employed. The existence of a large absorption feature at 810 nm also allows for the possibility of AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Using KNbO{sub 3}, noncritical phase matching is possible at 140{degree}C using d{sub 32} and has been demonstrated. The results of Q-switched laser performance and harmonic generation in KNbO{sub 3} will be presented. Orthosilicate can be grown in large boules of excellent optical quality using a Czochralski technique. Because of the relatively small 912 nm emission cross section of 2-3 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2} (orientation dependent) fluences of 10-20 J/cm{sup 2} must be circulated in the laser cavity for the efficient extraction of stored energy. This necessitates very aggressive laser damage thresholds. Results from the Reptile laser damage facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented showing Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} bulk and AR sol-gel coated surface damage thresholds of greater than 40 J/cm{sup 2} for 10 nsec, 10 Hz, 1.06 {mu} pulses. 16 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  10. Evaluating a heated metal scrubber's effectiveness in preventing ozone monitors' anomalous behavior during hot and humid ambient sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddy, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to verify West Virginia's Wet/Dry test's prediction that Advanced Pollution Instrumentation's (API) ozone monitors, when using a heated metal scrubber in lieu of a standard MnO{sub 2} scrubber, would be made insensitive to sampling conditions which provoke anomalous behavior. Field trials involving two identical API model 400 ozone monitors, a Horiba APOA 360 ozone monitor, MnO{sub 2} scrubbers and API's optional heated metal scrubber would determine this. The heated metal scrubber succeeded in effectively eliminating the anomalous behavior. Evaluation results further verify the accuracy of West Virginia's Wet/Dry test. During the evaluation, a serendipitous event led to observations that confirmed previous observations by The Commonwealth of Virginia's monitoring staff, linking contamination of UV monitors' optics with anomalous behavior. Also, a partial summation of observations concerning ultraviolet ozone monitors' anomalous behavior, drawn from several sources, illustrates its complex nature.