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1

Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate...

2

Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Learn about: Basics: Read an overview of greenhouse gases Federal...

3

Chapter 22 Greenhouse Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water vapor (the most abundant GHG) accounts for the largest percentage of the greenhouse effect. However, water vapor concentrations fluctuate regionally, and human activity...

4

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigerati...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol...

5

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Purchased Electricity Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased Electricity AgencyCompany...

6

Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium Regional GHG Emissions ­ Outlook June 4, 2013 Steven Simmons CO2 Emission Outlook for the Pacific NW (ID-MT- OR-WA) Key Factors that determine Emissions Levels 1 Demand & Conservation 50 60 70 2 1. Demand

7

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to characterize carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from hydropower reservoirs in the US SoutheastGHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly understood, but recent studies have indicated that GHG emissions

9

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in gas turbinecombustion in gas turbine HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Effect of COEffect-depleting gases ·· COCO22 removal for gas purificationremoval for gas purification ·· COCO22 removal for greenhouse gas emissions reductionremoval for greenhouse gas emissions reduction ·· Other greenhouse gases

Zevenhoven, Ron

10

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

Fischer, Marc

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

12

TECHNICAL REPORTS The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TECHNICAL REPORTS 1396 The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range of potential by composting and GHG emissions during composting. The primary carbon credits associated with composting are through CH4 avoidance when feedstocks are composted instead of landfilled (municipal solid waste

Brown, Sally

13

Life Cycle Analysis on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas Supporting Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle Analysis on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas Supporting Information 1. GHG Emissions Estimation for Production of Marcellus Shale Gas 1.1 Preparation of Well Pad estimate from Columbia University shows the size of a multi-well pad of Marcellus Shale averages 20

Jaramillo, Paulina

14

Climate VISION: Greenhouse Gases Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science, and technology for theAdvanced CleanEnergyGHG

15

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network infrastructures are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network on the overall power consumption and on the GHG emissions with just 25% of green energy sources. I. INTRODUCTION]. In the zero carbon approach, renewable (green) energy sources (e.g. sun, wind, tide) are employed and no GHGs

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

16

Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(milliontonsCO2) Petroleum + Pet Coke Natural Gas Coal 8 0.0 10.0 20.0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 and ½ Valmy coal plants) 2 #12;6/5/2013 2 GHG Emissions by Economic Sector in the Pacific Northwest (2010 Renewables 7 6%In 2011, the region 0.2% 6.4% Coal, 15.7% Nuclear, 2.0% 7.6%, g generated ~27,000 MWa ­ 68

17

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

19

Asia-wide emissions of greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of principal greenhouse gases (GHGs) from Asia are increasing faster than those from any other continent. This is a result of rapid economic growth, as well as the fact that almost half of the world`s population lives in Asian countries. In this paper, the author provides estimates of emissions of the two principal greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), from individual countries and areas. Recent literature has been reviewed for emission estimates for individual sources, such as carbon dioxide from cement manufacture, and methane from rice fields. There are very large uncertainties in many of these estimates, so several estimates are provided, where available. The largest anthropogenic source of CO{sub 2} emissions is the use of fossil fuels. Energy consumption data from 1992 have been used to calculate estimated emissions of CO{sub 2} from this source. In view of the ongoing negotiations to limit future greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of projected CO{sub 2} emissions from the developing countries of Asia are also provided. These are likely to be 3 times their 1986 levels by 2010, under business as usual scenarios. Even with the implementation of energy efficiency measures and fuel switching where feasible, the emissions of CO{sub 2} are likely to double within the same time period.

Siddiqi, T.A. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Program on Environment

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Augustin J et al. Automated gas chromatographic system forof the atmospheric trace gases methane, carbon dioxide, andfuel consumption and of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric greenhouse gases Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to longwave radiation 12;Greenhouse Gases Polyatomic molecules... the greenhouse effect ... Source: Frierson, Dargan - Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of...

25

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Airborne greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements provide essential constraints for estimating surface emissions. Until recently, dedicated research-grade instruments have been required  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GHG columns · Quantifying local to regional GHG enhancements for emissions inventory verificationAbstract Airborne greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements provide essential constraints for estimating with another Cessna 210 over Central California quantified enhancements in CO2 and CH4 from urban

27

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

28

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT RISING GREENHOUSE GASES AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, methane, and nitrous oxides. The sun's energy passes through these gases, like light passing through risen by almost 40 percent. This is attributed primarily to the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gasoline). Methane and nitrous oxides are also increasing rapidly, due in part to the expansion

30

Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Atmospheric Modelling of Greenhouse Gases and Air Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Increase in mixing height (h) entrains (draws in) air from above the box #12Atmospheric Modelling of Greenhouse Gases and Air Quality John C. Lin Courtenay Strong University of Utah: February 20th, 2013 Department of Atmospheric Sciences University of Utah #12;Outline ·CO2 ó Air

Tipple, Brett

32

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYCO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse GasesGHG Emissions from Biofuels . in STEPS Research Symposium .NRDC, Growing Energy: How Biofuels Can Help End America's

Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

35

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Are Greenhouse Gases Changing ENSO Precursors in the Western North Pacific?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using multiple observational and modeling datasets, we document a strengthening relationship between boreal winter sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western North Pacific (WNP) and the development of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) one year later. The increased WNP-ENSO association emerged in the mid 20th century and has grown through the present, reaching correlation coefficients as high as ~0.70 in recent decades. Fully coupled climate experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) replicate the WNP-ENSO association and indicate that greenhouse gases (GHG) are largely responsible for the observed increase. We speculate that shifts in the location and amplitudes of positive SST trends in the subtropical-tropical western Pacific impacts the low-level circulation so that WNP variability is increasingly influencing the development of ENSO one year later. A strengthened GHG-driven relationship between the WNP and ENSO provides an example of how anthropogenic climate change can potentially improve the skill of intraseasonal-to-interannual climate prediction.

Wang, S-Y (Simon); Heureux, Michelle L.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

What's the Greenhouse Effect? The earth is surrounded by a blanket of gases. This  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;What's the Greenhouse Effect? The earth is surrounded by a blanket of gases. This blanket and climate change result from the greenhouse effect. #12;What's the Problem? Eradica@on of en

Bowen, James D.

38

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model AgencyCompany Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools...

40

Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products , Chase L.D.C.b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products Bessou C.1016/j.jclepro.2013.12.008 (Pre-proof version) ABSTRACT The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) is a non-profit association promoting sustainable palm oil through a voluntary certification scheme. Two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

42

Simplified life cycle approach: GHG variability assessment for onshore wind electricity based on Monte-Carlo simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the literature. In the special case of greenhouses gases (GHG) from wind power electricity, the LCA resultsSimplified life cycle approach: GHG variability assessment for onshore wind electricity based performed by the IPCC [1]. Such result might lead policy makers to consider LCA as an inconclusive method [2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Michigan State University, 2 Michigan State University Extension Climate Change and Agriculture Fact Sheet greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide over the past 2000 years. Data are from ice core

44

Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

Not Available

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

46

Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant, Schneider, Lee, Bubbosh 2 ABSTRACT Extended truck idling is a very large source of fuel wastage, greenhouse, most long-haul truck drivers idle their vehicles for close to 10 hours per day to operate heating

47

Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions through a measurable reduction of energy intensity. Energy efficiency evaluations and initiatives are implemented on the...

48

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of a variety of vehicle, fuel, and technology choices. Overview Measures the petroleum displacement and greenhouse gas emissions of medium and heavy-duty vehicles and...

49

Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Article published Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1395  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for pipelines that are robust to a priori uncertainty in CO2 production from industrial sources and CO2 storage emissions from electric power plants that emit CO2 as a consequence of combusting fossil fuels (namely coal% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions,5 whereas steel production emitted approximately 2.7 GtCO2 in 2011.6 CO2 capture

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

51

Coal-Fired Power Plants, Greenhouse Gases, and State Statutory Substantial Endangerment Provisions: Climate Change Comes to Kansas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to climate change. Second, it provides regulatory context for KDHE?s decision denying a permit for the Sunflower project. It summarizes the status of federal regulation of greenhouse gas (?GHG?) emissions. It also describes state efforts to fill... of air quality permits for the Sunflower units is within KDHE?s authority to take actions to prevent the substantial endangerment to public health and the environment arising from GHG emissions. I reach this conclusion even though the denial was based...

Glicksman, Robert L.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.z [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

Loureiro, S.M., E-mail: saulo@lima.coppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rovere, E.L.L., E-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mahler, C.F., E-mail: mahler0503@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68506, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

digestion, aerobic digestion, dewatering, al composting, drying) and sludge disposal route (land applicationORBIT2012 G ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di-laure.reverdy@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sewage sludge production increases continuously reaching almost 20% (946 700 t 1 118 795

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

55

Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Emissions--Carbon Dioxide Emissions--Sequestration and Storage--Biochar--Basalt--Organic Fertilizers, this investigation focuses on the range of potential of different soil additives to enhance sequestration and storage

Vallino, Joseph J.

56

ARM - Amount of Greenhouse Gases in the Global Atmosphere  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |NovemberARMContactsARM Engineering andPlansAmount of Greenhouse

57

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

NONE

1995-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

58

Greenhouse Gas Basics  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Greenhouse gases are trace gases in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect."

59

The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gasthe ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxideis also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Guidance on measuring and reporting Greenhouse Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guidance on measuring and reporting Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from freight transport This guidance provides clear instructions on calculating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from freight and report your greenhouse gas emissions', by providing more specific information and examples relating

62

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported.

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O'Sullivan, Francis

64

Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle, and Climate (AC4): Observational Constraints on Sources and Sinks of Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gas extraction can also inform future energy choices. In FY 2014, Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle anthropogenic-biogenic emission intense regions 3. Deposition processes controlling atmospheric concentrations of aerosols and greenhouse gases Projects that quantify sources and sinks via new measurements and/or modeling

65

Idaho National Laboratory FY12 Greenhouse Gas Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

Kimberly Frerichs

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Idaho National Laboratory's FY11 Greenhouse Gas Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

Kimberly Frerichs

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

DeLuchi, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D13, PAGES 16,417-16,421,NOVEMBER 20, 1989 Greenhouse Effect of Chlorofluorocarbons and Other Trace Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D13, PAGES 16,417-16,421,NOVEMBER 20, 1989 Greenhouse Effect of Chlorofluorocarbons and Other Trace Gases JAMESHANSEN,ANDREW LACIS,AND MICHAEL PRATHER NASA

Fridlind, Ann

69

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases. Initial studies, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current objective of the project ``Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases`` is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Federal Agency Progress Toward Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Excel spreadsheet shows overall government and federal agency reductions in scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and in indirect scope 3 GHG emissions categories.

71

Additional Resources for Estimating Building Energy and Cost Savings to Reduce Greenhouse Gases  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For evaluating greenhouse gas reduction strategies and estimating costs, the following information resources can help Federal agencies estimate energy and cost savings potential by building type.

72

Simplified life cycle approach: GHG variability assessment for onshore wind electricity based on Monte-Carlo simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The environmental impacts of electricity production systems have been widely assessed over the past years with many published LCAs in the literature. In the special case of greenhouses gases (GHG) from wind power electricity, the LCA results variability observed is very high, for example ranging from 2 to 81 g CO2eq/kWh in a literature review performed by the IPCC [1]. Such result might lead policy makers to consider

Pierryves Padey; Denis Le Boulch; Isabelle Blanc

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Impact of rising greenhouse gases on mid-latitude storm tracks and associated hydroclimate variability and change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Summary This project aimed to advance physical understanding of how and why the mid-latitude jet streams and storm tracks shift in intensity and latitude in response to changes in radiative forcing with an especial focus on rising greenhouse gases. The motivation, and much of the work, stemmed from the importance that these mean and transient atmospheric circulation systems have for hydroclimate. In particular drying and expansion of the subtropical dry zones has been related to a poleward shift of the mid-latitude jets and storm tracks. The work involved integrated assessment of observation and model projections as well as targeted model simulations.

Seager, Richard

2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

74

Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change.

75

Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks. #12;2 Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks for characterizing potential responses to greenhouse gas mitigation policies by the agriculture and forestry

McCarl, Bruce A.

76

A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

Rodriguez-Garcia, G., E-mail: gonzalo.rodriguez.garcia@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Hospido, A., E-mail: almudena.hospido@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bagley, D.M., E-mail: bagley@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, 82072 Laramie, WY (United States); Moreira, M.T., E-mail: maite.moreira@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, G., E-mail: gumersindo.feijoo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

An issue of trust: state corruption, responsibility and greenhouse gas emissions This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contact us My IOPscience #12;IOP PUBLISHING ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 5 (2010 uncontroversial, since the economic theory of externalities suggests that, given some level of external cost imposed by the anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases (GHG), some reduction of emissions 4 Author

Kammen, Daniel M.

79

GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) Model  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdfCostAnalysisTweet us! | DepartmentColoring Book |Greenhouse

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

Not Available

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

E-Print Network 3.0 - avoid ghg emissions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol in Vietnam Loan T. Lea, Summary: . The Thailand case considered GHG emission credits assigned for the production process...

83

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev, and environmental effects. In turn, the greenhouse gas and atmospheric aerosol assumptions underlying climate://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O

84

Prospects of and requirements for nuclear power as a contributor toward managing greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The world`s population, energy demand, and rate of carbon emissions are increasing, but the rates of increase are uncertain. Even modest growth rates present significant challenges to existing and developing technologies for reducing carbon and greenhouse gas emissions while meeting growing energy demands. Nuclear power is currently the most developed alternative to fossil fuel combustion and is one of the options for meeting these challenges. However, there remain significant technical, economic and institutional barriers inhibiting growth of nuclear capacity in the U.S. and slowing implementation worldwide. In the near-term, the major barriers to nuclear power, especially in the U.S., appear to be economic and institutional, with the risks such as safety, waste management and proliferation having reasonably acceptable limits considering the current installed capacity. Future growth of nuclear power, however, may well hinge on continuous evolutionary and perhaps revolutionary reduction of these risks such that the overall risk of nuclear power, aggregated over the entire installed capacity, remains at or below today`s risks.

Hassberger, J.A., Schock, R.N.; Isaacs, T.H.

1997-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

85

Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Evaluacin de la generacin de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment of greenhouse gases emissions associated to colombian biofuels lifecycle.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth (2012) Evaluacin de la generacin de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment (more)

Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric gases in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

113 CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric of the surface known as the greenhouse effect. As we will see, trapping of terrestrial radiation by naturally accumulated in the atmosphere over the past decades and added to the greenhouse effect (Figure 7-1). Figure 7

Jacob, Daniel J.

89

Chapter 22 Greenhouse Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStanding FriedelIron-Sulfur3-1 November 2012 Words2-11-1

90

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

OSullivan, Francis Martin

91

Impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on agricultural land  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are widely acknowledged to be responsible for much of the global warming in the past century. A number of approaches have been proposed to mitigate GHG emissions. Since the burning of ...

Wang, Xiaodong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: GHG savings are in the order of 6001000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated. Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used eventually after upgrading for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 6001000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

Cascarosa, Esther [Thermochemical Processes Group, Aragn Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Boldrin, Alessio, E-mail: aleb@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Astrup, Thomas [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

Greenhouse Gas Concerns and Power Sector Planning (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Concerns about potential climate change driven by rising atmospheric concentrations of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) have grown over the past two decades, both domestically and abroad. In the United States, potential policies to limit or reduce GHG emissions are in various stages of development at the state, regional, and federal levels. In addition to ongoing uncertainty with respect to future growth in energy demand and the costs of fuel, labor, and new plant construction, U.S. electric power companies must consider the effects of potential policy changes to limit or reduce GHG emissions that would significantly alter their planning and operating decisions. The possibility of such changes may already be affecting planning decisions for new generating capacity.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

A game of climate chicken : can EPA regulate greenhouse gases before the U.S. Senate ratifies the Kyoto Protocol?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EPA's legal authority to regulate greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act is reviewed. While EPA clearly does not have the authority to implement the precise terms of the Kyoto Protocol, arguments could be put ...

Bugnion, Vronique.; Reiner, David M.

95

Final report on activities and findings under DOE grant Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

Prather, Michael J. [UCI

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

96

aerosol precursor gases: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sunlight 11 GREENHOUSE GASES GREENHOUSE GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of...

97

ENVIRON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN ROMANIA--ESTROM PROJECT Sources and emission of greenhouse gases in Danube  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gases in Danube Delta lakes Alina Pavel & Edith Durisch-Kaiser & Sorin Balan & Silviu Radan & Sebastian. Radan GeoEcoMar, National Institute for Marine Geology and Geoecology, 024053 Bucharest, Romania E

Wehrli, Bernhard

98

An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: Sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from three global networks and builds on ...

Stohl, A.

99

Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and manage their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Federal Guidance Read the White House Council on Environmental Quality's...

100

Analysis of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Tax Proposals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The U.S. Congress is considering a set of bills designed to limit the nations greenhouse gas (GHG)

Metcalf, Gilbert E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

national standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). The standards would apply to model year 2012 - 2016 passenger cars and light...

102

Survey Employees to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Commuting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For evaluating a greenhouse gas (GHG) profile for employee commuting, data on behavior and attitudes are best collected through an agency-wide survey.

103

GHG Considerations in Integrated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power System Symposium 2012 Portland General Electric. All rights reserved. June 4, 2013 GHG federal, economy-wide legislation by 2020. o Prior to 2020, assumes CO2 emissions abatement due to effects CO2 compliance 3 y p cost and coal and gas commodity prices. o Based on middle ground federal

104

GHG | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URIFrontier,Jump to:Wilmette, Jump to:SOURCEGHD IncGHG

105

Current Activities of the GHG Scientific Advisory Group Ed Dlugokencky  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Motivation High GWP gases Valuable in emissions trading Network of measurements likely to expand. This may be important as our observations are used to verify emission inventories under GHG emissions trading schemes. We also prepare documents that can be used by developing countries to assess

106

Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator Worksheet, Version 1  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Xcel document describes Version 1 of the the Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator tool. This tool assists federal agencies in estimating the greenhouse gas mitigation reduction from implementing energy efficiency measures across a portfolio of buildings. It is designed to be applied to groups of office buildings, for example, at a program level (regional or site) that can be summarized at the agency level. While the default savings and cost estimates apply to office buildings, users can define their own efficiency measures, costs, and savings estimates for inclusion in the portfolio assessment. More information on user-defined measures can be found in Step 2 of the buildings emission reduction guidance. The output of this tool is a prioritized set of activities that can help the agency to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets most cost-effectively.

107

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Business Travel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Business travel is among the largest sources of Scope 3 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions accounted for by Federal agencies. For some agencies, business travel can represent up to 60% of Scope 3...

108

The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks #12;Three Pillars Behind Climate Change! #12;1. Global. Greenhouse Gases have been on the increase. #12;3. The Greenhouse effect is a powerful theory that explains! natural greenhouse effect! · an empirical introduction #12;Moral of the story: The doubling of CO2 causes

109

The RCP Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and their Extensions from 1765 to 2300  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the greenhouse gas concentrations for the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and their extensions beyond 2100, the Extended Concentration Pathways (ECPs). These projections include all major anthropogenic greenhouse gases and are a result of a multi-year effort to produce new scenarios for climate change research. We first compiled a suite of observations and emissions estimates for greenhouse gases (GHGs) through the historical period (1750-2005). For the 21st century, we start from emissions projected by four different Integrated Assessment Models for 2005-2100. We harmonize these emissions to allow inter-comparability of scenarios and to achieve a smooth transition from historical data. These harmonized emissions are then used to derive future GHG concentrations. We also present the GHG concentrations for one supplementary extension, which illustrates the emissions implications of attempting to go back to ECP4.5 concentration levels after emissions in the 21st century followed RCP6. Corresponding radiative forcing values are also presented for the RCP and ECPs.

Meinshausen, Malte; Smith, Steven J.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Daniel, John S.; Kainuma, M.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Matsumoto, Ken ichi; Montzka, S.; Raper, S.; Riahi, Keywan; Thomson, Allison M.; Velders, G.J.M; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

111

Vehicle Investment and Operating Costs and Savings for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To help estimate costs of implementing greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies for vehicles, the table below provides the initial investment, operating costs, and operating savings for each strategy.

112

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

113

Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management processes for municipalities - A comparative review focusing on Africa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted due to waste management in the cities of developing countries is predicted to rise considerably in the near future; however, these countries have a series of problems in accounting and reporting these gases. Some of these problems are related to the status quo of waste management in the developing world and some to the lack of a coherent framework for accounting and reporting of greenhouse gases from waste at municipal level. This review summarizes and compares GHG emissions from individual waste management processes which make up a municipal waste management system, with an emphasis on developing countries and, in particular, Africa. It should be seen as a first step towards developing a more holistic GHG accounting model for municipalities. The comparison between these emissions from developed and developing countries at process level, reveals that there is agreement on the magnitude of the emissions expected from each process (generation of waste, collection and transport, disposal and recycling). The highest GHG savings are achieved through recycling, and these savings would be even higher in developing countries which rely on coal for energy production (e.g. South Africa, India and China) and where non-motorized collection and transport is used. The highest emissions are due to the methane released by dumpsites and landfills, and these emissions are predicted to increase significantly, unless more of the methane is captured and either flared or used for energy generation. The clean development mechanism (CDM) projects implemented in the developing world have made some progress in this field; however, African countries lag behind.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

Summary of Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading GHG Analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established new renewable fuel categories and eligibility requirements (EPA 2010). A significant aspect of the National Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program is the requirement that the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a qualifying renewable fuel be less than the life cycle GHG emissions of the 2005 baseline average gasoline or diesel fuel that it replaces. Four levels of reduction are required for the four renewable fuel standards. Table 1 lists these life cycle performance improvement thresholds. Table 1. Life Cycle GHG Thresholds Specified in EISA Fuel Type Percent Reduction from 2005 Baseline Renewable fuel 20% Advanced biofuel 50% Biomass-based diesel 50% Cellulosic biofuel 60% Notably, there is a specialized subset of advanced biofuels that are the cellulosic biofuels. The cellulosic biofuels are incentivized by the Cellulosic Biofuel Producer Tax Credit (26 USC 40) to stimulate market adoption of these fuels. EISA defines a cellulosic biofuel as follows (42 USC 7545(o)(1)(E)): The term cellulosic biofuel means renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, that are at least 60 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. As indicated, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has sole responsibility for conducting the life cycle analysis (LCA) and making the final determination of whether a given fuel qualifies under these biofuel definitions. However, there appears to be a need within the LCA community to discuss and eventually reach consensus on discerning a 5059 % GHG reduction from a ? 60% GHG reduction for policy, market, and technology development. The level of specificity and agreement will require additional development of capabilities and time for the sustainability and analysis community, as illustrated by the rich dialogue and convergence around the energy content and GHG reduction of cellulosic ethanol (an example of these discussions can be found in Wang 2011). GHG analyses of fast pyrolysis technology routes are being developed and will require significant work to reach the levels of development and maturity of cellulosic ethanol models. This summary provides some of the first fast pyrolysis analyses and clarifies some of the reasons for differing results in an effort to begin the convergence on assumptions, discussion of quality of models, and harmonization.

Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Male, Jonathan L.

2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

115

Idaho National Laboratory's FY13 Greenhouse Gas Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. This report details the methods behind quantifying INLs GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only the large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

Kimberly Frerichs

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Reliable Muddle: Transportation Scenarios for the 80% Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goal for 2050 (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation describing transportation scenarios for meeting the 2050 DOE goal of reducing greenhouse gases by 80%.

Melaina, M.; Webster, K.

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

117

Turning greenhouse gases into gold  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

into an acidic solution of pyridine and CO2 and charging it with just 600 millivolts of electricity, the CO2 could be transformed into formic acid, formaldehyde and methanol. Now...

118

Curbing Greenhouse Gases: Agriculture's Role  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Kyoto results in more detail elsewhere in this issue. Emissions trading - Creating a market for emission rights Importantly, the Protocol encourages emissions trading. Emissions are limited by country emissions trading system, much like the trading scheme used in the U.S. acid #12;3 rain program. The total

McCarl, Bruce A.

119

Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor'sshortGeothermalGoGreen Engineering

120

Turning greenhouse gases into gold  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatusButlerTransportation6/14/11 Page 1 of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

ARM - What are Greenhouse Gases?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre the Effects of Global Warming? Outreach Home Outreach Home

122

Chapter Four Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many states and localities are exploring or implementing clean energy policies to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria air pollutant1 emission reductions. Document map Chapter one

unknown authors

123

Idaho National Laboratorys FY09 & FY10 Greenhouse Gas Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2009 and 2010 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. In recent years, concern has grown about the environmental impact of GHGs. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of an inventory of the total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions. INL's GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries, but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated 103,590 and 102,413 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY09 and FY10, respectively. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's FY09 and FY10 GHG inventories: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL's GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions; (2) Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion (facility fuels), waste disposal (including fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill and contracted disposal), mobile combustion (fleet fuels), employee commuting, and business air travel; and (3) Sources with low emissions were wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted), fugitive emissions from refrigerants, and business ground travel (in personal and rental vehicles). This report details the methods behind quantifying INL's GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

Jennifer D. Morton

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system or directly by taxing GHG emissions also generate increased demand for biofuels. They do so by raising

125

Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide ...

Case, Sean Daniel Charles

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

126

Interagency Pilot of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools: Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Tongass National Forest (Tongass) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct a pilot study of three greenhouse gas (GHG) inventorying tools.

Carpenter, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Kandt, A.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Greenhouse Gas Programs, Energy Efficiency, and the Industrial Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The United States has made significant progress in reducing total energy use through energy efficiency improvements over the past decade, yet the United States still ranks as the highest absolute greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter in the world with 23...

Zhou, A.; Tutterow, V.; Harris, J.

128

synergy analysis of collaborative supply chain management in ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gases that create the greenhouse effect, greenhouse gases (GHG). Since these gases are environmentally harmful their impact on the environment must be...

Metin Turkay

2004-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

129

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for emissions from purchased electricity, transport or mobile sources, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and several industrial sectors. References 1.0 1.1...

131

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for emissions from purchased electricity, stationary combustion, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and several industrial sectors. References Retrieved from...

132

2011 & 2012 Queen's University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Activity levels are derived from reports documenting consumption for fuels and energy. These reports · Fugitive emissions from electrical switches, fire suppression equipment, lab chemicals, and refrigerants. Scope 2 includes all indirect emissions from the university's purchased energy, including

Abolmaesumi, Purang

133

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-gTaguspark JumpDetective Jump to: navigation, searchThe GermanThe

134

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport or  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-gTaguspark JumpDetective Jump to: navigation, searchThe GermanTheMobil

135

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop, Inc Place:InnovationFunds-Business GuideRoundtable Jump

136

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop, Inc Place:InnovationFunds-Business GuideRoundtable Jumpand Air

137

Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;Center% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCsTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

140

Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use. Energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examined how the combination of multiple strategies could achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions and petroleum use on the order of 80%. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal was to help inform domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments, with an emphasis on underexplored opportunities. TEF findings reveal three strategies with the potential to displace most transportation-related petroleum use and GHG emissions: 1) Stabilizing energy use in the transportation sector through efficiency and demand-side approaches. 2) Using additional advanced biofuels. 3) Expanding electric drivetrain technologies.

Not Available

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric gases final Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on Climate and Planets http:icp.giss.nasa.gov The Role of the Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect in Summary: gases, and scenario 3 - an atmosphere and greenhouse gases. Use...

142

EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools (Redirected from US EPA GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools) Jump to:...

143

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity-defined as the ratio of total U.S. GHG emissions to economic output-by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Determine Vehicle Usage and Refueling Trends to Minimize Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Once a Federal agency has identified its most important mobile greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources overall, it can work with individual sites to determine vehicle usage and refueling trends. Agencies can compare the results of this analysis to internal standards and requirements to identify GHG mitigation opportunities for assets that are underperforming or underutilized.

145

Assessing the fuel Use and greenhouse gas emissions of future light-duty vehicles in Japan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of great concern in Japan, as well as elsewhere, such as in the U.S. and EU. More than 20% of GHG emissions in Japan come from the transportation sector, and a more than 70% ...

Nishimura, Eriko

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

147

Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Once a Federal agency identifies the various strategic opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for vehicles and mobile equipment, it is necessary to evaluate the associated costs of adopting each strategy.

148

Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for Employee Commuting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, once a Federal agency identifies the employee commute alternatives and supporting strategies that will most effectively reduce trips to the worksite, costs of encouraging adoption of those methods can be estimated.

149

GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from ?290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to ?19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za; Trois, Cristina

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies for Employee Commuting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This section will help agencies to determine the most visible alternatives to single occupancy vehicle (SOV) commuting at the agencies major worksites establish the number of employees that may reasonably switch to non-SOV methods and estimate the resulting impact greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at their worksites. Learn how to: Identify relevant alternatives and supporting strategies Evaluate potential adoption of alternatives Estimate the GHG emission impact

151

Improving UK greenhouse gas emission estimates using tall tower observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse gases in the Earths atmosphere play an important role in regulating surface temperatures. The UK is signatory to international agreements that legally commit the UK to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and ...

Howie, James Edward

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

152

Mexico joins the venture: Joint Implementation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Joint Implementation (JI) and its pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) are envisioned as an economic way of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper draws upon the Mexican experience with AIJ to identify Mexican concerns with AIJ/JI and proposed solutions to these. Three approved Mexican AIJ projects (Ilumex, Scolel Te, and Salicornia) are described in detail. The Ilurnex project promotes the use of compact fluorescent lamps in Mexican homes of the States of Jalisco and Nuevo Leon, to reduce electric demand. Scolel Te is a sustainable forest management project in Chiapas. Salicornia examines the potential for carbon sequestration with a Halophyte-based crop irrigated with saline waters in Sonora. These three projects are reviewed to clarify the issues and concerns that Mexico has with AIJ and JI and propose measures to deal with them. These initial Mexican AIJ projects show that there is a need for creation of standard project evaluation procedures, and criteria and institutions to oversee project design, selection, and implementation. Further JI development will be facilitated by national and international clarification of key issues such as additionality criteria, carbon-credit sharing, and valuation of non-GHG environmental and/or social benefits and impacts for AIJ projects. Mexico is concerned that JI funding could negatively impact official development assistance or that OECD countries will use JI to avoid taking significant GHG mitigation actions in their own countries. The lack of carbon credit trading in the AIJ stage must be removed to provide useful experience on how to share carbon credits. National or international guidelines are needed to ensure that a portion of the carbon credits is allocated to Mexico.

Imaz, M.; Gay, C.; Friedmann, R.; Goldberg, B.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

Price, Lynn

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Registry (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Iowa Department of Natural Resources is required to establish a method for collecting emissions estimates from producers of greenhouse gases. Reporting is mandatory for some entities, and the...

155

Coupling biophysical and micro-economic models to1 assess the effect of mitigation measures on greenhouse2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

which relates farm-28 level GHG emissions to production factors. This resulted in a N2O efflux 20% lower.9 d: INRA, US 1106 INFOSOL, F-45166 Olivet, France.10 *: Corresponding author:11 Institut National greenhouse20 gas (GHG). Because N2O emissions strongly depend on soil type, climate, and crop manage-21 ment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

Plant power : the cost of using biomass for power generation and potential for decreased greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To date, biomass has not been a large source of power generation in the United States, despite the potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits from displacing coal with carbon neutral biomass. In this thesis, the fuel cycle ...

Cuellar, Amanda Dulcinea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Proposals: Application of a Forward-Looking Computable General Equilibrium Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a forward-looking version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and apply it to examine the economic implications of proposals in the U.S. Congress to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) ...

Gurgel, Angelo C.

158

Behavior-Based Transportation Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Under the Clean Development Mechanism Transport-Efficient Development in Nanchang, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a methodology, consistent with the Kyoto Protocol?s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), to quantify the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction benefits of transport efficient development (TED). TED aims to reduce ...

Zegras, P. Christopher

159

Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and non-CO? combustion effects from alternative jet fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The long-term viability and success of a transportation fuel depends on both economic and environmental sustainability. This thesis focuses specifically on assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-CO ...

Stratton, Russell William

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Modeling non-CO? greenhouse gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although emissions of CO? are the largest anthropogenic contributor to the risks of climate change, other substances are important in the formulation of a cost-effective response. To provide improved facilities for addressing ...

Hyman, Robert C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

EPA's Recent Advance Notice on Greenhouse Gases  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

authority for EPA to address air Provides statutory authority for EPA to address air pollution from mobile sources and mobile source fuels pollution from mobile sources...

162

ARM - Danger of Increased Greenhouse Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformationbudapest Comments? We would love toContact Information Related LinksDaily Report

163

Insights from Agricultural GHG Offset studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sequestration MMt arising at an offset price giving $/tonne carbon equiv ·Many contributions ·DifferentInsights from Agricultural GHG Offset studies Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University Presented at EPRI Workshop on Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Alexandria VA

McCarl, Bruce A.

164

Discounts, Fungibility and Agricultural GHG Offset projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

arising at an offset price giving $/tonne carbon equiv ·Assumes offsets are perfect substitutes ·Different of Carbon Equivalents Biofuel Offsets Discount for Saturating Sinks No Sink Discounting #12;PortfolioDiscounts, Fungibility and Agricultural GHG Offset projects Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor

McCarl, Bruce A.

165

Most people now understand the necessity to reduce greenhouse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? Reducing your authority's per capita carbon emissions can require costly planning, engagement, recording in the community to pledge energy-saving actions to help them reach their carbon reduction ambition greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Action by Local Authorities will be criticalinachievingthe

Everest, Graham R

166

ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR REDUCING TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GREENHOUSE GAS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(CO2) emission reduction estimates were obtained for each of the measures. The package of measures the problem of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian transportation sector. Reductions-makers will require estimates of both the potential emission reductions and the costs or benefits associated

167

Proposed Final Opinion on GHG Strategies in the Energy Sectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Proposed Final Opinion on GHG Strategies in the Energy Sectors Key Findings and Recommendations;3 Background and Context Energy Commission and PUC developing recommendations to ARB for reducing GHG emissions multi-sector cap-and-trade program for GHG emissions allowances #12;5 September 2008 Interim Opinion

168

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034014 Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas Mohan Jiang1 , W Michael Griffin2,3 , Chris greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production of Marcellus shale natural gas and compares its emissions

Jaramillo, Paulina

169

Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

171

Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

E-Print Network 3.0 - aircraft exhaust gases Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

gases FAA, 2005. Water in the aircraft exhaust at altitude may have a greenhouse effect... . Aircraft ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques...

173

GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdfCost Savings |Safety,ofOpening Presentation_Tech BarriersGHG

174

China-GHG Monitoring | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuoCatalystPathways Calculator JumpforPFAN) |GIZ-China GHG

175

China-GHG Monitoring | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuoCatalystPathways Calculator JumpforPFAN) |GIZ-China GHG-

176

Sandia National Laboratories: GHG emission reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS Exhibit at Explora MuseumFloatingFront EdgeCellsGENI ARPAe:GHG

177

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Co-benefits...

178

Burgett Geothermal Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Burgett Geothermal Greenhouses Sector Geothermal energy Type Greenhouse Location Cotton City, New Mexico Coordinates Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlem...

179

How are greenhouse gases related to agriculture? Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

levels are causing Earth's average global temperature to rise. Consequently, we experience changes States. How will climate change affect Michigan field crop agriculture? Global warming is likely to bring naturally in the atmosphere and keep the Earth warm, allowing us to survive on Earth. Over the last 200

180

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Greenhouse Gases and  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623PrimarySelectedandForest(NAICSGlobal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Greenhouse gas emissions from contrasting beef production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agriculture has been reported to contribute a significant amount of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere among other anthropogenic activities. With still more than 870 million people in the world suffering from under-nutrition ...

Ricci, Patricia

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

182

Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

Eckaus, Richard S.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ? A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ? These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ? Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from ?145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 -2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 - 2010 Report Highlights John Nyboer and Maximilian Kniewasser Canadian Industrial Energy End-use Data and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC) Simon Fraser for Climate Solutions 1 HIGHLIGHTS The Energy and GHG Emissions in British

Pedersen, Tom

185

The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Transportation Pathways in China://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Paul N. Kishimoto, Sergey Paltsev and Valerie J. Karplus Report No. 231 September 2012 China Energy

186

Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

Yang Na [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen Miao; Shao Liming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); He Pinjing, E-mail: xhpjk@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Derivation of average cost of emission reduction by blending?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend is, ?+ ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect to unblended

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Water Quality Co-effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in US Agriculture Subhrendu K. Pattanayak, Bruce A. McCarl, Allan J. Sommer, Brian C. Murray, Timothy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

greenhouse gas (GHG) emission offset strategies in U.S. agriculture by linking a national level agriculturalWater Quality Co-effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in US Agriculture Subhrendu K. Pattanayak sector model (ASMGHG) to a national level water quality model (NWPCAM). The simulated policy scenario

McCarl, Bruce A.

190

Bioenergy crop greenhouse gas mitigation potential under a range of management practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioenergy crop greenhouse gas mitigation potential under a range of management practices T A R A W been proposed as viable bioenergy crops because of their potential to yield harvest- able biomass-senescence harvests are a more effective means than maximizing yield potential. Keywords: bioenergy, feedstocks, GHG

DeLucia, Evan H.

191

IMproved Assessment of the Greenhouse gas balance of bioeNErgy pathways (IMAGINE)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMproved Assessment of the Greenhouse gas balance of bioeNErgy pathways (IMAGINE) Evaluation - ENERBIO Livrable D4.1 : GHG balances of bioenergy pathways Mars 2012 Nathalie GAGNAIRE, Benoît GABRIELLE sources by bioenergy mostly hinges on the uncertainty on the magnitude of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

192

Catalyst Paper No-Carb Strategy for GHG Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Catalyst Paper strategy to manage GHG exposure is a combination of energy reduction initiatives in manufacturing and the effective use of biomass and alternative fuels to produce mill steam and electricity from the powerhouse. The energy...

McClain, C.; Robinson, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Fact sheet describes the federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources.

194

Estimating the potential of greenhouse gas mitigation in Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the studies related to the obligations of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Republic of Kazakhstan started activities to inventory greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and assess of GHG mitigation options, The objective of this paper is to present an estimate of the possibility of mitigating GHG emissions and determine the mitigation priorities. It presents a compilation of the possible options and their assessment in terms of major criteria and implementation feasibility. Taking into account the structure of GHG emissions in Kazakhstan in 1990, preliminary estimates of the potential for mitigation are presented for eight options for the energy sector and agriculture and forestry sector. The reference scenario prepared by expert assessments assumes a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in 1996-1998 by about 26% from the 1990 level due to general economic decline, but then emissions increase. It is estimated that the total potential for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions for the year 2000 is 3% of the CO{sub 2} emissions in the reference scenario. The annual reduction in methane emissions due to the estimated options can amount to 5%-6% of the 1990 level. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Monacrovich, E.; Pilifosova, O.; Danchuck, D. [Kazakh Scientific-Research Hydrometeorlogical Institute, Almaty (Kazakhstan)] [and others

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Field Crops Research 124 (2011) 186194 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

productivity, fossil energy consumption, C, N and P balances, water consumption and greenhouse gases fluxes productivity; ET, evapotranspiration; FEC, fos- sil energy consumption; GHG, greenhouse gases; HI, habitat, phosphorus balance; PC, pesticide contamination; PCA, principal components anal- ysis; PET, potential

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

196

Overview of Avista GHG Modeling NPCC Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Conference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural Gas CO2 Emissions A Bridge to a Low Carbon Future, or the Future? 815 1,190 lbs/MWh Gas CCCT has ~35% of coal emissions on a per-MWh basis Gas CT has ~50% of coal emissions on a per-MWh basis 119 119 210 CCCT CT Colstrip 3/4 #12;6/5/2013 2 Avista CO2 Emissions Forecast Rising emissions overall

197

Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

US EPAs Final Rule on Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases (EPA, 2009), several GHG reporting thresholds on the national level

Stadler, Michael

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong in the U.S. causes a net increase in GHG emissions on a global scale. We couple a global agricultural production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane

Zhou, Yaoqi

200

Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost Elizabeth Traut a,n , Chris Hendrickson b,1 , Erica and dedicated workplace charging infrastructure in the fleet for minimum life cycle cost or GHG emissions over vehicle and battery costs are the major drivers for PHEVs and BEVs to enter and dominate the cost

Michalek, Jeremy J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow April 1, 2009 - 11:35am Addthis The growth of...

203

What GHG Concentration Targets are Reachable in this Century?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We offer simulations that help to understand the relationship between GHG emissions and concentrations, and the relative role of long-lived (e.g., CO2) and short-lived (e.g., CH4) emissions. We show that, absent technologies ...

Paltsev, Sergey

2013-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

204

Modeling & learning from the design recommendations for California's Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate Change has become a Major issue beginning with our generation. Governments the world over are now recognizing that industry cannot continue to pollute in a business-as-usual manner. Emitting Greenhouse gases has a ...

Fernandes, Chester, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Agro-biofuels are expected to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases because CO2 emitted during the combustion of the biofuels has recently been taken from the (more)

Ambus, Per

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Estimating the benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction from agricultural policy reform  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Land use and agricultural activities contribute directly to the increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Economic support in industrialized countries generally increases agriculture's contribution to global greenhouse gas concentrations through fluxes associated with land use change and other sources. Changes in economic support offers opportunities to reduce net emissions, through this so far has gone unaccounted. Estimates are presented here of emissions of methane from livestock in the UK and show that, in monetary terms, when compared to the costs of reducing support, greenhouse gases are a significant factor. As signatory parties to the Climate Change Convection are required to stabilize emissions of all greenhouse gases, options for reduction of emissions of methane and other trace gases from the agricultural sector should form part of these strategies.

Adger, W.N. (Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment); Moran, D.C. (Univ. College, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

Montes-Hernandez, German

211

Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes

Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar PowerstoriesNrelPartnerTypePonsa, Mallorca: EnergySecondary EnergyGHG Emission

213

IGES GHG Calculator For Solid Waste | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:GreerHiCalifornia: EnergytheInformationRoadmaps JumpToolIGES GHG

214

Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industrial Revolution from fossil fuels, which are the mainprojections are that fossil fuels will remain the dominantdisadvantage relative to fossil fuels which provide over 80%

Oldenburg, C.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Modeling shows that alternative soil management can decrease greenhouse gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

counties in 2000; and Kings County in 2003. Daily climatecarried out in two counties Kings and Fresno, totaling

De Gryze, Steven; Albarracin, Maria Victoria; Catala-Luque, Rosa; Howitt, Richard E; Six, Johan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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217

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Contact  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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218

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Getting Started  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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219

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What's New  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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220

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Why Report  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Reporting Guidelines  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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222

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Under Construction  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs U.S.Wyoming Electricity ProfileUnder Construction

223

PPPL Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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224

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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225

Where Greenhouse Gases Come From | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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226

Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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227

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Electricity Factors  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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228

EPA's Recent Advance Notice on Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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229

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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230

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data03. U.S. EIA Conference52.5.

231

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop, Inc Place:InnovationFunds-Business GuideRoundtable JumpandModel

232

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublicIDAPowerPlantSitingConstruction.pdfNotify98.pdf Jump to:Siting.pdf Jump to:Notice ofWillamettebyFuel Economy

233

Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany: Energy Resources JumpEnergy Information Cover

234

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany: Energy ResourcesNews Home > BlogsPurchasing(GREET) Model

235

Argonne researchers create more accurate model for greenhouse gases from  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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236

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On-Road Mobile Sources Project for the Houston-Galveston Area Council  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On reductions in GHG, and b) use analytical tools/methods to assess the emissions reductions possible through and prioritized based on factors such as cost effectiveness, potential for emission reductions, and applicability

237

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

1986-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

238

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

Kulprathipanja, S.

1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

240

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and to provide energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor method) were also examined and reported. According to the utility factor method, the share of vehicle miles trav

Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

243

Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 -2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

supply and use, greenhouse gas emissions and energy efficiency in British Columbia Canadian Industrial Energy End-use Data and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC) Simon Fraser University June 2012 Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers

Pedersen, Tom

244

UNFCCC Individual Reviews of GHG Inventories | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,Save Energy Now Jump to:Development Reports JumpUNF Energyof GHG

245

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science, and technology for theAdvancedGHG Information

246

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Information -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science, and technology for theAdvancedGHG

247

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Electric Power: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science, andPlansResources andPlansGHG

248

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links - TechnicalGHG Information This section

249

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links - TechnicalGHG Information This section-

250

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links - TechnicalGHGGHGResultsGHG Information

251

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: GHG Inventory  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links - TechnicalGHGGHGResultsGHG

252

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Minerals: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links -Results At this time, given theGHG

253

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links -Results AtTechnicalGHG Information

254

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: GHG Inventory  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links -Results AtTechnicalGHG

255

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links -ResultsLinks - EnergyLinks -ResultsGHG

256

Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aims of the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO[sub 2] and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs).

Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

1992-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

The effects of interactions between federal and state climate policies : implications for federal climate policy design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the absence of a federal policy to cap greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions many states are moving forward with their own initiatives, which currently range from announcements of commitments to reduce greenhouse gases to a ...

McGuinness, Meghan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

259

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

National Lab Directors, . .

2001-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

260

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What are Greenhouse  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

gas (GHG) perspective? *How do those results compare with natural gas sourced from Russia and delivered to the same European and Asian markets via pipeline? Life Cycle GHG...

262

Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. For biodiesel from European rapeseed and for biodiesel from Brazilian

263

Insights from Agricultural and Forestry GHG Offset Bruce A. McCarl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Insights from Agricultural and Forestry GHG Offset Studies Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor EPA but with contributions from USDA and DOE. Presented at the EPRI Workshop on Terrestrial Carbon Agricultural and Forestry GHG Offset Studies that Might Influence IAM Modeling," that will appear in the book

McCarl, Bruce A.

264

Comparing greenhouse gasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Controlling multiple substances that jointly contribute to climate warming requires some method to compare the effects of the different gases because the physical properties (radiative effects, and persistence in the ...

Reilly, John M.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Mayer, Monika.

265

Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels and access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver on-spec biomass feedstocks at preprocessing depots, which densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The harvesting, preprocessing, and logistics (HPL) of biomass commodity supply chains thus could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn stover logisticsHPL within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the HPL gate-to-gate sequence. The results show that the transport of densified biomass introduces the highest variability and contribution to the carbon footprint of the logistics HPL supply chain (0.2-13 g CO2e/MJ). Moreover, depending upon the biomass availability and its spatial density and surrounding transportation infrastructure (road and rail), logistics HPL processes can increase the variability in life cycle environmental impacts for lignocellulosic biofuels. Within Kansas, life cycle GHG emissions could range from 24 to 41 g CO2e/MJ depending upon the location, size and number of preprocessing depots constructed. However, this range can be minimized through optimizing the siting of preprocessing depots where ample rail infrastructure exists to supply biomass commodity to a regional biorefinery supply system

Kara G. Cafferty; Erin M. Searcy; Long Nguyen; Sabrina Spatari

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Idaho National Laboratorys Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL's GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions; (2) Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion (facility fuels), waste disposal (including fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill and contracted disposal), mobile combustion (fleet fuels), employee commuting, and business air travel; and (3) Sources with low emissions were wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted), fugitive emissions from refrigerants, and business ground travel (in personal and rental vehicles). This report details the methods behind quantifying INL's GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

Jennifer D. Morton

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Using Coupled Harmonic Oscillators to Model Some Greenhouse Gas Molecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Common greenhouse gas molecules SF{sub 6}, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} are modeled as harmonic oscillators whose potential and kinetic energies are derived. Using the Euler-Lagrange equation, their equations of motion are derived and their phase portraits are plotted. The authors use these data to attempt to explain the lifespan of these gases in the atmosphere.

Go, Clark Kendrick C.; Maquiling, Joel T. [Department of Physics, Ateneo de Manila University, Katipunan Avenue, Quezon City (Philippines)

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

268

Simple model of photo acoustic system for greenhouse effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The simple theoretical basis for photo acoustic (PA) system for studying infrared absorption properties of greenhouse gases is constructed. The amplitude of sound observed in PA depends on the modulation frequency of light pulse. Its dependence can be explained by our simple model. According to this model, sound signal has higher harmonics. The theory and experiment are compared in third and fifth harmonics by spectrum analysis. The theory has the analogy with electric circuits. This analogy helps students for understanding the PA system.

Fukuhara, Akiko; Ogawa, Naohisa

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Strongly interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision ...

Bakr, W.

270

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Greenhouse Effect #12;Temperature Equilibrium The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun temperature is about 14C, or 287K. The 40K difference is due to the greenhouse effect. Essentially all

Walter, Frederick M.

273

Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter about it.But nobody does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we

Schwartz, Stephen E.

275

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz September 22, 2004 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something

Schwartz, Stephen E.

276

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

Johnson, Robert E.

277

2, 289337, 2002 Greenhouse effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 2, 289­337, 2002 Greenhouse effect and climate stability V. G. Gorshkov and A. M. Makarieva water vapour concentration, dependence of the planetary greenhouse effect on atmospheric water content to dynamic singularities in the physical temperature-dependent behaviour of the greenhouse effect. We

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

Heath, G.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Development and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG Impact Evaluation 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

280

Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse GasAbatement Potential for California in 2020  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this scoping project is to help the California Energy Commission's (CEC) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program determine where it should make investments in research to support combined heat and power (CHP) deployment. Specifically, this project will: {sm_bullet} Determine what impact CHP might have in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, {sm_bullet} Determine which CHP strategies might encourage the most attractive early adoption, {sm_bullet} Identify the regulatory and technological barriers to the most attractive CHP strategies, and {sm_bullet} Make recommendations to the PIER program as to research that is needed to support the most attractive CHP strategies.

Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare,Kristina

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Assess Site Factors That Affect Employee Commuting Options for Greenhouse Gas Profile  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

After establishing an employee commuting behavior baseline for evaluating a greenhouse gas (GHG) profile, analyze the specific characteristics of the agency's major worksites to help determine which alternative commute methods and work arrangements are viable and what types of strategies may be most effective for promoting those alternatives. It is recommended that worksite-level data collection focus on worksites with the: Largest number of employees, or clusters of worksites with large employee populations in an area with diverse commuting infrastructure options (e.g., Washington, DC, metropolitan area) Greatest proportion of total commute emissions Highest commuting emissions per person than agency average.

282

An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

Townsend, Aaron K., E-mail: aarontownsend@utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Webber, Michael E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions also influences air quality. We simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation in the RCP4.5 scenario avoids 0.50.2, 1.30.6, and 2.21.6 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100, from changes in fine particulate matter and ozone. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $40-400 (ton CO2)-1, exceeding marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-80 times the marginal cost in 2030. These results indicate that transitioning to a low-carbon future might be justified by air quality and health co-benefits.

West, Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zacariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan C.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Post Doctoral Research Fellowship Simulating the greenhouse gas emission from boreal region reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of greenhouse gases from northern boreal reservoirs as part of a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research modified the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model to simulate the exchange of CO2 between boreal by the creation of reservoirs for the production of hydro-electricity. We have recently developed a water column

286

SMARTTool Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report Reporting Entity: University of Northern British Columbia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reporting Year: Calendar Year 2010 Greenhouse Gases in Tonnes Measure Quantity CO2 CH4 N2O tCO2e1 Scope 1.30 Emissions from Biomass Total Biomass Emissions 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.83 Total Emissions, Calendar Year 2010 5

Northern British Columbia, University of

287

Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

288

Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to GHG/kWh of the USA electricity supply chain are coalGHG/kWh of electricity example based on USA. Distributionnuclear (USA) are different because of the electricity mix

Reich-Weiser, Corinne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.] [eds.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Resources on Greenhouse Gas | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

resources for reporting annual greenhouse gas activities. FedCenter Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reporting Website: Features additional information, training, and tools to assist...

291

Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Federal Agency Progress Toward Reduction Targets Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Government Totals FY 2011 Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Government Totals FY 2010...

292

Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 1: Part 1, Electricity supply sector; Part 2, Residential and commercial buildings sector; Part 3, Industrial sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE encourages you to report your achievements in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering carbon under this program. Global climate change is increasingly being recognized as a threat that individuals and organizations can take action against. If you are among those taking action, reporting your projects may lead to recognition for you, motivation for others, and synergistic learning for the global community. This report discusses the reporting process for the voluntary detailed guidance in the sectoral supporting documents for electricity supply, residential and commercial buildings, industry, transportation, forestry, and agriculture. You may have reportable projects in several sectors; you may report them separately or capture and report the total effects on an entity-wide report.

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Energy efficiency and the cost of GHG abatement: A comparison of bottom-up and hybrid models for the US  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy efficiency and the cost of GHG abatement: A comparison of bottom-up and hybrid models marginal cost, as well as a smaller contribution from energy efficiency relative to other abatement of energy efficiency potential and green- house gas (GHG) abatement potential that have been highly

294

The Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty LtdSteen,Ltd Jump Jump to:Information 'GrandUncertainty of GHG Emissions

295

(Limiting the greenhouse effect)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

Rayner, S.

1991-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

296

The Greatest Generation : a new retail store model for delivering energy efficiency in Massachusetts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG) and reduced energy consumption in the United States has proven to be a great challenge in the face of climate change. While technological innovation and renewable energy continue ...

Hutchinson, Elijah Moses

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Greenhouse Gas Return on Investment: A New Metric for Energy Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to GHG/kWh of the USA electricity supply chain are coalTurbine Nuclear (USA) Coal 3.3 Electricity Marginal GHG/kWhNet GHG/kWh of Electricity example based on USA. Figure 2:

Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David; Horne, Steve

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Project Information Form Project Title Managing Roadway Systems to Reduce GHG Emissions and Improve  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or organization) $25,217 Total Project Cost $25,217 Agency ID or Contract Number DTRT13-G-UTC29 Start and EndProject Information Form Project Title Managing Roadway Systems to Reduce GHG Emissions and Improve Dates 4/1/14 ­ 3/30/15 Brief Description of Research Project There have been a variety of traffic

California at Davis, University of

299

Project Information Form Project Title Urban Spatial Structure and GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project Information Form Project Title Urban Spatial Structure and GHG Emissions University UC@sppd.usc.edu Funding Source(s) and Amounts Provided (by each agency or organization) $75,000 Cal Trans Total Project Cost $75,000 Agency ID or Contract Number DTRT13-G-UTC29 Start and End Dates June 30, 2014 to August 14

California at Davis, University of

300

Project Information Form Project Title Urban Spatial Structure and GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Source(s) and Amounts Provided (by each agency or organization) Caltrans $79,375 Total Project Cost $79Project Information Form Project Title Urban Spatial Structure and GHG Emissions University USC Brief Description of Research Project The evidence on land use and travel shows that employment access

California at Davis, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

ASSESSING GHG EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ROUTES THE METHOD BEHIND GESTABOUES TOOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.pradel@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 2007, 1 100 000 tons of sewage sludge were produced in France. This figure is constantly increasing and sludges have to be eliminated. Four disposal routes are currently possible: landASSESSING GHG EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ROUTES ­ THE METHOD BEHIND GESTABOUES

Boyer, Edmond

302

Scientific perspectives on MRV: approaches, techniques, and requirements of quantifying GHG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scientific perspectives on MRV: approaches, techniques, and requirements of quantifying GHG-up inventories - measure changes in stocks or flows of carbon, extrapolate to all ecosystems. ~Bottom-up TBMs to Bedrich Benes, Jason Lambert, Yuyu Zhou #12;INFLUX Background CO2, CH4 WindWind Urban CO2, CH4 Thanks

303

EVOLUTION OF THE HOUSEHOLD VEHICLE FLEET: ANTICIPATING FLEET COMPOSITION, PHEV ADOPTION AND GHG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVOLUTION OF THE HOUSEHOLD VEHICLE FLEET: ANTICIPATING FLEET COMPOSITION, PHEV ADOPTION AND GHG evolution, vehicle ownership, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), climate change policy, stated preference, opinion survey, microsimulation ABSTRACT In todays world of volatile fuel prices and climate

Kockelman, Kara M.

304

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Zevenhoven, Ron

305

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Laughlin, Robert B.

306

Ahimsa Media -For Educators -The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect: Extension Activity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ahimsa Media - For Educators - The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect: Extension Activity. Clean up and restore a natural habitat. http://www.ahimsamedia.com/lessonGreenhouseEffect.htm (1 of 5

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

307

Suitability of the 3D radiosonde temperature field for climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperatures on standard levels anomalised relative to the 1971-90 mean. The versions used here are 2.1, which) retrievals as a reference, and 2.1s which has corrections applied in the stratosphere only. This provides us, Stratospheric Ozone GS Greenhouse gases, Sulphate aerosols GHG Greenhouse gases SOL Solar forcing (Hoyt

Feigon, Brooke

308

Microsoft PowerPoint - FNC NEPA GHG Climate Slides -- 16Jan2015...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

REVISED DRAFT GUIDANCE ON CONSIDERATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT REVIEWS HORST G GRECZMIEL ASSOCIATE...

309

Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the worlds roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the worlds roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the worlds roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper by Gerlich and Tscheuschner [arXiv:0707.1161] critically analyzed. Gerlich and Tscheuschner called for this discussion in their paper.

Ebel, Jochen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Article Correction to Carbon sequestration and greenhouseCor- rection to Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas1 ] In the paper Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

The Runaway Greenhouse: implications for future climate change, geoengineering and planetary atmospheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ultimate climate emergency is a "runaway greenhouse": a hot and water vapour rich atmosphere limits the emission of thermal radiation to space, causing runaway warming. Warming ceases only once the surface reaches ~1400K and emits radiation in the near-infrared, where water is not a good greenhouse gas. This would evaporate the entire ocean and exterminate all planetary life. Venus experienced a runaway greenhouse in the past, and we expect that Earth will in around 2 billion years as solar luminosity increases. But could we bring on such a catastrophe prematurely, by our current climate-altering activities? Here we review what is known about the runaway greenhouse to answer this question, describing the various limits on outgoing radiation and how climate will evolve between these. The good news is that almost all lines of evidence lead us to believe that is unlikely to be possible, even in principle, to trigger full a runaway greenhouse by addition of non-condensible greenhouse gases such as carbon diox...

Goldblatt, Colin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Guidance Document CompressedGases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electricity. Oxygen by itself does not burn, but it will support or accelerate combustion of flammable the regulator is completely closed. 3. When possible use flammable and reactive gases in a fume hood. Certain

314

Degenerate quantum gases of strontium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Degenerate quantum gases of alkaline-earth-like elements open new opportunities in research areas ranging from molecular physics to the study of strongly correlated systems. These experiments exploit the rich electronic structure of these elements, which is markedly different from the one of other species for which quantum degeneracy has been attained. Specifically, alkaline-earth-like atoms, such as strontium, feature metastable triplet states, narrow intercombination lines, and a non-magnetic, closed-shell ground state. This review covers the creation of quantum degenerate gases of strontium and the first experiments performed with this new system. It focuses on laser-cooling and evaporation schemes, which enable the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of all strontium isotopes, and shows how they are used for the investigation of optical Feshbach resonances, the study of degenerate gases loaded into an optical lattice, as well as the coherent creation of Sr_2 molecules.

Stellmer, Simon; Killian, Thomas C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect Second edition Rattan Lal & Ronald F. Follett. Printed in the United States of America. #12;181 Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect, 2nd

Archer, Steven R.

316

Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program provides performance data illustrating federal agency progress in meeting the greenhouse gas reduction targets established under Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, as well as the comprehensive greenhouse gas inventories as reported by federal agencies.

317

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

climate change/stern_re- view_report.cfm. (2006). RGGI.Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI): An Initia tive of theGreenhouse Gas Initia tive (RGGI). Currently, Connecticut,

Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act requires the Department of the Environment to publish and update an inventory of statewide greenhouse gas emissions for calendar year 2006 and requires...

319

LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of Parabolic Trough CSP: Materials Inventory and Embodied GHG Emissions from Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline Thermal Storage (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.; Decker, T.; Kutscher, C.

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

320

Greenhouse Gas Program Overview (Revised) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Greenhouse Gas program, including Federal requirements, FEMP services, and contacts.

Not Available

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Danish Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scenarios for 2020  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Protection Agency, Danish Energy Authority and Danish Ministry of Finance. The consultancy reportDanish Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scenarios for 2020 and 2050 February 2008 Prepared by Ea Energy 54 2.9 ENERGY RESOURCES 55 3 DANISH GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION 58 3.1 GREENHOUSE GAS SOURCES 58 4

322

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz Science Honor Society Center Moriches High School Center about how this drug affects brain chemistry. #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;Everybody talks about about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something about it. What

Schwartz, Stephen E.

323

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz Atmospheric Sciences Division CSSP Lecture July 27, 2005 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something about it. What are we doing

Schwartz, Stephen E.

324

RESEARCH ROADMAP FOR GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH ROADMAP FOR GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY METHODS Prepared For: California Energy Commission Consulting · Riitta Pipatti, IPCC Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories · Dennis Rolston Agency · Fabian Wagner, IPCC Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories · Wilfried Winiwarter

325

Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions, it is clear that the energy usage will be subject to corresponding policies. Many have pointed of greenhouse gases (GHG) through net emissions reduction is needed to mitigate climate change. Energy estimated to account for 7.2 percent of all US GHG emissions, while total net sequestration from land

McCarl, Bruce A.

326

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Measurement and Estimation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

from purchased electricity, stationary combustion, mobile combustion, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and several industrial sectors. References 1.0 1.1 "GHG...

327

Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change. Progress report, 1 December 1991--30 June 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aims of the US Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs).

Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

1992-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New technologies will be a critical component--perhaps the critical component--of our efforts to tackle the related challenges of energy security, climate change, and air pollution, all the while maintaining a strong economy. But just developing new technologies is not enough. Our ability to accelerate the market penetration of clean energy, enabling, and other climate-related technologies will have a determining impact on our ability to slow, stop, and reverse the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Title XVI, Subtitle A, of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directs the Administration to report on its strategy to promote the commercialization and deployment (C&D) of GHG intensity-reducing technologies and practices. The Act also requests the Administration to prepare an inventory of climate-friendly technologies suitable for deployment and to identify the barriers and commercial risks facing advanced technologies. Because these issues are related, they are integrated here within a single report that we, representing the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), are pleased to provide the President, the Congress, and the public. Over the past eight years, the Administration of President George W. Bush has pursued a series of policies and measures aimed at encouraging the development and deployment of advanced technologies to reduce GHG emissions. This report highlights these policies and measures, discusses the barriers to each, and integrates them within a larger body of other extant policy. Taken together, more than 300 policies and measures described in this document may be viewed in conjunction with the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program's (CCTP's) Strategic Plan, published in September 2006, which focuses primarily on the role of advanced technology and associated research and development (R&D) for mitigating GHG emissions. The CCTP, a multi-agency technology planning and coordination program, initiated by President Bush, and subsequently authorized in EPAct2005, is responsible for preparing this report on behalf CCCSTI. This report systematically examines the market readiness of key technologies important to meeting climate change mitigation goals. It assesses the barriers and business risks impeding their progress and greater market application. Importantly, by documenting the hundreds of Federal policies, programs, regulations, incentives, and other activities that are in effect and operating today to address these barriers, it provides a broad context for evaluating the adequacy of current policy and the potential need, if any, for additional measures that might be undertaken by government or industry. Finally, it draws conclusions about the current situation, identifies gaps and opportunities, and suggests analytical principles that should be applied to assess and formulate policies and measures to accelerate the commercialization and deployment of these technologies.

Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

Anderson, Diana

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

330

INEEL Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Trend Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the INEEL GHG Inventory and Trend Analysis is to establish INEEL expertise in carbon management decision making and policy analysis. This FY-99 effort is the first step toward placing the INEEL in a leadership role within the DOE laboratories to support carbon management systems and analysis.

Shropshire, David Earl; Teel, Dale Milton

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gasemissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2000, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a new set of baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). The SRES team defined four narrative storylines (A1, A2, B1 and B2) describing the relationships between the forces driving GHG and aerosol emissions and their evolution during the 21st century. The SRES reports emissions for each of these storylines by type of GHG and by fuel type to 2100 globally and for four world regions (OECD countries as of 1990, countries undergoing economic reform, developing countries in Asia, rest of world). Specific assumptions about the quantification of scenario drivers, such as population and economic growth, technological change, resource availability, land-use changes, and local and regional environmental policies, are also provided. End-use sector-level results for buildings, industry, or transportation or information regarding adoption of particular technologies and policies are not provided in the SRES. The goal of this report is to provide more detailed information on the SRES scenarios at the end use level including historical time series data and a decomposition of energy consumption to understand the forecast implications in terms of end use efficiency to 2030. This report focuses on the A1 (A1B) and B2 marker scenarios since they represent distinctly contrasting futures. The A1 storyline describes a future of very rapid economic growth, low population growth, and the rapid introduction of new and more efficient technologies. Major underlying themes are convergence among regions, capacity building, and increased cultural and social interactions, with a substantial reduction in regional differences in per capita income. The B2 storyline describes a world with an emphasis on economic, social, and environmental sustainability, especially at the local and regional levels. It is a world with moderate population growth, intermediate levels of economic development, and less rapid and more diverse technological change (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). Data were obtained from the SRES modeling teams that provide more detail than that reported in the SRES. For the A1 marker scenario, the modeling team provided final energy demand and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by fuel for industry, buildings, and transportation for nine world regions. Final energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions for three sectors (industry, transport, buildings) for the four SRES world regions were provided for the B2 marker scenario. This report describes the results of a disaggregation of the SRES projected energy use and energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions for the industrial, transport, and buildings sectors for 10 world regions (see Appendix 1) to 2030. An example of further disaggregation of the two SRES scenarios for the residential buildings sector in China is provided, illustrating how such aggregate scenarios can be interpreted at the end use level.

Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

2006-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

332

Wind LCA Harmonization (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that provides more exact estimates of GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty. This involved a systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems in order to determine the causes of life cycle greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG estimates.

Not Available

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The followingDirectLow CarbonOpen Energy Information EPA-GHG

334

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

Not Available

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.] [eds.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz Atmospheric Sciences Division CSSP Lecture July 30, 2002 . . . IS TO PUT TWO PEOPLE IN IT! #12;YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 CO2 of carbon a year in the form of carbon dioxide. #12;YOUR CONTRIBUTION TO THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT At half

Schwartz, Stephen E.

337

Industrial Gases as a Vehicle for Competitiveness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the diversity and options available to enable cost savings and environmentally driven process improvements. Industrial gases have come of age during the last fifteen years. Engineers and scientists have looked beyond the paradigms of their operations...INDUSTRIAL GASES AS A VEHICLE FOR COMPETITIVENESS James R. Dale, Director, Technology Programs, Airco Industrial Gases Division, The BOC Group, Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey ABSTRACT Industrial gases are produced using compressed air...

Dale, J. R.

338

Greenhouse Gas Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect." This process keeps the planet habitable. International research has linked...

339

Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et al. (2007) Agriculture. Climate Change 2007: Mitigationagricultures future contributions to climate change,agriculture greenhouse gas emissions mitigation carbon price | land use change | climate

Burney, J. A; Davis, S. J; Lobell, D. B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This section sets state goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 10 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 and 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Rethinking Downstream Regulation: California's Opportunity to Engage Households in Reducing Greenhouse Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. , et al. , Rethinking downstream regulation: CaliforniasD. , et al. , Rethinking downstream regulation: Californiaslocate/enpol Rethinking downstream regulation: Californias

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

complex for cases where wood fuels or wood products displaceatmosphere) for the C in wood fuel transferred to the fuelagricultural and pasture land, wood fuel, solid wood, fibre,

Sathaye Ed., Jayant; Makundi Ed., Willy; Goldberg Ed., Beth; Andrasko Ed., Ken; Sanchez Ed., Arturo

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

June 1998 GPS WORLD 33 Global warming and greenhouse gases are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and scope of climate research, scientists must obtain a broad range of measurements. These observations may. This reference frame is commonly called Lagrangian after the inventor, French mathe- matician Joseph Louis is an electric

Businger, Steven

344

Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over1 Asian regions during 20002008: Regional Emission2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-3-9 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0001, Japan}12 [5]{Ocean Policy Research Foundation, 3-4-10 Toranomon Singapore SGP Thailand THA Vietnam VNM Bangladesh OSA BGD Bhutan BTN India/Andhra Pradesh IND ANPR India/Bihar, Jharkhand BIHA India/Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura EHIM India/Gujarat GUJA

Meskhidze, Nicholas

345

Rethinking Downstream Regulation: California's Opportunity to Engage Households in Reducing Greenhouse Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the winter months when hydroelectric power generation isare located and hydroelectric power generation is naturally

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The impact of greenhouse gases on past changes in tropospheric ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Climate Change, 2007]. Second, O3 causes respiratory system problems and thus it is a major concern) between 1960 and 2005 is examined using a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model (GEOS CCM) with a combined troposphere-stratosphere chemical mechanism. Simulations are performed

Waugh, Darryn W.

347

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - About the 1605(b)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997 http://www.eia.doe.govMarkets 9,

348

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original 1605(b)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997 http://www.eia.doe.govMarkets

349

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original 1605(b)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997 http://www.eia.doe.govMarketsProgram

350

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Section 1605 Text  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997 http://www.eia.doe.govMarketsProgramSection

351

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program -Data and Reports  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program

352

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Emission Factors and  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs U.S.Wyoming Electricity Profile 2012Form06

353

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original 1605(b)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs U.S.Wyoming Electricity Profile 2012Form06Program

354

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009, DOE/EIA-0573(2009)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96Nebraska NuclearDecade Year-08/03)1 Eliminating MTBE in

355

Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

Zhao Wei, E-mail: zhaowei.tju@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning University of Technology, 121000 Jinzhou (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huppes, Gjalt, E-mail: huppes@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der, E-mail: Voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manufacturers to focus on high fuel-economy cars. And Toyota Prius and Honda Civic Hybrid are wonderful, or oil resources. Nor would the anticipated 40 mpg Ford Escape hybrid in the "small SUV" class Cycle (UDC) for representative cars and light trucks.1 The horizontal axis shows measured emissions

Edwards, Paul N.

358

11 2011 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. 1:1120 (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg3 Perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords: climate change; geologic sequestration; numerical modeling; pressure attenuation; pressure build-up; storage capacity Introduction P ressure build-up caused by the injection of CO2 into deep brine through localized pathways into shallower groundwater resources; and (iii) cause induced seismicity

Zhou, Quanlin

359

Montenegro Greenhouse Ornamental Production Workshop October 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Montenegro Greenhouse Ornamental Production Workshop October 2007 Heiner Lieth Plant Sciences of Montenegro is promotion of the their greenhouse flower production industry. At the time when the program was planned it was unknown what level of interest and expertise would be available on-site in Montenegro. Thus

Lieth, J. Heinrich

360

A Novel Paradigm in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emission [1, 2]. Moreover, water vapor is also a naturally occurring greenhouse gas and accounts for the largest percent- age of the greenhouse effect, between 36% and 66% in terms of radiation absorbance. Water). Yet the radiative importance of water vapor is less than that of CO2, CH4, and N2O, because

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO and life cycle GHG emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the choice of coal over natural gas. External incentives such as low natural gas prices compared to coalImplications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO 2 , NO X of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX and life cycle GHG

Jaramillo, Paulina

363

15th International Conference Ramiran, May 3-6, 2013, Versailles Accounting GHG emissions from sludge treatment and disposal routes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of sewage sludge is directly land spreading or composted before land spreading. Sludge application sludge treatment and disposal routes ­ methodological problems focused on sludge land spreading this tool can be used to quantify GHG emissions of sludge land spreading of a 380 000 per captia equivalent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

364

Comparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life-Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from Coal and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal and Natural Gas Figure S1 shows a graphical description of the life cycle of coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). Figure S1: Life Cycle of Coal-Based and Natural Gas-Based Fischer-Tropsch LiquidComparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life- Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from

Jaramillo, Paulina

365

Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions emissions in the U.S. will likely result in coal plant retirement in the near-term. Life cycle assessment for electricity generation, by comparing systems that consist of individual natural gas and coal power plants

Jaramillo, Paulina

366

Wednesday, January 30, 2013 Infrared Trapping the "Greenhouse Effect"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wednesday, January 30, 2013 Infrared Trapping ­ the "Greenhouse Effect" Goals ­ to look is the same as a 1.8 degree F change. #12;Last time - Greenhouse effect demo Selective absorption. Greenhouse

Toohey, Darin W.

367

Tradeoffs between Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Design of Urban Transit Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cost of GHG emissions reductions to facilitate comparison with other approaches, such as vehicle replacement or enginecost of GHG emissions reductions to facilitate comparison with other approaches, such as vehicle replacement or engine

Griswold, Julia Baird

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

The Impacts of Alternative Patterns of Urbanization on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Agricultural County  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

building emissions somewhat lower, and single- family detached homes producing 33% more GHG (as CO 2 equivalent) from energy

Wheeler, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change in NEPA Reviews Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and...

370

Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas...

371

DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions June 29, 2012 -...

372

Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia...

373

Zero Waste Program 2011 Recycling Benefits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

natural resources, and emits less CO2 because less energy is required in the manufacture of products made saved energy and reduced Greenhouse Gases through recycling. Recycling uses less energy, preserves) of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) Emissions: We Recycled: 477 tons of mixed or office paper The recycling

Delgado, Mauricio

374

Economics of Lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

estimate 8. Price of coal energy: average delivered price toin gCO2e/liter Price of coal energy 0.0020 ($/MJ) Price of0.09 uses only coal based energy net GHG displacement if

Rajagopal, Deepak

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Climate Finance 35 Understanding the Causes and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

change issue is well un- derstood: greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted in the process of electricity #12 arises from long-lived gases (carbon dioxide, methane, halocarbons, and nitrous oxide) because half- century. Carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natu- ral gas

Oppenheimer, Michael

376

Achieving Californias Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

policy at the US state level to decrease GHG emissions?ABU.S. has failed to adopt GHG reduction policies at the national levelU.S. has failed to adopt GHG reduction policies at the national level

Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

atmospheric trace gases: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

it back down to the Earth. This phenomenon, called the greenhouse. Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth's average surface temperature would be about 60 Fahrenheit 29...

378

Integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With Climate Change legislation on the horizon, the need to integrate energy reduction initiatives with greenhouse gas reduction efforts is critical to manufactures competitiveness and financial strength going forward. MPC has developed...

Spates, C. N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Particle entanglement in rotating gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the particle entanglement in two-dimensional (2D) weakly interacting rotating Bose and Fermi gases. We find that both particle localization and vortex localization can be indicated by particle entanglement. We also use particle entanglement to show the occurrence of edge reconstruction of rotating fermions. The different properties of condensate phase and vortex liquid phase of bosons can be reflected by particle entanglement and in vortex liquid phase we construct the same trial wave function with that in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001)] from the viewpoint of entanglement to relate the ground state with quantum Hall state. Finally, the relation between particle entanglement and interaction strength is studied.

Liu Zhao; Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/5/2013 1 Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas) · Simple, somewhat inflexible · Do not price emissions directly Carbon taxes · Use market forces Council June 4, 2013 Portland, OR 1 CO2 Chemistry 1 molecule of CO 1 atom carbon1 molecule of CO2 = 1 atom

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Assessment of basic research needs for greenhouse gas control technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is an outgrowth of an effort undertaken by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to assess the fundamental research needs to support a national program in carbon management. Five topics were identified as areas where carbon management strategies and technologies might be developed: (1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide disposal and utilization; (2) hydrogen development and fuel cells; (3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle; (4) biomass production and utilization; and (5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, and utilization. Within each of these general areas, experts came together to identify targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for stabilizing or decreasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Basic research to support the options outlined above are far reaching-from understanding natural global processes such as the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles to development of new materials and concepts for chemical separation. Examples of fundamental research needs are described in this paper.

Benson, S.M.; Chandler, W.; Edmonds, J.; Houghton, J.; Levine, M.; Bates, L.; Chum, H.; Dooley, J.; Grether, D.; Logan, J.; Wiltsee, G.; Wright, L.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

CO{sub 2} allowance allocation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the effect on electricity investors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is an effort by nine Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states to develop a regional, mandatory, market-based cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electricity sector. The initiative is expected to lead to an increase in the price of electricity in the RGGI region and beyond. The implications of these changes for the value of electricity-generating assets and the market value of the firms that own them depends on the initial allocation of carbon dioxide allowances, the composition of generating assets owned by the firm, and the locations of those assets. Changes in asset values inside the RGGI region may be positive or negative, whereas changes outside of the RGGI region are almost always positive but nonetheless vary greatly. Viewing changes at the firm level aggregates and moderates both positive and negative effects on market value compared with what would be observed by looking at changes at individual facilities. Nonetheless, a particular firm's portfolio of assets is unlikely to reflect the overall composition of assets in the industry as a whole, and some firms are likely to do substantially better or worse than the industry average. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Dallas Burtraw; Danny Kahn; Karen Palmerook

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes within xeric temperate locations in the northwestern United States. Sampling environments on the Snake (Lower Monumental Dam Complex) and Columbia Rivers (Priest Rapids Dam Complex) included tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas during winter and summer 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, degassing as water passed through dams during power generation, ebullition within littoral embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate unaltered conditions. Surface flux resulted in very low emissions, with reservoirs acting as a sink for CO2 (up to 262 mg m-2 d-1, which is within the range previously reported for similarly located reservoirs). Surface flux of methane remained below 1 mg CH4 m-2d-1, a value well below fluxes reported previously for temperate reservoirs. Water passing through hydroelectric projects acted as a sink for CO2 during winter and a small source during summer, with mean degassing fluxes of 117 and 4.5 t CO2 d-1, respectively. Degassing of CH4 was minimal, with mean fluxes of 3.1 10-6 and 5.6 10-4 t CH4 d-1 during winter and summer, respectively. Gas flux due to ebullition was greater in coves located within reservoirs than in coves within the free flowing Hanford Reachand CH4 flux exceeded that of CO2. Methane emissions varied widely across sampling locations, ranging from 10.5 to 1039 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, with mean fluxes of 324 mg CH4 m-2 d-1in Lower Monumental Dam reservoir and 482 mg CH4 m-2d-1 in the Priest Rapids Dam reservoir. The magnitude of methane flux due to ebullition was unexpectedly high, and falls within the range recently reported for other temperate reservoirs around the world, further suggesting that this methane source should be considered in estimates of global greenhouse gas emissions. Methane flux from sediment pore-water within littoral embayments averaged 4.2 mg m-2 d-1 during winter and 8.1 mg m-2 d-1 during summer, with a peak flux of 19.8 mg m-2d-1 (at the same location where CH4 ebullition was also the greatest). Carbon dioxide flux from sediment pore-water averaged approximately 80 mg m-2d-1 with little difference between winter and summer. Similar to emissions from ebullition, flux from sediment pore-water was higher in reservoirs than in the free flowing reach.

Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Niehus, Sara E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

Chau, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

386

An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. Abstract: We report the construction of...

387

Greenhouse of the future. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This greenhouse of the future is located at the Center for Regenerative Studies (CRS) at Cal Poly Pomona. The building design was driven by desired environmental conditions. The primary objective was to keep the interior space warm during winter for the breeding of fish and other greenhouse activities, especially in the winter. To do this, a highly insulating envelope was needed. Straw bales provide excellent insulation with an R-value of approximately 50 and also help solve the environmental problems associated with this agricultural waste product. A summary of the construction progress, construction costs and operating costs are included.

Cavin, B. III

1998-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

388

Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

Yang, R.T.

1980-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

389

Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2729 in T. Wirth, editor. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gasfor national greenhouse gas inventories. Volume 2.National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme Task Force

Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Biological production of products from waste gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

391

Fiscal Year 2010 Greenhouse Gas Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiscal Year 2010 Greenhouse Gas Inventory OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY #12;OREGON STATE UNIVERSITYGHG UNIVERSITYGHG Report - FY10 3 Acknowledgments Due to the broad scope of this inventory, a large number of people Oil: Amber Sams · Enterprise Rent-A-Car: Davion Reese · First Student: Brian Maxwell · Good Company

Escher, Christine

392

Fiscal Year 2009 Greenhouse Gas Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiscal Year 2009 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Oregon State University Greg Smith Sustainability Program #12;Acknowledgments Due to the broad scope of this inventory, a large number of people from many - First Student: Brian Maxwell - Carson Oil: Gena Conner Government Organizations - Baker County: Jason

Escher, Christine

393

2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Princeton University Reports Contents 2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Campus Energy was established in 2008, the University has invested $5.3 million in energy-savings projects, resulting in annual of a 5.2-megawatt solar collector field. · Audit the remaining 20 of the top 50 energy- consuming

394

Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

Smith, Arthur P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fiscal Year 2007 Greenhouse Gas Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiscal Year 2007 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Greg Smith Brandon Trelstad OSU Facilities Services June #12;#12;Acknowledgments Due to the broad scope of this inventory, a large number of people from many, geothermal, tidal or sea currents etc. (7) "OUS Method" refers to the inventory for FY07 that is similar

Escher, Christine

396

Energy and Greenhouse Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Wang, M. (2001) "Energy & Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Fuels and MotorLifecycle Analysis of Biofuels." Report UCD-ITS-RR-06-08.

Kammen, Daniel M.; Farrell, Alexander E.; Plevin, Richard J.; Jones, Andrew D.; Nemet, Gregory F.; Delucchi, Mark A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

RESEARCH ARTICLE Environmental impact of greenhouse tomato production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH ARTICLE Environmental impact of greenhouse tomato production in France Thierry Boulard Abstract The environmental impact of greenhouse pro- duction in France is poorly documented. Environmental production under polytunnel. Environmental impacts where assessed by life cycle analysis. Analyses were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

398

[Page Intentionally Left Blank] Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..........................................................................11 4.2 Conventional Jet Fuel from Crude Oil2 June #12;[Page Intentionally Left Blank] #12;Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Alternative .......................................5 3.1 Life cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Reuter, Martin

399

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz The GREENS MENS Assistant Secretary for Foreign Affairs #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per

Schwartz, Stephen E.

400

Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program (Delaware)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program is funded by the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Fund, established by the Act to Amend Title 7 of the Delaware Code Relating to a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Operational energy consumption and GHG emissions in residential sector in urban China : an empirical study in Jinan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Driven by rapid urbanization and increasing household incomes, residential energy consumption in urban China has been growing steadily in the past decade, posing critical energy and greenhouse gas emission challenges. ...

Zhang, Jiyang, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

Sullivan, John

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

403

Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

Sullivan, John

404

THE FUTURE OF ENERGY GASES David G. Howell, Editor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

totally independent of oil. Methane is found in association with coal; it is a byproduct of metabolic the term "energy gases" to distinguish those natural gases, primarily methane, that have utility for energy consequences associated with an expanded role of energy gases? Energy gases, particularly methane, are commonly

405

Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

noble gases. #12;Exploring the Solar Wind94 Light solar wind noble gases were directly measured by mass of the light gases are known to vary with energy, so none of these provided solar isotopic and elemental5 Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases Alex Meshik, Charles Hohenberg, Olga

406

Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

Cipparone, L.

1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3 Contents Abstract 2 1 Introduction 6 1.1 Problem background

Learned, John

408

1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism whereby absorbed solar system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterized by non CO2. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapor and clouds

409

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz Rotary Club of Patchogue November 9, 2005 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12 Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something about it. What are we doing? #12;370 360 350

Schwartz, Stephen E.

410

Graduate Opportunities in Atmospheric Modeling to Understand Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graduate Opportunities in Atmospheric Modeling to Understand Greenhouse Gas Emissions University://www.atmos.utah.edu/) seeks multiple graduate students to study greenhouse gas emissions associated with urban development greenhouse gas emissions. Samples of guiding questions as part of the projects include: · What can explain

Lin, John Chun-Han

411

Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse Gas Abatement Potential for California in 2020  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equivalent) Other 65 Mt/a Residential CHP 57 Mt/a Applicablefor GHG abatement. Residential CHP has been pursued inobvious challenges, residential scale CHP shows considerable

Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extending the EU Emissions Trading Scheme to Aviation.Air Transport Emissions Trading Scheme Workshop, UKaviation in its GHG emission trading system (i.e. , by

McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse Gas Abatement Potential for California in 2020  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GHG preferable to grid power only when the waste heat can bethe grid electricity it displaces when the waste heat from

Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Greenhouse Gas Dissonance: The History of EPA's Regulations and the Incongruity of Recent Legal Challenges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

denial of the scientific data underpinning climate change.denial notice asserted that not regulating GHG emissions from motor vehicles dovetailed with President Bush's "comprehensive global climate change

Moreno, Robert B.; Zalzal, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Tradeoffs between Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Design of Urban Transit Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

US cities (McGuckin and Srinivasan Figures 5.3 through 5.5 present the change in total GHG emissions

Griswold, Julia Baird

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Nuclear Power PROS -`No' greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

uranium hexafluoride reacting with moisture in air creates the immediate danger of HF hydrogen fluoride or ammonia; hydrofluoric acid is also used in the conversion process) -CO2 emissions involved in mining gases / acid rain: emits Hg, CO2, CO, SOx, NOx (there are pollution controls on SOx and Hg which makes

Toohey, Darin W.

417

Geothermal carbon dioxide for use in greenhouses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geothermal fluids often contain carbon dioxide, which is a very effective growth stimulant for plants in greenhouses. Studies have shown that as CO{sub 2} concentration is increased from a normal level of 300 ppm (mmol/kmol) to levels of approximately 1000 ppm crop yields may increase by up to 15% (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989). It is suggested that geothermal greenhouse heating offers a further opportunity for utilization of the carbon dioxide present in the fluid. The main difficulty is that plants react adversely to hydrogen sulphide which is invariably mixed, at some concentration, with the CO{sub 2} from geothermal fluids. Even very low H{sub 2}S concentrations of 0.03 mg/kg can have negative effects on the growth of plants (National Research Council, 1979). Therefore, an appropriate purification process for the CO{sub 2} must be used to avoid elevated H{sub 2}S levels in the greenhouses. The use of adsorption and absorption processes is proposed. Two purification processes have been modelled using the ASOEN PLUS software package, using the Geothermal Greenhouses Ltd. Operation Kawerau New Zealand and an example. A greenhouse area of 8,000 m{sup 2}, which would create a demand for approximately 20 kg CO{sub 2} per hour, was chosen based on a proposed expansion at Kawerau. The Kawerau operation currently takes geothermal steam (and gas) from a high temperature 2-phase well to heat an area of 1650 m{sup 2}. Bottled carbon dioxide is utilized at a rate of about 50 kg per day, to provide CO{sub 2} levels of 800 mg/kg when the greenhouse is closed and 300 to 350 mg/kg whilst venting. In England and the Netherlands, CO{sub 2} levels of 1000 mg/kg are often used (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989) and similar concentrations are desired at Kawerau, but current costs of 0.60 NZ$/kg for bottled CO{sub 2} are too high (Foster, 1995).

Dunstall, M.G. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); Graeber, G. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

The Costs of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation with Induced Technological Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-analysis of the costs of mitigating global GHG emissions over the period to 2100, with and without the effects trading allowances at a regional or global level. It reports a wide range of costs with confusing-analyses done by the World Resources Institute for the US economy, 1997, and the IPCC post-SRES models

Watson, Andrew

419

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

Not Available

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

VOL 5, ISSUE 4 Greenhouse Gas Emmissions in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the total emissions in the West is emphasized by examining emissions per capita or per dollar of GDP equivalent Emissions per $ million of GDP(constant $2007) 1 About 80% of the emissions are actually carbon). With their energy-intensive economies, Saskatchewan and Alberta together account for nearly one-half of the 2012 GHG

Peak, Derek

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION IN DEVELOPING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mitigation effort post-2012. Reducing GHG emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD)2 in developing of Environment of Mexico1 Esteve Corbera and Katrina Brown Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, UK School of Mexico or the Mexican Government. #12;ABSTRACT This paper provides a critical perspective to the debate

Watson, Andrew

422

Estimate Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To estimate the GHG impact of a business travel reduction program, a Federal agency or program should quantify the number of trips that could be avoided each year. If an agency has a large proportion of international travel, the agency may estimate changes in domestic and international trips separately because the associated savings in miles can be very different.

423

LEDs for Energy Efficient Greenhouse Lighting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Light energy is an important factor for plant growth. In regions where the natural light source, i.e. solar radiation, is not sufficient for growth optimization, additional light sources are being used. Traditional light sources such as high pressure sodium lamps and other metal halide lamps are not very efficient and generate high radiant heat. Therefore, new sustainable solutions should be developed for energy efficient greenhouse lighting. Recent developments in the field of light source technologies have opened up new perspectives for sustainable and highly efficient light sources in the form of light-emitting diodes, i.e. LEDs, for greenhouse lighting. This review focuses on the potential of LEDs to replace traditional light sources in the greenhouse. In a comparative economic analysis of traditional vs. LED lighting, we show that the introduction of LEDs allows reduction of the production cost of vegetables in the long-run of several years, due to the high energy efficiency, low maintenance cost and lon...

Singh, Devesh; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Roth, Bernhard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS. Present monitoring systems would be heavily relied on in any GHGIS implementation at the outset and would likely continue to provide valuable future contributions to GHGIS. However, present monitoring systems were developed to serve science/research purposes. This study concludes that no component or capability presently available is at the level of technological maturity and readiness required for implementation in an operational GHGIS today. However, purpose-designed and -built components could be developed and implemented in support of a future GHGIS. The study concludes that it is possible to develop and provide a capability-driven prototype GHGIS, as part of a Phase-1 effort, within three years from project-funding start, that would make use of and integrate existing sensing and system capabilities. As part of a Phase-2 effort, a requirem

Jonietz, Karl K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E [JPL/CAL TECH; Roman, Douglas A [LLNL; Walker, Bruce C [SNL

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

425

Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility Scale Cofiring with 20% Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of an evaluation of utility-scale biomass cofiring in large pulverized coal power plants. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the cost and greenhouse gas reduction benefits of substituting relatively high volumes of biomass in coal. Two scenarios for cofiring up to 20% biomass with coal (on a lower heating value basis) are presented; (1) woody biomass in central Alabama where Southern Pine is currently produced for the wood products and paper industries, and (2) purpose-grown switchgrass in the Ohio River Valley. These examples are representative of regions where renewable biomass growth rates are high in correspondence with major U.S. heartland power production. While these scenarios may provide a realistic reference for comparing the relative benefits of using a high volume of biomass for power production, this evaluation is not intended to be an analysis of policies concerning renewable portfolio standards or the optimal use of biomass for energy production in the U.S.

Boardman, Richard D.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Nichol, Corrie; Searcy, Erin M.; Westover, Tyler; Wood, Richard; Bearden, Mark D.; Cabe, James E.; Drennan, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Male, Jonathan L.; Muntean, George G.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Widder, Sarah H.

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

426

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that makes great strides in clarifying inconsistent and conflicting GHG emission estimates in the published literature while providing more precise estimates of GHG emissions from utility-scale CSP systems.

Not Available

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity This presentation was given at the July 17, 2012, Community Renewable Energy Deployment webinar on successful landfill...

428

ARM - Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcal Documentation(AVIRIS) ProductsAirborneOctober 11, 2011 [FacilityIndiaGVAX News GangesListGreenhouse Effect

429

NREL: Sustainable NREL - Greenhouse Gas Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andData and Resources NREL resourceEnergy Systems IntegrationGreenhouse

430

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

Turick, C.E.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

432

Lightning Dock KGRA, New Mexico's Largest Geothermal Greenhouse...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Largest Geothermal Greenhouse, Largest Aquaculture Facility, and First Binary Electrical Power Plant. Geo-Heat Center Bulletin. 23:37-41. Related Geothermal Exploration Activities...

433

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Allocation of Emissions from a Combined Heat and Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of...

434

Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name: Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy AgencyCompany Organization: World Resources Institute Sector: Energy, Land Topics:...

435

Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements AgencyCompany Organization: Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Sector: Energy, Land...

436

Energy Department Assisting Launch of Low Greenhouse Gas-Emitting...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Launch of Low Greenhouse Gas-Emitting Jet Fuels Crow Nation Students Participate in Algae Biomass Research Project Secretary Chu Announces 100 Million for Advanced Research...

437

DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

greenhouse gas emissions - the technology component of a comprehensive U.S. approach to climate change. The technologies developed under the Climate Change Technology program...

438

CEQ Issues Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Effects of Climate Change in NEPA Reviews CEQ Issues Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of...

439

Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Avoided Deforestation of Tropical Rainforests on Privately-owned Lands in High Conservation Value Areas Jump to: navigation, search Name Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas...

440

South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings AgencyCompany Organization...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmenta...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Goods Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods AgencyCompany...

442

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Policies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potentials and Policies...

443

NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

- Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle...

444

Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency...

445

Emissions of Criteria Pollutants, Toxic Air Pollutants, and Greenhouse Gases, From the Use of Alternative Transportation Modes and Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuel, or about 46,200 BTUs of diesel fuel per mile. 4.1.8BTU/bbl 3575 g/gal Diesel fuel 106 BTU/gal 106 BTU/bbl 3192gasoline or diesel vehicles (g/106-BTU) E NMOG = emissions

Delucchi, Mark

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Proving Environmental Discretion: An Argument for Regulating Greenhouse Gases from Motor Vehicles under the Clean Air Act  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of sea level increases as a result of global warming thatglobal warming, it stated that an increase in carbon dioxide levels

Jackson, Omari

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. T. Black, " U . S. Coalbed Methane Production," NaturalBlack, "Update on U.S. Coalbed Methane Production," NaturalC. F. Brandenburg, "Coalbed Methane Sparks a New Industry,"

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion (N2O emissions peak with particle sizes of about 1 mm), and gas residence time within and after the fixed bed (

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

GFDL One-Page Research Summary Mean climate controls on the simulated response of ENSO to increasing greenhouse gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

disasters, agriculture, fisheries, and natural ecosystems. Understanding and predicting the future behavior, this study presents the first comprehensive, pointwise, multi-model upper-ocean heat budget analysis of the pre-industrial control and doubled CO2 climate change experiments from the global coupled GCMs

450

Abstract--Limiting the emissions of greenhouse gases from power generation will depend, among other things, on the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................................................................................. 17 3.3.5 Hydroelectric Power

Harrison, Gareth

451

Emissions of Criteria Pollutants, Toxic Air Pollutants, and Greenhouse Gases, From the Use of Alternative Transportation Modes and Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1994). D. E. Gushee, Alternative Fuels for Automobiles: AreElectric/Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Challenge, Florence,Replacing Gasoline: Alternative Fuels for Light-Duty

Delucchi, Mark

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

The Role of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in Climate Policy: Analysis Using the MIT IGSM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

First steps toward a broad climate agreement, such as the Kyoto Protocol, have focused attention on agreement with less than global geographic coverage. We consider instead a policy that is less comprehensive in term of ...

Reilly, John M.

453

Emissions of Criteria Pollutants, Toxic Air Pollutants, and Greenhouse Gases, From the Use of Alternative Transportation Modes and Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0383(Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0554(Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0554(

Delucchi, Mark

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T. L. e. a. Cottengim, Unaccounted-for Gas Project, Pacific1995). Determination of Unaccounted-for-Gas Distribution,publishes estimates of "unaccounted for" gas, but this is an

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

per kWh), but that CO2 emissions from hydropower plantswill be less than CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel plants.kg/ha) 2. Difference in CO2 emissions vs. control plot (kg/

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Thermodynamic formalism for field driven Lorentz gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analytically determine the dynamical properties of two dimensional field driven Lorentz gases within the thermodynamic formalism. For dilute gases subjected to an iso-kinetic thermostat, we calculate the topological pressure as a function of a temperature-like parameter $\\ba$ up to second order in the strength of the applied field. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and the topological entropy can be extracted from a dynamical entropy defined as a Legendre transform of the topological pressure. Our calculations of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy exactly agree with previous calculations based on a Lorentz-Boltzmann equation approach. We give analytic results for the topological entropy and calculate the dimension spectrum from the dynamical entropy function.

Oliver Muelken; Henk van Beijeren

2003-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

458

Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

459

Method for introduction of gases into microspheres  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Rosencwaig, Allan (Danville, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

14 Diffusive CO2 Flux at the Air-Water Interface of the Robert-Bourassa Hydroelectric Reservoir in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

14 Diffusive CO2 Flux at the Air-Water Interface of the Robert-Bourassa Hydroelectric Reservoir Hydroelectric reservoirs and lakes in boreal Québec produce greenhouse gases (GHG) mainly in the form of CO2 of the interface. When applied to the Robert- Bourassa hydroelectric reservoir in boreal Québec, this model

Long, Bernard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Micro Renewable Energy Systems: Synergizing Technology, Economics and Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

prevalent energy technologies and the numerous benefits that warrant further developments are presented. Five concepts using wind, solar, and biomass energy are considered, and of these, the symbiotic solar energy costs and the imperative to bring down emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) demand

462

MEDIA RELEASE Aug. 27, 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

says a biomass district heating system (DHS) could resolve both problems by generating energy from also improves regional air quality, and district heating systems produce fewer greenhouse gases (GHG replacing electricity, propane or heating oil) while paying for itself over 25 years and keeping the money

Pedersen, Tom

463

United States Submission on Land-Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the objective and principles of the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol F. General U.S. views on narrowly 3.3 and 3.4 activities A. Monitoring and measuring GHGs B. Accounting for non-CO2 GHG emissions of greenhouse gases at safe levels, by taking into account the entire contribution ­ both positive and negative

464

Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehugera 1 , B and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) con-2 tributing to the global warming potential (GWP to design productive16 agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.17 Keywords18 Global warming potential

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

465

Business with Birmingham Climate change enhanced by human activity over the past 300 years  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a Business with Birmingham Climate change enhanced by human activity over the past 300 years is now an internationally critical political, social and economic issue. Developed and developing countries urgently need to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) they emit and to take measures to adapt to climate change

Birmingham, University of

466

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United Wildland fires can be an important source of greenhouse gases as well as black carbon emissions that have of climate response to fire emissions compared to other emission sources of GHG, aerosols, and black carbon

467

The greenhouse effect and acid rain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons is increasing in the earth's atmosphere. Increased concentrations of these trace gases could lead to global warming, increased acid rain and increased UV radiation on the earth's surface; however, the actual impacts are still uncertain and are also the subject of great debate. Application of clean'' energy sources such as geothermal are obviously desirable for decreasing these effects and improving our overall general environment. This paper briefly summarizes the global environment concerns, providing a backdrop for the following papers which describe the geothermal role in future environmental considerations. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Traeger, R.K.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

The Anthropogenic Perturbation of Atmospheric CO2 and the Climate System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of carbon dioxide (CO2), a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG), are redistributed within the climate system

Fortunat, Joos

469

MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

regulation and have gained attention recently within the context of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading

470

Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-48258  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Trading Scheme (European Union) EU European Union GHG greenhouse gas ITC investment tax credit MWh

471

Can biofuels justify current transport policies?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with increasing GHG (greenhouse gas) intensity (tar sand, oil shale, etc.) · Biofuels increased consumption

472

Atmospheric CO2 concentrations during ancient greenhouse climates were similar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric CO2 concentrations during ancient greenhouse climates were similar to those predicted atmospheric CO2 concentrations (½CO2atm) during Earth's ancient greenhouse episodes is essential for accurately predicting the response of future climate to elevated CO2 levels. Empirical estimates of ½CO2atm

Ahmad, Sajjad

473

PG&E's Renewable Portfolio Standard & Greenhouse Gas Compliance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PG&E's Renewable Portfolio Standard & Greenhouse Gas Compliance Fong Wan Senior Vice President, Energy Procurement 9/5/13 California Power Markets Symposium #12;1. PG&E Renewable Portfolio Standard 2. AB32 and Greenhouse Gas Legislation Outline #12;PG&E's Electric Generation Portfolio *Note: Other

474

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential

475

Satellite measurements of the clear-sky greenhouse effect from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Satellite measurements of the clear-sky greenhouse effect from tropospheric ozone HELEN M of 0.48±0.14 W m-2 between 45 S and 45 N. This estimate of the clear-sky greenhouse effect from

Waliser, Duane E.

476

automotive exhaust gases: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the environment and legislation introduced to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve resource efficiency, eco product design and manufacturing strategies have to be developed...

477

New Evidence of an Enhanced Greenhouse Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The state of earth's climate is constrained by well-known physical principles such as energy balance and the conservation of energy. Increased greenhouse gas concentrations affect the atmospheric optical depth, and physical consistency implies that changes in the energy transfer in terms of infra-red light must be compensated by other means of energy flow. Here, a simple heuristic and comprehensive model is used to interpret new aspects of real-world data. It is shown that trends in tropospheric overturning activity and the estimated altitude where earth's bulk heat loss should place are two independent indicators of climate change. There has been increased vertical overturning in the middle and upper parts of the troposphere since 1995 on a global scale. Greater overturning compensates for reduced radiative energy transfer associated with increased optical depth. An increased optical depth is also expected to raise the altitude from where planetary bulk heat loss takes place according to the heuristic model,...

Benestad, Rasmus E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation-specific policies, they recommend (in addition to the land use policies mentioned above), that they combine an upstream trading system with a carbon efficiency standard similar to the current CAFE standard. Under this approach a fuel price signal would be complemented by incentives for manufacturers to produce more carbon efficient vehicles. To prevent vehicle manufacturers from being forced to pay more than other sectors for reducing GHG emissions, they recommend that the vehicle makers be allowed to pay a cash penalty equal to the market price of allowances in lieu of meeting carbon efficiency requirements.

Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Transit Agency Vehicle Fleet Operations ABSTRACT This paper reviews calculation tools available for quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with different types

480

Painter Greenhouse Guidelines Contact: All emails regarding facilities, facilities equipment, supplies at facilities, or watering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, supplies at facilities, or watering concerns to both the greenhouse manager, Shane Merrell Greenhouses is supplemented by heating and cooling from the main Painter Building. The smaller Painter

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gases ghg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous greenhouse species Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Of Physics Version 4... Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors... to zero, the atmospheric greenhouse conjecture is...

482

E-Print Network 3.0 - anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcings Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geosciences ; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 12 European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A System in Transition* Summary: European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A...

483

U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis, November 2012 U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis, November 2012 The report ranks...

484

U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis thumbenergyuselossemissionslg.gif How...

485

First Direct Observation of CO2's Greenhouse Effect at the Earth...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's Surface First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's...

486

Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The physics of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases in uniform as well as in harmonically trapped configurations is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis is given to the effect of interactions that play a crucial role, bringing the gas into a superfluid phase at low temperature. In these dilute systems, interactions are characterized by a single parameter, the s-wave scattering length, whose value can be tuned using an external magnetic field near a broad Feshbach resonance. The BCS limit of ordinary Fermi superfluidity, the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers, and the unitary limit of large scattering length are important regimes exhibited by interacting Fermi gases. In particular, the BEC and the unitary regimes are characterized by a high value of the superfluid critical temperature, on the order of the Fermi temperature. Different physical properties are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the momentum distribution, the fraction of condensed pairs, collective oscillations and pair-breaking effects, the expansion of the gas, the main thermodynamic properties, the behavior in the presence of optical lattices, and the signatures of superfluidity, such as the existence of quantized vortices, the quenching of the moment of inertia, and the consequences of spin polarization. Various theoretical approaches are considered, ranging from the mean-field description of the BCS-BEC crossover to nonperturbative methods based on quantum Monte Carlo techniques. A major goal of the review is to compare theoretical predictions with available experimental results.

Giorgini, Stefano; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Stringari, Sandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento, Italy and Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, ul. Kosygina 2, 117334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

487

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

out that EPA used an emissions trading program to controlsuggested that an emissions trading system could qualify asTO MANAGE LIFECYCLE GHG emissions trading system would also

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEFRA), 2005a. UK Emissions Trading Scheme. London: DEFRA.Energy/GHG Tax Emissions trading Target Setting Penaltiesthe European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and a lack of

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

International Experiences with Quantifying the Co-Benefits of Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Programs and Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

examine air pollution (and other pollutant) control policypolicies to control non-GHG air pollutants. These studiesair pollutant emission reduction and ancillary carbon benefits of SO 2 control

Williams, Christopher

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the fabrication of fully suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases in III-V heterostructures. Low temperature transport measurements verify that the properties of the suspended gases are only slightly degraded with respect to the non-suspended gases. Focused ion beam technology is used to pattern suspended nanostructures with minimum damage from the ion beam, due to the small width of the suspended membrane.

Kazazis, D.; Bourhis, E.; Gierak, J.; Gennser, U. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Bourgeois, O. [Institut Nel, CNRS-UJF, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Antoni, T. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis, France and Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

491

Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Animated simulation of greenhouse internal transport using Siman/Cinema  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on an animated computer model developed using a simulation language Sinman/Cinema to simulate greenhouse internal transport systems. The model can be used as a tool to study the performance of materials handling operations within a greenhouse. The potential bottleneck of a transport system can be visually detected on the computer monitor. Statistical analyses on the system parameters, such as the status and utilization of machines, workers and waiting lines, and throughput time of an operation, are performed during the simulation. From these data, the interaction between machines and workers within a greenhouse system can be studied.

Fang, W.; Ting, K.C.; Giacomelli, G.A. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

An Application of Phase Change Technology in a Greenhouse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Materials and Solar Cells, 1998,51: 401?411 [2] Yang Chun, Ge Xinshi, Cheng Shuxia. A theoretical and experimental study of the heat transfer problems in the greenhouse. Acta Energiae Solaris ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Envelope Technologies... Energiae Solaris Sinica, 2003,24,6(12): 789-794. (In Chinese) [4] J.G.Pieters, J.M.Deltour. Modelling solar energy input in greenhouses. Solar Energy,1999,67: 119?130 [5] Mathala J. Gupta, Pitam Chandra. Effect of greenhouse design parameters...

Liu, Y.; Chen, C.; Guo, H.; Yue, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GHG intensity among fossil fuels. We ?nd that the relativeunder a RFS while world fossil fuel price is the same orwith the more-polluting fossil fuels being consumed abroad

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

The Impact of Biofuel and Greenhouse Gas Policies on Land Management, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and empirical modeling. First, a simple conceptual model of land allocation and management is used to illustrate how bioenergy policies and GHG mitigation incentives could influence market prices, shift the land supply between alternative uses, alter management...

Baker, Justin Scott

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

496

The best use of biomass? Greenhouse gas lifecycle analysis of predicted pyrolysis biochar systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to pessimistic scenarios are used for system operation. Slow pyrolysis is compared to fast pyrolysis and biomass co-firing for GHG abatement and electricity production, using various scenarios for availability of indigenous Scottish feedstocks....

Hammond, James A R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Campus. Price elasticity of demand for crude oil: estimatesof crude oil under the tax, which is world price less thefuel price, GHG emissions and market share of non-crude oil

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Economic investigation of discount factors for agricultural greenhouse gas emission offsets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approaches to discount factors, estimation and incorporation of discount factors procedures are developed. Discount factors would be imposed by credit purchasers due to noncompliance with regulatory program of the credits with GHG program including...

Kim, Man-Keun

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

499

The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Surcharge Revenues Oil Price Price elas= -0.1 elasEmissions Surcharge Revenues Oil Price Price elas= -0.1 elasQuantity Daily GhG Emissions Oil Price Price elas= -0.1 elas

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Investigating greenhouse gas emission pathways In selected OECD countries using a hybrid energy-economy approach.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This report outlines the development and analysis of CIMS OECD-EPM. CIMS OECD-EPM is a hybrid energy-economy model that forecasts energy consumption and GHG emissions in (more)

Goldberg, Suzanne

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z