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Sample records for grid-connected pv systems

  1. Remote performance check and automated failure identification for grid-connected PV systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Remote performance check and automated failure identification for grid-connected PV systems cloudy skies. This determines the quality of the PV simulation and finally the period of time, satellite data, PVSAT-2 1. Introduction Failure-free operation of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems

  2. QUALIFIED FORECAST OF ENSEMBLE POWER PRODUCTION BY SPATIALLY DISPERSED GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    , Energy Meteorology Group, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany, elke.lorenz@uni-oldenburg.de + UniversityQUALIFIED FORECAST OF ENSEMBLE POWER PRODUCTION BY SPATIALLY DISPERSED GRID- CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS Schneider° * University of Oldenburg, Institute of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory

  3. FAILURE DETECTION ROUTINE FOR GRID CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS AS PART OF THE PVSAT-2 PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    FAILURE DETECTION ROUTINE FOR GRID CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS AS PART OF THE PVSAT-2 PROJECT S. Stettler1.stettler@enecolo.ch, tel. +41 44 994 9001, fax. +41 44 994 9005 ABSTRACT: Identification of energy losses in PV systems up automatically analysing the performance of PV systems and, in case of a malfunction, determining possible causes

  4. Monitoring and analysis of two grid connected PV systems Michael BRESSAN* Valrie DUPE**, Bruno JAMMES**, Thierry TALBERT*, Corinne ALONSO**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Monitoring and analysis of two grid connected PV systems Michael BRESSAN* Valérie DUPE**, Bruno, avenue du Colonel Roche 66100, Perpignan, France BP 54200 31031 Toulouse cedex 4 5.2 PV System and monitored for fault detection ad predictive reliability. The first PV grid, is at CNRS-PROMES laboratory

  5. FORECAST OF ENSEMBLE POWER PRODUCTION BY GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS Elke Lorenz*, Detlev Heinemann*, Hashini Wickramarathne*, Hans Georg Beyer +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Energy Meteorology Group, 26111 Oldenburg, GermanyH, Spicherer Straße 48, D-86157 Augsburg, Germany ABSTRACT: The contribution of power production by PV systemsFORECAST OF ENSEMBLE POWER PRODUCTION BY GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS Elke Lorenz*, Detlev Heinemann

  6. Abstract--This paper deals with the design of a nonlinear con-troller for single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    -connected photovoltaic (PV) systems to maintain the current injected into the grid in phase with grid voltage. This paper also deals with the stability of internal dynamics of PV systems which is a basic requirement in atmospheric conditions. Index Terms--DC link voltage, grid current, grid-connected PV system, maximum power

  7. Battery Management for Grid-Connected PV Systems with a Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    -connected systems, Photovoltaic power, Electricity bill 1. INTRODUCTION The number and capacity of photovoltaic (PV}@usc.edu ABSTRACT Photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems are one of the most promising renewable power sources into account the limited battery capacity, power converter efficiency, battery's internal re- sistance and rate

  8. Blanc, I., Beloin-Saint-Pierre, D., Payet, J., Jacquin, P., Adra, N., Mayer, D., Espace-PV: key sensitive parameters for environmental impacts of grid-connected PV systems with LCA , In Proceedings of the 23rd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Blanc, I., Beloin-Saint-Pierre, D., Payet, J., Jacquin, P., Adra, N., Mayer, D., « Espace-PV: key sensitive parameters for environmental impacts of grid-connected PV systems with LCA », In Proceedings-936338-24-8, pp. 3779-3781. DOI: 10.4229/23rdEUPVSEC2008-6DV.5.9 ESPACE-PV: KEY SENSITIVE PARAMETERS

  9. GROWDERS Demonstration of Grid Connected Electricity Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GROWDERS Demonstration of Grid Connected Electricity Systems (Smart Grid Project) (Spain) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name GROWDERS Demonstration of Grid Connected...

  10. Hourly Simulation of Grid-Connected PV Systems Using Realistic Building Loads (Preprint)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hayter, S.J.; Weaver, N.L.

    2001-02-27

    This is one of two companion papers that describe the ENERGY-10 PV design tool computer simulation program. The other paper is titled ''ENERGY-10 Photovoltaics: A New Capability.'' Whereas this paper focuses on the PV aspects of the program, the companion paper focuses on the implementation method. The case study in this paper is a commercial building application, whereas the case study in the companion paper is a residential application with an entirely different building load characteristic. Together they provide a balanced view.

  11. The inverter is a major component of photovoltaic (PV) systems either autonomous or grid connected. It affects the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    ABSTRACT The inverter is a major component of photovoltaic (PV) systems either autonomous or grid. INTRODUCTION For any grid tied photovoltaic (PV) system, the inverter is the essential piece of equipment. The inverter affects the overall performance of the photovoltaic (PV) systems and problems concerning inverters

  12. Development of a low cost integrated 15 kW A.C. solar tracking sub-array for grid connected PV power system applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G.

    1997-02-01

    Utility Power Group has achieved a significant reduction in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems. The two part technical approach focused on (1) The utilization of a large area factory assembled PV panel, and (2) The integration and packaging of all sub-array power conversion and control functions within a single factory produced enclosure. Eight engineering prototype 15kW ac single axis solar tracking sub-arrays were designed, fabricated, and installed at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District{close_quote}s Hedge Substation site in 1996 and are being evaluated for performance and reliability. A number of design enhancements will be implemented in 1997 and demonstrated by the field deployment and operation of over twenty advanced sub-array PV power systems. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Development of New Three-Level Current-Source Inverter for Grid Connected Photovoltaic System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    Development of New Three-Level Current-Source Inverter for Grid Connected Photovoltaic System and inverter, and its feasibility on grid connected photovoltaic system application. Using this new topology photovoltaic system 1. INTRODUCTION Solid state inverters allow to put photovoltaic (PV) systems into the power

  14. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems July 7, 2015 - 8:21pm Addthis When connecting a home energy system to the electric grid, research...

  15. Environmental impacts of large-scale grid-connected ground-mounted PV installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Environmental impacts of large-scale grid-connected ground-mounted PV installations Antoine Beylota-scale ground-mounted PV installations by considering a life-cycle approach. The methodology is based. Mobile PV installations with dual-axis trackers show the largest impact potential on ecosystem quality

  16. Storage Size Determination for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ru, Yu; Martinez, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of determining the size of battery storage used in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. In our setting, electricity is generated from PV and is used to supply the demand from loads. Excess electricity generated from the PV can be stored in a battery to be used later on, and electricity must be purchased from the electric grid if the PV generation and battery discharging cannot meet the demand. The objective is to minimize the electricity purchase from the electric grid while at the same time choosing an appropriate battery size. More specifically, we want to find a unique critical value (denoted as $E_{max}^c$) of the battery size such that the cost of electricity purchase remains the same if the battery size is larger than or equal to $E_{max}^c$, and the cost is strictly larger if the battery size is smaller than $E_{max}^c$. We propose an upper bound on $E_{max}^c$, and show that the upper bound is achievable for certain scenarios. For the case with ideal PV generat...

  17. Development of a low-cost integrated 20-kW-AC solar tracking subarray for grid-connected PV power system applications. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, M.; Duran, G.; Fourer, G.; Mackamul, K.; Whalen, W.; Loo, M. van; West, R.

    1998-06-01

    This report chronicles Utility Power Group's (UPG) successful two-year Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Phase 4A1 work effort which began in July, 1995. During this period, UPG completed design, fabrication, testing and demonstration of a modular and fully integrated 15-kW-ac, solar tracking PV power system sub-array. The two key and innovative components which were developed are a Modular Panel which optimizes factory assembly of PV modules into a large area, field-deployable, structurally-integrated PV panel, and an Integrated Power Processing Unit which combines all dc and ac power collection, conversion and control functions within a single, field-deployable structurally-integrated electrical enclosure. These two key sub-array elements, when combined with a number of other electrical, mechanical, and structural components, create a low-cost and high-performance PV power system. This system, or sub-array, can be deployed in individual units, or paralleled with any number of other sub-arrays, to construct multi-megawatt P fields. 21 figs.

  18. Electricity storage for grid-connected household dwellings with PV panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulder, Grietus; Six, Daan; Ridder, Fjo De

    2010-07-15

    Classically electricity storage for PV panels is mostly designed for stand-alone applications. In contrast, we focus in this article on houses connected to the grid with a small-scale storage to store a part of the solar power for postponed consumption within the day or the next days. In this way the house owner becomes less dependent on the grid and does only pay for the net shortage of his energy production. Local storage solutions pave the way for many new applications like omitting over-voltage of the line and bridging periods of power-line black-out. Since 2009 using self-consumption of PV energy is publicly encouraged in Germany, which can be realised by electric storage. This paper develops methods to determine the optimal storage size for grid-connected dwellings with PV panels. From measurements in houses we were able to establish calculation rules for sizing the storage. Two situations for electricity storage are covered: - the storage system is an optimum to cover most of the electricity needs; - it is an optimum for covering the peak power need of a dwelling. After these calculation rules a second step is needed to determine the size of the real battery. The article treats the aspects that should be taken into consideration before buying a specific battery like lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries. (author)

  19. PVGIS approach for assessing the performances of the first PV grid-connected power plant in Morocco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barhdadi, Abdelfettah

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the PVGIS method for estimating the performance of the first grid-connected PV micro-power plant in Morocco. PVGIS approach provides analysis and assessment of in-site solar energy resources and predicts with good accuracy the potential of PV systems in term of electricity production. We find that annual total power generation of the micro-power is slightly higher than that initially expected at the installation stage and actually measured. The yearly predicted and measured power production values agree to about 2 %. However, individual monthly production can have larger discrepancy.

  20. Prospects for grid-connected solar PV in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Amy Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Kenya's electric power system is heavily reliant on hydropower, leaving it vulnerable during recurring droughts. Supply shortfalls are currently met through the use of expensive leased diesel generation. Therefore, plans ...

  1. OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY Richard Perez-shore wind and PV generation using the city of New York as a test case. While wind generation is not known one year's worth of hourly site & time-specific data including electrical demand PV and off-shore wind

  2. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaic systems with battery storagesfor grid-connected photovoltaic systems, IEEE Transactionshybrid photovoltaic and battery energy storage system, IEEE

  3. Summary Review of Advanced Inverter Technologies for Residential PV Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summary Review of Advanced Inverter Technologies for Residential PV Systems This report summarizes current and emerging standards for residential PV systems and identifies the status of emerging inverter................................................................................................ 7 3. Grid-Connected PV inverters available in US

  4. Grid-Connected Marine Current Generation System Power Smoothing Control Using Supercapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Grid-Connected Marine Current Generation System Power Smoothing Control Using Supercapacitors fluctuations in the generator power. This paper deals with power smoothing control of grid connected MCT system a smoothed grid-injected power in case of swell disturbances. Index Terms-Marine current turbine, power

  5. Aalborg Universitet Control System interaction in the VSC-HVDC Grid Connected Offshore Wind Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Claus Leth

    Aalborg Universitet Control System interaction in the VSC-HVDC Grid Connected Offshore Wind Power-HVDC Grid Connected Offshore Wind Power Plant. In Proceedings of the Cigré Symposium 2015. CIGRE. General Offshore Wind Power Plant Jakob Glasdam1,2 , Lukasz Hubert Kocewiak1 , Jesper Hjerrild1 , Claus Leth Bak2 1

  6. Lifetime-dependent Battery Usage Optimization for Grid-Connected Residential Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    utility energy prices. Our approach enables us determine the true operational cost and lifetimeLifetime-dependent Battery Usage Optimization for Grid-Connected Residential Systems Jagannathan Venkatesh# , Shengbo Chen* , Peerapol Tinnakornsrisuphap*, Tajana Simunic Rosing# # University of California

  7. Three-Phase Modular Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with Individual MPPT for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Hang, Lijun [ORNL; Riley, Cameron [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A three-phase modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system is presented in this paper. To maximize the solar energy extraction of each PV string, an individual maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme is applied, which allows the independent control of each dc-link voltage. PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced power supplied to the three-phase system. To solve this issue, a control scheme with modulation compensation is proposed. The three-phase modular cascaded multilevel inverter prototype has been built. Each H-bridge is connected to a 185 W solar panel. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed ideas.

  8. Market Transformation Pathways for Grid-Connected Rooftop Solar PV in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbey, Ross; Ross, Brian

    2013-06-03

    This report presents the market and policy findings of the Minnesota Solar Challenge program. The report draws on information collected from state agencies, local government units, solar industry participants, rooftop photovoltaic (PV) adopters (sometimes called customer-generators), state and national experts, the Commerce distributed generation stakeholder process, and the numerous reports and data sets referenced herein.

  9. A Wavelet-Based Variability Model (WVM) for Solar PV Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan; Stein, Joshua S

    2013-01-01

    Power characteristics of PV ensembles: experiences from theproduction of 100 grid connected PV systems distributed overHoff and R. Perez, "Modeling PV Fleet Output Variability,"

  10. A novel multi-model neuro-fuzzy-based MPPT for three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaouachi, Aymen; Kamel, Rashad M.; Nagasaka, Ken

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a novel methodology for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of a grid-connected 20 kW photovoltaic (PV) system using neuro-fuzzy network. The proposed method predicts the reference PV voltage guarantying optimal power transfer between the PV generator and the main utility grid. The neuro-fuzzy network is composed of a fuzzy rule-based classifier and three multi-layered feed forwarded Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Inputs of the network (irradiance and temperature) are classified before they are fed into the appropriated ANN for either training or estimation process while the output is the reference voltage. The main advantage of the proposed methodology, comparing to a conventional single neural network-based approach, is the distinct generalization ability regarding to the nonlinear and dynamic behavior of a PV generator. In fact, the neuro-fuzzy network is a neural network based multi-model machine learning that defines a set of local models emulating the complex and nonlinear behavior of a PV generator under a wide range of operating conditions. Simulation results under several rapid irradiance variations proved that the proposed MPPT method fulfilled the highest efficiency comparing to a conventional single neural network and the Perturb and Observe (P and O) algorithm dispositive. (author)

  11. Power Smoothing Control in a Grid-Connected Marine Current Turbine System for Compensating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Power Smoothing Control in a Grid-Connected Marine Current Turbine System for Compensating Swell speed may lead to strong fluctuations in the power extracted by a marine current turbine (MCT). During disturbances. Index Terms--Marine current turbine, power fluctuation, swell effect, power smoothing control

  12. Utility Grid-Connected Distributed Power Systems National Solar Energy Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    capacity and energy benefits. The Solar Buildings Program provides design assistance and incentivesUtility Grid-Connected Distributed Power Systems National Solar Energy Conference ASES Solar 96-effective in these applications by about the year 2000. In the first three years, SMUD has installed over 340 residential

  13. Performance Parameters for Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| DepartmentPeer ReviewRadiationAward at SmallNational Renewable

  14. High Penetration, Grid Connected Photovoltaic Technology Codes and Standards: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T. S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports the interim status in identifying and reviewing photovoltaic (PV) codes and standards (C&S) and related electrical activities for grid-connected, high-penetration PV systems with a focus on U.S. electric utility distribution grid interconnection.

  15. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and power quality, contracts (which may require liability insurance), and metering and rates. While renewable energy systems are capable of powering houses and small businesses...

  16. Controlling of grid connected photovoltaic lighting system with fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saglam, Safak; Ekren, Nazmi; Erdal, Hasan

    2010-02-15

    In this study, DC electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels is converted to AC electrical energy and an indoor area is illuminated using this energy. System is controlled by fuzzy logic algorithm controller designed with 16 rules. Energy is supplied from accumulator which is charged by photovoltaic panels if its energy would be sufficient otherwise it is supplied from grid. During the 1-week usage period at the semester time, 1.968 kWh energy is used from grid but designed system used 0.542 kWh energy from photovoltaic panels at the experiments. Energy saving is determined by calculations and measurements for one education year period (9 months) 70.848 kWh. (author)

  17. INTELLIGENT PERFORMANCE CHECK OF PV SYSTEM OPERATION BASED ON SATELLITE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    INTELLIGENT PERFORMANCE CHECK OF PV SYSTEM OPERATION BASED ON SATELLITE DATA A. Drews* , J. Betcke of a fully automated service for performance check and error detection for photovoltaic (PV) systems by daily surveillance. Malfunctions of a grid-connected PV system, e.g. drop out of single module strings

  18. 564 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012 Dynamic Stability of Three-Phase Grid-Connected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    564 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012 Dynamic Stability of Three-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System Using Zero Dynamic Design Approach M. A. Mahmud, Student Member of the dynamic response of a three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. To control the grid cur- rent

  19. Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from Enhanced Geothermal Systems Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from Enhanced Geothermal Systems May 16, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis...

  20. Ukiah Utilities- PV Buydown Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through Ukiah Utilities’ PV Buydown Program, residential and commercial customers are eligible for a $1.40-per-watt AC rebate on qualifying grid-connected PV systems up to a maximum system size of...

  1. Performance of a grid connected residential photovoltaic system with energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palomino, G.E. [SRP, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Wiles, J. [Southwest Technology Development Institute, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Stevens, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, F. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    In 1995, Salt River Project (SRP), a public power utility located in Phoenix, Arizona, collaborated with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to initiate a photovoltaic (PV) power system with battery energy storage to match PV output with residential customer peak energy demand periods. The PV power system, a 2.4kW PV array with 25.2kWh of energy storage, was designed and installed by Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI) at an SRP-owned facility, known as the Chandler Research House during August 1995. This paper presents an overview of the system design, operation and performance. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. An economic analysis of grid-connected residential solar photovoltaic power systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Paul R.

    The question of the utility grid-connected residential market for photovoltaics is examined from a user-ownership perspective. The price is calculated at which the user would be economically indifferent between

  3. Optimal Control of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System for Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    with the introduction of dynamic electricity energy pricing models since electricity consumers can use their PV function and the energy storage capacity limitation, the control algorithm for a residential EES system period under a general electricity energy price function. The proposed algorithm is based on dynamic

  4. City of Healdsburg- PV Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the City of Healdsburg's PV Buy-down Program, residential and commercial customers are eligible for rebate on qualifying grid-connected PV systems. In keeping with SB1, (the California...

  5. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    4 show PV+ system power flows, battery charge state and netPV+ system power flows (a,b,c), the battery charge state (d,reverse power flow (i.e. the battery is charging from the

  6. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote Performance: A Review of Current Practice in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    with Large-scale Implementation of Domestic PV Systems andwith Large PV Systems on Buildings in Japan. Progress inPerformance of Grid-connected PV Systems on Buildings in

  7. Real Power and Reactive Power Control of a Three-Phase Single-Stage-PV System and PV voltage Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Irminger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with power electronic interfaces can provide both real and reactive power to meet power system needs with appropriate control algorithms. This paper presents the control algorithm design for a three-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverter to achieve either maximum power point tracking (MPPT) or a certain amount of real power injection, as well as the voltage/var control. The switching between MPPT control mode and a certain amount of real power control mode is automatic and seamless. Without the DC-to-DC booster stage, PV DC voltage stability is an important issue in the control design especially when the PV inverter is operating at maximum power point (MPP) with voltage/var control. The PV DC voltage collapse phenomenon and its reason are discussed. The method based on dynamic correction of the PV inverter output is proposed to ensure PV DC voltage stability. Simulation results of the single-stage PV system during system disturbances and fast solar irradiation changes confirm that the proposed control algorithm for single-stage PV inverters can provide appropriate real and reactive power services and ensure PV DC voltage stability during dynamic system operation and atmospheric conditions.

  8. Exploring the Economic Value of EPAct 2005's PV Tax Credits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    to support a greater number PV systems at the reduced grantEconomic Value of EPAct 2005’s PV Tax Credits Mark Bolingerfor grid-connected photovoltaics (PV) in the US has grown

  9. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    photovoltaic systems with battery storages control based onconnected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems A. Nottrott,combined photovoltaic-battery storage system (PV+ system).

  10. Stabilized PV system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

    2002-12-17

    A stabilized PV system comprises an array of photovoltaic (PV) assemblies mounted to a support surface. Each PV assembly comprises a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the support surface. The array of modules is circumscribed by a continuous, belt-like perimeter assembly. Cross strapping, extending above, below or through the array, or some combination of above, below and through the array, secures a first position along the perimeter assembly to at least a second position along the perimeter assembly thereby stabilizing the array against wind uplift forces. The first and second positions may be on opposite sides on the array.

  11. A 24-h forecast of solar irradiance using artificial neural network: Application for performance prediction of a grid-connected PV plant at Trieste, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellit, Adel; Pavan, Alessandro Massi

    2010-05-15

    Forecasting of solar irradiance is in general significant for planning the operations of power plants which convert renewable energies into electricity. In particular, the possibility to predict the solar irradiance (up to 24 h or even more) can became - with reference to the Grid Connected Photovoltaic Plants (GCPV) - fundamental in making power dispatching plans and - with reference to stand alone and hybrid systems - also a useful reference for improving the control algorithms of charge controllers. In this paper, a practical method for solar irradiance forecast using artificial neural network (ANN) is presented. The proposed Multilayer Perceptron MLP-model makes it possible to forecast the solar irradiance on a base of 24 h using the present values of the mean daily solar irradiance and air temperature. An experimental database of solar irradiance and air temperature data (from July 1st 2008 to May 23rd 2009 and from November 23rd 2009 to January 24th 2010) has been used. The database has been collected in Trieste (latitude 45 40'N, longitude 13 46'E), Italy. In order to check the generalization capability of the MLP-forecaster, a K-fold cross-validation was carried out. The results indicate that the proposed model performs well, while the correlation coefficient is in the range 98-99% for sunny days and 94-96% for cloudy days. As an application, the comparison between the forecasted one and the energy produced by the GCPV plant installed on the rooftop of the municipality of Trieste shows the goodness of the proposed model. (author)

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF A GENERAL MODEL FOR THE MPP PERFORMANCE OF PV-MODULES FOR THE APPLICATION IN A PROCEDURE FOR THE PERFORMANCE CHECK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    IDENTIFICATION OF A GENERAL MODEL FOR THE MPP PERFORMANCE OF PV-MODULES FOR THE APPLICATION. ABSTRACT: To assure the maximal energy yield of grid connected PV systems, system faults have of this model for the application to grid connected PV systems using cSi, aSi and CIS modules is demonstrated. 1

  13. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    PV systems using storage and controls, Solar Energy 81(7) (of solar and load forecasting in demand side energy storageEnergy storage, Forecasting, Optimal scheduling, Solar power

  14. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    G. Corey, Energy Storage for the Electricity Grid: Benefitsthe energy storage dispatch schedule for a grid-connected,energy storage technologies as a means to integrate renewable energy resources into electric grids

  15. Homeowners Guide to Financing a Grid-Connected Solar Electric System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-10-11

    This guide provides an overview of the financing options that may be available to homeowners who are considering installing a solar electric system on their house.

  16. Homeowners Guide to Financing a Grid-Connected Solar Electric System (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This guide provides an overview of the financing options that may be available to homeowners who are considering installing a solar electric system on their house.

  17. Maximizing Return on Investment of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    -of-day pricing policy [3] with much higher energy price during peak hours for residential users, incentivizing energy when the electricity price is low and supply energy for use when the electricity price is high [6/or supercapacitors. Incorporation of EES system effectively shifts the residential peak hour energy demand from

  18. Sandia Energy - PV Systems Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics PV Systems Reliability PV Systems ReliabilityCoryne Tasca2015-05-08T03:40:54+00:00 Sandia...

  19. Third-Party Finance for Commercial Photovoltaic Systems: The Rise of the PPA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California,Finance for Commercial Photovoltaic Systems: The Rise of theof grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United

  20. Development of a Dispatchable PV Peak Shainv System. PV: Bonus Program - Phase 1 Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Delmarva Power and Light and its subcontractors in Phase 1 of the US Department of Energy's PV:BONUS Program. The purpose of the program is to develop products and systems for buildings which utilize photovoltaic (N) technology. Beginning with a cooperative research effort with the University of Delaware's Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Delmarva Power developed and demonstrated the concept of Dispatchable PV Peak Shaving. This concept and the system which resulted horn the development work are unique from other grid-connected PV systems because it combines a PV, battery energy storage, power conversion and control technologies into an integrated package. Phase 1 began in July 1993 with the installation of a test and demonstration system at Delmarva's Northern Division General Office building near Newark, Delaware. Following initial testing throughout the summer and fall of 1993, significant modifications were made under an amendment to the DOE contract. Work on Phase 1 concluded in the early spring of 1995. Significant progress towards the goal of commercializing the system was made during Phase 1, and is summarized. Based on progress in Phase 1, a proposal to continue the work in Phase 2 was submitted to the US DOE in May 1995. A contract amendment and providing funds for the Phase 2 work is expected in July 1995.

  1. Performance and Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV)Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Performance and Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV)Technologies at Selected Sites This report presents performance data from grid-connected PV systems located on Hawai`i Island, Maui, and O`ahu. Data was collected from PV systems produced by different manufacturers using a variety of technologies. The report

  2. Nevada Deploys First U.S. Commercial, Grid-Connected Enhanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deploys First U.S. Commercial, Grid-Connected Enhanced Geothermal System Nevada Deploys First U.S. Commercial, Grid-Connected Enhanced Geothermal System April 12, 2013 - 12:00pm...

  3. Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle for Residential PV Installations: Opportunities andfor Financing Residential PV Systems Mark Bolinger, Lawrencefor residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing

  4. PVSAT-2: RESULTS OF FIELD TEST OF THE SATELLITE-BASED PV SYSTEM PERFORMANCE CHECK A.C. de Keizer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    . of Electrical Engineering, University of Applied Sciences (FH) Magdeburg-Stendal, 39114 Magdeburg, Germany, ABSTRACT: Within the EU funded project PVSAT-2 an automated performance check for grid-connected PV systems information. The uncertainty in the simulated energy yield can be high for cloudy weather situations

  5. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    2514 – Energy storage systems,” storage systems for time-of-use ratesand battery energy storage system, IEEE Transactions on

  6. Solar Resource and PV Systems Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar Resource and PV Systems Performance at Selected Test Sites Prepared for the U.S. Department Subtask 11.1 Deliverables 2 and 4: Report on Solar Resource and PV Systems Performance at Selected Test agency thereof. #12;1 Solar Resource and PV Systems Performance at Selected Test Sites Contents 1

  7. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote System Performance: A Review of Current Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Install Quality Photovoltaic Systems. ESource Technicalof 900 Individual Photovoltaic Systems in Sacramento. ”in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems. Prepared for the

  8. Homeowners Guide to Financing a Grid-Connected Solar Electric System (Brochure), Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This guide provides an overview of the financing options that may be available to homeowners who are considering installing a solar electric system on their house.

  9. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    State Assembly Bill 2514 – Energy storage systems,” Energy Storage for the Electricity5. D. Rastler, Electric Energy Storage Technology Options: A

  10. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    photovoltaic systems with battery storages control based onthat the energy stored in the battery is bounded withinthe capacity of the battery. Eq. 3b constrains the battery

  11. Leasing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The article discusses the adoption, consequences and current market status of the leasing of residential photovoltaic systems. It addresses attributed energy savings and market potential of residential system leasing.

  12. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abraham Ellis, Roger Hill Sandia National Laboratories Tom Key, Kristen Nicole, Jeff Smith Electric Power Research Institute Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System...

  13. Integration Technology for PHEV-Grid-Connectivity, with Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology for PHEV-Grid-Connectivity, with Support for SAE Electrical Standards Integration Technology for PHEV-Grid-Connectivity, with Support for SAE Electrical Standards 2010...

  14. Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Building End-Use Equipment and Appliances Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and...

  15. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential and Utility Solar Power Generating Systems SunPower,Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated PV Systems Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power...

  16. Draft Transcript on Municipal PV Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Webinar on navigating the legal, tax, and finance issues associated with the installation of Municipal PV Systems. The following agenda was developed based on Pat Boylston's experience assisting municipalities with their PV projects and the requests for information that the Solar America City technical team leads have received from many of the 25 Solar America Cities since the April 2008 meeting in Tucson.

  17. An Analysis of Residential PV System Price Differences between...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PV System Price Differences between the United States and Germany Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems were twice as expensive in the United States as in Germany (median of...

  18. Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, byto PV owners, including long- term, fixed-cost, attractivecost over some portion of the system’s life, financing can certainly make PV

  19. Minnesota Power- Solar-Electric (PV) Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Minnesota Power offers a rebate of $1,000 per kilowatt (kW) DC for grid-connected solar-electric (PV) systems, with a maximum award of $20,000 per customer or 60% installed costs per customer. This...

  20. PV System Energy Evaluation Method (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a comparison of the "predicted" energy (based on historical weather data) with the "expected" energy (based on the measured weather data) to determine whether a PV system is performing as modeled in order to verify the accuracy of a model. A key factor in defining this energy test is determining the test boundary so that weather variations are not inadvertently included in what is considered to be PV system performance.

  1. Measured Performance of California Buydown Program Residential PV Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measured Performance of California Buydown Program Residential PV Systems Kurt Scheuermann a proposal to monitor in-field performance of photovoltaic (PV) and hybrid PV/small wind systems funded collected from fourteen PV systems from mid-February through September, 2000. In December 2000 and January

  2. United States Launches First Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    United States Launches First Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine United States Launches First Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine August 22, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Leveraging an...

  3. PV Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLC Jump to:3 of Mason County Jump to:EiwaSwedenPV

  4. Utility-Scale Solar Power Converter: Agile Direct Grid Connect Medium Voltage 4.7-13.8 kV Power Converter for PV Applications Utilizing Wide Band Gap Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-25

    Solar ADEPT Project: Satcon is developing a compact, lightweight power conversion device that is capable of taking utility-scale solar power and outputting it directly into the electric utility grid at distribution voltage levels—eliminating the need for large transformers. Transformers “step up” the voltage of the power that is generated by a solar power system so it can be efficiently transported through transmission lines and eventually “stepped down” to usable voltages before it enters homes and businesses. Power companies step up the voltage because less electricity is lost along transmission lines when the voltage is high and current is low. Satcon’s new power conversion devices will eliminate these heavy transformers and connect a utility-scale solar power system directly to the grid. Satcon’s modular devices are designed to ensure reliability—if one device fails it can be bypassed and the system can continue to run.

  5. Enabling Broad Adoption of Distributed PV-storage systems Via Supervisory Planning & Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    of distributed PV-storage systems via supervisory planning &of distributed PV-storage systems via supervisory planning &control for PV-storage systems increases the annual energy

  6. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  7. Understanding the Benefits of Dispersed Grid-Connected Photovoltaics: From Avoiding the Next Major Outage to Taming Wholesale Power Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letendre, Steven E.; Perez, Richard

    2006-07-15

    Thanks to new solar resource assessment techniques using cloud cover data available from geostationary satellites, it is apparent that grid-connected PV installations can serve to enhance electric grid reliability, preventing or hastening recovery from major power outages and serving to mitigate extreme price spikes in wholesale energy markets. (author)

  8. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System Permit Application Checklist

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Permit Application Checklist is intended to be used as a best management practice when establishing local government requirements for residential and commercial solar photovoltaic (PV) system permits. Local governments may modify this checklist to accommodate their local ordinances, code requirements, and permit procedures.

  9. Distribution System Analysis Tools for Studying High Penetration of PV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distribution System Analysis Tools for Studying High Penetration of PV with Grid Support Features Electric Energy System #12;#12;Distribution System Analysis Tools for Studying High Penetration of PV project titled "Distribution System Analysis Tools for Studying High Penetration of PV with Grid Support

  10. Do PV Systems Increase Residential Selling Prices If So, How Can Practitioners Estimate This Increase?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2013-01-01

    underlying net installation costs for PV systems between newfrom electricity cost savings after PV system installationannual electricity cost savings associated with PV they are

  11. Geothermal/Grid Connection | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky:Bore TechnologiesAssessment InsettingGrid Connection <

  12. Geothermal/Grid Connection | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View New Pages Recent ChangesInformationGeothermal/Grid Connection

  13. ENERGY-10 PV: Photovoltaics, A New Capability (Preprint)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hayter, S.J.; Weaver, N.L.

    2001-02-16

    This is one of two companion papers that describe the ENERGY-10 PV design-tool computer simulation program. The other paper is titled ''Hourly Simulation of Grid-Connected PV Systems Using Realistic Building Loads.'' While this paper focuses on the implementation method, the companion paper focuses on the PV aspects of the program. The case study in this paper is a residential building application, whereas the case study in the companion paper is a commercial application with an entirely different building load characteristic. Together, they provide a balanced view.

  14. Results from measurements on the PV-VENT systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Results from measurements on the PV-VENT systems at Lundebjerg Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish from measurements on the PV-VENT systems at Lundebjerg Søren Østergaard Jensen Solar Energy Centre with (Jensen, 2000a) Solar Energy Centre Denmark's (Danish Technological Institute) measuring work in the PV

  15. A GUIDE TO PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) SYSTEM DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION A GUIDE TO PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) SYSTEM DESIGN AND INSTALLATION JUNE 2001 500-01-020 CONSULTANTREPORT Gray Davis, Governor #12;PV Installation Guide June 2001 Page 1 A GUIDE TO PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) SYSTEM DESIGN AND INSTALLATION Prepared for: California Energy Commission Energy Technology

  16. Exploring the Economic Value of EPAct 2005's PV Tax Credits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Ing, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Exploring the Economic Value of EPAct 2005’s PV Tax CreditsEconomic Value of EPAct 2005’s PV Tax Credits Mark Bolingerfor grid-connected photovoltaics (PV) in the US has grown

  17. United States Launches First Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an EERE investment, the University of Maine deployed the nation's first grid-connected offshore floating wind turbine prototype off the coast of Castine, Maine. The university...

  18. First Commercial, Grid-Connected, Hydrokinetic Tidal Energy Project...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    First Commercial, Grid-Connected, Hydrokinetic Tidal Energy Project in North America Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) SBIR...

  19. Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (K. Lynn) More Documents & Publications Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Building End-Use Equipment and...

  20. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  1. Dynamic Interactions of PV units in Low Volatge Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Dynamic Interactions of PV units in Low Volatge Distribution Systems M. J. Hossain, J. Lu Griffith. Abstract--Photovoltaic (PV) units along with other distributed energy resources (DERs) are located close, robust control, stability. I. Introduction The integration level of PV units in low and medium voltage

  2. Sandia Energy - PV Systems Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &WaterNew CREWOnline AbstractsSystems Reliability

  3. Energy Management Problems Under Uncertainties for Grid-Connected Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    1 Energy Management Problems Under Uncertainties for Grid-Connected Microgrids : a Chance prob- lems under uncertainties for a grid-connected microgrid. The problems are motivated by practical microgrid problems such as peak power shaving and frequency regulation. The problems require constraints

  4. International PV QA Task Force's Proposed Comparative Rating System for PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-10-01

    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  5. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved relative to DA forecasts, but still imperfect. Finally, we represent decisions within the operating hour by schedulers and transmission system operators as real-time (RT) balancing. We simulate the DA and HA scheduling processes with a detailed unit-commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED) optimization model. This model creates a least-cost dispatch and commitment plan for the conventional generating units using forecasts and reserve requirements as inputs. We consider only the generation units and load of the utility in this analysis; we do not consider opportunities to trade power with neighboring utilities. We also do not consider provision of reserves from renewables or from demand-side options. We estimate dynamic reserve requirements in order to meet reliability requirements in the RT operations, considering the uncertainty and variability in load, solar PV, and wind resources. Balancing reserve requirements are based on the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of 1-min deviations from the HA schedule in a previous year. We then simulate RT deployment of balancing reserves using a separate minute-by-minute simulation of deviations from the HA schedules in the operating year. In the simulations we assume that balancing reserves can be fully deployed in 10 min. The minute-by-minute deviations account for HA forecasting errors and the actual variability of the load, wind, and solar generation. Using these minute-by-minute deviations and deployment of balancing reserves, we evaluate the impact of PV on system reliability through the calculation of the standard reliability metric called Control Performance Standard 2 (CPS2). Broadly speaking, the CPS2 score measures the percentage of 10-min periods in which a balancing area is able to balance supply and demand within a specific threshold. Compliance with the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) reliability standards requires that the CPS2 score must exceed 90% (i.e., the balancing area must maintain adequate balance for 90% of the 10-min periods). The combination of representing DA forecast errors in the

  6. Instrumentation for Evaluating PV System Performance Losses from Snow: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Pruett, J.

    2009-04-01

    Describes the use of a pyranometer with a heater and a digital camera to determine losses related to snow for PV systems located at National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  7. Reactive power control of grid-connected wind farm based on adaptive dynamic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Haibo

    Reactive power control of grid-connected wind farm based on adaptive dynamic programming Yufei Tang and integration with the grid. This controller can effectively dampen the oscillation of the wind farm system under grid fault. In general, there are mainly three kinds of wind power generators: squirrel

  8. Grid-tied PV battery systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-09-01

    Grid tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (ALABC Advanced) proved to cycle well at a Partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

  9. The Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS WA 6150 Abstract This paper focuses on pv/diesel/battery hybrid RAPS systems meeting loads above 50 kWh. INTRODUCTION A diesel hybrid system, incorporating a battery and inverter, can often provide power at a lower

  10. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, A.

    2014-01-01

    costs with constant nuclear in the high-PV scenario partly because of the large decrease in curtailment of renewable energy,

  11. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, A.

    2014-01-01

    2007a, “Evaluating the Limits of Solar Photovoltaics (PV) infor Short-Term Variability of Solar Power. Lawrence Berkeleyand Medium Term Operational Solar Radiation Forecasts in the

  12. Power Systems Engineering Research Center Modeling, Analysis and Deployment of High PV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Veen, Barry D.

    Power Systems Engineering Research Center Modeling, Analysis and Deployment of High PV Penetration with field measurements. The model corresponds to an actual PV and DAS installation by Arizona Public Service and about 125 rooftop residential PV systems and two large scale PV systems. The total installed PV capacity

  13. Do PV Systems Increase Residential Selling Prices If So, How Can Practitioners Estimate This Increase?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2013-01-01

    No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Do PV Systems Increase Residentialimpacts of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems on home salesthat existing homes with PV systems sold for a premium over

  14. Robust control strategy for PV system integration in distribution systems M.J. Hossain a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Robust control strategy for PV system integration in distribution systems M.J. Hossain a, , T t s " Robust control provides flexible photovoltaic (PV) accommodations. " A robust PV control can significantly enhance the penetration level. " The change in volatile PV generations is considered

  15. Keywords: Photovoltaic System, fault-tolerance, recon-figurable PV panel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    1 Keywords: Photovoltaic System, fault-tolerance, recon- figurable PV panel Photovoltaic (PV and the advancement of PV device technologies. PV systems have been widely deployed in electric vehicles, homes, power plants, and satellites. The output power of a PV cell (also called solar cell) is dependent on the solar

  16. Do PV Systems Increase Residential Selling Prices If So, How Can Practitioners Estimate This Increase?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2013-01-01

    of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residential Selling Pricesof photovoltaic (PV) energy systems on home sales prices.

  17. Comparison Between TRNSYS Software Simulation and PV F-Chart Program on Photovoltaic System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mao, C.

    2012-01-01

    This report covers the comparisons of Photovoltaic System by TRNSYS simulation and PV F-Chart program to test TRNSYS simulation accuracy. The report starts with the Photovoltaic (PV) (PV) System introduction in Section one which is followed...

  18. Enabling Broad Adoption of Distributed PV-storage systems Via Supervisory Planning & Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    impact of wide-spread PV adoption for utilities, by creatingEnabling broad adoption of distributed PV-storage systemsEnabling broad adoption of distributed PV-storage systems

  19. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

  20. Characterizing Shading Losses on Partially Shaded PV Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.

    2010-09-23

    Presentation on shaded PV power loss, practical issues with modeling shaded PV, and methods of implementing partially shaded PV modeling.

  1. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

    2009-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to ���¢��������networks���¢������� in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1���¢��������PV Deployment Analysis for New York City���¢��������we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2���¢��������A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid���¢��������presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3���¢��������Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New Y

  2. Instrumentation for Evaluating PV System Performance Losses from Snow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Pruett, J.

    2009-01-01

    When designing a photovoltaic (PV) system for northern climates, the prospective installation should be evaluated with respect to the potentially detrimental effects of snow preventing solar radiation from reaching the PV cells. The extent to which snow impacts performance is difficult to determine because snow events also increase the uncertainty of the solar radiation measurement, and the presence of snow needs to be distinguished from other events that can affect performance. This paper describes two instruments useful for evaluating PV system performance losses from the presence of snow: (1) a pyranometer with a heater to prevent buildup of ice and snow, and (2) a digital camera for remote retrieval of images to determine the presence of snow on the PV array.

  3. Ota City : characterizing output variability from 553 homes with residential PV systems on a distribution feeder.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Nakashima, Eichi; Lave, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    This report describes in-depth analysis of photovoltaic (PV) output variability in a high-penetration residential PV installation in the Pal Town neighborhood of Ota City, Japan. Pal Town is a unique test bed of high-penetration PV deployment. A total of 553 homes (approximately 80% of the neighborhood) have grid-connected PV totaling over 2 MW, and all are on a common distribution line. Power output at each house and irradiance at several locations were measured once per second in 2006 and 2007. Analysis of the Ota City data allowed for detailed characterization of distributed PV output variability and a better understanding of how variability scales spatially and temporally. For a highly variable test day, extreme power ramp rates (defined as the 99th percentile) were found to initially decrease with an increase in the number of houses at all timescales, but the reduction became negligible after a certain number of houses. Wavelet analysis resolved the variability reduction due to geographic diversity at various timescales, and the effect of geographic smoothing was found to be much more significant at shorter timescales.

  4. 3-Port Single-Stage PV & Battery Converter Improves Efficiency and Cost in Combined PV/Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundschuh, Paul

    2013-03-23

    Due to impressive cost reductions in recent years, photovoltaic (PV) generation is now able to produce electricity at highly competitive prices, but PV’s inherent intermittency reduces the potential value of this energy. The integration of battery storage with PV will be transformational by increasing the value of solar. Utility scale systems will benefit by firming intermittency including PV ramp smoothing, grid support and load shifting, allowing PV to compete directly with conventional generation. For distributed grid-tied PV adding storage will reduce peak demand utility charges, as well as providing backup power during power grid failures. The largest long term impact of combined PV and battery systems may be for delivering reliable off-grid power to the billions of individuals globally without access to conventional power grids, or for billions more that suffer from daily power outages. PV module costs no longer dominate installed PV system costs. Balance-of-System (BOS) costs including the PV inverter and installation now contribute the majority of installed system costs. Battery costs are also dropping faster than installation and battery power converter systems. In each of these separate systems power converters have become a bottleneck for efficiency, cost and reliability. These bottlenecks are compounded in hybrid power conversion systems that combine separate PV and battery converters. Hybrid power conversion systems have required multiple power converters hardware units and multiple power conversion steps adding to efficiency losses, product and installation costs, and reliability issues. Ideal Power Converters has developed and patented a completely new theory of operation for electronic power converters using its indirect EnergyPacket Switching™ topology. It has established successful power converter products for both PV and battery systems, and its 3-Port Hybrid Converter is the first product to exploit the topology’s capability for the industry’s first single-stage multi-port hybrid power converter. This unique low cost approach eliminates the hybrid power conversion bottlenecks when integrating batteries into PV systems. As result this product will significantly accelerate market adoption of these systems.

  5. Meeting the New CARB ZEV Mandate Requirements: Grid-Connected Hybrids and City EVs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    gov Erin Kassoy Arthur D. Little 10061 Bubb Road Cupertino,15, 2001 Erin Kassoy Arthur D. Little Both Grid Connected

  6. Aalborg Universitet Generation-Side Power Scheduling in a Grid-Connected DC Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Generation-Side Power Scheduling in a Grid-Connected DC Microgrid Hernández). Generation-Side Power Scheduling in a Grid-Connected DC Microgrid. In IEEE ICDCM 2015. IEEE. General rights.aau.dk on: juli 04, 2015 #12;Generation-Side Power Scheduling in a Grid-Connected DC Microgrid Adriana C

  7. Interline Photovoltaic (I-PV) power system - A novel concept of power flow control and management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khadkikar, Vinod

    This paper presents a new system configuration for a large-scale Photovoltaic (PV) power system with multi-line transmission/distribution networks. A PV power plant is reconfigured in a way that two adjacent power system ...

  8. Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2008-07-06

    Readily accessible credit has often been cited as a necessary ingredient to open up the market for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, by spreading that cost over some portion of the system's life, financing can certainly make PV systems more affordable. As a result, a number of states have, in the past, set up special residential loan programs targeting the installation of renewable energy systems and/or energy-efficiency improvements and often featuring low interest rates, longer terms and no-hassle application requirements. Historically, these loan programs have had mixed success (particularly for PV), for a variety of reasons, including a historical lack of homeowner interest in PV, a lack of program awareness, a reduced appeal in a low-interest-rate environment, and a tendency for early PV adopters to be wealthy and not in need of financing. Some of these barriers have begun to fade. Most notably, homeowner interest in PV has grown in some states, particularly those that offer solar rebates. The passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), however, introduced one additional roadblock to the success of low-interest PV loan programs: a residential solar investment tax credit (ITC), subject to the Federal government's 'anti-double-dipping' rules. Specifically, the residential solar ITC--equal to 30% of the system's tax basis, capped at $2000--will be reduced or offset if the system also benefits from what is known as 'subsidized energy financing', which is likely to include most government-sponsored low-interest loan programs. Within this context, it has been interesting to note the recent flurry of announcements from a number of U.S cities concerning a new type of PV financing program. Led by the city of Berkeley, Calif., these cities propose to offer their residents the ability to finance the installation of a PV system using increased property tax assessments, rather than a more-traditional credit vehicle, to recover both system and administrative costs. This approach has a number of features that should appeal to PV owners, including long-term, fixed-cost, attractive financing; loans that are tied to the tax capacity of the property rather than to the owner's credit standing; a repayment obligation that transfers along with the sale of the property; and a potential ability to deduct the repayment obligation from federal taxable income as part of the local property tax deduction. For these reasons, Berkeley's program, which was first announced on October 23, 2007, has received considerable nationwide attention in both the trade and general press. Since the announcement, cities from throughout California and the broader U.S. have expressed keen interest in the possibility of replicating this type of program. In California alone, the cities of Santa Cruz, Santa Monica and Palm Desert are all reportedly considering similar programs, while the city of San Francisco has recently announced its own program, portions of which closely parallel Berkeley's approach. In addition, a bill (AB 811) that would authorize all cities in California, not just charter cities like Berkeley, to create this type of program was approved by the California General Assembly on January 29 and is currently under consideration in the State Senate. A similar bill in Colorado (HB 1350) was signed into law on May 28. Elsewhere, the city of Tucson, Arizona has also considered this financing approach.

  9. IRRADIANCE MAPS APPLIED FOR THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PV SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    FEDERAL STATE OF SAXONY 1 Institute of Electrical Engineering,University of Applied Sciences (FH energy yield of a PV system,methods based on irradiance maps published by weather services or others of the irradiance data has been done by checking a set of monthly energy yield data of well-running grid

  10. Accurate economic analysis of photovoltaic (PV) systems performance over the system lifetime requires knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    ABSTRACT Accurate economic analysis of photovoltaic (PV) systems performance over the system placed on the performance of the photovoltaic (PV) system over the lifetime of the system. Many. The economic evaluation is dependent on system production, MEASURING DEGRADATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE

  11. A methodology for optimal sizing of autonomous hybrid PV/wind system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A methodology for optimal sizing of autonomous hybrid PV/wind system S. Diaf 1* , D. Diaf2 , M paper presents a methodology to perform the optimal sizing of an autonomous hybrid PV/wind system system reliability requirements, with the lowest value of levelised cost of energy. Modelling a hybrid PV/wind

  12. Advanced Photovoltaic Inverter Functionality using 500 kW Power Hardware-in-Loop Complete System Laboratory Testing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B. A.; Kromer, M. A.; Casey, L.

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of distribution connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, more and more PV developers and utilities are interested in easing future PV interconnection concerns by mitigating some of the impacts of PV integration using advanced PV inverter controls and functions. This paper describes the testing of a 500 kW PV inverter using Power Hardware-in-Loop (PHIL) testing techniques. The test setup is described and the results from testing the inverter in advanced functionality modes, not commonly used in currently interconnected PV systems, are presented. PV inverter operation under PHIL evaluation that emulated both the DC PV array connection and the AC distribution level grid connection are shown for constant power factor (PF) and constant reactive power (VAr) control modes. The evaluation of these modes was completed under varying degrees of modeled PV variability.

  13. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  14. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, A.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory Universityof Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Solar EnergySystem Operations Table 27. Renewable Curtailment in the BR

  15. Field Test and Evaluation Report Five Photovoltaic Power Systems for the City of Tucson

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Members of the DOE solar energy Tiger Team tested five municipally owned, grid connected photovoltaic (PV) power systems for the City of Tucson on March 26 and 27, 2008. The five PV systems tested were Southeast Service Center, Clements Fitness Center, and Thonydale water treatment plant systems 1, 2, and 3. During all tests, skies were virtually cloudless with only occasional, high cirrus present, and none during array testing.

  16. Do PV Systems Increase Residential Selling Prices If So, How Can Practitioners Estimate This Increase?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2013-01-01

    National Laboratory’s Photovoltaic System Valuation Model –of the Effects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residentialimpacts of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems on home sales

  17. EFFECTIVE EFFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE RATIO AS ENERGY RATING SYSTEM FOR PV MODULES Marko Topic1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    EFFECTIVE EFFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE RATIO AS ENERGY RATING SYSTEM FOR PV MODULES Marko Topic1 USA ABSTRACT: PV module energy rating assessment can be expressed by an annual effective efficiency approaches are presented: (i) a more accurate one with hourly averaged data over a year and a model of PV

  18. PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones Grid Integration Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM, USA Abstract-- High penetrations of PV reliability problems. In order to improve the interconnection study process, the use of feeder zones and PV

  19. Measuring PV System Series Resistance Without Full IV Curves Joshua S. Stein1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measuring PV System Series Resistance Without Full IV Curves Joshua S. Stein1 , Shawn McCaslin2 resistance of the PV module, string, or array that does not require measuring a full IV curve and current, which can be readily obtained using standard PV monitoring equipment; measured short circuit

  20. PV Charging System for Remote Area Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilsemann, Frederick; Thompson, Roger

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project is to provide the public with a study of new as well existing technology to recharge batteries used in the field. A new product(s) will also be built based upon the information ascertained. American Electric Vehicles, Inc. (AEV) developed systems and methods suitable for charging state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries in remote locations under both ideal and cloudy weather conditions. Conceptual designs are described for existing and next generation technology, particularly as regards solar cells, peak power trackers and batteries. Prototype system tests are reported.

  1. Distributed Power Electronics for PV Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.

    2011-12-01

    An overview of the benefits and applications of microinverters and DC power optimizers in residential systems. Some conclusions from this report are: (1) The impact of shade is greater than just the area of shade; (2) Additional mismatch losses include panel orientation, panel distribution, inverter voltage window, soiling; (3) Per-module devices can help increase performance, 4-12% or more depending on the system; (4) Value-added benefits (safety, monitoring, reduced design constraints) are helping their adoption; and (5) The residential market is growing rapidly. Efficiency increases, cost reductions are improving market acceptance. Panel integration will further reduce price and installation cost. Reliability remains an unknown.

  2. DOE Publishes Notice of Public Meeting for Smart Grid-connected...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of the meeting will be: Discuss issues concerning the physical characterization of smart and grid-connected commercial and residential buildings end-use equipment and...

  3. EVALUATION OF PV GENERATION CAPICITY CREDIT FORECAST ON DAY-AHEAD UTILITY MARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    EVALUATION OF PV GENERATION CAPICITY CREDIT FORECAST ON DAY-AHEAD UTILITY MARKETS Richard Perez predict the effective capacity of grid-connected PV power plants. The predicted and actual utility peak load reduction performance of PV power plants are compared for two case studies: ConEdison in New York

  4. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS 1 A Hybrid Power Control Concept for PV Inverters with Reduced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerekes, Tamas

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS 1 Letters A Hybrid Power Control Concept for PV Inverters- cept for grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) inverters. The control strategy is based on either a Maximum on the instantaneous available power from the PV panels. The essence of the proposed concept lies in the selection

  5. Smart Energy Management and Control for Fuel Cell Based Micro-Grid Connected Neighborhoods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2006-03-15

    Fuel cell power generation promises to be an efficient, pollution-free, reliable power source in both large scale and small scale, remote applications. DOE formed the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance with the intention of breaking one of the last barriers remaining for cost effective fuel cell power generation. The Alliance’s goal is to produce a core solid-state fuel cell module at a cost of no more than $400 per kilowatt and ready for commercial application by 2010. With their inherently high, 60-70% conversion efficiencies, significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and negligible emissions of other pollutants, fuel cells will be the obvious choice for a broad variety of commercial and residential applications when their cost effectiveness is improved. In a research program funded by the Department of Energy, the research team has been investigating smart fuel cell-operated residential micro-grid communities. This research has focused on using smart control systems in conjunction with fuel cell power plants, with the goal to reduce energy consumption, reduce demand peaks and still meet the energy requirements of any household in a micro-grid community environment. In Phases I and II, a SEMaC was developed and extended to a micro-grid community. In addition, an optimal configuration was determined for a single fuel cell power plant supplying power to a ten-home micro-grid community. In Phase III, the plan is to expand this work to fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods (mini-grid). The economic implications of hydrogen cogeneration will be investigated. These efforts are consistent with DOE’s mission to decentralize domestic electric power generation and to accelerate the onset of the hydrogen economy. A major challenge facing the routine implementation and use of a fuel cell based mini-grid is the varying electrical demand of the individual micro-grids, and, therefore, analyzing these issues is vital. Efforts are needed to determine the most appropriate means of implementing micro-grids and the costs and processes involved with their extended operation. With the development and availability of fuel cell based stand-alone power plants, an electrical mini-grid, encompassing several connected residential neighborhoods, has become a viable concept. A primary objective of this project is to define the parameters of an economically efficient fuel cell based mini-grid. Since pure hydrogen is not economically available in sufficient quantities at the present time, the use of reforming technology to produce and store excess hydrogen will also be investigated. From a broader perspective, the factors that bear upon the feasibility of fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods are similar to those pertaining to the electrification of a small town with a localized power generating station containing several conventional generating units. In the conventional case, the town or locality would also be connected to the larger grid system of the utility company. Therefore, in the case of the fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods, this option should also be available. The objectives of this research project are: To demonstrate that smart energy management of a fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhood can be efficient and cost-effective;To define the most economical micro-grid configuration; and, To determine how residential micro-grid connected fuel cell(s) can contribute to America's hydrogen energy future.

  6. Quantify Degradation Rates and Mechanisms of PV Modules and Systems Installed in Florida Through Comprehensive Experimental and Theoretical Analysis (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorloaica-Hickman, N.; Davis, K.; Kurtz, S.; Jordan, D.

    2011-02-01

    The economic viability of photovoltaic (PV) technologies is inextricably tied to both the electrical performance and degradation rate of the PV systems, which are the generators of electrical power in PV systems. Over the past 15 years, performance data have been collected on numerous PV systems installed throughout the state of Florida and will be presented.

  7. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  8. www.iaei.org May.June 2006 IAEI NEWS 85 THE 15-MINUTE PV SYSTEM INSPECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    www.iaei.org May.June 2006 IAEI NEWS 85 THE 15-MINUTE PV SYSTEM INSPECTION by John Wiles The 15-minuteThe 15-minute PV System InspectionPV System Inspection CaCan You? Should You?n You? Should You? The 15-minuteThe 15-minute PV System InspectionPV System Inspection CaCan You? Should You?n You? Should

  9. Exploring the Economic Value of EPAct 2005's PV Tax Credits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan; Ing, Edwin

    2009-08-01

    This CESA - LBNL Case Study examines how much economic value do new and expanded federal tax credits really provide to PV system purchasers, and what implications might they hold for state/utility PV grant programs. The report begins with a discussion of the taxability of PV grants and their interaction with federal credits, as this issue significantly affects the analysis that follows. We then calculate the incremental value of EPAct's new and expanded credits for PV systems of different sizes, and owned by different types of entities. The report concludes with a discussion of potential implications for purchasers of PV systems, as well as for administrators of state/utility PV programs. The market for grid-connected photovoltaics (PV) in the US has grown dramatically in recent years, driven in large part by PV grant or 'buy-down' programs in California, New Jersey, and many other states. The recent announcement of a new 11-year, $3.2 billion PV program in California suggests that state policy will continue to drive even faster growth over the next decade. Federal policy has also played a role, primarily by providing commercial PV systems access to tax benefits, including accelerated depreciation (5-year MACRS schedule) and a business energy investment tax credit (ITC). Since the signing of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) on August 8, the federal government has begun to play a much more significant role in supporting both commercial and residential PV systems. Specifically, EPAct increased the federal ITC for commercial PV systems from 10% to 30% of system costs, and also created a new 30% ITC (capped at $2000) for residential solar systems. Both changes went into effect on January 1, 2006, for an initial period of two years, and in late 2006 were extended for an additional year. Unless extended further, the new residential ITC will expire, and the 30% commercial ITC will revert back to 10%, on January 1, 2009. How much economic value do these new and expanded federal tax credits really provide to PV system purchasers? And what implications might they hold for state/utility PV grant programs? Using a generic (i.e., non-state-specific) cash flow model, this report explores these questions.1 We begin with a discussion of the taxability of PV grants and their interaction with federal credits, as this issue significantly affects the analysis that follows. We then calculate the incremental value of EPAct's new and expanded credits for PV systems of different sizes, and owned by different types of entities. We conclude with a discussion of potential implications for purchasers of PV systems, as well as for administrators of state/utility PV programs.

  10. Aalborg Universitet Economic Power Dispatch of Distributed Generators in a Grid-Connected Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Economic Power Dispatch of Distributed Generators in a Grid-Connected Microgrid., & Vasquez, J. C. (2015). Economic Power Dispatch of Distributed Generators in a Grid-Connected Microgrid-Connected Microgrid Adriana C. Luna, Nelson L. Diaz, Fabio Andrade, Mois`es Graells§, Josep M. Guerrero, and Juan C

  11. Power control of a wind farm with active stall wind turbines and AC grid connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power control of a wind farm with active stall wind turbines and AC grid connection Anca D. Hansen1 on the wind farm level. The ability of active stall wind farms with AC grid connection to regulate the power, is therefore directed towards optimising the integration of large wind farms within the electrical power grid

  12. Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Clean Energy States Alliance, titled “Property Tax Assessments as a Finance Vehicle for Residential PV Installations: Opportunities and Potential

  13. Partially Shaded Operation of a Grid-Tied PV System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents background and experimental results from a single-string grid-tied PV system, operated under a variety of shading conditions.

  14. An Analysis of Residential PV System Price Differences Between the United States and Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seel, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    A levelized cost of electricity (LCoE) analysis based on thePV system prices could reduce LCoE assumptions: 25-year life

  15. Energy Management Strategy for Commercial Buildings Integrating PV and Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Energy Management Strategy for Commercial Buildings Integrating PV and Storage Systems He ZHANG1 by using the solution proposed. Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV) systems, fuzzy logic, storage system, energy connected to the power network and associated to photovoltaic and storage system. Some energy management

  16. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics ofCustomer-Sited PV: A Study of Commercial Installations inCalifornia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2007-06-01

    We analyze the impact of retail rate design on the economics of grid-connected commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems in California. The analysis is based on 15-minute interval building load and PV production data for 24 commercial PV installations in California, spanning a diverse set of building load shapes and geographic locations. We derive the annual bill savings per kWh generated for each PV system, under each of 21 distinct retail rates currently offered by the five largest utilities in California. We identify and explain variation in the value of bill savings attributable to differences in the structure of demand and energy charges across rates, as well as variation attributable to other factors, such as the size of the PV system relative to building load, the specific shape of the PV production profile, and the customer load profile. We also identify the optimal rate for each customer, among those rates offered as alternatives to one another, and show how the decision is driven in large measure by the size of the PV system relative to building load. The findings reported here may be of value to regulators and utilities responsible for designing retail rates, as well as to customers and PV retailers who have a need to estimate the prospective bill savings of PV systems.

  17. High?Penetration PV with Advanced Power Conditioning Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VT) is evaluating the impacts of high photovoltaic (PV) penetration and methods to manage any impacts with improved power conditioning equipment.

  18. Solar San Diego: The Impact of Binomial Rate Structures on Real PV Systems; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanGeet, O.; Brown, E.; Blair, T.; McAllister, A.

    2008-05-01

    There is confusion in the marketplace regarding the impact of solar photovoltaics (PV) on the user's actual electricity bill under California Net Energy Metering, particularly with binomial tariffs (those that include both demand and energy charges) and time-of-use (TOU) rate structures. The City of San Diego has extensive real-time electrical metering on most of its buildings and PV systems, with interval data for overall consumption and PV electrical production available for multiple years. This paper uses 2007 PV-system data from two city facilities to illustrate the impacts of binomial rate designs. The analysis will determine the energy and demand savings that the PV systems are achieving relative to the absence of systems. A financial analysis of PV-system performance under various rate structures is presented. The data revealed that actual demand and energy use benefits of binomial tariffs increase in summer months, when solar resources allow for maximized electricity production. In a binomial tariff system, varying on- and semi-peak times can result in approximately $1,100 change in demand charges per month over not having a PV system in place, an approximate 30% cost savings. The PV systems are also shown to have a 30%-50% reduction in facility energy charges in 2007.

  19. Performance of Mismatched PV Systems With Submodule Integrated Converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olalla, C; Deline, C; Maksimovic, D

    2014-01-01

    Mismatch power losses in photovoltaic (PV) systems can be reduced by the use of distributed power electronics at the module or submodule level. This paper presents an experimentally validated numerical model that can be used to predict power production with distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT) down to the cell level. The model allows the investigations of different DMPPT architectures, as well as the impact of conversion efficiencies and power constraints. Results are presented for annual simulations of three representative partial shading scenarios and two scenarios where mismatches are due to aging over a period of 25 years. It is shown that DMPPT solutions that are based on submodule integrated converters offer 6.9-11.1% improvements in annual energy yield relative to a baseline centralized MPPT scenario.

  20. Physical Effects of Distributed PV Generation on California's Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Deployment of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) power is expected to have a range of effects -- both positive and negative -- on the distribution grid. The magnitude of these effects may vary greatly depending upon feeder topology, climate, PV penetration level, and other factors. In this paper we present a simulation study of eight representative distribution feeders in three California climates at PV penetration levels up to 100\\%, supported by a unique database of distributed PV generation data that enables us to capture the impact of PV variability on feeder voltage and voltage regulating equipment. When comparing the influence of feeder location (i.e. climate) versus feeder type on outcomes, we find that location more strongly influences the incidence of reverse power flow, reductions in peak loading and the presence of voltage excursions. On the other hand, we find that feeder characteristics more strongly influence the magnitude of loss reduction and changes in voltage regulator operations. We find th...

  1. Optimal Design of Hybrid Energy System with PV/ Wind Turbine/ Storage: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wierman, Adam

    Optimal Design of Hybrid Energy System with PV/ Wind Turbine/ Storage: A Case Study Rui Huang with photovoltaic (PV) arrays, wind turbines, and battery storage is designed based on empirical weather and load with renewable resources such as solar and wind power, supplemented with battery storage in a case study. One

  2. Aalborg Universitet High efficiency battery converter with SiC devices for residential PV systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teodorescu, Remus

    electricity with spot price and maximize the system and shorter the payback time, thus a high]. The high efficiency is a very important factor for the PV industry, where the generated energy price. World leader in terms of cumulative PV installation, Germany, who is showing a constant commitment from

  3. GROWDERS Demonstration of Grid Connected Electricity Systems (Smart Grid

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable Urban TransportFortistarFuelCellsEtcSilicon

  4. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems Case Studies | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEniaElectricHydroLegal Documents JumpInformation

  5. Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOEDepartment ofProgramImports byGeothermalDepartment ofNevada -- SEP,|

  6. Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -Department ofDepartmentNaturalEnergy| Department ofSummary of|

  7. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFESOpportunitiesNERSC

  8. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice ofofWindUpcomingcanGrid Integration The Wind Program works

  9. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContracting Oversight Committee on Homeland

  10. The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørk, R

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system is examined using an analytical model for four different types of commercial PVs and a commercial bismuth telluride TEG. The TEG is applied directly on the back of the PV, so that the two devices have the same temperature. The PVs considered are crystalline Si (c-Si), amorphous Si (a-Si), copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) cells. The degradation of PV performance with temperature is shown to dominate the increase in power produced by the TEG, due to the low efficiency of the TEG. For c-Si, CIGS and CdTe PV cells the combined system produces a lower power and has a lower efficiency than the PV alone, whereas for an a-Si cell the total system performance may be slightly increased by the TEG.

  11. 94 IAEI NEWS November.December 2008 www.iaei.org a top to bottom perspective on a pv system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    94 IAEI NEWS November.December 2008 www.iaei.org a top to bottom perspective on a pv system P in the "Perspectives on PV" series of articles. In this article and the next few articles in the series, let's start at the "bottom." A utility-interactive PV system is a series-connected system, so where we start is not important

  12. Ris-R-1219(EN) / SEC-R-12 Models for a Stand-Alone PV System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1219(EN) / SEC-R-12 Models for a Stand-Alone PV System Anca D. Hansen, Poul Sørensen, Lars H presents a number of models for modelling and simulation of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system mathematical models for each individual element of a stand-alone PV system, namely solar cells, battery

  13. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  14. New Berkeley Lab Report Tracks a Decade of PV Installed Cost Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Peterman, Carla; Wiser, Ryan

    2009-04-15

    Installations of PV systems have been expanding at a rapid pace in recent years. In the United States, the market for PV is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including upfront cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and Federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy and by the positive attributes of PV - e.g., modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the location of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. A new Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report, 'Tracking the Sun: The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2007', helps to fill this need by summarizing trends in the installed cost (i.e., the cost paid by the system owner) of grid-connected PV systems in the U.S. The report is based on an analysis of project-level cost data from nearly 37,000 residential and non-residential PV systems completed from 1998-2007 and installed on the utility-customer-side of the meter. These systems total 363 MW, equal to 76% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the U.S. through 2007, representing the most comprehensive data source available on the installed cost of PV in the United States. The data were obtained from administrators of PV incentive programs around the country, who typically collect installed cost data for systems receiving incentives. A total of 16 programs, spanning 12 states, ultimately provided data for the study. Reflecting the broader geographical trends in the U.S. PV market, the vast majority of the systems in the data sample are located in California (83%, by capacity) and New Jersey (12%), The remaining systems are located in Arizona, Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. The PV systems in the dataset range in size from 100 W to 1.3 MW, almost 90% of which are smaller than 10 kW. This article briefly summarizes some of the key findings from the Berkeley Lab study (the full report can be downloaded at http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/emp/re-pubs.html). The article begins by summarizing trends related to the installed cost of PV systems prior to receipt of any financial incentives, and then discusses how changes in incentive levels over time and variation across states have impacted the net installed cost of PV to the customer, after receipt of incentives. Note that all cost and incentive data are presented in real 2007 dollars (2007$), and all capacity and dollars-perwatt ($/W) data are presented in terms of rated module power output under Standard Test Conditions (DC-STC).

  15. Esthetically Designed Municipal PV System Maximizes Energy Production and Revenue Return

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In late 2008, the City of Sebastopol, CA installed a unique 42 kW grid-interactive photovoltaic (PV) system to provide electricity for pumps of the Sebastopol municipal water system. The resulting innovative Sun Dragon PV system, located in a public park, includes design elements that provide optimized electrical performance and revenue generation for the energy produced while also presenting an artistic and unique appearance to park visitors.

  16. Full Steam Ahead for PV in US Homes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Full Steam Ahead for PV in US Homes? Mark Bolinger, Galenutility-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations in the yearsimplications for PV rebate program administrators, PV system

  17. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-05-11

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when commercial PV systems represent a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  18. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-06-24

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05 to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when energy from commercial PV systems represents a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  19. Multi-Objective Capacity Planning of a Pv-Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saif, A.

    A new solution methodology of the capacity design problem of a PV-Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power System (HPS) is presented. The problem is formulated as a Linear Programming (LP) model with two objectives: minimizing ...

  20. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To achieve a sizable and self-sustaining market for grid-connected, customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, solar will likely need to be competitive with retail electricity rates. In this report, we examine the impact of retail rate design on the economic value of commercial PV systems in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial customer retail rates currently offered in the state. We find that the specifics of the rate structure, combined with the characteristics of the customer’s underlying load and the size of the PV system, can have a substantial impact on the customer-economics of commercial PV systems.

  1. IAEI NEWS January.February 2008 www.iaei.org ground-fault protection for pv systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    IAEI NEWS January.February 2008 www.iaei.org ground-fault protection for pv systems O nce upon was elaborating on the ex- cellence of their photovoltaic (PV) test facility in the distant Land of Enchantment. They showed some se- nior firefighters a picture of a burned PV module that had been subject to a ground fault

  2. 20 IAEI NEWS January.February 2006 www.iaei.org back to the grid, designing pv systems for code complance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    20 IAEI NEWS January.February 2006 www.iaei.org back to the grid, designing pv systems for code complance Perspectives on PV Code Compliance Back to the Grid, Designing PV Systems for A series of articles on photovoltaic (PV) power systems and the National Electrical Code by John Wiles Code Compliance20 IAEI NEWS

  3. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    da Silva, R.M.; Fernandes, J.L.M.

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this work consists in thermodynamic modeling of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar systems, pursuing a modular strategy approach provided by Simulink/Matlab. PV/T solar systems are a recently emerging solar technology that allows for the simultaneous conversion of solar energy into both electricity and heat. This type of technology present some interesting advantages over the conventional ''side-by-side'' thermal and PV solar systems, such as higher combined electrical/thermal energy outputs per unit area, and a more uniform and aesthetical pleasant roof area. Despite the fact that early research on PV/T systems can be traced back to the seventies, only recently it has gained a renewed impetus. In this work, parametric studies and annual transient simulations of PV/T systems are undertaken in Simulink/Matlab. The obtained results show an average annual solar fraction of 67%, and a global overall efficiency of 24% (i.e. 15% thermal and 9% electrical), for a typical four-person single-family residence in Lisbon, with p-Si cells, and a collector area of 6 m{sup 2}. A sensitivity analysis performed on the PV/T collector suggests that the most important variable that should be addressed to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic (PV) module emittance. Based on those results, some additional improvements are proposed, such as the use of vacuum, or a noble gas at low-pressure, to allow for the removal of PV cells encapsulation without air oxidation and degradation, and thus reducing the PV module emittance. Preliminary results show that this option allows for an 8% increase on optical thermal efficiency, and a substantial reduction of thermal losses, suggesting the possibility of working at higher fluid temperatures. The higher working temperatures negative effect in electrical efficiency was negligible, due to compensation by improved optical properties. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained from other authors and perform reasonably well. The Simulink modeling platform has been mainly used worldwide on simulation of control systems, digital signal processing and electric circuits, but there are very few examples of application to solar energy systems modeling. This work uses the modular environment of Simulink/Matlab to model individual PV/T system components, and to assemble the entire installation layout. The results show that the modular approach strategy provided by Matlab/Simulink environment is applicable to solar systems modeling, providing good code scalability, faster developing time, and simpler integration with external computational tools, when compared with traditional imperative-oriented programming languages. (author)

  4. PV modules, with a life measured in decades, will typically be in place longer than the outdoor unit of a HVAC system.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    PV modules, with a life measured in decades, will typically be in place longer than the outdoor and repaired promptly. PV systems suffer gradual degradation that is often not monitored, and the PV array may with copper conductors. On the other hand, PV systems have numerous modules (tens to thousands) and mounting

  5. Modeling and Grid impedance Variation Analysis of Parallel Connected Grid Connected Inverter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Claus Leth

    of power converter are important issues todays as the grid is becoming much more power electronics filtering and resonance damping methods are studied in islanded micro- grid application to reduceModeling and Grid impedance Variation Analysis of Parallel Connected Grid Connected Inverter based

  6. PV PLANNER A DESIGN AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    PV PLANNER A DESIGN AND ANALYSIS TOOL FOR BUILDING INTEGRATED SOLAR ELECTRIC SYSTEMS FINAL Center for Energy and Environmental Policy University of Delaware December 2006 #12;#12;PV...............................................................................................................................1 1.2 PV Planner: An Overview

  7. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote System Performance: A Review of Current Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Dan. 2006. Best Practices in PV Rebate Programs: Helpingprogram staff. Designing PV Incentive Programs to PromoteGroup), Mike Taylor Designing PV Incentive Programs to

  8. High-Penetration PV Deployment in the Arizona Public Service System, Phase 1 Update: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hambrick, J.; Narang, D.

    2012-06-01

    In an effort to better understand the impacts of high penetrations of photovoltaic generators on distribution systems, Arizona Public Service and its partners have begun work on a multi-year project to develop the tools and knowledge base needed to safely and reliably integrate high penetrations of utility- and residential-scale photovoltaics (PV). Building upon the APS Community Power Project -- Flagstaff Pilot, this project will analyze the impact of PV on a representative feeder in northeast Flagstaff. To quantify and catalog the effects of the estimated 1.3 MW of PV that will be installed on the feeder (both smaller units at homes as well as large, centrally located systems), high-speed weather and electrical data acquisition systems and digital 'smart' meters are being designed and installed to facilitate monitoring and to build and validate comprehensive, high-resolution models of the distribution system. These models will be used to analyze the impacts of the PV on distribution circuit protection systems (including anti-islanding), predict voltage regulation and phase balance issues, and develop volt/var control schemes. This paper continues from a paper presented at the 2011 IEEE PVSC conference that introduces the project and describes some of the preliminary consideration, as well as project plans and early results. This paper gives a status update of the project and presents selected results from Phase 2 of the project. It discusses baseline feeder modeling, load allocation, data acquisition, utility-scale PV integration, preliminary model validation, and plans for future phases.

  9. High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid, Workshop Report, February 24-25, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Outcomes from the EERE Solar Energy Technologies Program workshop on high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems into the distribution grid, Feb. 24-25, 2009, Ontario, Calif.

  10. Energy 101: Solar PV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

  11. Energy 101: Solar PV

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power...

  12. Energy 101: Solar PV

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

  13. Capacity Value of PV and Wind Generation in the NV Energy System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Diao, Ruisheng; Samaan, Nader A.; Etingov, Pavel V.

    2014-03-21

    Calculation of photovoltaic (PV) and wind power capacity values is important for estimating additional load that can be served by new PV or wind installations in the electrical power system. It also is the basis for assigning capacity credit payments in systems with markets. Because of variability in solar and wind resources, PV and wind generation contribute to power system resource adequacy differently from conventional generation. Many different approaches to calculating PV and wind generation capacity values have been used by utilities and transmission operators. Using the NV Energy system as a study case, this report applies peak-period capacity factor (PPCF) and effective load carrying capability (ELCC) methods to calculate capacity values for renewable energy sources. We show the connection between the PPCF and ELCC methods in the process of deriving a simplified approach that approximates the ELCC method. This simplified approach does not require generation fleet data and provides the theoretical basis for a quick check on capacity value results of PV and wind generation. The diminishing return of capacity benefit as renewable generation increases is conveniently explained using the simplified capacity value approach.

  14. A 40KW ROOF MOUNTED PV THERMAL CONCENTRATOR SYSTEM J.F.H. Smeltink1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermal (PV-T) concentrator system. This system is based on its Combined Heat and Power Solar (CHAPS called Combined Heat and Power Solar (CHAPS) Systems. During 2002 the Australian Greenhouse Office made of 37x. Heat is removed from the solar cells using a fluid, which flows through a passage in the cell

  15. A 20-SUN HYBRID PV-THERMAL LINEAR MICRO-CONCENTRATOR SYSTEM FOR URBAN ROOFTOP APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conditioning (HVAC), and process heat. The system can be modularly configured for hybrid concentrating PVA 20-SUN HYBRID PV-THERMAL LINEAR MICRO-CONCENTRATOR SYSTEM FOR URBAN ROOFTOP APPLICATIONS D Walter of America ABSTRACT A unique, linear, low-concentration, hybrid `micro- concentrator' (MCT) system concept

  16. Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Both grid-connected and off-grid home renewable energy systems require additional balance-of-system equipment. Both grid-connected and off-grid home renewable energy...

  17. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San José Convention Center

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The City of San José is considering the installation of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system on the roof of the San José Convention Center. The installation would be on a lower section of the roof covering approximately 21,000 ft2. To assist city staff in making a decision on the PV installation, the Department of Energy Tiger Team has investigated potential indirect benefits of installing a solar PV system on the Convention Center roof. The indirect benefits include potential increase in roof life, as well as potential reduced heating and cooling load in the building due to roof shading from the PV system.

  18. An Analysis of Residential PV System Price Differences between the United States and Germany

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems were twice as expensive in the United States as in Germany (median of $5.29/W vs. $2.59/W) in 2012. This price discrepancy stems primarily from differences in non-hardware or "soft" costs between the two countries, which can only be explained in part by differences in cumulative market size and associated learning. A survey of German PV installers was deployed to collect rough data on PV soft costs in Germany to compare to results of a similar survey of U.S. PV installers. Non-module hardware costs and all analyzed soft costs are lower in Germany, especially for customer acquisition, installation labor, and profit/overhead costs, but also for expenses related to permitting, interconnection, and inspection procedures. Additional costs occur in the United States due to state and local sales taxes, smaller average system sizes, and longer project development times. To reduce the identified additional costs of residential PV systems, the United States could introduce policies that enable a robust and lasting market while minimizing market fragmentation.

  19. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  20. Hawaii Natural Energy Institute installs PV systems at public schools Pacific Business News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    well-established products in the solar industry. Three net-zero energy buildings created by CaliforniaHawaii Natural Energy Institute installs PV systems at public schools Pacific Business News Energy Institute said Tuesday that it has recently installed six solar photovoltaic systems totaling 15

  1. Aalborg Universitet The Integration and Control of Multifunctional Stationary PV-Battery Systems in Smart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    in Smart Distribution Grid Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Mulder, Grietus ; Van Mierlo, Joeri ; Kær, Søren Knudsen of Multifunctional Stationary PV-Battery Systems in Smart Distribution Grid. In Proceedings of the 28th European-BATTERY SYSTEMS IN SMART DISTRIBUTION GRID Mohammad Rezwan Khan1,*, Grietus Mulder2 , Joeri Van Mierlo3 , Søren

  2. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farhar, B. C.; Buhrmann, J.

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  3. Electricity Rate Structures and the Economics of Solar PV: Could Mandatory Time-of-Use Rates Undermine California’s Solar Photovoltaic Subsidies?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2007-01-01

    the Twenty- Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference,T. and R. Margolis. “Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toLarge Grid- Connected Photovoltaic Systems in California and

  4. IRRADIANCE MAPS APPLIED FOR THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PV SYSTEMS -A CASE STUDY FOR THE GERMAN FEDERAL STATE OF SAXONY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    IRRADIANCE MAPS APPLIED FOR THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PV SYSTEMS - A CASE STUDY FOR THE GERMAN and the month by month check of a PV system's performance, methods based on irradiance maps published by weather DWD or the data bank of hourly irradiance data with continuous spatial coverage prepared

  5. A Hierarchical Control Algorithm for Managing Electrical Energy Storage Systems in Homes Equipped with PV Power Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    A Hierarchical Control Algorithm for Managing Electrical Energy Storage Systems in Homes Equipped with PV Power Generation Yanzhi Wang, Siyu Yue, and Massoud Pedram Department of Electrical Engineering}@sharplabs.com Abstract-- Integrating residential-level photovoltaic (PV) power generation and energy storage systems

  6. Panel: Microgrid Research and Field Testing IEEE PES General Meeting, 24-28 June 2007, Tampa, FL 1 In general, a microgrid can operate in both the grid-connected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panel: Microgrid Research and Field Testing IEEE PES General Meeting, 24-28 June 2007, Tampa, FL 1 Abstract In general, a microgrid can operate in both the grid-connected mode and the islanded mode where the microgrid is interfaced to the main power system by a fast semiconductor switch called static switch, (SS

  7. Compatibility Study of Protective Relaying in a Grid-Connected Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-04-15

    A 200-kW fuel cell produced by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a United Technologies Company, began operation at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) in early June 2003. The NTRC is a joint Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) and University of Tennessee research facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee. This research activity investigated the protective relaying functions of this fully commercialized fuel cell power plant, which uses ''synthesized'' protective relays. The project's goal is to characterize the compatibility between the fuel cell's interconnection protection system and the local distribution system or electric power system (EPS). ORNL, with assistance from the Electric Power Research Institute-Power Electronics Applications Center (EPRI-PEAC) in Knoxville, Tennessee, monitored and characterized the system compatibility over a period of 6 months. Distribution utility engineers are distrustful of or simply uncomfortable with the protective relaying and hardware provided as part of distributed generation (DG) plants. Part of this mistrust is due to the fact that utilities generally rely on hardware from certain manufacturers whose reliability is well established based on performance over many years or even decades. Another source of concern is the fact that fuel cells and other types of DG do not use conventional relays but, instead, the protective functions of conventional relays are simulated by digital circuits in the distributed generator's grid interface control unit. Furthermore, the testing and validation of internal protection circuits of DG are difficult to accomplish and can be changed by the vendor at any time. This study investigated and documented the safety and protective relaying present in the IFC fuel cell, collected data on the operation of the fuel cell, recorded event data during EPS disturbances, and assessed the compatibility of the synthesized protective circuits and the local distribution system. The project also addressed other important and timely issues. For instance, the study includes an evaluation of the effectiveness of the fuel cell's synthesized relay protection scheme relative to the recently issued IEEE 1547 interconnection standard. Together, these activities should serve to reduce the number of unknowns pertaining to unconventional protective circuits, to the benefit of DG manufacturers, vendors, prospective and current users of DG, and electricity suppliers/distributors. Although more grid-connect fuel cell interruptions were encountered in this study than originally anticipated, and the investigation and findings became quite complex, every effort was made to clearly summarize the interconnection causes and issues throughout the report and especially in the summary found in Sect. 4. ORNL's funding of this study is sponsored equally by (1) the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Distributed Energy Resources and (2) the Distributed Generation Technologies program of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).

  8. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume III. Technical issues and design guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    This report provide appropriate guidance for addressing the major technical issues associated with the design and installation of a photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) system. Nomographs are presented for developing preliminary sizing and costing, and issues associated with specific components and the overall design of the electrical and mechanical system are discussed. SAND82-7157/2 presents a review of current PV-T technology and operating systems and a study of potential PV-T applications. Detailed PV-T system designs for three selected applications and the results of a trade-off study for these applications are presented in SAND82-7157/4. A summary of the major results of this entire study and conclusions concerning PV-T systems and applications is presented in SAND82-7157/1.

  9. Solar PV Project Financing: Regulatory and Legislative Challenges for Third-Party PPA System Owners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollins, K.; Speer, B.; Cory, K.

    2009-11-01

    Residential and commercial end users of electricity who want to generate electricity using on-site solar photovoltaic (PV) systems face challenging initial and O&M costs. The third-party ownership power purchase agreement (PPA) finance model addresses these and other challenges. It allows developers to build and own PV systems on customers? properties and sell power back to customers. However, third-party electricity sales commonly face five regulatory challenges. The first three challenges involve legislative or regulatory definitions of electric utilities, power generation equipment, and providers of electric services. These definitions may compel third-party owners of solar PV systems to comply with regulations that may be cost prohibitive. Third-party owners face an additional challenge if they may not net meter, a practice that provides significant financial incentive to owning solar PV systems. Finally, municipalities and cooperatives worry about the regulatory implications of allowing an entity to sell electricity within their service territories. This paper summarizes these challenges, when they occur, and how they have been addressed in five states. This paper also presents alternative to the third-party ownership PPA finance model, including solar leases, contractual intermediaries, standardized contract language, federal investment tax credits, clean renewable energy bonds, and waived monopoly powers.

  10. Linkage to Previous International PV Module QA Task Force Workshops: Proposal for Rating System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint presentation, focused on humidity, temperature and voltage testing, was originally presented at the NREL 2013 PV Module Reliability Workshop on Feb. 26-27, 2013 in Denver, CO. It summarizes the efforts of previous QA task forces and proposes a QA rating system to differentiate the relative durability of model designs.

  11. Optimal Design and Management of a Smart Residential PV and Energy Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    electric energy prices during peak hours. Given this pricing scheme, one way for residential users to lowerOptimal Design and Management of a Smart Residential PV and Energy Storage System Di Zhu, Yanzhi and uses the stored energy during peak hours. As a result, energy is bought at a lower price during off

  12. PVSAT-2: INTELLIGENT PERFORMANCE CHECK OF PV SYSTEM OPERATION BASED ON SATELLITE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    a Dept. of Energy and Semiconductor Research, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany b, D-86152 Augsburg Germany e Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstraße2, D-79110-back rates for PV energy (0.5/kWh in Germany since spring 2000, similar initiatives are foreseen in other

  13. City of Knoxville, Tennessee City Council Resolution for solar PV system

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is a scan of the resolution, dated July 26, 2011, for the approval of the City of Knoxville, Tennessee to use $250,000 of EECBG funding for finding innovative financing mechanisms for a planned installation of a 90-kW solar PV system.

  14. July 11 Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial And Residential Building End-Use Equipment And Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents contain the three slide decks presented at the public meeting on the Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances, held on July 11, 2014 in Washington, DC.

  15. Linkage to Previous International PV Module QA Task Force Workshops; Proposal for Rating System (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Sample, T.; Yamamichi, M.; Kondo, M.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation gives the historical background of the creation of the International PV QA Task Force as an introduction to the PV Module Reliability Workshop.

  16. Federal Tax Incentives for PV: Potential Implications for Program Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Forthcoming. “EPAct 2005’s PV Tax Credits: What Are TheyAssumptions • Installed PV system costs exhibit economies ofFederal Tax Incentives for PV Potential Implications for

  17. Third-Party Finance for Commercial Photovoltaic Systems: The Rise of the PPA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-02-15

    Installations of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, growing from less than 20 MW in 2000 to nearly 500 MW at the end of 2007, a compound average annual growth rate of 59%. Of particular note is the increasing contribution of 'non-residential' grid-connected PV systems--defined here as those systems installed on the customer (rather than utility) side of the meter at commercial, institutional, non-profit, or governmental properties--to the overall growth trend. Although there is some uncertainty in the numbers, non-residential PV capacity grew from less than half of aggregate annual capacity installations in 2000-2002 to nearly two-thirds in 2007. This relative growth trend is expected to have continued through 2008. This article, which is excerpted from a longer report, focuses specifically on just one subset of the non-residential PV market: systems hosted (and perhaps owned) by commercial, tax-paying entities. Tax-exempt entities (e.g., non-profits or municipalities) face unique issues and have different financing options at their disposal; readers interested in PV financing options for tax-exempt entities can find more information in the Bolinger report.

  18. Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    any subsidized energy financing used to finance the system.Energy States Alliance, titled “Property Tax Assessments as a Finance

  19. Presented at the 21th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden, Germany, 4-8 September 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -8 September 2006 A COST AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT COMPARISON OF GRID-CONNECTED ROOFTOP AND GROUND-BASED PV for roof-top and ground-based crystalline silicon PV systems by using environmental and cost life cycle, small grid-connected PV systems, large grid-connected PV systems 1 INTRODUCTION In cost

  20. Notice of Intent to Issue Funding Opportunity for Integrated PV and Energy Storage Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As solar power plants proliferate, the variability and uncertainty of the solar resource poses challenges for integrating PV with electric power systems at both the distribution and bulk system levels. In response to these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has issued a notice of intent (NOI) to release the SunShot Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar (SHINES) funding opportunity. SHINES will enable the holistic design, development, and widespread sustainable deployment of low-cost, flexible, and reliable energy storage solutions, and will strive to successfully integrate these solutions into PV power plants. SHINES projects can also focus on demand response and load management to achieve target metrics.

  1. Benchmarking Soft Costs for PV Systems in the United States (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents results from the first U.S. based data collection effort to quantify non-hardware, business process costs for PV systems at the residential and commercial scales, using a bottom-up approach. Annual expenditure and labor hour productivity data are analyzed to benchmark business process costs in the specific areas of: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection; (3) labor costs of third party financing; and (4) installation labor.

  2. THE IMPACT OF CITY-LEVEL PERMITTING PROCESSES ON RESIDENTIAL PV INSTALLATION PRICES AND DEVELOPMENT TIMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Changgui

    2014-01-01

    The installed price of photovoltaic (PV) systems hasprice and development time of residential photovoltaic (PV)

  3. Solar Survey of PV System Owners: San Diego

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The purpose of the survey was to understand the motivation, challenges and benefits perceived by individuals who decided to install solar systems in the City of San Diego. Approximately 2000 surveys were sent, and 641 surveys were completed. The primary response was from the residential sector. Individuals had the option to reply electronically, using Survey Monkey, or to complete a paper survey. All responses were combined and checked to ensure that there were no duplicates.

  4. Real-time POD-CFD Wind-Load Calculator for PV Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huayamave, Victor; Divo, Eduardo; Ceballos, Andres; Barriento, Carolina; Stephen, Barkaszi; Hubert, Seigneur

    2014-03-21

    The primary objective of this project is to create an accurate web-based real-time wind-load calculator. This is of paramount importance for (1) the rapid and accurate assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, (2) identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of mounting hardware and installation. Wind loading calculations for structures are currently performed according to the American Society of Civil Engineers/ Structural Engineering Institute Standard ASCE/SEI 7; the values in this standard were calculated from simplified models that do not necessarily take into account relevant characteristics such as those from full 3D effects, end effects, turbulence generation and dissipation, as well as minor effects derived from shear forces on installation brackets and other accessories. This standard does not include provisions that address the special requirements of rooftop PV systems, and attempts to apply this standard may lead to significant design errors as wind loads are incorrectly estimated. Therefore, an accurate calculator would be of paramount importance for the preliminary assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of the mounting system and installation. The challenge is that although a full-fledged three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis would properly and accurately capture the complete physical effects of air flow over PV systems, it would be impractical for this tool, which is intended to be a real-time web-based calculator. CFD routinely requires enormous computation times to arrive at solutions that can be deemed accurate and grid-independent even in powerful and massively parallel computer platforms. This work is expected not only to accelerate solar deployment nationwide, but also help reach the SunShot Initiative goals of reducing the total installed cost of solar energy systems by 75%. The largest percentage of the total installed cost of solar energy system is associated with balance of system cost, with up to 40% going to “soft” costs; which include customer acquisition, financing, contracting, permitting, interconnection, inspection, installation, performance, operations, and maintenance. The calculator that is being developed will provide wind loads in real-time for any solar system designs and suggest the proper installation configuration and hardware; and therefore, it is anticipated to reduce system design, installation and permitting costs.

  5. Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Zeyer, Timo; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin; Jacobson, Mark Z

    2014-01-01

    Wind and solar PV generation data for the entire contiguous US are calculated, on the basis of 32 years of weather data with temporal resolution of one hour and spatial resolution of 40x40km$^2$, assuming site-suitability-based as well as stochastic wind and solar PV capacity distributions throughout the country. These data are used to investigate a fully renewable electricity system, resting primarily upon wind and solar PV power. We find that the seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar PV comes at around 80% solar PV share, owing to the US summer load peak. By picking this mix, long-term storage requirements can be more than halved compared to a wind only mix. The daily optimal mix lies at about 80% wind share due to the nightly gap in solar PV production. Picking this mix instead of solar only reduces backup energy needs by about 50%. Furthermore, we calculate shifts in FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission)-level LCOE (Levelized Costs Of Electricity) for wind and solar PV due to their differing resour...

  6. Development of intermittent redox flow battery for PV system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuda, Izumi; Kurokawa, Kosuke; Nozaki, Ken [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Redox flow battery has been developed as a storage device for photovoltaic systems. The pump loss is the greatest problem for redox flow battery under the low current condition. An intermittent flow redox battery has been developed for the reduction of the pump loss. The experimental results of this battery show that the efficiency under the intermittent pump operation increases higher than the continuous pump operation. Moreover, inert gas bubble technology has been introduced to improve the performance under the high current condition. It is clear from the experiments that this technology increases the efficiencies. The simulation results of these technologies are coincident with experimental results. It is shown by the simulation that they can improve the Faradic and energy efficiencies of a number of stacks in series.

  7. Agenda for Public Meeting on the Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Download the agenda below for the July 11 Public Meeting on the Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial and  Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances.

  8. Economic Analysis of a Brackish Water Photovoltaic-Operated (BWRO-PV) Desalination System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Karaghouli, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    2010-10-01

    The photovoltaic (PV)-powered reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination system is considered one of the most promising technologies in producing fresh water from both brackish and sea water, especially for small systems located in remote areas. We analyze the economic viability of a small PV-operated RO system with a capacity of 5 m3/day used to desalinate brackish water of 4000 ppm total dissolve solids, which is proposed to be installed in a remote area of the Babylon governorate in the middle of Iraq; this area possesses excellent insolation throughout the year. Our analysis predicts very good economic and environmental benefits of using this system. The lowest cost of fresh water achieved from using this system is US $3.98/ m3, which is very reasonable compared with the water cost reported by small-sized desalination plants installed in rural areas in other parts of the world. Our analysis shows that using this small system will prevent the release annually of 8,170 kg of CO2, 20.2 kg of CO, 2.23 kg of CH, 1.52 kg of particulate matter, 16.41 kg of SO2, and 180 kg of NOx.

  9. Comparison of Photovoltaic Models in the System Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, N. J.; Dobos, A. P.; Gilman, P.

    2013-08-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is free software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for predicting the performance of renewable energy systems and analyzing the financial feasibility of residential, commercial, and utility-scale grid-connected projects. SAM offers several options for predicting the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The model requires that the analyst choose from three PV system models, and depending on that choice, possibly choose from three module and two inverter component models. To obtain meaningful results from SAM, the analyst must be aware of the differences between the model options and their applicability to different modeling scenarios. This paper presents an overview the different PV model options and presents a comparison of results for a 200-kW system using different model options.

  10. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote System Performance: A Review of Current Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Solar Rebate Program Solar & Small Wind Incentive ProgramSolar Electric and Wind Program (Small PV Program) **

  11. Utility Scale Wind Turbines on a Grid Connected Island Mohit Dua, Anthony L. Rogers, James F. Manwell,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Utility Scale Wind Turbines on a Grid Connected Island Mohit Dua, Anthony L. Rogers, James F utility scale wind turbines on Fox Islands, located 12 miles from the coast of Maine in the United States of electricity itself. Three locations are analyzed in detail as potential sites for wind turbine installations

  12. Solar PV and Glare Factsheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A common misconception about solar photovoltaic (PV) panels is that they inherently cause or create "too much" glare, posing a nuisance to neighbors and a safety risk for pilots. While solar PV systems can produce glare, light absorption - rather than reflection - is central to the function of solar PV panels. This fact sheet describes the basic issues surrounding glare from solar PV panels, the new Federal Aviation Administration guidance, and the implications for local governments.

  13. Dark Shadows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems. IEEE Journal ofand member of the Photovoltaic Systems and Grid integrationphotovoltaic (PV) plants. The workshop brought together utilities, PV system

  14. PV Value®

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    PV Value® is a free solar PV Valuation tool that answers the question of "How much is solar PV worth" and is compliant with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice. It is available for and being used by real estate appraisers, realtors, homeowners, commercial building owners, home builders, solar installers, green raters, insurance companies, and mortgage lenders in all 50 states along with D.C. and Puerto Rico. PV Value® allows for the calculation of both the cost and income approach to value and was endorsed by the largest appraiser trade organization, the "Appraisal Institute," as an innovative approach to valuing solar assets.

  15. Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, David

    2014-01-01

    Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the Unitedphotovoltaic (PV) systems has soared in recent years, driven by declining PV prices

  16. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote Performance: A Review of Current Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    DESIGNING PV INCENTIVE PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE SYSTEMcustomer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, provided throughface to ensuring that their PV systems perform well, and the

  17. Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing solar resource variability of MW-scale PV system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Johnson, Lars; Ellis, Abraham; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2012-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and SunPower Corporation (SunPower) have completed design and deployment of an autonomous irradiance monitoring system based on wireless mesh communications and a battery operated data acquisition system. The Lanai High-Density Irradiance Sensor Network is comprised of 24 LI-COR{reg_sign} irradiance sensors (silicon pyranometers) polled by 19 RF Radios. The system was implemented with commercially available hardware and custom developed LabVIEW applications. The network of solar irradiance sensors was installed in January 2010 around the periphery and within the 1.2 MW ac La Ola PV plant on the island of Lanai, Hawaii. Data acquired at 1 second intervals is transmitted over wireless links to be time-stamped and recorded on SunPower data servers at the site for later analysis. The intent is to study power and solar resource data sets to correlate the movement of cloud shadows across the PV array and its effect on power output of the PV plant. The irradiance data sets recorded will be used to study the shape, size and velocity of cloud shadows. This data, along with time-correlated PV array output data, will support the development and validation of a PV performance model that can predict the short-term output characteristics (ramp rates) of PV systems of different sizes and designs. This analysis could also be used by the La Ola system operator to predict power ramp events and support the function of the future battery system. This experience could be used to validate short-term output forecasting methodologies.

  18. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  19. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume II. PV-T state-of-the-art survey and site/application pair selection and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    As part of a project to develop feasibility assessments, design procedures, and reference designs for total energy systems that could use actively cooled concentrating photovoltaic collectors, a survey was conducted to provide an overview of available photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) technology. General issues associated with the design and installation of a PV-T system are identified. Electrical and thermal efficiencies for the line-focus Fresnel, the linear parabolic trough, and the point-focus Fresnel collectors are specified as a function of operating temperature, ambient temperature, and insolation. For current PV-T technologies, the line-focus Fresnel collector proved to have the highest thermal and electrical efficiencies, lowest array cost, and lowest land area requirement. But a separate feasibility analysis involving 11 site/application pairs showed that for most applications, the cost of the photovoltaic portion of a PV-T system is not recovered through the displacement of an electrical load, and use of a thermal-only system to displace the thermal load would be a more economical alternative. PV-T systems are not feasible for applications that have a small thermal load, a large steam requirement, or a high load return temperature. SAND82-7157/3 identifies the technical issues involved in designing a photovoltaic-thermal system and provides guidance for resolving such issues. Detailed PV-T system designs for three selected applications and the results of a trade-off study for these applications are presented in SAND82-7157/4. A summary of the major results of this entire study and conclusions concerning PV-T systems and applications is presented in SAND82-7157/1.

  20. SAPC Best Practices in PV System Installation: Version 1.0, March...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Authority Sydney Roberts, SouthFace Benjamin Shih, Moody's Chris Sommerfeld, Sunrun Jeff Spies, Quick Mount PV Josh Sturtevant, Distributed Sun Teresa W. Zhang, PhD,...

  1. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote System Performance: A Review of Current Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-01-01

    communication with New York State Energy Research andSolar Pioneer Program New York Energy $mart PV IncentivePower Authority (LIPA) New York State Energy Research and

  2. PV ENERGY ROI Tracks Efficiency Gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PV ENERGY ROI Tracks Efficiency Gains the state of PV today E nergy payback time (EPBT) is the time it takes for a photovoltaic (PV) system to produce all the energy used through- out its life cycle. A short, current com- mercial PV technologies "pay back" the energy used in only six months to two years (depending

  3. Distributed and Decentralized Control of Residential Energy Systems Incorporating Battery Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    --The recent rapid uptake of residential solar photo- voltaic (PV) installations provides many challenges photovoltaic (PV) distributed gen- eration. Over 70% of the 70 GW installed PV capacity in the European Union to the residential customer. For grid- connected installations, intermittent generation as well as large amounts

  4. Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    . To quantify general features of such a weather dependent electricity supply in the contiguous US, windFeatures of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions Sarah Becker a, b, * , Bethany A. Frew b , Gorm B. Andresen d, b , Timo Zeyer c

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Lai, Jih-Sheng This paper presents a high-efficiency grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) module integrated converter (MIC) system with reduced PV current variation. The...

  6. Sandia Energy - PV Arc-Fault and Ground Fault Detection and Mitigation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics PV Systems Reliability PV Arc-Fault and Ground Fault Detection and Mitigation Program PV...

  7. 2014-04-30 Public Meeting Agenda: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is the agenda for the Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances public meeting being held on April 30, 2014.

  8. 2014-04-30 Public Meeting Presentation Slides: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents contain slide decks presented at the Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances public meeting held on April 30, 2014.

  9. System Voltage Potential-Induced Degradation Mechanisms in PV Modules and Methods for Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Smith, R.; Glick, S.; Pankow, J.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, degradation and power loss have been observed in PV modules resulting from the stress exerted by system voltage bias. This is due in part to qualification tests and standards that do not adequately evaluate for the durability of modules to the long-term effects of high voltage bias experienced in fielded arrays. High voltage can lead to module degradation by multiple mechanisms. The extent of the voltage bias degradation is linked to the leakage current or coulombs passed from the silicon active layer through the encapsulant and glass to the grounded module frame, which can be experimentally determined; however, competing processes make the effect non-linear and history-dependent. Appropriate testing methods and stress levels are described that demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. This information, along with outdoor testing that is in progress, is used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. Na-rich precipitates are observed on the cell surface after stressing the module to induce PID in damp heat with negative bias applied to the active layer.

  10. System Voltage Potential-Induced Degradation Mechanisms in PV Modules and Methods for Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Smith, R.; Glick, S.; Pankow, J.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, degradation and power loss have been observed in PV modules resulting from the stress exerted by system voltage bias. This is due in part to qualification tests and standards that do not adequately evaluate for the durability of modules to the long-term effects of high voltage bias experienced in fielded arrays. High voltage can lead to module degradation by multiple mechanisms. The extent of the voltage bias degradation is linked to the leakage current or culombs passed from the silicon active layer through the encapsulant and glass to the grounded module frame, which can be experimentally determined; however, competing processes make the effect non-linear and history-dependent. Appropriate testing methods and stress levels are described that demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. This information, along with outdoor testing that is in progress, is used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. Na-rich precipitates are observed on the cell surface after stressing the module to induce PID in damp heat with negative bias applied to the active layer.

  11. Grid-Competitive Residential and Commercial Fully Automated PV Systems Technology: Final technical Report, August 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Katie E.; Cousins, Peter; Culligan, Matt; Jonathan Botkin; DeGraaff, David; Bunea, Gabriella; Rose, Douglas; Bourne, Ben; Koehler, Oliver

    2011-08-26

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership program, SunPower Corporation developed turn-key, high-efficiency residential and commercial systems that are cost effective. Key program objectives include a reduction in LCOE values to 9-12 cents/kWh and 13-18 cents/kWh respectively for the commercial and residential markets. Target LCOE values for the commercial ground, commercial roof, and residential markets are 10, 11, and 13 cents/kWh. For this effort, SunPower collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete the tasks below. Subcontractors included: Solaicx, SiGen, Ribbon Technology, Dow Corning, Xantrex, Tigo Energy, and Solar Bridge. SunPower's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain: from ingot growth through system deployment. Throughout the award period of performance, SunPower has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of 20%+ efficient modules, increased cell efficiency through the understanding of loss mechanisms and improved manufacturing technologies, novel module development, automated design tools and techniques, and reduced system development and installation time. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, SunPower achieved the 2010 target range, as well as progress toward 2015 targets.

  12. U.S. Residential Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices, Q4 2013 Benchmarks: Cash Purchase, Fair Market Value, and Prepaid Lease Transaction Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, C.; James, T. L.; Margolis, R.; Fu, R.; Feldman, D.

    2014-10-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. This report provides a Q4 2013 update for residential PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variation in business models, labor rates, and module choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.29/W for modeled standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon residential PV systems installed in the United States. This is a 46% decline from the 2013-dollar-adjusted price reported in the Q4 2010 benchmark report. In addition, this report frames the cash purchase price in the context of key price metrics relevant to the continually evolving landscape of third-party-owned PV systems by benchmarking the minimum sustainable lease price and the fair market value of residential PV systems.

  13. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote System Performance: A Review of Current Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-01-01

    for Renewable Energy October 2006 Two types of specializedfor Renewable Energy October 2006 issue is what type ofRenewable Energy October 2006 Warranty Requirements PV equipment manufacturers and installers may offer various types

  14. Impact of distributed generation of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation on the Massachusetts transmission system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simhadri, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    After reaching 250 megawatt direct current (MW dc) of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation installed in Massachusetts (MA) in 2013, four years ahead of schedule, Governor Deval Patrick in May of 2013 announced an increase ...

  15. PV Fact Sheets Argument B1Some people state that "The external costs of PV electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PV Fact Sheets Argument B1Some people state that "The external costs of PV electricity is much shows the external costs for current PV systems at Southern and Central European locations in addition to other costs". For current PV installations in South-Europe the external costs are about 0.15 per k

  16. Soiling losses for solar photovoltaic systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mejia, Felipe A; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Large Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in California andin design of photovoltaic systems. In: Markvart T. andA thermal model for photovoltaic systems. Solar Energy 2001;

  17. Examining System-Wide Impacts of Solar PV Control Systems with a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Tess L.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Palmintier, Bryan; Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2014-10-11

    High penetration levels of distributed solar PV power generation can lead to adverse power quality impacts such as excessive voltage rise, voltage flicker, and reactive power values that result in unacceptable voltage levels. Advanced inverter control schemes have been proposed that have the potential to mitigate many power quality concerns. However, closed-loop control may lead to unintended behavior in deployed systems as complex interactions can occur between numerous operating devices. In order to enable the study of the performance of advanced control schemes in a detailed distribution system environment, a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) platform has been developed. In the HIL system, GridLAB-D, a distribution system simulation tool, runs in real-time mode at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and supplies power system parameters at a point of common coupling to hardware located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Hardware inverters interact with grid and PV simulators emulating an operational distribution system and power output from the inverters is measured and sent to PNNL to update the real-time distribution system simulation. The platform is described and initial test cases are presented. The platform is used to study the system-wide impacts and the interactions of controls applied to inverters that are integrated into a simulation of the IEEE 8500-node test feeder, with inverters in either constant power factor control or active volt/VAR control. We demonstrate that this HIL platform is well-suited to the study of advanced inverter controls and their impacts on the power quality of a distribution feeder. Additionally, the results from HIL are used to validate GridLAB-D simulations of advanced inverter controls. ?

  18. Fsica V 2014 NOTURNO Cdigo Nome PV-1 PV-2 PV-3 PV-4 PV-5 PV-6 P-1 P-2 Mdia Freq. SUB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribas, Roberto Vicençotto

    Física V ­ 2014 NOTURNO Código Nome PV-1 PV-2 PV-3 PV-4 PV-5 PV-6 P-1 P-2 Média Freq. SUB 5484455

  19. Federal Tax Incentives for PV: Potential Implications for Program Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-01-01

    encourage demand for PV and value/cost/tax-efficiency of PBIAssumptions • Installed PV system costs exhibit economies ofPV above historical (pre-EPAct) levels • Recent increase in module costs (

  20. Full Steam Ahead for PV in US Homes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    state, local, and utility rebate programs targeting solar –implications for PV rebate program administrators, PV systemReduce the Size of the Rebates They Provide Without

  1. Sandia Energy - PV Value®

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and PV industry sales staff. For appraisers, the inputs specific to PV in the Residential Green and Energy Efficient Addendum can be used as inputs to PV Value. Valuing a PV...

  2. Webinar: Evaluating Roof Structures for Solar PV

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar provides an overview of Connecticut's Structural Review Worksheet for Residential Rooftop Solar PV Systems. The webinar explains how the worksheet should be used and common concerns with wind and dead loads for rooftop solar PV.

  3. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Feldman, D.; Ong, S.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents results from the first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs--often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs--for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems.

  4. Optimal Design of Grid-Connected PEV Charging Systems With Integrated Distributed Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, David J.

    The penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and renewable distributed generation is expected to increase over the next few decades. Large scale unregulated deployment of either technology can have a detrimental impact on ...

  5. Aalborg Universitet Modular Multi-level converter based HVDC System for Grid Connection of Offshore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhary, Sanjay

    energy is an important renewable and green source of energy. The total installed worldwide capacity is to install large offshore wind power plants (WPP) because they offer higher energy yield due to a superior

  6. Effect of Component Failures on Economics of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, Barry T.

    2012-02-02

    This report describes an applied research program to assess the realistic costs of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) installations. A Board of Advisors was assembled that included management from the regional electric power utilities, as well as other participants from companies that work in the electric power industry. Although the program started with the intention of addressing effective load carrying capacity (ELCC) for utility-owned photovoltaic installations, results from the literature study and recommendations from the Board of Advisors led investigators to the conclusion that obtaining effective data for this analysis would be difficult, if not impossible. The effort was then re-focused on assessing the realistic costs and economic valuations of grid-connected PV installations. The 17 kW PV installation on the University of Hartford's Lincoln Theater was used as one source of actual data. The change in objective required a more technically oriented group. The re-organized working group (changes made due to the need for more technically oriented participants) made site visits to medium-sized PV installations in Connecticut with the objective of developing sources of operating histories. An extensive literature review helped to focus efforts in several technical and economic subjects. The objective of determining the consequences of component failures on both generation and economic returns required three analyses. The first was a Monte-Carlo-based simulation model for failure occurrences and the resulting downtime. Published failure data, though limited, was used to verify the results. A second model was developed to predict the reduction in or loss of electrical generation related to the downtime due to these failures. Finally, a comprehensive economic analysis, including these failures, was developed to determine realistic net present values of installed PV arrays. Two types of societal benefits were explored, with quantitative valuations developed for both. Some societal benefits associated with financial benefits to the utility of having a distributed generation capacity that is not fossil-fuel based have been included into the economic models. Also included and quantified in the models are several benefits to society more generally: job creation and some estimates of benefits from avoiding greenhouse emissions. PV system failures result in a lowering of the economic values of a grid-connected system, but this turned out to be a surprisingly small effect on the overall economics. The most significant benefit noted resulted from including the societal benefits accrued to the utility. This provided a marked increase in the valuations of the array and made the overall value proposition a financially attractive one, in that net present values exceeded installation costs. These results indicate that the Department of Energy and state regulatory bodies should consider focusing on societal benefits that create economic value for the utility, confirm these quantitative values, and work to have them accepted by the utilities and reflected in the rate structures for power obtained from grid-connected arrays. Understanding and applying the economic benefits evident in this work can significantly improve the business case for grid-connected PV installations. This work also indicates that the societal benefits to the population are real and defensible, but not nearly as easy to justify in a business case as are the benefits that accrue directly to the utility.

  7. 2 IAEI NEWS September . October 2011 www.iaei.org perspectives on pv

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    2 IAEI NEWS September . October 2011 www.iaei.org perspectives on pv www.iaei.org September . October 2011 IAEI NEWS 3 perspectives on pv P hotovoltaic (PV) power systems have PV modules and PV arrays will be supplied to local loads and to the con- nected utility grid. There are two areas of PV systems that deserve

  8. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim

    2014-01-01

    Margolis, R. , 2004. Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toeconomics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California.a grid-connected photovoltaic system. Renewable Energy 32,

  9. Grid integrated distributed PV (GridPV).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2013-08-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function in the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  10. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    Margolis, R. , 2004. Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toeconomics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California.a grid-connected photovoltaic system. Renewable Energy 32,

  11. Power Systems Integration Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Power Systems Integration Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. At NREL's Power Systems Integration Laboratory in the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), research focuses on developing and testing large-scale distributed energy systems for grid-connected, stand-alone, and microgrid applications. The laboratory can accommodate large power system components such as inverters for photovoltaic (PV) and wind systems, diesel and natural gas generators, battery packs, microgrid interconnection switchgear, and vehicles. Closely coupled with the research electrical distribution bus at the ESIF, the Power Systems Integration Laboratory will offer power testing capability of megawatt-scale DC and AC power systems, as well as advanced hardware-in-the-loop and model-in-the-loop simulation capabilities. Thermal heating and cooling loops and fuel also allow testing of combined heating/cooling and power systems (CHP).

  12. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  13. Turlock Irrigation District- PV Rebate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Turlock Irrigation District (TID) offers an incentive program to their customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In keeping with the terms of the California Solar Initiative, the inc...

  14. The Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PhoPQ two-component system is required for AvrXA21 activity, hrpG expression, and virulence.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Korea. Kor. J.the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris lipopolysaccharidein Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae re- quired for AvrXa21

  15. Energy Management System Lowers U.S. Navy Energy Costs Through PV System Interconnection (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    To meet the U.S. Navy's energy goals, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) spent two years collaborating on demonstrations that tested market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - an energy management system - was identified as a promising method for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  16. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 57, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2010 3431 A Universal Grid-Connected Fuel-Cell Inverter for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 57, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2010 3431 A Universal Grid--This paper describes a universal fuel-cell-based grid- connected inverter design with digital. The critical design issues focus on the impact and optimization of transformer leakage inductance with regard

  17. Nonlinear Predictive Energy Management of Residential Buildings with Photovoltaics & Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chao; Sun, Fengchun; Moura, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    for grid-connected photovoltaic systems,” IEEE Transactionswith a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system and second-lifeconnected, photovoltaic- battery storage systems,” Renewable

  18. Evaluating state markets for residential wind systems: Results from an economic and policy analysis tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-01-01

    Schwartz (2003). Permitting Small Wind Turbines: A Handbook.State Programs to Support Small Wind Energy Systems: Anof Grid-Connected Small Wind Turbines in the Domestic

  19. Supported PV module assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  20. National solar technology roadmap: Concentrator PV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Dan

    2007-06-01

    This roadmap addresses high-concentration (>10x) photovoltaic (PV) systems, incorporating high-efficiency III-V or silicon cells, trackers, and reflective or refractive optics.

  1. CPS Energy- Solar PV Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CPS Energy, San Antonio's municipal utility, offers rebates to customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems on their homes, schools, or businesses. There are four rebate "tiers" available...

  2. Optimal Design of a Stand-Alone Hybrid PV/Fuel Cell Power System for the City of Brest in France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    cell power system without battery storage to supply the electric load demand of the city of Brest energy consumption depends on the "regional sidelines" by high-voltage transmission lines through highOptimal Design of a Stand-Alone Hybrid PV/Fuel Cell Power System for the City of Brest in France

  3. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Models of diffuse solar radiation, Renew Energ, 33 (2008) [solar irradiance for analyzing areally- totalized PV systems, Sol Energsolar irradiance for analyzing areally- totalized PV systems, Sol Energ

  4. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-01-01

    Association (2002). The U.S. Small Wind Turbine Industryof Grid-Connected Small Wind Turbines in the Domesticto Market Customer-Sited Small Wind Systems. 2002 Conference

  5. City of Anaheim This page outlines solar PV incentives, financing mechanisms, permitting process, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    City of Anaheim This page outlines solar PV incentives, financing mechanisms, permitting process Apply for local permits Install your PV system Arrange for your PV system to be interconnected to your

  6. Shaking Up the Residential PV Market: Implications of Recent Changes to the ITC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Shaking Up the Residential PV Market: Implications of Recentfor commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems from 10% to 30% of2005’s solar tax credits on PV system owners, in light of

  7. Approaches To Integrating A HIgh Penertration Of Solar PV and CPV Onto The Electrical Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Steven Craig

    2013-01-01

    63  Off?Grid (Stand?Alone) PV Power System not well established. OFF-GRID (STAND-ALONE) PV POWER SYSTEMvariability characteristics of off-grid PV power systems and

  8. Rooftop Solar PV & Firefighter Safety

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) installations have experienced significant growth in recent years. Due to technological innovations and cost reductions, solar energy is a viable option for an increasing number of residences and businesses across the United States. Rooftop solar is considered safe – to date there has been no documented case of death from the electric shock, chemical burn or conventional fire caused by a solar panel; however, as more buildings install rooftop solar systems, the likelihood increases that fires will occur on buildings with solar, making it critical for firefighters to receive comprehensive solar education and training. This SolarOPs fact sheet gives a brief overview of typical solar PV installations, addresses the major hazards and risks to firefighters, discusses fire safety in Germany (the country with the most installed solar PV per capita), and suggests recommendations and resources to ensure that first responders are prepared to fight fires on homes and buildings with rooftop solar PV.

  9. Extending Performance and Evaluating Risks of PV Systems Failure Using a Fault Tree and Event Tree Approach: Analysis of the Possible Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colli A.

    2012-06-03

    Performance and reliability of photovoltaic (PV) systems are important issues in the overall evaluation of a PV plant and its components. While performance is connected to the amount of energy produced by the PV installation in the working environmental conditions, reliability impacts the availability of the system to produce the expected amount of energy. In both cases, the evaluation should be done considering information and data coming from indoor as well as outdoor tests. In this paper a way of re-thinking performance, giving it a probabilistic connotation, and connecting the two concepts of performance and reliability is proposed. The paper follows a theoretical approach and discusses the way to obtaining such information, facing benefits and problems. The proposed probabilistic performance accounts for the probability of the system to function correctly, thus passing through the complementary evaluation of the probability of system malfunctions and consequences. Scenarios have to be identified where the system is not functioning properly or at all. They are expected to be combined in a probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) based approach, providing not only the required probability, but also being capable of giving a prioritization of the risks and the most dominant scenario associated to a specific situation. This approach can offer the possibility to highlight the most critical parts of a PV system, as well as providing support in design activities identifying weak connections.

  10. Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage : arbitrage and regulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

    2012-12-01

    The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash ow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the maximum potential revenue benchmark. We conclude with a sensitivity analysis with respect to key parameters.

  11. The following contribution was presented at the 28. European PV Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The following contribution was presented at the 28. European PV Solar Energy Conference, Paris, France, 30th Sep. -3rd Oct. 2013, 4DO.2.1 1 IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION ON SILICON WAFER-BASED PV: Before a PV module is integrated into a PV system it has to be handled and transported. This part of a PV

  12. Zero Student Design Competition Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Center, Zero Energy Homes: www.fsec.ucf.eduenresearchbuildingszeroenergy NREL, PVWatts A Performance Calculator for Grid-Connected PV Systems: pvwatts.nrel.gov NREL,...

  13. April 30 Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Building End-Use Equipment and Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents contain slide decks presented at the Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances public meeting held on April 30, 2014. The first document includes the first presentation from the meeting: DOE Vision and Objectives. The second document includes all other presentations from the meeting: Terminology and Definitions; End-User and Grid Services; Physical Characterization Framework; Value, Benefits & Metrics.

  14. Shaking Up the Residential PV Market: Implications of Recent Changes to the ITC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Empirical Investigation of PV Cost Trends, and Implicationspart of the cost of supporting residential PV to the federal56% of the installed cost of a commercial PV system, 12 are

  15. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  16. Outdoor PV Degradation Comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Smith, R. M.; Osterwald, C. R.; Gelak, E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output; may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined; accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more than 40 modules from more than 10 different manufacturers; were compared for their long-term outdoor stability. Because it can accommodate a large variety of modules in a; limited footprint the PERT system is ideally suited to compare modules side-by-side under the same conditions.

  17. Accelerating PV Cost Effectiveness Through Systems Design, Engineering, and Quality Assurance: Phase I Annual Technical Report, 4 November 2004 - 3 November 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botkin, J.

    2006-07-01

    During Phase I of this PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract, PowerLight Corporation has made significant progress toward the reduction of installed costs for commercial-scale, rooftop PV systems. PowerLight has worked to reduce operating costs by improving long-term reliability and performance through the development of more sophisticated tools used in system design and monitoring. Additionally, PowerLight has implemented design improvements with the goal of reducing cost while maintaining and/or improving product quality. As part of this effort, PowerLight also modified manufacturing and shipping processes to accommodate these design changes, streamline material flow, reduce cost, and decrease waste streams. During Phase II of this project, PowerLight plans to continue this work with the goal of reducing system cost and improving system performance.

  18. 66 IAEI NEWS September.October 2004 www.iaei.org PERSPECTIVES ON PV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    66 IAEI NEWS September.October 2004 www.iaei.org PERSPECTIVES ON PV A t first glance, the obvious answer is: Photovol- taic (PV) systems are no different from other electrical power systems critical is grounding PV systems? Let us examine the various features of PV systems that relate

  19. Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    in FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission)-level LCOE (Levelized Costs Of Electricity) for wind and solar PV due to differing weather conditions. Regional LCOE vary by up to 29%, and LCOE-optimal mixes

  20. Optimization and life-cycle cost of health clinic PV system for a rural area in southern Iraq using HOMER software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Karaghouli, Ali; Kazmerski, L.L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This paper addresses the need for electricity of rural areas in southern Iraq and proposes a photovoltaic (PV) solar system to power a health clinic in that region. The total daily health clinic load is 31.6 kW h and detailed loads are listed. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) optimization computer model for distributed power, ''HOMER,'' is used to estimate the system size and its life-cycle cost. The analysis shows that the optimal system's initial cost, net present cost, and electricity cost is US$ 50,700, US$ 60,375, and US$ 0.238/kW h, respectively. These values for the PV system are compared with those of a generator alone used to supply the load. We found that the initial cost, net present cost of the generator system, and electricity cost are US$ 4500, US$ 352,303, and US$ 1.332/kW h, respectively. We conclude that using the PV system is justified on humanitarian, technical, and economic grounds. (author)

  1. Requirements for a Standard Test to Rate the Durability of PV Modules at System Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-02-01

    Degradation modes in photovoltaic modules under system bias voltage stress are described and classified.

  2. A Monolithic Microconcentrator Receiver For A Hybrid PV-Thermal System: Preliminary Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -thermal concentrator systems offer improvements in key economic indicators, such as Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE

  3. Testing and Analysis for Lifetime Prediction of Crystalline Silicon PV Modules Undergoing Degradation by System Voltage Stress: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Smith, R.; Terwiliger, K.; Glick, S.; Jordan, D.; Johnston, S.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-07-01

    Acceleration factors are calculated for crystalline silicon PV modules under system voltage stress by comparing the module power during degradation outdoors to that in accelerated testing at three temperatures and 85% relative humidity. A lognormal analysis is applied to the accelerated lifetime test data considering failure at 80% of the initial module power. Activation energy of 0.73 eV for the rate of failure is determined, and the probability of module failure at an arbitrary temperature is predicted. To obtain statistical data for multiple modules over the course of degradation in-situ of the test chamber, dark I-V measurements are obtained and transformed using superposition, which is found well suited for rapid and quantitative evaluation of potential-induced degradation. It is determined that shunt resistance measurements alone do not represent the extent of power degradation. This is explained with a two-diode model analysis that shows an increasing second diode recombination current and ideality factor as the degradation in module power progresses. Failure modes of the modules stressed outdoors are examined and compared to those stressed in accelerated tests.

  4. Encouraging PV Adoption in New Market-Rate Residential Construction: A Critical Review of Program Experiences to Date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-01-01

    retrofits. The higher cost of PV on individual or smallcan easily roll the cost of the PV system into theiral. analyzed project cost data for PV systems funded through

  5. Field investigation of the relationship between battery size and PV system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, J.; Kratochvil, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harrington, S. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Four photovoltaic-powered lighting systems were installed in a National Forest Service campground in June of 1991. These systems have identical arrays, loads and charge controllers. The only difference was in the rated capacity of the battery bank for each system. The battery banks all use the same basic battery as a building block with the four systems utilizing either one battery, two batteries, three batteries or four batteries. The purpose of the experiment is to examine the effect of the various battery sizes on the ability of the system to charge the battery, energy available to the load, and battery lifetime. Results show an important trend in system performance concerning the impact of charge controllers on the relation between array size and battery size which results in an inability to achieve the days of battery storage originally designed for.

  6. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  7. Do PV Systems Increase Residential Selling Prices If So, How Can Practitioners Estimate This Increase?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Research (GTM), "U.S. Solar Market Insight - 2011 Year inSunpower Solar Systems Are Bright Spot in Market," Ryness

  8. Sundance, Skiing and Solar: Park City to Install New PV System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this project do? 80-panel solar energy system to be installed at Park City's Marsac Building. Recovery Act-funded...

  9. Japan's Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Market: An Analysis of Residential System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, T.

    2014-03-01

    This presentation summarizes market and policy factors influencing residential solar photovoltaic system prices in Japan, and compares these factors to related developments in the United States.

  10. Solar Energy International Solar PV 101 Training

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar Energy International is offering a five-day training that provides an overview of the three basic PV system applications, primarily focusing on grid-direct systems. The goal of the course is...

  11. Plumas-Sierra REC- PV Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plumas-Sierra REC offers an incentive for its customers to install photovoltaic (PV) systems on homes and businesses. Rebates are available for qualifying systems between one kilowatt (kW) and 25...

  12. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  13. Standardizing Appraisals for PV Installations Geoffrey T. Klise1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standardizing Appraisals for PV Installations Geoffrey T. Klise1 , Jamie L. Johnson2 , and Sandra K Gorda, FL, 33980, USA 3 Adomatis Appraisal Services, Punta Gorda, FL, 33951, USA ABSTRACT -- As PV to value the PV system as part of a property sale or re-finance. Proper valuation techniques as applied

  14. Optimal Inverter VAR Control in Distribution Systems with High PV Penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    and the net benefits, taking into account the additional cost of inverter losses when operating at non the substation. Index Terms--Distribution systems, volt/var control, DC/AC inverter, optimal power flow

  15. An Analysis of Residential PV System Price Differences Between the United States and Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seel, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    electricity prices over time (similar to the new reality in GermanyGermany $/W German system price $ 2011/W FiT $/kWh Electricityprice differences between Germany and the United States affect the associated electricity

  16. Mathematical Modeling for CostMathematical Modeling for Cost Optimization of PV RecyclingOptimization of PV Recycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    Mathematical Modeling for CostMathematical Modeling for Cost Optimization of PV Recycling of plants Capital costs to open up a recycling center 4 #12;Time Horizon for PV Recycling Infrastructure 5 cost $189K System optimal cost $1079K 11 #12;PV Recycling ­Cost Optimization 1. Where is the optimized

  17. 80 IAEI NEWS May . June 2012 www.iaei.org Microinverters and ac Pv Modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    80 IAEI NEWS May . June 2012 www.iaei.org Microinverters and ac Pv Modules M icroinverters and AC PV modules are becom- ing very common in residential and small commercial PV systems. See photos 1 and 2. They have even been used in PV systems rated at 60 kW and above. They have some common features

  18. 18 IAEI NEWS November.December 2004 www.iaei.org PERSPECTIVES ON PV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    18 IAEI NEWS November.December 2004 www.iaei.org PERSPECTIVES ON PV Photo 1. Framed PV modules A series of articles on photovoltaic (PV) power systems and the National Electrical Code by John Wiles Stalking the Elusive and Somewhat Strange PV System #12;www.iaei.org November.December 2004 IAEI NEWS 19

  19. 12 IAEI NEWS July.August 2004 www.iaei.org PERSPECTIVES ON PV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    12 IAEI NEWS July.August 2004 www.iaei.org PERSPECTIVES ON PV A series of articles on photovoltaic (PV) power systems and the National Electrical Code Single Conductor Exposed Cables! Not In My or commercial PV installation. Yes, PV systems have some unusual wiring meth- ods allowed by the Code. However

  20. Distributed Control of Residential Energy Systems using a Market Maker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    .weller}@newcastle.edu.au) Abstract: The recent rapid uptake of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) installations provides many. In Australia, for example, the National Electricity Market (NEM) has seen estimated installed capacity rise company to the residential customer. In particular, for grid-connected installations, intermittent

  1. Analysis of the Performance a PV System Based on Empirical Data in a Real World Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    ://www.cs.vu.nl/~treur Abstract The performance of solar energy production systems consisting of photovoltaic solar panels strongly depends on the location and orientation of the solar panels. Previously a computational model has. These empirical data have been collected from a number of solar panels at different locations and orientations day

  2. Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of primary energy saving than conventional systems fed by vapour compression chillers and coupled with PV cells. All SAC systems present good figures for primary energy consumption. The best performances are seen in systems with integrated heat pumps and small solar collector areas. The economics of these SAC systems at current equipment costs and energy prices are acceptable. They become more interesting in the case of public incentives of up to 30% of the investment cost (Simple Payback Time from 5 to 10 years) and doubled energy prices. (author)

  3. Metabolomic and transcriptomic analysis of the rice response to the bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    system in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae required for AvrXa212002). The Xanthomonas oryzae pv. lozengeoryzae raxP andPf1 against Xanthomo- nas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice leaves.

  4. Metabolomic and transcriptomic analysis of the rice response to the bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    system in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae required for AvrXa212002). The Xanthomonas oryzae pv. lozengeoryzae raxP andPf1 against Xanthomo- nas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice leaves.

  5. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim R.

    2012-01-01

    Rate Structures on Real PV Systems. Preprint, Nationaland the Economics of Solar PV: Could Mandatory Time- of-UsePricing Beneficial to Solar PV in New York City? Prepared

  6. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim

    2010-01-01

    Rate Structures on Real PV Systems. NREL/CP-670-42923.Pricing Beneficial to Solar PV in New York City? PreparedSubstantial Benefit of Solar PV. ” The Electricity Journal,

  7. Optimal Inverter VAR Control in Distribution Systems with High PV Penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farivar, Masoud; Clarke, Christopher; Low, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The intent of the study detailed in this paper is to demonstrate the benefits of inverter var control on a fast timescale to mitigate rapid and large voltage fluctuations due to the high penetration of photovoltaic generation and the resulting reverse power flow. Our approach is to formulate the volt/var control as a radial optimal power flow (OPF) problem to minimize line losses and energy consumption, subject to constraints on voltage magnitudes. An efficient solution to the radial OPF problem is presented and used to study the structure of optimal inverter var injection and the net benefits, taking into account the additional cost of inverter losses when operating at non-unity power factor. This paper will illustrate how, depending on the circuit topology and its loading condition, the inverter's optimal reactive power injection is not necessarily monotone with respect to their real power output. The results are demonstrated on a distribution feeder on the Southern California Edison system that has a very ...

  8. Energy 101: Solar PV | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser. Description Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun...

  9. City of Lompoc Utilities- PV Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City of Lompoc Utilities provides rebates to its electric customers who purchase and install photovoltaic (PV) systems. The rebate is $1.00 per watt-AC. The incentive amount may not exceed 50% the...

  10. Merced Irrigation District- PV Buydown Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Merced Irrigation District (MID) offers its residential, commercial and non-profit customers a rebate for installing solar electric photovoltaic (PV) systems on their homes and offices. For 2015,...

  11. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    numerical weather prediction for intra-day solar forecastingSolar and Load Forecasts Real forecasts (e.g. from numerical weather prediction)

  12. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    of August 2011. Although electricity rates change every fewof current TOU electricity rates for industrial customers insecondary) of default electricity rates for all non-

  13. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    value, objective total energy capacity of the battery array.determine optimal battery energy capacity (in the context ofconducted if the usable energy capacity of the battery is

  14. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    show that Lithium- ion batteries can be a financially viablethe price at which Lithium-ion batteries become financiallyinstalled cost for Lithium-ion batteries of a) $600/kWh, $

  15. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01

    and load forecasts in demand side, energy bill managementforecast information. Lithium-ion batteries are not a financially viable storage technology in demand side, energy

  16. 28 IAEI NEWS May.June 2005 www.iaei.org PERSPECTIVES ON PV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    28 IAEI NEWS May.June 2005 www.iaei.org PERSPECTIVES ON PV #12;www.iaei.org May.June 2005 IAEI NEWS 29 PERSPECTIVES ON PV I nspectors are more and more frequently faced with permitting or inspecting PV-qualified people are installing many excellent, code-compliant PV systems, others are designing and installing

  17. CREATING DYNAMIC EQUIVALENT PV CIRCUIT MODELS WITH IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY FOR ARC FAULT MODELING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CREATING DYNAMIC EQUIVALENT PV CIRCUIT MODELS WITH IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY FOR ARC FAULT MODELING ® (NEC® ) requires new photovoltaic (PV) systems on or penetrating a building to include a listed arc of the arcing frequencies through PV components despite the potential for modules and other PV components

  18. Parametric Study of PV Arc-Fault Generation Methods and Analysis of Conducted DC Spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parametric Study of PV Arc-Fault Generation Methods and Analysis of Conducted DC Spectrum Jay photovoltaic (PV) direct current (DC) arc- fault detectors use the frequency content of the PV system to detect by different PV arcs in the field. In this investigation, we (a) discuss the differences in establishing

  19. REAL-TIME, WEB BASED ENERGY MONITORING SYSTEM FOR A SOLAR ACADEMIC BUILDING John H. Scofield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    There is growing interest in green buildings, particularly in college and university environments [1]. Energy-efficient, the building is designed to minimize its environmental footprint by being energy efficient, maximizing its daylighting, and boasts a grid-connected, roof mounted 20-kW photovoltaic (PV) array. Whenever possible, we

  20. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  1. A High Efficiency DC-DC Converter Topology Suitable for Distributed Large Commercial and Utility Scale PV Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed S. Agamy; Maja Harfman-Todorovic; Ahmed Elasser; Robert L. Steigerwald; Juan A. Sabate; Song Chi; Adam J. McCann; Li Zhang; Frank Mueller

    2012-09-01

    In this paper a DC-DC power converter for distributed photovoltaic plant architectures is presented. The proposed converter has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, and low cost. High efficiency is achieved by having a portion of the input PV power directly fed forward to the output without being processed by the converter. The operation of this converter also allows for a simplified maximum power point tracker design using fewer measurements

  2. PV Derived Data for Predicting Performance; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, Bill

    2015-09-14

    A method is described for providing solar irradiance data for modeling PV performance by using measured PV performance data and back-solving for the unknown direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), which can then be used to model the performance of PV systems of any size, PV array tilt, or PV array azimuth orientation. Ideally situated for using the performance data from PV modules with micro-inverters, the PV module operating current is used to determine the global tilted irradiance (GTI), and a separation model is then used to determine the DNI and DHI from the GTI.

  3. Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy Solutions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Advanced Energy (AE) will address three important needs in the further deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems: 1) demonstrating and commercializing a new anti-islanding method utilizing Phasor...

  4. Sandia Energy - PV Performance Modeling Collaborative's New and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling & Simulation Solar Newsletter Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory (PSEL) PV Performance Modeling Collaborative's New and Improved Website Is Launched Previous Next...

  5. Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    necessary electricalbuilding permits for residential (single-family) and commercial PV systems. These procedures are a part of the MAG Building Code Standards. The standards...

  6. PV Arc Fault Detector Challenges Due to Module Frequency Response...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This poster does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. Introduction PV system arc faults have led to a number of rooftop fires which have caused significant...

  7. Grid Integrated Distributed PV (GridPV) Version 2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-12-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functio ns are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in th e OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function i n the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  8. Research of PV Application on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    Research of PV Application on UMore Park Community Design Arch 8563:Getting Blow the Surface Xiaoyu Liu #12;Getting Blow Surface: PV opportunity on the UMore Park 2 Research of PV application on U More community on the aspect of PV application. There are four parts in this report: (1) Introduction of UMore

  9. Tracking the Sun: The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Peterman, Carla

    2009-02-11

    As installations of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have grown, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of these systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. This report helps to fill this need by summarizing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States from 1998 through 2007. The report is based on an analysis of installed cost data from nearly 37,000 residential and non-residential PV systems, totaling 363 MW of capacity, and representing 76percent of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the U.S. through 2007.

  10. PV performance modeling workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle (SRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA); Cameron, Christopher P.

    2011-05-01

    During the development of a solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project, predicting expected energy production from a system is a key part of understanding system value. System energy production is a function of the system design and location, the mounting configuration, the power conversion system, and the module technology, as well as the solar resource. Even if all other variables are held constant, annual energy yield (kWh/kWp) will vary among module technologies because of differences in response to low-light levels and temperature. A number of PV system performance models have been developed and are in use, but little has been published on validation of these models or the accuracy and uncertainty of their output. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a PV Performance Modeling Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, September 22-23, 2010. The workshop was intended to address the current state of PV system models, develop a path forward for establishing best practices on PV system performance modeling, and set the stage for standardization of testing and validation procedures for models and input parameters. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop, as well as examines opportunities for collaborative efforts to develop objective comparisons between models and across sites and applications.

  11. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory |Sector Full report (1.6 mb) Appendix ACohenPV FOR

  12. Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) Working Group: Best Practices in PV System Installation; Version 1.0, March 2015; Period of Performance, October 2014 - September 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, C.; Truitt, A.; Inda, D.; Lawrence, R.; Lockhart, R.; Golden, M.

    2015-03-01

    The following Photovoltaics Installation Best Practices Guide is one of several work products developed by the Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) working group, which works to open capital market investment. SAPC membership includes over 450 leading solar developers, financiers and capital managers, law firms, rating agencies, accounting and engineering firms, and other stakeholders engaged in solar asset deployment. SAPC activities are directed toward foundational elements necessary to pool project cash flows into tradable securities: standardization of power purchase and lease contracts for residential and commercial end customers; development of performance and credit data sets to facilitate investor due diligence activities; comprehension of risk perceived by rating agencies; and the development of best practice guides for PV system installation and operations and maintenance (O&M) in order to encourage high-quality system deployment and operation that may improve lifetime project performance and energy production. This PV Installation Best Practices Guide was developed through the SAPC Installation Best Practices subcommittee, a subgroup of SAPC comprised of a wide array of solar industry leaders in numerous fields of practice. The guide was developed over roughly one year and eight months of direct engagement by the subcommittee and two working group comment periods.

  13. Interline photovoltaic (I-PV) power plants for voltage unbalance compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moawwad, Ahmed

    This paper proposes a stationary-frame control method for voltage unbalance compensation using Interline Photovoltaic (I-PV) power system. I-PV power systems are controlled to compensate voltage unbalance autonomously. The ...

  14. Shaking Up the Residential PV Market: Implications of Recent Changes to the ITC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    pay for a PV system’s solar renewable energy certificates (Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Solar Energy Technologiessolar Shaking Up the Residential PV Market Case Studies of State Support for Renewable

  15. September 16 ESTAP Webinar: Optimizing the Benefits of a PV with...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 ESTAP Webinar: Optimizing the Benefits of a PV with Battery Storage System September 16 ESTAP Webinar: Optimizing the Benefits of a PV with Battery Storage System August 30, 2013...

  16. DOE High Performance Concentrator PV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-08-01

    Much in demand are next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies that can be used economically to make a large-scale impact on world electricity production. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to both our energy supply and environment. To accomplish such results, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices with the goal of enabling progress of high-efficiency technologies toward commercial-prototype products. We will describe the details of the subcontractor and in-house progress in exploring and accelerating pathways of III-V multijunction concentrator solar cells and systems toward their long-term goals. By 2020, we anticipate that this project will have demonstrated 33% system efficiency and a system price of $1.00/Wp for concentrator PV systems using III-V multijunction solar cells with efficiencies over 41%.

  17. A Generalized Class of Stationary Frame-Current Controllers for Grid-Connected AC–DC Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, J. George

    Within power systems, high-power pulsewidth-modulated ac-dc converters are used in flexible ac transmission systems controllers and for interfacing renewable energy sources to the grid. These converters traditionally ...

  18. Electricity Rate Structures and the Economics of Solar PV: Could Mandatory Time-of-Use Rates Undermine California’s Solar Photovoltaic Subsidies?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2007-01-01

    distribution of possible solar PV costs, so for about halfbelow the range of solar PV costs. . e g a r e v a n o , r eare data on the cost of installing solar PV systems because

  19. Open PV Project: Unlocking PV Installation Data (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This brochure summarizes the Open PV Project, a collaborative effort of government, industry, and the public to compile a comprehensive database of PV installations in the United States. The brochure outlines the purpose and history of the project as well as the main capabilities and benefits of the online Open PV tool. The brochure also introduces how features of the tool are used, and it describes the sources and characteristics of Open PV's data and data collection processes.

  20. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditionalpenetrations of solar photovoltaics (PV) into an electricSolar Radiation Climatology in the Design of Photovoltaic Systems, Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics:

  1. Breakout Session: Getting in the Loop: PV Hardware Recycling and Sustainability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As PV system installations continue to ramp up across the United States, the process for handling used and expired PV modules in the next  20-30 years would benefit from serious planning and...

  2. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.

    2014-09-01

    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  3. SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally accepted 1/2010) QUANTIFYING PV POWER OUTPUT VARIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally accepted 1/2010) QUANTIFYING PV POWER OUTPUT VARIABILITY Thomas E power output variability from a fleet of photovoltaic (PV) systems, ranging from a single central station to a set of distributed PV systems. The approach demonstrates that the relative power output

  4. VALIDATION OF PV PERFORMANCE MODELS USING SATELLITE-BASED IRRADIANCE MEASUREMENTS: A CASE STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    VALIDATION OF PV PERFORMANCE MODELS USING SATELLITE-BASED IRRADIANCE MEASUREMENTS: A CASE STUDY Clean Power Research Kirkland, WA e-mail: aparkins@cleanpower.com ABSTRACT Photovoltaic (PV) system and existing PV systems under a wide variety of environmental conditions. Ground based meteorological

  5. The figure shows the current energy pay back time for PV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The figure shows the current energy pay back time for PV systems using different cell technologies and installed either in Central Europe or Southern Europe. Argument B1 PV Fact Sheets Technology improvements: Manufacturing a PV system consumes more energy than it ever produces in its life time." The fact is

  6. PV Microinverter Testbed for Interoperability Jimmy E. Quiroz, Sigifredo Gonzalez, and Joshua S. Stein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PV Microinverter Testbed for Interoperability Jimmy E. Quiroz, Sigifredo Gonzalez, and Joshua S in residential photovoltaic (PV) systems is increasing. This is due to the potential performance advantages that module mismatch and shading has on the power production of a PV system. While these attributes can have

  7. APPLICATION OF THE pV3 COPROCESSING VISUALIZATION ENVIRONMENT TO 3D UNSTRUCTURED MESH CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    APPLICATION OF THE pV3 CO­PROCESSING VISUALIZATION ENVIRONMENT TO 3­D UNSTRUCTURED MESH Moffett Field, CA 94035 barth@nas.nasa.gov (415) 604­6740 Introduction The pV3 visualization system­domain. The Visualization System pV3[2] is a complete distributed CFD­style visualization package. It is new, but builds

  8. Analysis and Design of Smart PV Module 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumdar, Poornima

    2012-12-10

    the individual dc-dc converters and control the output AC voltages directly, thus becoming a true plug and power energy system. Such a concept is ideal for curved surfaces such as building integrated PV (BIPV) system applications where gradients of insolation...

  9. Dynamic Model Validation of PV Inverters Under Short-Circuit Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Bravo, R.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-03-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules have dramatically decreased in price in the past few years, spurring the expansion of photovoltaic deployment. Residential and commercial rooftop installations are connected to the distribution network; large-scale installation PV power plants (PVPs) have benefited from tax incentives and the low cost of PV modules. As the level penetration of PV generation increases, the impact on power system reliability will also be greater. Utility power system planners must consider the role of PV generation in power systems more realistically by representing PV generation in dynamic stability analyses. Dynamic models of PV inverters have been developed in the positive sequence representation. NREL has developed a PV inverter dynamic model in PSCAD/EMTDC. This paper validates the dynamic model with an actual hardware bench test conducted by Southern California Edison's Distributed Energy Resources laboratory. All the fault combinations -- symmetrical and unsymmetrical -- were performed in the laboratory. We compare the simulation results with the bench test results.

  10. www.iaei.org November . December 2014 IAEI NEWS 1110 IAEI NEWS November . December 2014 www.iaei.org PERSPECTIVES ON PV |

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    .iaei.org PERSPECTIVES ON PV | Safety First -- for the Inspector Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are generally in and local code requirements. A thorough inspection of a PV system will ensure that those requirements have numerous PV systems and developed procedures for doing so, there is a continuing flow of new inspectors

  11. Large-Scale PV Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Diao, Ruisheng; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin; Hafen, Ryan P.; Jin, Chunlian; Kirkham, Harold; Shlatz, Eugene; Frantzis, Lisa; McClive, Timothy; Karlson, Gregory; Acharya, Dhruv; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford; Chadliev, Vladimir; Smart, Michael; Salgo, Richard; Sorensen, Rahn; Allen, Barbara; Idelchik, Boris

    2011-07-29

    This research effort evaluates the impact of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) and distributed generation (DG) output on NV Energy’s electric grid system in southern Nevada. It analyzes the ability of NV Energy’s generation to accommodate increasing amounts of utility-scale PV and DG, and the resulting cost of integrating variable renewable resources. The study was jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy and NV Energy, and conducted by a project team comprised of industry experts and research scientists from Navigant Consulting Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and NV Energy.

  12. Analysis of electromechanical interactions in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ran, Li

    This paper analyzes the electromechanical inter-action in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine, used for wind farm power smoothing or grid frequency response control. The grid-connected electrical machine ...

  13. Plug and Play Solar PV for American Homes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE) will develop a new plug-and-play PV system that self-checks for proper installation and safety and communicates with the local utility and...

  14. 78 IAEI NEWS September.October 2006 www.iaei.org penetrating pv questions from inspectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    78 IAEI NEWS September.October 2006 www.iaei.org penetrating pv questions from inspectors B ased several calls and e-mails a week and sometimes several calls a day from inspectors looking at PV plans or inspecting PV systems. The questions that they pose are always challenging because most of the inspectors

  15. 80 IAEI NEWS March.April 2008 www.iaei.org COMMON PV CODE VIOLATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    80 IAEI NEWS March.April 2008 www.iaei.org COMMON PV CODE VIOLATIONS by John Wiles A s we move into 2008, the PV industry continues to grow by leaps and bounds. New module and inverter manufacturers are entering the industry, and the number of individuals and organizations install- ing PV systems is growing

  16. Impact of increased penetration of wind and PV solar resources on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Impact of increased penetration of wind and PV solar resources on the bulk power system Vijay;Wind and PV solar grid interface · Modern wind turbine generators are typically rated between 1.5 MW through a power electronic converter 3 #12;Wind and PV solar grid interface 4 Schematic of Type 3 wind

  17. PV Output Variability Modeling Using Satellite Imagery and Neural Matthew J. Reno1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PV Output Variability Modeling Using Satellite Imagery and Neural Networks Matthew J. Reno1, Albuquerque, NM, USA Abstract -- Variability and ramp rates of PV systems are increasingly important to understand and model for grid stability as PV penetration levels rise. Using satellite imagery to identify

  18. Rethinking Standby & Fixed Cost Charges: Regulatory & Rate Design Pathways to Deeper Solar PV Cost Reductions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While solar PV's impact on utilities has been frequently discussed the past year, little attention has been paid to the potentially impact posed by solar PV-specific rate designs (often informally referred to as solar "fees" or "taxes") upon non-hardware "soft" cost reductions. In fact, applying some rate designs to solar PV customers could potentially have a large impact on the economics of PV systems.

  19. PV Solar Site Assessment (Milwaukee High School)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this assessment is to provide site-specific information on how a solar electric (also referred to as a photovoltaic, or PV) system would perform at your location, including information on estimated physical size, rated output, energy production, costs, financial incentives and mounting options. Site assessors are required to present unbiased information and may not recommend contractors or products.

  20. Advanced, High-Reliability, System-Integrated 500kW PV Inverter Development: Final Subcontract Report, 29 September 2005 - 31 May 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, R.

    2008-08-01

    Xantrex Technology accomplished subcontract goals of reducing parts cost, weight, and size of its 500-kW inverter by 25% compared to state-of-the-art PV inverters, while extending reliability by 25%.

  1. Impact of residential PV adoption on Retail Electricity Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, DWH; Adlakha, S; Low, SH; De Martini, P; Chandy, KM

    2013-11-01

    The price of electricity supplied from home rooftop photo voltaic (PV) solar cells has fallen below the retail price of grid electricity in some areas. A number of residential households have an economic incentive to install rooftop PV systems and reduce their purchases of electricity from the grid. A significant portion of the costs incurred by utility companies are fixed costs which must be recovered even as consumption falls. Electricity rates must increase in order for utility companies to recover fixed costs from shrinking sales bases. Increasing rates will, in turn, result in even more economic incentives for customers to adopt rooftop PV. In this paper, we model this feedback between PV adoption and electricity rates and study its impact on future PV penetration and net-metering costs. We find that the most important parameter that determines whether this feedback has an effect is the fraction of customers who adopt PV in any year based solely on the money saved by doing so in that year, independent of the uncertainties of future years. These uncertainties include possible changes in rate structures such as the introduction of connection charges, the possibility of PV prices dropping significantly in the future, possible changes in tax incentives, and confidence in the reliability and maintainability of PV. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) PV integration study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Mousseau, Tom

    2011-08-01

    This report investigates the effects that increased distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation would have on the Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) system operating requirements. The study focused on determining reserve requirements needed to mitigate the impact of PV variability on system frequency, and the impact on operating costs. Scenarios of 5-MW, 10-MW, and 15-MW nameplate capacity of PV generation plants distributed across the Kauai Island were considered in this study. The analysis required synthesis of the PV solar resource data and modeling of the KIUC system inertia. Based on the results, some findings and conclusions could be drawn, including that the selection of units identified as marginal resources that are used for load following will change; PV penetration will displace energy generated by existing conventional units, thus reducing overall fuel consumption; PV penetration at any deployment level is not likely to reduce system peak load; and increasing PV penetration has little effect on load-following reserves. The study was performed by EnerNex under contract from Sandia National Laboratories with cooperation from KIUC.

  3. Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

  4. Property Tax Assessments as a Finance Vehicle for Residential PV Installations: Opportunities and Potential Limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    for Renewable Energy ability to finance the installation offor Renewable Energy loans to finance their PV system (orany subsidized energy financing used to finance the system.

  5. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California: Year 2 Project Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B.; Neal, R.

    2012-08-01

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is well into a five-year project to install a total of 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy within its utility service territory. Typical installations to date are 1-3 MW peak rooftop PV systems that interconnect to medium-voltage urban distribution circuits or larger (5 MW peak) ground-mounted systems that connect to medium-voltage rural distribution circuits. Some of the PV system interconnections have resulted in distribution circuits that have a significant amount of PV generation compared to customer load, resulting in high-penetration PV integration scenarios. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE have assembled a team of distribution modeling, resource assessment, and PV inverter technology experts in order to investigate a few of the high-penetration PV distribution circuits. Currently, the distribution circuits being studied include an urban circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 46% and a rural circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 60%. In both cases, power flow on the circuit reverses direction, compared to traditional circuit operation, during periods of high PV power production and low circuit loading. Research efforts during year two of the five-year project were focused on modeling the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, the development and installation of distribution circuit data acquisition equipment appropriate for quantifying the impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, and investigating high-penetration PV impact mitigation strategies. This paper outlines these research efforts and discusses the following activities in more detail: the development of a quasi-static time-series test feeder for evaluating high-penetration PV integration modeling tools; the advanced inverter functions being investigated for deployment in the project's field demonstration and a power hardware-in-loop test of a 500-kW PV inverter implementing a limited set of advanced inverter functions.

  6. Sandia Energy - PV Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &WaterNew CREWOnline Abstracts andPV

  7. City of Shasta Lake Electric Utility- PV Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City of Shasta Lake Electric Utility is providing rebates to their customers for the purchase of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The rebate levels will decrease annually over the life of the program. ...

  8. Integrating Solar PV into Energy Services Performance Contracts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    can use performance contracts to finance the purchase of a commercial-scale rooftop PV system with limited to no upfront cost, and a series of suggested best practices for...

  9. Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant- Residential PV Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Customers of Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant (TMLP) may be eligible for a $1.50/watt rebate on solar photovoltaic (PV) installations, up to a maximum rebate of $4,500. The system must be installed...

  10. Feasibility of Using VLS-PV Systems in the Future Egyptian Cities: Case Study Suez Canal Region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Sudany, M. M.; Rashed, A.; Sheta, S.

    2010-01-01

    and architectural design strategy for the recent and future Egyptian cities, to be more adapted to use renewable energy integrated systems....

  11. DOE/NREL Inner Mongolia PV/Wind Hybrid Systems Pilot Project: A Post-Installation Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroup, K. K.

    2005-02-01

    This report assesses the Inner Mongolia Pilot Project, which disseminates wind-solar hybrid systems to a rural and remote population.

  12. Development of an Approach to Compare the `Value' of Electrical and Thermal Output from a Domestic PV/Thermal System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermodynamically and technically harder to produce. The Combined Heat and Power Solar System, or CHAPS system and light industrial buildings, and will contribute to building heating, cooling and power requirements in the form of heat and a Joule of energy in the form of electricity are equally valuable. Electrical energy

  13. 62 IAEI NEWS March.April 2007 www.iaei.org the development of codes, standards, and pv equipment--how are they related?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    62 IAEI NEWS March.April 2007 www.iaei.org the development of codes, standards, and pv equipment--how are they related? The Development of Codes, Standards, and PV Equipment-- How are they related? Perspectives on PV A series of articles on photovoltaic (PV) power systems and the National Electrical Code 62 IAEI NEWS March

  14. Full Steam Ahead for PV in US Homes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark A; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2009-01-15

    In October 2008, the United States Congress extended both the residential and commercial solar investment tax credits (ITCs) for an unprecedented eight years, lifted the $2,000 cap on the residential credit, removed the prohibition on utility use of the commercial credit, and eliminated restrictions on the use of both credits in conjunction with the Alternative Minimum Tax. These significant changes, which apply to systems placed in service on or after January 1, 2009, will increase the value of the solar credits for residential system owners in particular, and are likely--in conjunction with state, local, and utility rebate programs targeting solar--to spur significant growth in residential, commercial, and utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations in the years ahead. This article focuses specifically on the residential credit, describing three areas in which removal of the $2,000 cap on the residential ITC will have significant implications for PV rebate program administrators, PV system owners, and the PV industry.

  15. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote Performance: A Review of Current Practice in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    D. Best Practices in PV Rebate Programs: Helping Customersin the form of an up-front rebate paid to the customer, andin the U.S. have provided rebates for PV systems based on

  16. Optimal Design of a PV/Fuel Cell Hybrid Power System for the City of Brest in France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    . Keywords--Hybrid power system, renewable energy, fuel cell, photovoltaic, generation unit sizing, energy% every year: This yield to urge the use of renewable energies. To today the use of renewable sources in energy production is still small compared to non-renewable energy sources such as fuel fossil and nuclear

  17. Microgrid-Ready Solar PV; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-07-01

    Designing new solar projects to be 'microgrid-ready' enables the U.S. DoD, other federal agencies, and the private sector to plan future microgrid initiatives to utilize solar PV as a generating resource. This fact sheet provides background information with suggested language for several up-front considerations that can be added to a solar project procurement or request for proposal (RFP) that will help ensure that PV systems are built for future microgrid connection.

  18. Colorado Springs Utilities- Renewable Energy Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through its Renewable Energy Rebate Program, Colorado Springs Utilities (CSU) offers a rebate to customers who install grid-connected solar-electric (photovoltaic, or PV) systems and solar water ...

  19. Tracking the Sun VIII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Millstein, Dev; Spears, Mike; Wiser, Ryan; Buckley, Michael; Widiss, Rebecca; Grue, Nick

    2015-08-01

    Funded by the SunShot Initiative, this report summarizes trends in the installed price of grid-connected residential and non-residential PV systems in the United States.

  20. J Optim Theory Appl (2015) 167:761779 DOI 10.1007/s10957-015-0778-9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    capacity of installed solar PV systems reached 139 GW [3]. These installed PV energy conversion systems and energy generation systems have a significant increase worldwide. At the end of 2013, the worldwide total of MW level [4]. The largest installed large-scale grid-connected PV plant in the world is the Agua

  1. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim R.

    2012-01-01

    Margolis, R. , 2004. Are Photovoltaic Systems Worth More toeconomics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California.produced by photovoltaic (PV) system owners. 1 Though

  2. An Analysis of the Effects of Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Home Sales Prices in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2011-01-01

    of the PV system (i.e. , the cost of PV installation afterthe average net installed cost of PV systems has varied tolower average installed cost than PV systems installed on

  3. Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems in California: The Effect on Home Sales Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2013-01-01

    recoup installed PV system costs because of the burgeoningthe net installed cost of PV, and seller behavior likelythe net installed costs of PV have hovered around $5/watt

  4. Scenes for Chancellors Report- PV 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Syringopeptin (syp) and syringomycin (syr) are major necrosis-inducing lipodepsipeptide phytotoxins produced by P. syringae pv. syringae. This report demonstrates that syringopeptin production is activated by plant signal ...

  5. Construction of Ag Building- PV 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain B728a (P.s.s. B728a) is an economically significant plant pathogen that is capable of successful epiphytic colonization of leaf surfaces. Although the virulence factors associated ...

  6. Pressure-equalizing PV assembly and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-10-26

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  7. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  8. Connecticut Rooftop Solar PV Permitting Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Connecticut Rooftop Solar PV Permitting Guide is a compilation of best practices and resources for solar PV permitting. The guide includes a summary of current codes and regulations affecting solar PV, best practices for streamlining the municipal permitting process, and tools to assist municipalities in creating a streamlined permit process for residential solar PV. Resources include a solar PV permit application, a structural review worksheet, an inspection checklist, and a model solar zoning ordinance.

  9. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  10. How Can We Make PV Modules Safer?: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Safety is a prime concern for the photovoltaics (PV) industry. As a technology deployed on residential and commercial buildings, it is critical that PV not cause damage to the buildings nor harm the occupants. Many of the PV systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltage (300 to 600 Volts dc) that they may present potential hazards. These PV systems must be safe in terms of mechanical damage (nothing falls on someone), shock hazard (no risk of electrical shock when touching an exposed circuit element), and fire (the modules neither cause nor promote a fire). The present safety standards (IEC 61730 and UL 1703) do a good job of providing for design rules and test requirements for mechanical, shock, and spread of flame dangers. However, neither standard addresses the issue of electrical arcing within a module that can cause a fire. To make PV modules, they must be designed, built, and installed with an emphasis on minimizing the potential for open circuits and ground faults. This paper provides recommendations on redundant connection designs, robust mounting methods, and changes to the safety standards to yield safer PV modules.

  11. Sandia Energy - PV Systems Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    studies such as Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). SNL has also partnered with a utility to create a data-driven Reliability Block...

  12. Small Wind Electric Systems Small Wind Electric Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    An Illinois Consumer's Guide Small Wind Electric Systems #12;Small Wind Electric Systems Cover photo: Small wind turbines, like this grid-connected 10-kilowatt Bergey, can provide supplemental power -- Warren Gretz, NREL/PIX09630 #12;Small Wind Electric Systems Contents Introduction

  13. PV technology differences and discrepancies in modelling between...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sensitivity and limitations of present and alternative PV models The sensitivity and limitations of present and alternative PV models Steve Ransome - Independent PV Consultant,...

  14. NREL/SCE High-Penetration PV Integration Project: Report on Field Demonstration of Advanced Inverter Functionality in Fontana, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B.

    2014-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Southern California Edison High-Penetration PV Integration Project is (1) researching the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) integration, (2) determining mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate those impacts, and (3) seeking to demonstrate these mitigation methods on actual high-penetration PV distribution circuits. This report describes a field demonstration completed during the fall of 2013 on the Fontana, California, study circuit, which includes a total of 4.5 MW of interconnected utility-scale rooftop PV systems. The demonstration included operating a 2-MW PV system at an off-unity power factor that had been determined during previously completed distribution system modeling and PV impact assessment analyses. Data on the distribution circuit and PV system operations were collected during the 2-week demonstration period. This demonstration reinforces the findings of previous laboratory testing that showed that utility-scale PV inverters are capable of operating at off-unity power factor to mitigate PV impacts; however, because of difficulties setting and retaining PV inverter power factor set points during the field demonstration, it was not possible to demonstrate the effectiveness of off-unity power factor operation to mitigate the voltage impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Lessons learned from this field demonstration are presented to inform future field demonstration efforts.

  15. Comparison of Pyranometers vs. PV Reference Cells for Evaluation of PV Array Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, L.; Gostein, M.; Emery, K.

    2012-09-01

    As the photovoltaics (PV) industry has grown, the need for accurately monitoring the solar resource of PV power plants has increased. Historically, the PV industry has relied on thermopile pyranometers for irradiance measurements, and a large body of historical irradiance data taken with pyranometers exists. However, interest in PV reference devices is increasing. In this paper, we discuss why PV reference devices are better suited for PV applications, and estimate the typical uncertainties in irradiance measurements made with both pyranometers and PV reference devices. We assert that the quantity of interest in monitoring a PV power plant is the equivalent irradiance under the IEC 60904-3 reference solar spectrum that would produce the same electrical response in the PV array as the incident solar radiation. For PV-plant monitoring applications, we find the uncertainties in irradiance measurements of this type to be on the order of +/-5% for thermopile pyranometers and +/-2.4% for PV reference devices.

  16. City of San Diego This page outlines solar PV incentives, financing mechanisms, permitting process, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    &re=1&ee=1 · Third Party Ownership o Solar Power Purchase Agreements · A Solar Power Purchase Agreement. o Solar Leases · Solar Leases are similar to Power Purchase Agreements in that a third party pays Install your PV system Arrange for your PV system to be interconnected to your utility's power grid

  17. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  18. TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ADEQUACY EVALUATION CONSIDERING WIND POWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ADEQUACY EVALUATION CONSIDERING WIND POWER Rajesh Karki Jaimin Patel Power to significantly increase renewable power penetration in electrical power systems. Wind power is the most important systems and large grid connected systems. Power generated by wind depends on the availability of the wind

  19. PV prospects: thinPV prospects: thin--film cellsfilm cells Si cell costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    1 PV prospects: thinPV prospects: thin--film cellsfilm cells LECTURE 8 · Si cell costs · optimizing://www.solarbuzz.com/Moduleprices.htm #12;6 Cost of PV modulesCost of PV modules The lowest retail price for a multicrystalline silicon

  20. November 21, 2000 PV Lesson Plan 3 PV Array Generating Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    November 21, 2000 PV Lesson Plan 3 ­ PV Array Generating Electricity Prepared for the Oregon in Arrays: Solar Cells Generating Electricity Lesson Plan Content: In this lesson, students will learn about electricity. Objectives: Students will learn to use a tool called PV WATTS to calculate the output of PV

  1. PV Controls Utility-Scale Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neill, Barbara; Gevorgian, Vahan

    2015-10-14

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the utility-scale PV controls demonstration project.

  2. Sandia Energy - PV Value®

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &WaterNew CREWOnline AbstractsSystems ReliabilityPV

  3. U.S. Aims for Zero-Energy: Support for PV on New Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-05-11

    As a market segment for solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption, new homes have a number of attractive attributes. Homebuyers can easily roll the cost of the PV system into their mortgage and, with rebates or other financial incentives, potentially realize an immediate net positive cash flow from the investment. PV system performance can be optimized by taking roof orientation, shading, and other structural factors into account in the design of new homes. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), which are subject to fewer aesthetic concerns than traditional, rack-mounted systems, are well-suited to new construction applications. In large new residential developments, costs can be reduced through bulk purchases and scale economies in system design and installation. Finally, the ability to install PV as a standard feature in new developments - like common household appliances - creates an opportunity to circumvent the high transaction costs and other barriers typically confronted when each individual homeowner must make a distinct PV purchase decision.

  4. PV Odds & Ends by John Wiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    PV Odds & Ends by John Wiles Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy There are two primary wiring methods for connecting PV modules together--using exposed single-conductor cables, and using conduits. Each dictates a different grounding method, but in either case, PV modules must always

  5. INTEGRATION OF PV IN DEMAND RESPONSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    INTEGRATION OF PV IN DEMAND RESPONSE PROGRAMS Prepared by Richard Perez et al. NREL subcontract the case that distributed PV generation deserves a substantial portion of the credit allotted to demand response programs. This is because PV generation acts as a catalyst to demand response, markedly enhancing

  6. PV-Modultechnik am ISFH Marc Kntges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 PV-Modultechnik am ISFH Marc Köntges Entwicklung Messen Prüfen Forschung 90°C #12;2 Aufbau eines. Schulte-Huxel, et al., IEEE J-PV, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2012.2208096, 2012 Prozess bringt ganze in PV-Modullaminaten 90°C #12;Lichtsimulation Zellgap · Streulicht aus Zellzwischenraum wird teilweise

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE RADIATION FLUX PROFILE ALONG A PV TROUGH CONCENTRATOR J.S. Coventry, A. Blakers, E. Franklin and G. Burgess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the main cost driver in a flat plate system. PV systems, whether flat plate or concentrating, normally haveANALYSIS OF THE RADIATION FLUX PROFILE ALONG A PV TROUGH CONCENTRATOR J.S. Coventry, A. Blakers, E, ACT, 0200 Australia, email: Joe.Coventry@anu.edu.au ABSTRACT: The primary advantage of a PV

  8. HOW BPA/WSUN SCHOOL PV EFFORT WORKED AT ELMIRA HIGH SCHOOL This article reports on lessons learned from installing a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    HOW BPA/WSUN SCHOOL PV EFFORT WORKED AT ELMIRA HIGH SCHOOL ABSTRACT This article reports on lessons with the PV system and the positive publicity generated by the project. Initial reactions of the utility. The goal was to develop a standardized photovoltaic (PV) system that could be integrated into K-12

  9. Simulation of a concentrating PV/thermal collector using TRNSYS J.S. Coventry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and a PV array located side-by-side. 1 Introduction The Combined Heat and Power Solar System, or CHAPS that combines photovoltaic (PV) cells to produce electricity, with thermal energy absorption to produce hot, in particular heating, cooling and domestic hot water applications (Solar Energy Laboratory, 2000). TRNSYS

  10. Electrical Simulations of Series and Parallel PV Arc-Faults Jack Flicker and Jay Johnson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrical Simulations of Series and Parallel PV Arc-Faults Jack Flicker and Jay Johnson Sandia residential and commercial rooftop fires. The National Electrical Code® (NEC) added section 690.11 to mitigate the electrical behavior of the PV system during series and parallel arc-faults to (a) understand the arcing power

  11. Evaluation of Reactive Power Control Capabilities of Residential PV in an Unbalanced Distribution Feeder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the overall effectiveness of each solution in realistic feeder states. Index Terms -- photovoltaic systems, reactive power control, voltage control, particle swarm optimization. I. INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic (PV PV is to use the spare reactive power capacity of their grid-tie inverters collectively to benefit

  12. Time series power flow analysis for distribution connected PV generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broderick, Robert Joseph; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.; Smith, Jeff; Dugan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) projects must go through an interconnection study process before connecting to the distribution grid. These studies are intended to identify the likely impacts and mitigation alternatives. In the majority of the cases, system impacts can be ruled out or mitigation can be identified without an involved study, through a screening process or a simple supplemental review study. For some proposed projects, expensive and time-consuming interconnection studies are required. The challenges to performing the studies are twofold. First, every study scenario is potentially unique, as the studies are often highly specific to the amount of PV generation capacity that varies greatly from feeder to feeder and is often unevenly distributed along the same feeder. This can cause location-specific impacts and mitigations. The second challenge is the inherent variability in PV power output which can interact with feeder operation in complex ways, by affecting the operation of voltage regulation and protection devices. The typical simulation tools and methods in use today for distribution system planning are often not adequate to accurately assess these potential impacts. This report demonstrates how quasi-static time series (QSTS) simulation and high time-resolution data can be used to assess the potential impacts in a more comprehensive manner. The QSTS simulations are applied to a set of sample feeders with high PV deployment to illustrate the usefulness of the approach. The report describes methods that can help determine how PV affects distribution system operations. The simulation results are focused on enhancing the understanding of the underlying technical issues. The examples also highlight the steps needed to perform QSTS simulation and describe the data needed to drive the simulations. The goal of this report is to make the methodology of time series power flow analysis readily accessible to utilities and others responsible for evaluating potential PV impacts.

  13. Building-integrated PV -- Analysis and US market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frantzis, L.; Hill, S.; Teagan, P.; Friedman, D. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Arthur D Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin, and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US.

  14. Outdoor PV Module Degradation of Current-Voltage Parameters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. M.; Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module degradation rate analysis quantifies the loss of PV power output over time and is useful for estimating the impact of degradation on the cost of energy. An understanding of the degradation of all current-voltage (I-V) parameters helps to determine the cause of the degradation and also gives useful information for the design of the system. This study reports on data collected from 12 distinct mono- and poly-crystalline modules deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Most modules investigated showed < 0.5%/year decrease in maximum power due to short-circuit current decline.

  15. Introduction of Break-Out Session at the International PV Module Quality Assurance Forum (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Yamamichi, M.; Sample, T.

    2011-07-01

    This presentation outlines review requirements for quality assurance (QA) rating systems, logical design of QA systems, and specific tasks for break-out session 1 of the 2011 International PV Module Quality Assurance Forum.

  16. Going Solar in Record Time with Plug-and-Play PV | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    that uses an automatic detection system to initiate communication between the solar energy system and the utility when plugged into a PV-ready circuit. | Photo by iStock. A...

  17. How sharp are PV measures?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Jencova; S. Pulmannova

    2007-01-11

    Properties of sharp observables (normalized PV measures) in relation to smearing by a Markov kernel are studied. It is shown that for a sharp observable $P$ defined on a standard Borel space, and an arbitrary observable $M$, the following properties are equivalent: (a) the range of $P$ is contained in the range of $M$; (b) $P$ is a function of $M$; (c) $P$ is a smearing of $M$.

  18. Creating dynamic equivalent PV circuit models with impedance spectroscopy for arc-fault modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Strauch, Jason E.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2011-06-01

    Article 690.11 in the 2011 National Electrical Code{reg_sign} (NEC{reg_sign}) requires new photovoltaic (PV) systems on or penetrating a building to include a listed arc fault protection device. Currently there is little experimental or empirical research into the behavior of the arcing frequencies through PV components despite the potential for modules and other PV components to filter or attenuate arcing signatures that could render the arc detector ineffective. To model AC arcing signal propagation along PV strings, the well-studied DC diode models were found to inadequately capture the behavior of high frequency arcing signals. Instead dynamic equivalent circuit models of PV modules were required to describe the impedance for alternating currents in modules. The nonlinearities present in PV cells resulting from irradiance, temperature, frequency, and bias voltage variations make modeling these systems challenging. Linearized dynamic equivalent circuits were created for multiple PV module manufacturers and module technologies. The equivalent resistances and capacitances for the modules were determined using impedance spectroscopy with no bias voltage and no irradiance. The equivalent circuit model was employed to evaluate modules having irradiance conditions that could not be measured directly with the instrumentation. Although there was a wide range of circuit component values, the complex impedance model does not predict filtering of arc fault frequencies in PV strings for any irradiance level. Experimental results with no irradiance agree with the model and show nearly no attenuation for 1 Hz to 100 kHz input frequencies.

  19. Performance and Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV)Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Performance and Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV)Technologies at Selected Sites This report presents As part of Cooperative Agreement No. DE-EE0003507 Under Task 3.1: Photovoltaic Systems September 2014`i at Manoa #12;Performance and Analysis of Different Photovoltaic Technologies at Selected Sites Prepared

  20. SunShot Presentation PV Module Reliabity Workshop Opening Session

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This PowerPoint slide deck was originally presented at the opening session of the 2013 NREL PV Module Reliability Workshop on Feb. 26-27, 2013 in Golden, CO. It provides an overview of the DOE SunShot initiative, discusses systems integration and technology validation activities, and highlighted the goals and key agenda items for the workshop.

  1. EPJ Photovoltaics 2, 20301 (2011) www.epj-pv.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2011-01-01

    EPJ Photovoltaics 2, 20301 (2011) www.epj-pv.org DOI: 10.1051/epjpv/2011001 c Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2011 EPJ PhotovoltaicsEPJ Photovoltaics Geometrical optimization and electrical online: 1 April 2011 Abstract This article investigates the optimal efficiency of a photovoltaic system

  2. Accelerated Life Testing of PV Arc-Fault Detectors Jay Johnson, Michael Neilsen, Paul Vianco, N. Rob Sorensen,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interrupters (AFCIs) to be incorporated into photovoltaic (PV) systems to prevent fires. Some manufacturers-fault prevention devices. Index Terms -- photovoltaic systems, arc-fault detectors, accelerated life testing on the photovoltaic (PV) system. While there has been extensive work to create functionally robust arc-fault detectors

  3. NRELs PV Tools on the Web: Open PV Project

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    NREL's PV Tools on the Web: The OpenPV Project NREL TAP Webinar Ted Quinby March 24, 2010 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Overview National...

  4. Future of Grid-Tied PV Business Models: What Will Happen When PV Penetration on the Distribution Grid is Significant? Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, S.; Katofsky, R.; Frantzis, L.; Sawyer, H.; Margolis, R.

    2008-05-01

    Eventually, distributed PV will become a more significant part of the generation mix. When this happens, it is expected that utilities will have to take on a more active role in the placement, operation and control of these systems. There are operational complexities and concerns of revenue erosion that will drive utilities into greater involvement of distributed PV and will create new business models. This report summarizes work done by Navigant Consulting Inc. for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's work on Renewable System Integration. The objective of the work was to better understand the structure of these future business models and the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) required to support their deployment. This report describes potential future PV business models in terms of combinations of utility ownership and control of the PV assets, and the various relationships between end-users and third-party owners.

  5. Ensuring Quality of PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Hacke, P.; Kempe, M.; Sample, T.; Yamamichi, M.; Kondo, M.; Doi, T.; Otani, K.; Amano, J.

    2011-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) customers need to have confidence in the PV modules they purchase. Currently, no test can quantify a module's lifetime with confidence, but stress tests are routinely used to differentiate PV product designs. We suggest that the industry would be strengthened by using the wisdom of the community to develop a single set of tests that will help customers quantify confidence in PV products. This paper evaluates the need for quality assurance (QA) standards and suggests a path for creating these. Two types of standards are needed: 1) QA of the module design and 2) QA of the manufacturing process.

  6. Tracking the Sun VII: An Historical Summary of the Installed Price of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As the deployment of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has increased, so too has the desire to track the cost and price of these systems. This report helps fill this need by summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected PV systems in the United States from 1998 through 2013, with partial data for the first half of 2014. The analysis is based on project level data for more than 300,000 individual residential, commercial, and utility-scale PV systems installed across 33 states, representing 80% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2013. Researchers found that installed prices continued declining in 2013, falling year-over-year by $0.7/W, or 12-15% depending on system size range, and data for the first six months of 2014 indicate that installed prices have continued to fall. This recorded decline since 2008 is largely attributable to module price reductions.

  7. PV AND GRID RELIABILITY: AVAILABILITY OF PV POWER DURING CAPACITY SHORTFALLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    PV AND GRID RELIABILITY: AVAILABILITY OF PV POWER DURING CAPACITY SHORTFALLS Richard Perez events caused by high, localized demand and inability for the grid operators to deliver local power at photovoltaic (PV) power availability during major summer 1999-2000 power outages in the United States. We

  8. Kailun PV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervar Hydro JumpHuari Silicon MaterialJuncoKSKKailun PV Jump to:

  9. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - PV News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12Working withPhoto of1855JohnScienceNancyNewsPV

  10. Sandia Energy - PV Program Disclaimer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &WaterNew CREWOnline Abstracts andPV ModelingProgram

  11. Tucson Request for Proposal for 1-5 MW PV PPA

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The mission of Tucson Water, a Department of the City of Tucson (the City), is to ensure that its customers receive high quality water and excellent service in a cost efficient, safe and environmentally responsible manner. In the interest of furthering Tucson Waters mission, the City is seeking a Contractor to finance, design, build, commission, own, operate and maintain up to a 1 megawatt (MW) DCSTC hotovoltaic (PV) system. The City also seeks an option for expanding the PV system up to a total of 5 MW DCSTC PV.

  12. Experimental comparison of PV-smoothing controllers using distributed generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Hawkins, John N.; Arellano, Brian; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    The power output variability of photovoltaic systems can affect local electrical grids in locations with high renewable energy penetrations or weak distribution or transmission systems. In those rare cases, quick controllable generators (e.g., energy storage systems) or loads can counteract the destabilizing effects by compensating for the power fluctuations. Previously, control algorithms for coordinated and uncoordinated operation of a small natural gas engine-generator (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output were optimized using MATLAB/Simulink simulations. The simulations demonstrated that a traditional generation resource such as a natural gas genset in combination with a battery would smooth the photovoltaic output while using a smaller battery state of charge (SOC) range and extending the life of the battery. This paper reports on the experimental implementation of the coordinated and uncoordinated controllers to verify the simulations and determine the differences in the controllers. The experiments were performed with the PNM PV and energy storage Prosperity site and a gas engine-generator located at the Aperture Center at Mesa Del Sol in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two field demonstrations were performed to compare the different PV smoothing control algorithms: (1) implementing the coordinated and uncoordinated controls while switching off a subsection of the PV array at precise times on successive clear days, and (2) comparing the results of the battery and genset outputs for the coordinated control on a high variability day with simulations of the coordinated and uncoordinated controls. It was found that for certain PV power profiles the SOC range of the battery may be larger with the coordinated control, but the total amp-hours through the battery-which approximates battery wear-will always be smaller with the coordinated control.

  13. A Feasibility Study of a Wind/Hydrogen System for Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    systems (SAPS). Their work specifically concentrated on non-grid connected systems that included local project have been carried out. These projects both show the technical feasibility of wind/hydrogen systems1 A Feasibility Study of a Wind/Hydrogen System for Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts American Wind

  14. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    System Impacts of Solar Variabiltiy and InterconnectionDistributed PV, American Solar Energy Society, Denver, CO,http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/vision_study.html,

  15. New York City- Property Tax Abatement for Photovoltaic (PV) Equipment Expenditures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In August 2008 the State of New York enacted legislation allowing a property tax abatement for photovoltaic (PV) system expenditures made on buildings located in cities with a population of 1 mil...

  16. Near-Optimal, Dynamic Module Reconfiguration in a Photovoltaic System to Combat Partial Shading Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    reduces the cost of the PV system due to sharing of the charger among PV modules. We call such a structure (PV) systems since it can result in a significant output power degradation for the system. A PV system is organized as a series connection of PV modules, each module comprising of a number of series

  17. Solar PV Permitting and Safety Training Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar provides training on two permitting resources for municipal inspectors; a prescriptive process for building inspectors and a guidance document for permitting for PV for electrical inspectors. The webinar also runs through a number of key code articles in Massachusetts 2014 electrical code and examines a variety of safety hazards commonly found during or after solar PV installations.

  18. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    photovoltaic, software, solar thermal systems Abstract Theinteractions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systemsstorage, PV, as well as solar thermal system adoption, two

  19. Smart-Grid Ready PV Inverter with Utility Communication

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    standards, operations center visibility and management, and optimized coordination of smart PV inverters with existing distribution control devices. Smart-Grid Ready PV Inverter...

  20. SunShot Presentation PV Module Reliabity Workshop Opening Session...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation PV Module Reliabity Workshop Opening Session SunShot Presentation PV Module Reliabity Workshop Opening Session This PowerPoint slide deck was originally presented at...

  1. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV Potential Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV Potential This study looks at the technical...

  2. Department of Veterans Affairs, FONSI - Rooftop solar PV power...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Rooftop solar PV power at Calverton National Cemetery Department of Veterans Affairs, FONSI - Rooftop solar PV power at Calverton National Cemetery An Environmental Assessment (EA)...

  3. PV Performance and Reliability Validation Capabilities at Sandia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PV Performance and Reliability Validation Capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories PV Performance and Reliability Validation Capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories This...

  4. An Analysis of the Effects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residential Selling Prices in California.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Effects of Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Homeof homes with existing photovoltaic (PV) energy systems havegrid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems were

  5. A HYBRID SOLAR LINEAR CONCENTRATOR PROTOTYPE IN INDIA , J. Daniel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and community power supply, and grid connected PV generation [1]. The need for heat in applications such as domestic hot water, air conditioning, or air heating for drying cash crops, makes hybrid concentrator PV-grid systems for basic lighting, irrigation pumps, cellular phone towers, urban applications, medical

  6. Aalborg Universitet Optimal Utilization of Microgrids Supplemented with Battery Energy Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    of Microgrids Supplemented with Battery Energy Storage Systems in Grid Support Applications. In IEEE ICDCM 2015 Energy Storage Systems in Grid Support Applications Amjad Anvari-Moghaddam, Tomislav Dragicevic, Juan C the operating cost of a grid connected micro-grid supplemented by battery energy storage system (BESS). What

  7. Cost goals for a residential photovoltaicthermal liquid collector system set in three northern locations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    1980-01-01

    This study compares the allowable costs for a residential PV/T liquid collector system with those of both PV-only and side-by-side PV and thermal collector systems. Four types of conventional energy systems provide backup: ...

  8. An Analysis of the Effects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residential Selling Prices in California.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    the net installed cost of PV, and accounting for system agethe net installed costs of PV systems vary to some degree bylower average installed cost than PV systems installed on

  9. Improved test method to verify the power rating of a photovoltaic (PV) project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchula, A.; Pligavko, A.; King, D.; Marion, B.; Townsend, T.; Mitchell, L.; Dierauf, T.; Kimber, A.; Osterwald, C. R.; Newmiller, Jeff; Emery, K.; Talmud, F.; Whitaker, Chuck; Myers, D.; Forbess, J.; Granata, Jennifer E.; Levitsky, T.

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews the PVUSA power rating method and presents two additional methods that seek to improve this method in terms of model precision and increased seasonal applicability. It presents the results of an evaluation of each method based upon regression analysis of over 12 MW of operating photovoltaic (PV) systems located in a wide variety of climates. These systems include a variety of PV technologies, mounting configurations, and array sizes to ensure the conclusions are applicable to a wide range of PV designs and technologies. The work presented in this paper will be submitted to ASTM for use in the development of a standard test method for certifying the power rating of PV projects.

  10. Grid Connectivity Research, Development & Demonstration Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. Grid Connected Functionalities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive CompensationEnergyGetDepartment of|GreenerGrid ApplicationsGrid

  12. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    cost data for grid-connected, customer-sited PV installations in the Unites States from a number of solar

  13. Abstract--With the increasing fears of the impacts of the high penetration rates of Photovoltaic (PV) systems, a technical study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    by the researchers and the developers in power systems. II. PSCAD MODEL OF GRID TIED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM The PSCAD-Tied Photovoltaic Systems and Total Harmonic Distortion Analysis Abdulrahman Y. Kalbat, Member, IEEE Fig. 1. Grid1 Abstract--With the increasing fears of the impacts of the high penetration rates of Photovoltaic

  14. Terawatt Challenge for Thin-Film PV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweibel, K.

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of PV into one of the world's largest industries is not going to happen without major unforeseen problems. However, this study attempts to address the obvious ones, so that we can put aside the mythology of PV (for example, that it is only ''boutique power'' or that one must pave the world with it to be useful) and get on with changing the world's energy infrastructure. With the years of rapid market growth now under way in PV, the author is sure this will not be the last effort to understand the real potential and pitfalls of meeting the Challenge.

  15. (Eigen Phoneme Space (Phoneme Vector : PV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takiguchi, Tetsuya

    ) (Phoneme Vector : PV) Fig. 1 (EPS) /a/ /i/ · · · PCA (EPS) 2.2 PCA PCA i Si Si = 1 N N t=1 (xi t - ¯xi )(xi (6) #12;Fig. 2 Phoneme Vector (PV) extraction (6) yt (Q×M) yt PCA y t y t = V T (yt - ¯y) (7) V = [1 , 2 , · · · , R ] R Fig. 2 3 3.1 DCT PCA MFCC PCA PV 32 16 32 (Q) 5 21 2 ATR A-SET 2,620 54 HMM 1

  16. Solar Works! In Seattle: Introduction to Solar Electric (PV)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation slides from residential PV workshop. Also covers general solar resource assessment, siting and financial incentives.

  17. Aalborg Universitet Impact of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Effects on Power System with Large Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Weihao

    @et.aau.dk, csu@et.aau.dk, zch@et.aau.dk Abstract ­ Grid connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources due and the power flow situation of the original power system especially when the integration of wind powerAalborg Universitet Impact of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Effects on Power System with Large Scale

  18. INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, AND PUBLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    costs. · HOMER https://analysis.nrel.gov/homer/ Simplifies the task of evaluating design options for off-grid and grid-connected power systems. #12;· Hybrid Power System Simulation Model http types of electrical loads, multiple wind turbines of different types, photovoltaics, multiple diesel

  19. Application of Flow Battery in Marine Current Turbine System for Daily Power Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    Application of Flow Battery in Marine Current Turbine System for Daily Power Management Zhibin Zhou focuses on a grid-connected MCT system and proposes using vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) energy storage and to guarantee the expected power injection to the local grid. Keywords--Marine current turbine, flow battery

  20. pahwa@ksu.edu Holonic Multi-agent Control of Power Distribution Systems of the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Gurdip

    SUMMARY Power distribution systems (PDS) of the future will have homes with smart meters to monitor energy consumption, on-site grid-connected solar or wind generation, battery storage, and plug-in vehicles. The feeders will have advanced power electronic switching devices to control the system, sensors at strategic

  1. Capital Cost-Aware Design and Partial Shading-Aware Architecture Optimization of a Reconfigurable Photovoltaic System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Capital Cost-Aware Design and Partial Shading-Aware Architecture Optimization of a Reconfigurable, increase the capital cost of the PV system. In this paper, we group a number of PV cells into a PV macro-cell is the result of a trade-off between the decreased PV system capital cost and enhanced PV system performance

  2. Sandia Energy - Evaluating Rooftop Strength for PV

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for PVcwdd2015-09-30T16:55:16+00:00 Confirming the Strength of Residential Roof Structures for Solar Installations Test Setup Photo Test Setup The solar photovoltaic (PV)...

  3. Distributed PV Permitting and Inspection Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation summarizes case studies of the time and cost involved in the distributed PV permitting and inspection process in three Solar America Cities, Austin, Portland, and Salt Lake City.

  4. PV Module Reliability Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its PV module reliability research. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed and recent publications are listed.

  5. PV1 model verification and validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Frank H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this document is 1) to describe, in detail, the theoretic foundation on which PV1 is based, 2) indicate the manner in which its theoretical foundation has been translated into a practical, useful tool for ...

  6. Sandia Energy - PV Reliability & Performance Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model PV Reliability & Performance ModelTara Camacho-Lopez2015-06-01T20:13:00+00:00 This Web Demo model is a simplified "player" version of the Photovoltaic Reliability Performance...

  7. Austin Energy- Commercial Solar PV Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to qualify for this program, PV modules must be new and be listed on the California Energy Commission's Go Solar web site. In addition, all solar panels must have a 20-year manufacturer ...

  8. SMUD- PV Residential Retrofit Buy-Down

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The incentive can be paid directly to the customer or the installer. PV equipment listed on the CEC Approved Equipment list is eligible for incentives: http://www.gosolarcalifornia.org/equipment...

  9. PV vs. Solar Water Heating- Simple Solar Payback

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar energy systems hang their hats on payback. Financial payback is as tangible as money in your bank account, while other types of payback—like environmental externalities—are not usually calculated in dollars. There’s no doubt that photovoltaic (PV) and solar hot water (SHW) systems will pay you back. Maybe not as quickly as you’d like, but all systems will significantly offset their cost over their lifetimes. Here we’ll try to answer: Which system will give the quickest return on investment (ROI)?

  10. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Gagnon, Pieter; Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  11. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol A.; Jacobson, Arne; Park, Won Young; Lee, Ga Rick; Alstone, Peter; Khare, Amit

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  12. Power losses in PV arrays due to variations in the I-V characteristics of PV modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Power losses in PV arrays due to variations in the I-V characteristics of PV modules Wolfgang Damm-V characteristics of the 36 individual modules of a PV generator at the University of Oldenburg were measured the basis for the calculations of the mismatch losses due to series and parallel connection of PV modules

  13. Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems in California: The Effect on Home Sales Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems in California: Thethe marginal impacts of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems ons largest market for photovoltaic solar (PV), with nearly

  14. Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa Weirui

    2011-01-01

    of pv systems. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research andpv system flatcon. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research andmw pv installation. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and

  15. On the relationship factor between the PV module temperature and the solar radiation on it for various BIPV configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplanis, S. Kaplani, E.

    2014-10-06

    Temperatures of c-Si, pc-Si and a-Si PV modules making part of a roof in a building or hanging outside windows with various inclinations were measured with respect to the Intensity of the solar radiation on them under various environmental conditions. A relationship coefficient f was provided whose values are compared to those from a PV array operating in a free standing mode on a terrace. A theoretical model to predict f was elaborated. According to the analysis, the coefficient f takes higher values for PV modules embedded on a roof compared to the free standing PV array. The wind effect is much stronger for the free standing PV than for any BIPV configuration, either the PV is part of the roof, or placed upon the roof, or is placed outside a window like a shadow hanger. The f coefficient depends on various parameters such as angle of inclination, wind speed and direction, as well as solar radiation. For very low wind speeds the effect of the angle of inclination, ?, of the PV module with respect to the horizontal on PV temperature is clear. As the wind speed increases, the heat transfer from the PV module shifts from natural flow to forced flow and this effect vanishes. The coefficient f values range from almost 0.01 m{sup 2°}C/W for free standing PV arrays at strong wind speeds, v{sub W}>7m/s, up to around 0.05 m{sup 2°}C/W for the case of flexible PV modules which make part of the roof in a BIPV system.

  16. Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Darghouth, N.; Goodrich, A.

    2012-11-01

    This report helps to clarify the confusion surrounding different estimates of system pricing by distinguishing between past, current, and near-term projected estimates. It also discusses the different methodologies and factors that impact the estimated price of a PV system, such as system size, location, technology, and reporting methods.These factors, including timing, can have a significant impact on system pricing.

  17. Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems – Success Stories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

  18. Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance intensity data of rendered images back into numerical data. To ensure accurate results, the solar irradiation data used as input is compared to numerical data obtained from rendered images, showing excellent agreement. As expected, also ray-tracing precision in the CAD software proves to be very high. To demonstrate PV energy yield simulations using this innovative concept, solar radiation time course data of a few days was modeled in 3-D to simulate distributions of irradiance incident on flat, single- and double-bend shapes and a PV powered computer mouse located on a window sill. Comparisons of measured to simulated PV output of the mouse show that also in practice, simulation accuracies can be very high. Theoretically, this concept has great potential, as it can be adapted to suit a wide range of solar energy applications, such as sun-tracking and concentrator systems, Building Integrated PV (BIPV) or Product Integrated PV (PIPV). However, graphical user interfaces of 'CAD-PV' software tools are not yet available. (author)

  19. Holdover inoculum of Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis from broccoli raab causes disease in subsequent plantings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cintas, N A; Koike, S T; Bunch, R A; Bull, C T

    2006-01-01

    by Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis in California. Plantof Pseudo- monas syringae pv. alisalensis. (Abstr. ) Phyto-2004. Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis and Pseudomonas

  20. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of Distributed PV, American Solar Energy Society,Simulating the Reduction in PV Powerplant Variability due to8] T. Hoff, R. Perez, Modeling PV Fleet Output Variability,