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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Greenhouse Gas Emission Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... climate change as a serious problem and that greenhouse gas (GHG ... models to determine the baselines of GHG emissions and the effect of GHG ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

2

Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Others wanting to learn more about greenhouse gas emissions and their reduction. About the ... based on ensuring the sustainability of finite natural resources.

3

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Table Title Formats Overview 1 U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential 2 U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors 3 Distribution of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by end-use sector 4 World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by region 5 Greenhouse gases and 100-year net global warming potentials Carbon dioxide emissions 6 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from energy and industry 7 U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by end-use sector 8 U.S. carbon dioxide emission from residential sector energy consumption 9 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from commercial sector energy consumption 10 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sector energy consumption

4

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview Diagram Notes [a] CO2 emissions related to petroleum consumption (includes 64 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [b] CO2 emissions related to coal consumption (includes 0.3 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [c] CO2 emissions related to natural gas consumption (includes 13 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [d] Excludes carbon sequestered in nonfuel fossil products. [e] CO2 emissions from the plastics portion of municipal solid waste (11 MMTCO2) combusted for electricity generation and very small amounts (0.4 MMTCO2) of geothermal-related emissions.

5

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1.1 Total emissions Total U.S. anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 were 5.8 percent below the 2008 total (Table 1). The decline in total emissions-from 6,983 million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e) in 2008 to 6,576 MMTCO2e in 2009-was the largest since emissions have been tracked over the 1990-2009 time frame. It was largely the result of a 419-MMTCO2e drop in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (7.1 percent). There was a small increase of 7 MMTCO2e (0.9 percent) in methane (CH4) emissions, and an increase of 8 MMTCO2e (4.9 percent), based on partial data, in emissions of man-made gases with high global warming potentials (high-GWP gases). (Draft estimates for emissions of HFC and PFC

6

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are calculated using the eGRID post 2006 emission factor for all subject years (1990-2009); the CA-CP Calculator uses a different (lower) factor (eGRID pre 2006) for years 1990-2006. WUSTL deviated from the CA-CP Calculator on this emission factor because using the pre and post eGRID factors skews GHG emissions

Dobbins, Ian G.

7

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fail to meet this demand, the most likely alternatives will be heavy oil, oil sands, oil shale, and liquids from natural gas and coal. These are carbon-intensive fuels that would...

8

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Augustin J et al. Automated gas chromatographic system forof the atmospheric trace gases methane, carbon dioxide, andfuel consumption and of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts A fact sheet about the myths versus facts of ethanol and greenhouse...

10

Agricultural greenhouse gas emissions : costs associated with farm level mitigation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Agricultural greenhouse gas emissions within New Zealand account for 48 percent of all national greenhouse gas emissions. With the introduction of the emissions trading scheme… (more)

Wolken, Antony Raymond

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trends in Global Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Lynn Price,Trends in Global Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Lynn Price,Trends in Global Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Lynn Price,

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...

13

Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

14

Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods...

15

Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts A fact sheet about the myth versus facts about biofuels and...

16

Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

State Greenhouse Gas State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

17

Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions Profile to someone by E-mail Emissions Profile to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance Greenhouse Gases Basics Federal Requirements Guidance & Reporting

18

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

19

Direct measurements improve estimates of dairy greenhouse-gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small quantity of Greenhouse gases measured enteric nitrousSC, Pain BF. 1994. Greenhouse gas emissions from intensiveE, Brose G. 2001. Greenhouse gas emissions from animal house

Mitloehner, Frank M; Sun, Huawei; Karlik, John F

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions from a Combined Heat and Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Contacts Contacts This report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009, was prepared under the general direction of John Conti, Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis, and Paul Holtberg, Team Leader, Analysis Integration Team. General questions concerning the content of this report may be directed to the Office of Communications at 202/586-8800. Technical information concerning the content of the report may be obtained from Perry Lindstrom at 202/586-0934 (email, perry.lindstrom@eia.gov). Without the assistance of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), this report would not have been possible. In particular we would like to thank Erin Beddingfield, Keith Forbes, Kristin Igusky, Makely Lyon, Michael Mondshine, and Richard Richards. We also wish to acknowledge the

22

Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Different Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Different Fuels Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Different Fuels This calculator currently focuses on electricity for a number of reasons. The public's interest in vehicles fueled by electricity is high, and as a result consumers are interested in better understanding the emissions created when electricity is produced. For vehicles that are fueled solely by electricity, tailpipe emissions are zero, so electricity production accounts for all GHG emissions associated with such vehicles. Finally, GHG emissions from electricity production vary significantly by region, which makes a calculator like this one-which uses regional data instead of national averages-particularly useful. If you want to compare total tailpipe plus fuel production GHG emissions for an electric or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle to those for a gasoline

23

Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(Minnesota) (Minnesota) Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Climate Policies This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80

24

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study By October 13, 2013, the Washington Office of Financial Management must

25

Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Potential in Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Potential in Agriculture (MAGHG) Name Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Potential in Agriculture (MAGHG) Agency/Company /Organization Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Greenhouse Gas Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type Dataset, Technical report Website http://www.fao.org/climatechan References MICCA Website[1] The overall objective of the MAGHG project is to support developing countries assess and report their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from

26

Nuclear Power PROS -`No' greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Power PROS -`No' greenhouse gas emissions -Fuel is cheep -High energy density (1 ton U = 16 abundant elements found in natural crustal rocks) Nuclear Power CONS -High capital cost due to meeting if there is a movement towards electric cars? -What if the high capital costs of a nuclear power plant were invested

Toohey, Darin W.

27

Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium.6% Coal 42% Hydro, 68.0% 10 #12;6/5/2013 6 Overall GHG Emissions: PNW vs. US Total US Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector (2011) Total PNW* Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector (2010

28

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM AGROECOSYSTEMS: SIMULATING MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON DAIRY FARM EMISSIONS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??How does agriculture contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and what farm management scenarios decrease net emissions from agroecosystems? The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is… (more)

Sedorovich, Dawn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

The Essential Role of State Enforcement in the Brave New World of Greenhouse Gas Emission Limits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Brave New World of Greenhouse Gas Emission Limits MattNATURE AND EXTENT OF THE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION REDUCTIONa similar situation with greenhouse gas emission reductions.

Bogoshian, Matt; Alex, Ken

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level

31

Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

08(96) 08(96) Distribution Category UC-950 Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting October 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. For More Information Individuals or members of organizations wishing to report reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases under the auspices of the Voluntary Reporting Program can contact the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at: Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Energy Information Administration U.S. Department

32

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Net carbon dioxide sequestration in U.S. urban trees, yard trimmings, and food scraps : 35: Emissions of carbon dioxide from biofuel/bioenergy use by sector and fuel

33

U.S. Agriculture's Role Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. Agriculture's Role in a Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World: An Economic Perspective the IMPAC project. #12;Abstract International agreements are likely to stimulate greenhouse gas mitigation Words Agricultural Sinks, Emissions Trading, Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions, Kyoto Protocol #12

McCarl, Bruce A.

34

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Information about the Greenhouse Gas Emission Calculations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sources and Assumptions for the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Sources and Assumptions for the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator To estimate your CO2 emissions rates and generate the bar graph, we used the following sources and assumptions. Your CO2 Emissions Rates Tailpipe (grams CO2/mile) This is the tailpipe CO2 emissions rate for combined city and highway driving that is shown on the fuel economy and environment label for the vehicle model you selected. It is the same regardless of where you live. Total (grams CO2/mile) This includes the vehicle's tailpipe emissions and emissions associated with the production of electricity used to charge the vehicle. For plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, it also includes emissions associated with the production of gasoline. It is estimated using the sources and assumptions below, and will vary based on where you live.

36

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Human Activities: Toward...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Human Activities: Toward Verification of Emissions Control Compliance Speaker(s): Marc Fischer Date: April 29, 2010 - 12:00pm Location:...

37

Impact of Canada’s Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technologies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions form RoadConsiders Copying California’s Greenhouse Gas Law. ” http://Regulations to Control Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Motor

Lutsey, Nicholas P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Impact of Canada's Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technologies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions form RoadConsiders Copying California’s Greenhouse Gas Law. ” http://Regulations to Control Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Motor

Lutsey, Nicholas P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge sector is believed to be responsible for 28.4% of our greenhouse gas emissions (see figure), including 33% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCs

40

Regulating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Date: March 7, 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regulating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Date: March 7, 2011 To: Michigan's Congressional Delegation From: Michigan College, University, Agency and NGO Researchers RE: Clean Air Act and Greenhouse Gas note that the EPA's rules to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from new vehicles were welcomed

Shyy, Wei

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Greenhouse gas emissions, waste and recycling policy Kaylee Acuff  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas emissions, waste and recycling policy Kaylee Acuff and Daniel T. Kaffine We thank@mines.edu.) 1 #12;Greenhouse gas emissions, waste and recycling policy Abstract This paper examines least-cost policies for waste reduction, incorporating upstream greenhouse gas externalities associated

42

Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.unep.org/sbci/pdfs/ Country Mexico Central America References Greenhouse Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials for Buildings[1] Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Screenshot "This report represents the first comprehensive description of the factors that determine the present and future impacts of residential and commercial

43

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Buildings, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: Stationary Combustion Guidance[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for stationary combustion is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically

44

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit Agency/Company /Organization: American Public Transportation Association Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools Resource Type: Reports, Journal Articles, & Tools Website: www.aptastandards.com/Portals/0/SUDS/SUDSPublished/APTA_Climate_Change This Recommended Practice provides guidance to transit agencies for quantifying their greenhouse gas emissions, including both emissions generated by transit and the potential reduction of emissions through efficiency and displacement How to Use This Tool This tool is most helpful when using these strategies: Shift - Change to low-carbon modes

45

title Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet GHGIS Model year month institution Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory address Berkeley abstract p A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet GHGIS model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas GHG and regional criteria pollutant emissions The model included representations of all GHGemitting sectors of the California economy including those outside the energy sector such as high global warming potential gases waste treatment agriculture and forestry in varying degrees of detail and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and

46

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Land use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

53 Wood products originating from forests outside the United States are not included in the U.S. greenhouse gas inventory. 54 Source: U.S. Energy Information ...

47

Canada’s Voluntary Agreement on Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions: When the Details Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of ?uorinated greenhouse gases. greenhouse gas emissions. Washington,ective e?orts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. C.D. Howe

Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13 percent). U.S. nitrous oxide emissions rose from 1990 to 1994, fell from 1994 to 2002, and returned to an upward trajectory from 2003 to 2007, largely as a result of increased use of synthetic fertilizers. Fertilizers are the primary contributor of emissions from nitrogen fertilization of soils, which grew by more than 30 percent from

49

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Residential wood consumption accounted for just over 45 percent of U.S. methane emissions from stationary combustion in 2009.

50

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors contributing to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions in 2009 included an economy in recession with a decrease in gross domestic product of 2.6 percent, a decrease in the energy intensity of the economy of 2.2 percent, and a decrease in the carbon intensity of energy supply of

51

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

oil production dropping by 28 percent from 1990 to 2009, methane emissions from petroleum exploration and production have declined by the same percentage. Residential wood...

52

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for purposes other than their energy value) create carbon dioxide emissions and also sequester carbon in nonfuel products, ...

53

San Diego's carbon footprint : measuring and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Climate Change is one of the most pressing issues of our time. The best way to measure and mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions causing climate… (more)

Bushman, Tara Rose

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Greenhouse gas emissions from public consumption in Gothenburg.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this thesis is to explore and estimate greenhouse gas emissions from the public consumption in Gothenburg. By doing so it should be… (more)

Sinclair, Robin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated peat soils in Sweden.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Greenhouse gas emissions and peat subsidence are major concerns both from an environmental perspective and for farmers with declining soil production capacity. Agricultural databases, digitised… (more)

Berglund, Örjan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation:  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potentials and Policies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potentials and Policies Agency/Company /Organization: Pew Center on Global Climate Change Sector: Climate, Energy Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas, Transportation Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Publications, Technical report Website: www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/aviation-and-marine-report-2009.pdf Cost: Free References: Greenhouse Gas emissions from aviation and marine transportation: mitigation potential and policies[1] "This paper provides an overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from aviation and marine transportation and the various mitigation options to

57

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Building and Operating Electric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Building and Operating Electric Power Plants in the Upper Colorado requires a life cycle perspective. This paper compares greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from three renewable, and natural gas power plants is estimated for four time periods after construction. The assessment

Kammen, Daniel M.

58

Evaluate Buildings Greenhouse Gas Emissions Contribution by Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluate Buildings Greenhouse Gas Emissions Contribution by Program Evaluate Buildings Greenhouse Gas Emissions Contribution by Program Evaluate Buildings Greenhouse Gas Emissions Contribution by Program October 7, 2013 - 10:48am Addthis When prioritizing building types and sites for evaluating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Federal agencies should first determine which programs contribute the most to their total building greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and focus their analysis on those programs. Using the total buildings energy use by program, these emissions profile can be calculated using the Federal Energy Management Program's Annual GHG and Sustainability Data Report site. In the example below, Agency ABC should focus on Programs B and C first because together they represent over 80% of building emissions. Agencies

59

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Federal Energy Technology Center Federal Energy Technology Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Morgantown, West Virginia FETC's Customer Service Line: (800) 553-7681 FETC's Homepage: http://www.fetc.doe.gov/ DOE/FETC-98/1058 (DE98002029) FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions John A. Ruether February 1998 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein

60

Unanticipated Consequences of Regional Greenhouse Gas Policies: Criteria Emissions and the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiave.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) has been developed by 10 Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic states in an attempt to curb emissions of carbon dioxide (C02)… (more)

Olesniewicz, Timothy J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Human Activities: Toward  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Human Activities: Toward Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Human Activities: Toward Verification of Emissions Control Compliance Speaker(s): Marc Fischer Date: April 29, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Local to international control of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will require systematic estimation of emissions and independent verification. California, the only state in the US with legislated controls on GHG emissions, is conducting research to enable emissions verification of the mandated emissions reductions (AB-32). The California Energy Commission supports the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project at LBNL. In collaboration with NOAA, CALGEM measures mixing ratios of all significant GHGs at two tall-towers and on aircraft in

62

South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.unep.org/sbci/pdfs/ Country South Africa UN Region Southern Africa References South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings[1] South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Screenshot "This report aims to provide: a summary quantification of the influence of buildings on climate

63

Meeting an 80% Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation by 2050: A Case Study in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from ,Board, 2008. California Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory.A. , 2003. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from US

Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: Refrigerant Guide[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for refrigeration is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically

65

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions from a  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions from a The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions from a Combined Heat and Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions from a Combined Heat and Power Plant Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Climate Focus Area: - Central Plant, Buildings, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: CHP Guidance v1.0[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for allocation of GHG emissions from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator

66

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased Electricity Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased Electricity Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Buildings, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: Electricity Heat, and Steam Purchase Guidance v1.2[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for purchased electricity is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically

67

Determine Largest Mobile Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Largest Mobile Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources Largest Mobile Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources Determine Largest Mobile Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources October 7, 2013 - 11:39am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 For the purposes of portfolio planning, a Federal agency's first data analysis step is to determine which mobile emissions sources represent the largest contributors to the agency's overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agencies can use agency-level data to determine which fleets/locations, which vehicle assets (e.g., fleet vehicles, non-fleet equipment, etc.), and which fuel types are producing the largest amounts of emissions. Based on this analysis, the agency can better define which mitigation strategies will be most effective. For instance, if a single fleet comprises over half of the agency's vehicle and equipment emissions, the

68

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Building Type October 7, 2013 - 10:51am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Starting with the programs contributing the greatest proportion of building greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the agency should next determine which building types operated by those programs use the most energy (Figure 1). Energy intensity is evaluated instead of emissions in this approach because programs may not have access to emissions data by building type. Figure 1 - An image of an organizational-type chart. A rectangle labeled 'Program 1' has lines pointing to three other rectangles below it labeled 'Building Type 1,' 'Building Type 2,' and 'Building Type 3.' Next to the building types it says, 'Step 2. Estimate emissions by building type.

69

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the Environment. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from AviationD17): 4560. EPA (2006). Greenhouse Gas Emissions from theInventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-

McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

Ruether, J.A.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting 1996  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Presents information on voluntary actions to reduce greenhouse gases or remove such gases from the atmosphere in 1995. It provides an overview of participation in the Voluntary Reporting Program, a perspective on the composition of activities reported, and a review of some key issues in interpreting and evaluating achievements associated with reported emissions mitigation initiatives.

Information Center

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

DOE Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions DOE Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions April 17, 2006 - 10:20am Addthis Announces Revised Guidelines for U.S. Companies to Report and Register Reductions WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced revised guidelines for the department's Voluntary Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, known as "1605 (b)" that encourage broader reporting of emissions and sequestration by utilities, and industries, as well as small businesses and institutions. The revised guidelines strengthen the existing public registry for emissions and sequestration data and introduce new methods for U.S. businesses and institutions to calculate entity-wide emission reductions that contribute to the President's goal of substantially

73

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Jeffery Greenblatt November 2013 For decades, California has used groundbreaking tools to collect and analyze emissions data from a variety of sources to establish a scientific basis for policy making. As its scope has expanded to include greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, it has sought out similar tools to use to achieve the goals of legislation such as the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32). To support this effort, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model funded by the California Air Resources Board (ARB), to explore the impact of combinations

74

Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6/5/2013 1 Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas Council June 4, 2013 Portland, OR 1 CO2 Chemistry 1 molecule of CO 1 atom carbon1 molecule of CO2 = 1 atom carbon + 2 atoms oxygen 2 #12;6/5/2013 2 CO2 Chemistry 1 mole of carbon = 6 02 x 1023 carbon atoms 1

75

Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Connecticut) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Connecticut) Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Connecticut) Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Climate Policies Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection

76

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act (Maryland) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reduction Act (Maryland) Reduction Act (Maryland) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act (Maryland) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Maryland Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Maryland Department of the Environment The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act requires the Department of the Environment to publish and update an inventory of statewide greenhouse gas emissions for calendar year 2006 and requires the State to reduce statewide

77

PPPL Celebrates Earth Day with Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PPPL Celebrates Earth Day with Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions PPPL Celebrates Earth Day with Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions By Patti Wieser April 25, 2011 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. In an effort to respond to President Obama's call to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 28 percent by the year 2020, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have identified ways to cut emissions that will allow the facility to exceed that goal - a decade early. Staff members at the laboratory, where scientists are finding ways to produce fusion energy, have trimmed the facility's greenhouse gas emissions

78

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile Using Renewable Energy in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile Using Renewable Energy in Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:16am Addthis After assessing the potential for agency size changes, a Federal agency should evaluate its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile using renewable energy in buildings. When using renewable energy in buildings, the approach for evaluating GHG emissions involves evaluating the renewable energy resource potential and determining what type of renewable energy technology to use in a building. To help determine renewable energy resource potential at a site, see FEMP's information on Renewable Energy Resource Maps and Screening Tools. Also see Renewable Energy Project Planning and Implementation.

79

Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium Natural Gas Prices 6. Potential Federal CO2 regulatory cost policy Two basic CO2 Cost 10 20 30 40 Million Generation Coal 19 % 15 % 13 % Natural Gas 10 % 10 % 14 % Wind & Other Renewables 8 % 12 % 13 % Emission

80

Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and A. Schafer, Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S.Marintek, Study of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ships .Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from

Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods Agency/Company /Organization: International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Industry Topics: Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type: Publications Website: www.iisd.org/pdf/2009/bali_2_copenhagen_egs.pdf References: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods[1] Background "As part of a suite of activities under the From Bali to Copenhagen project, IISD's work on low-carbon goods has focused on trying to measure the actual potential climate gains from what's now on the table in the WTO

82

Survey Employees to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Commuting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Survey Employees to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Survey Employees to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Commuting Survey Employees to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Commuting October 7, 2013 - 1:47pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 For evaluating a greenhouse gas (GHG) profile for employee commuting, data on behavior and attitudes are best collected through an agency-wide survey. The default survey methodology in the Federal GHG Accounting Guidance is designed to collect the minimum data for emissions calculations. Additional information may be necessary to determine which trip reduction strategies are best suited for specific employee populations. The optional questions in the advanced survey methodology or data gathered through an agency-defined employee commute survey can provide this understanding.

83

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Table-Figure Notes and Sources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Carbon sequestration in U.S. croplands and grasslands, 1990-2008: Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: ...

84

Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Business  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Business Travel Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Business Travel October 7, 2013 - 1:27pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 To evaluate a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile, most of the information required to support air travel demand management is currently available through Federal agency-level travel information systems, such as GovTrip. However, that information may not be distributed to programs, regional offices, and sites, which are in the best position to evaluate opportunities to reduce travel. Considerations that may help the agency determine the level at which data should be collected and analyzed include: Where are budgets and policies regarding travel made and modified?

85

Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings October 7, 2013 - 10:45am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Strategic planning for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in buildings requires an understanding of a Federal agency's buildings portfolio, including which programs, building types, and sites contribute the most to the agency's emissions. The data described in Table 1 below will support this type of analysis. It is recommended that this information be collected at the agency and program level. Programs refer to major operating units within the agency where there is a significant degree of autonomy in planning and decision-making. In many cases, the type of data required for portfolio planning may already

86

Greenhouse Gas Emission Impacts of Carsharing in North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts that result from individuals participating in carsharing organizations within North America. The authors conducted an online survey with members of major carsharing organizations and evaluated ...

Elliot W. Martin; Susan A. Shaheen

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Cal Climate Action Partnership: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cal Climate Action Partnership: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions at UC Berkeley Speaker(s): Fahmida Ahmed Date: January 11, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of...

88

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport or  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transport or Transport or Mobil Sources Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport or Mobil Sources Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Transportation, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for mobile combustion is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically from mobile combustion sources, including vehicles under the direct control

89

Greenhouse gas emissions related to ethanol produced from corn  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report confers the details of a panel meeting discussion on greenhouse gases. The topic of this discussion was ethanol. Members discussed all aspects of growing corn and producing ethanol. Then the question was raised as to whether or not this is a suitable substitute to fossil fuel usage in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

Marland, G.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology September 22, 2005 - 10:45am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy today released for public review and comment a plan for accelerating the development and reducing the cost of new and advanced technologies that avoid, reduce, or capture and store greenhouse gas emissions - the technology component of a comprehensive U.S. approach to climate change. The technologies developed under the Climate Change Technology program will be used and deployed among the United States' partners in the Asia-Pacific Partnership for Clean Development that was announced earlier this year.

91

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Table-Figure Notes and Sources  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

A1. Notes and Sources A1. Notes and Sources Tables Chapter 1: Greenhouse gas emissions overview Table 1. U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential, 1990-2009: Sources: Emissions: EIA estimates. Data in this table are revised from the data contained in the previous EIA report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008, DOE/EIA-0573(2008) (Washington, DC, December 2009). Global warming potentials: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Errata (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008), website http://ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/wg1/Report/AR4WG1_Errata_2008-12-01.pdf. Table 2. U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors, 1990-2009: Sources: Emissions: EIA estimates. Data in this table are revised from the

92

Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets October 7, 2013 - 10:24am Addthis Question to Answer What are appropriate GHG emission reduction targets for specific agency programs and sites? Not all administrative units within the agency have the same potential to contribute to agency-level targets. This step aims to help agencies establish what each major administrative unit (e.g. program site) should contribute to the agency goal based on its planned growth trajectory and estimates of its cost and potential to reduce GHG emissions. As illustrated in the figure below, two sites may have equal potential to reduce GHG emissions. But a site expecting significant mission-related growth prior to the 2020 target year may have a lower reduction target

93

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

National Lab Directors, . .

2001-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

94

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

National Lab Directors, . .

2001-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

95

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emissions Emissions Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions October 7, 2013 - 10:12am Addthis Federal agencies should establish planned changes in operations that could have a substantial impact on emissions for each greenhouse gas (GHG) emission source: Buildings Vehicles and mobile equipment Business travel Employee commuting. Such changes could represent either an additional significant hurdle to overcome or a significant reduction in the effort required to drive emissions down-in the absence of any direct GHG mitigation reduction strategies. This will help each organization establish its "business as usual" emission profile in 2020, the year agencies are expected to meet their Scope 1 and 2 and Scope 3 GHG emission-reduction goals.

96

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emissions Profile Emissions Profile Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile October 7, 2013 - 10:14am Addthis Evaluating a Federal agency's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile means getting a solid understanding of the organization's largest emission categories, largest emission sources, and its potential for improvement: Buildings Vehicles and mobile equipment Business travel Employee commuting. While the data required for annual GHG reporting are sufficient to establish an agency's overall emission inventory, these data are not typically enough information for effectively managing emissions. A detailed, bottom-up assessment can provide the foundation for much more robust Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans. Because detailed analyses of all assets can be time-intensive, strategic planning helps the

97

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from geothermal electricity production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A life cycle analysis (LCA) is presented for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil energy use associated with geothermal electricity production with a special focus on operational GHG emissions from hydrothermal flash and dry steam plants. The analysis includes results for both the plant and fuel cycle components of the total life cycle. The impact of recent changes to California's GHG reporting protocol for GHG emissions are discussed by comparing emission rate metrics derived from post and pre revision data sets. These metrics are running capacity weighted average GHG emission rates (g/kWh) and emission rate cumulative distribution functions. To complete our life cycle analysis plant cycle results were extracted from our previous work and added to fuel cycle results. The resulting life cycle fossil energy and greenhouse gas emissions values are compared among a range of fossil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided Deforestation of Tropical Rainforests on Privately-owned Lands in High Conservation Value Areas Jump to: navigation, search Name Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided Deforestation of Tropical Rainforests on Privately-owned Lands in High Conservation Value Areas Agency/Company /Organization Government of Costa Rica, Peace with Nature Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Co-benefits assessment, Implementation, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.paxnatura.org/pax_n Country Costa Rica UN Region Latin America and the Caribbean References Costa Rica[1] Overview References ↑ "Costa Rica" Retrieved from

99

"Blue Sky" Approaches to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An Initial Assessment of Potential New Types of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an initial assessment of potential new approaches to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that might be capable of generating large-scale GHG emissions offsets at relatively low cost compared to other GHG mitigation options. The nine potential blue sky approaches assessed in this report include biochar, destruction of ozone depleting substances, control of natural fugitive methane seeps from coal seams, control of fugitive natural gas emissions associated with hydraulic fracturing...

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

100

Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report  

SciTech Connect

It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Portfolio Manager Technical Reference: Greenhouse Gas Emissions | ENERGY  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Greenhouse Gas Emissions Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder

102

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

104

CHBE 484: Term Report Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHBE 484: Term Report Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Future UBC Transportation Options Curtis of UBC transportation in: 2007, 2020 based on the current transportation methods, the elimination for cars and 2316.08 tonnes CO2 for trolley and conventional buses traveling to UBC. If the transportation

105

Modeling Swtichgrass Biomass Production and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling Swtichgrass Biomass Production and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions Weiyuan Zhu, Johan in the atmosphere have led to renewed interest in energy from plant biomass. Surfing the internet or flipping to a series of concerns, apprehensions and challenges presented by a shift to a heavier reliance on biomass

California at Davis, University of

106

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5. High-GWP gases 5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA Vintaging Model. Emissions from manufacturing and utilities are derived by the EPA from a mix of public and proprietary data, including from the EPA's voluntary emission reduction partnership programs. For this year's EIA inventory, 2008 values for HFC-23 from HCFC-22

107

Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Carbon Sequestration ..... 199 62 Halogenated Substances ..... 22 18 Other Emissions Reductions ..... 59 45 Total ...

108

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicles and Mobile Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:32am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 To gain a good understanding of a Federal agency's Scope 1 vehicle and mobile equipment greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the agency must first collect the necessary data to profile any emissions sources then analyze the data in a way that will clarify the most viable strategies and alternatives. Emissions cannot be managed until they are measured. Through the use of fleet/vehicle management information systems, as well as reporting to the Federal Energy Management Program and General Services Administration, agencies are increasingly collecting and documenting useful data elements at the headquarters-and sometimes at specific site -levels.

109

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Speed Redcutions on Vessel-Based Emissions for InternationalAviation-Related GHG Emissions: A Systems Analysis forthe Environment. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and

McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

The Transportation Greenhouse Gas Inventory: A First Step Toward City-Driven Emissions Rationalization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for greenhouse gas emissions, Department of Chemical andStep Toward City-Driven Emissions Rationalization ChrisStep toward City-Driven Emissions Rationalization Submitted

Ganson, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

The Role of Hydropower Reservoirs in Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent publications of measurements and analyses of reservoir greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have sparked debate about the carbon neutrality of hydropower. This report describes the results of two initial tasks of a multiyear study to assess the importance of carbon cycling and GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs and operations in the United States. The risks this issue presents to the U.S. hydropower industry are discussed, and a plan to resolve uncertainties is presented. Throughout this report, r...

2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

112

The EPRI Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Policy Dialogue  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2008, EPRI launched the EPRI Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Offset Policy Dialogue project. The goals of this project are to inform key constituencies involved in the development of U.S. climate mitigation strategies and policies about GHG emissions offset-related policies and design issues, and to provide a forum in which representatives of key sectors of the U.S. economy and communities involved in the ongoing development and debate on climate change policies can discuss these issues. This Technical...

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

113

2005 Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Ascribable to the University of Washington  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2005 Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Ascribable to the University of Washington October 2007 ............................................................................................6 Operational Boundaries.......................................................................................................................21 Montlake Landfill

Kaminsky, Werner

114

Yale University committed to reducing its primary greenhouse gas emissions 43% below 2005 levels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Yale University committed to reducing its primary greenhouse gas emissions 43% below 2005 levels. Beginning in 2013, emissions from the University fleet are included in the reduction target. Greenhouse Gas. 2005 2013 In 2005,Yale University pledged to reduce its primary greenhouse gas emissions forty

115

Projecting Insect Voltinism Under High and Low Greenhouse Gas Emission Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REVIEW Projecting Insect Voltinism Under High and Low Greenhouse Gas Emission Conditions SHI CHEN,1 change can alter insect voltinism under varying greenhouse gas emissions scenarios by using input climate data until 2099 under both high (A1Ã?) and low (B1) greenhouse gas emission scenarios, we used

116

A graphical technique for explaining the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and greenhouse gas emissions Larry Hughes and Nikita Sheth Energy Research Group Department of Electrical the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions Larry Hughes and Nikita Sheth Abstract and the differences between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a graphical technique

Hughes, Larry

117

RESEARCH ARTICLE Greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from several  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESEARCH ARTICLE Greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from several perialpine and alpine investigated greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from reservoirs located across an altitude gradient in Switzerland. These are the first results of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs at high elevations

Wehrli, Bernhard

118

AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ANALYSIS ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION MITIGATION IN THE UNITED STATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ANALYSIS ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION MITIGATION IN THE UNITED STATES: Agricultural Economics #12;AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ANALYSIS ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION MITIGATION IN THE UNITED on Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation in the United States. (December 2000) Uwe Schneider, M.Ag., Humboldt

McCarl, Bruce A.

119

Field validation of the DNDC model for greenhouse gas emissions in East Asian cropping systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Field validation of the DNDC model for greenhouse gas emissions in East Asian cropping systems annual variations of greenhouse gas emissions from cropping systems and effects of land management a powerful tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. INDEX TERMS: 1610 Global

120

Summary of Environmental Performance at Harvard Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Harvard University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary of Environmental Performance at Harvard Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Harvard University of emissions reductions associated with central utilities. Harvard University Greenhouse Gas Emissions: FY2006 AND SAFETY The 2010 Harvard University Greenhouse Gas Inventory represents the full breadth of the University

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Summary of Environmental Performance at Harvard Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Harvard University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary of Environmental Performance at Harvard Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Harvard University of emissions reductions associated with central utilities. Harvard University Greenhouse Gas Emissions: FY2006 AND SAFETY The 2011 Harvard University Greenhouse Gas Inventory represents the full breadth of the University

122

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Land use  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6. Land use 6. Land use 6.1. Total land use, land use change, and forests This chapter presents estimates of carbon sequestration (removal from the atmosphere) and emissions (release into the atmosphere) from forests, croplands, grasslands, and residential areas (urban trees, grass clippings, and food scraps) in the United States. In 2008, land use, land use change, and forests were responsible for estimated net carbon sequestration of 940 MMTCO2e (Table 31), representing 16 percent of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The largest sequestration category in 2008 was forest lands and harvested wood pools,49 with estimated sequestration increasing from 730 MMTCO2e in 1990 to 792 MMTCO2e in 2008. The second-largest carbon sequestration category was urban trees,50 responsible for 57 MMTCO2e in 1990 and 94

123

Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Buildings Buildings Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings October 7, 2013 - 10:47am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Once the relevant data have been collected, the next step is to identify the biggest building energy users and their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribution. Ideally would be done at the program level using actual building characteristic and performance data. However, assumptions may be established about energy performance of buildings based on general location and building type. Ultimately, building efficiency measures need to be evaluated at the building level before implementing them, but facility energy managers can evaluate the relative impact of different GHG reduction approaches using assumptions about the building characteristics and estimates of efficiency

124

How Portfolio Manager calculates greenhouse gas emissions | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Portfolio Manager calculates greenhouse gas emissions How Portfolio Manager calculates greenhouse gas emissions Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In this section Learn the benefits Get started Use Portfolio Manager The new ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager How Portfolio Manager helps you save The benchmarking starter kit Identify your property type Enter data into Portfolio Manager The data quality checker

125

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Employee Commuting |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Employee Commuting Employee Commuting Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Employee Commuting October 7, 2013 - 1:44pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 To fulfill annual reporting requirements under Executive Order 13514, Federal agencies must estimate the total commute miles traveled by employees using each transportation method. While these data are rolled up to the agency level for reporting purposes, effective planning for commuter greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions requires an understanding of employee commute behavior at the worksite level. For agencies with hundreds or thousands of worksites across the country, worksite level analysis may not be feasible for all locations. It is recommended that agencies focus initial analysis on the largest worksites or clusters of worksites in major metropolitan areas with similar commuting

126

Estimate Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimate Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions October 7, 2013 - 1:35pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 3 To estimate the GHG impact of a business travel reduction program, a Federal agency or program should quantify the number of trips that could be avoided each year. If an agency has a large proportion of international travel, the agency may estimate changes in domestic and international trips separately because the associated savings in miles can be very different. General Services Administration Resources to Support GHG Mitigation Planning TravelTrax provides agencies with several tools that can help plan for reductions in business travel. This includes a tool to help estimate the impact of videoconferencing and a tool that can help conference and event planners to identify event locations that consider where attendees are coming from in order to reduce air travel GHGs. These tools are embedded in the GSA Travel MIS database, thus enabling agencies to link their actual travel to different planning scenarios and evaluate options.

127

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Title Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6541E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Greenblatt, J. Date Published 10/2013 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHGemitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 μm) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

128

Aspects on Bioenergy as a Technical Measure to Reduce Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Greenhouse gas emission assessments of energy supply systems have traditionally included the CO2 emissions produced as the fuel is burned. A lot of models and… (more)

Wihersaari, Margareta

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Aspects on bioenergy as a technical measure to reduce energy related greenhouse gas emissions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Greenhouse gas emission assessments of energy supply systems have traditionally included the CO2 emissions produced as the fuel is burned. A lot of models and… (more)

Wihersaari, Margareta

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Greenhouse gas emissions associated with different meat-free diets in Sweden.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The production of food is responsible for large share of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. There is a wide range of emissions associated with… (more)

Baumann, Andreas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to close the gap on unregulated greenhouse gas emissions.a higher lifecycle greenhouse gas content than conventionalIN- FORMATION ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONs AssocIATEIDn wrri

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Heavy-Duty Vehicle Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

133

Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Bruce A. Mc Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Today society faces important prevalent greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide - CO2), it is important in the total picture. According

McCarl, Bruce A.

134

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Buildings Buildings Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings October 7, 2013 - 10:43am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 To identify the most cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction strategies across a Federal agency's building portfolio, a Federal agency will need an understanding of building energy performance and the building characteristics that drive performance. The data required to support current Federal GHG reporting requirements (e.g., agency-wide fuel consumption, electricity use by zip code) are typically not sufficient to fully understand where the best opportunities for improvement are located. More detailed information about the building assets being managed-much of which may already be collected for other purposes-can help to inform where to direct investments.

135

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since greenhouse gases are a global concern, rather than a local concern as are some kinds of effluents, one must compare the entire lifecycle of nuclear power to alternative technologies for generating electricity. A recent critical analysis by Sovacool (2008) gives a clearer picture. "It should be noted that nuclear power is not directly emitting greenhouse gas emissions, but rather that lifecycle emissions occur through plant construction, operation, uranium mining and milling, and plant decommissioning." "[N]uclear energy is in no way 'carbon free' or 'emissions free,' even though it is much better (from purely a carbon-equivalent emissions standpoint) than coal, oil, and natural gas electricity generators, but worse than renewable and small scale distributed generators" (Sovacool 2008). According to Sovacool, at an estimated 66 g CO2 equivalent per kilowatt-hour (gCO2e/kWh), nuclear power emits 15 times less CO2 per unit electricity generated than unscrubbed coal generation (at 1050 gCO2e/kWh), but 7 times more than the best renewable, wind (at 9 gCO2e/kWh). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2009) has long recognized CO2 emissions in its regulations concerning the environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle. In Table S-3 of 10 CFR 51.51(b), NRC lists a 1000-MW(electric) nuclear plant as releasing as much CO2 as a 45-MW(e) coal plant. A large share of the carbon emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle is due to the energy consumption to enrich uranium by the gaseous diffusion process. A switch to either gas centrifugation or laser isotope separation would dramatically reduce the carbon emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle.

Strom, Daniel J.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

New Generating Technology to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Generating Technology to Generating Technology to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION 30 TH BIRTHDAY CONFERENCE April 7, 2008 Linda G. Stuntz Stuntz, Davis & Staffier, P.C. Stuntz, Davis & Staffier, P.C. 2 The Target * Energy related emissions of CO2 will increase by about 16% in AEO 2008 Reference Case between 2006 and 2030 (5,890 MM metric tons to 6,859 MM metric tons). (#s from Caruso Senate Energy testimony of 3/4/08). * Last year, emissions from electricity generation were 40% of total energy-related GHG emissions. * Based on projected annual electricity demand growth of 1.1%. Stuntz, Davis & Staffier, P.C. 3 The Target Cont'd * 16.4 GW of new nuclear + 2.7 GW Uprates of existing plants less 4.5 GW of retirements. * Coal responsible for 54% of generation in 2030.

137

Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada Paul Steenhof a,*, Clarence committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012 annual reduction of greenhouse gases of 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012. The transportation

140

Climate Change Standards Working Group, SUDS Policy and Planning Committee Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Transit Abstract: This Recommended Practice provides guidance to transit agencies for quantifying their greenhouse gas emissions, including both emissions generated by transit and the potential reduction of emissions through efficiency and displacement by laying out a standard methodology for transit agencies to report their greenhouse gas emissions in a transparent, consistent and cost-effective manner.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

Not Available

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Jeffery B. Greenblatt Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 November 2013 This work was supported by the Research Division, California Air Resources Board under ARB Agreement No. 12-329. LBNL-6451E DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of

143

Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Uwe A. Schneider Words): Use of biofuels diminishes fossil fuel combustion thereby also reducing net greenhouse gas. To explore the economic potential of biofuels in a greenhouse gas mitigation market, we incorporate data

McCarl, Bruce A.

144

Predicting and mitigating the net greenhouse gas emissions of crop rotations in Western Europe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting and mitigating the net greenhouse gas emissions of crop rotations in Western Europe gases (GHG) con- tributing to net greenhouse gas balance of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact to the final greenhouse gas balance. One experimental site (involving a maize-wheat-barley-mustard rotation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes

DeLucia, Evan H.

146

Hybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application to Canada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application explore the implications for Canada's industrial sector of an economy-wide, compulsory greenhouse gas of these strengths is linked to challenges when it comes to forecasting the impact of greenhouse gas policy. We

147

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................................................20 3 Transportation biofuels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

An Analysis of the Efficacy of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Policy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper provides an analysis of the efficacy of United States (US) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction policy implemented in the mid-1990s, specifically targeting the… (more)

Meyer, Russell

149

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

China’s energy-related CO 2 emissions from 1996 to 1999: thefoot: In measuring carbon emissions, it’s easy to confuseChina’s greenhouse gas emissions. Science, 294, 1835– 1837.

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

Eckaus, Richard S.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson [University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Ecosystem Science and Sustainability Initiative

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Business  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Business Travel Business Travel Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Business Travel October 7, 2013 - 1:28pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Once the key information has been compiled, a Federal agency should be well-positioned to address the following questions at the agency, program, or site level, as appropriate: What Proportion of Employees Travel? Developing an understanding of who is traveling will help to establish a more useful baseline and measure of progress than tracking change for all employees. An example of how this can better inform planning is shown in Figure 1. Looking only at the total trips and total employees at Agency ABC, the resulting metric is 2 trips per employee per year. However, because only 40% of employees at Agency ABC travel the average number of

153

Effects of Internet-based multiple-site conferences on greenhouse gas emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a growing consensus that ICT can contribute to the reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, both by increasing the efficiency of existing processes and by enabling substitution effects to usher in more energy efficient patterns ... Keywords: Greenhouse-gas emissions, ICT for energy efficiency, Multiple-site conference, Rebound effect, Substitution effect, Videoconferencing

Vlad C. Coroama; Lorenz M. Hilty; Martin Birtel

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Overview of coal consumption and related environmental trends, and implications for greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews world and regional trends in coal consumption, and its growing contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. The paper then discusses a number of options within the coal system where greenhouse gas emissions, particularly CO{sub 2}, can be reduced. The commercial status and environmental performance of the main power plant technology options are briefly reviewed.

Johnson, C.J.; Wang, X.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final project report describes a three-year long EPRI supplemental project entitled "Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions." This EPRI-sponsored project investigated an innovative approach to developing large-scale, cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that potentially can be implemented across broad geographic areas of the United States and internationally.

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

156

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Shale Gas, Nuraral Gas, Coal,Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas, ENvr_. Ries. LTRs. , Aug.acknowledge, "Marcellus shale gas production is still in its

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Climate Change Commitment Task Force Charter To advise the President on strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions generated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to reduce greenhouse gas emissions generated by the campus community, to engage the campus community in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and to promote and support instruction and research on the impact of greenhouse gas emissions. Background: In August, President Hrabowski signed the American

Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

158

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Climate Action Partnership. Contribution of Food Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Partnership. Contribution of Food Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: Moving UBC Beyond Climate Neutral System Project 2009 Scenario 1: Climate Action Partnership. Contribution of Food Greenhouse Gas Emissions it will have on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The majority of foods served on campus originate from

159

TY RPRT T1 Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in Estimating Policy Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet GHGIS Model A1 J Greenblatt AB p A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet GHGIS model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas GHG and regional criteria pollutant emissions The model included representations of all GHGemitting sectors of the California economy including those outside the energy sector such as high global warming potential gases waste treatment agriculture and forestry in varying degrees of detail and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources Starting from basic drivers such as population numbers

160

Electricity price impacts of alternative Greenhouse gas emission cap-and-trade programs  

SciTech Connect

Limits on greenhouse gas emissions would raise the prices of the goods and services that require such emissions for their production, including electricity. Looking at a variety of emission limit cases and scenarios for selling or allocating allowances to load-serving entities, the authors estimate how the burden of greenhouse gas limits are likely to be distributed among electricity consumers in different states. (author)

Edelston, Bruce; Armstrong, Dave; Kirsch, Laurence D.; Morey, Mathew J.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Federal, state and utility roles in reducing new building greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper will explore the role of implementation of building energy codes and standards in reducing US greenhouse gas emissions. It will discuss the role of utilities in supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency in improving the efficiency of new buildings. The paper will summarize Federal policies and programs that improve code compliance and increase overall greenhouse gas emission reductions. Finally, the paper will discuss the role of code compliance and the energy and greenhouse gas emission reductions that have been realized from various Federal, State and utility programs that enhance compliance.

Johnson, J.A.; Shankle, D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Boulin, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Event:11th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading 1th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png 11th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading: on 2011/10/03 "The IEA-IETA-EPRI Emissions Trading Workshop has been held annually at the headquarters of the International Energy Agency since 2000. This international workshop focuses on developments in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading around the world at the international, national and sub-national level. The 2011 workshop will cover topics relevant to the development of global, national and sub-national carbon markets, including scaled-up and new market mechanisms, NAMAs and sectoral crediting policies, MRV and international GHG accounting and 2nd-best trading programmes. As in previous years, the workshop will assemble representatives from government,

163

Event:11th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Day 2 | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Day 2 th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Day 2 Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png 11th Annual Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading: on 2011/10/04 "The IEA-IETA-EPRI Emissions Trading Workshop has been held annually at the headquarters of the International Energy Agency since 2000. This international workshop focuses on developments in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading around the world at the international, national and sub-national level. The 2011 workshop will cover topics relevant to the development of global, national and sub-national carbon markets, including scaled-up and new market mechanisms, NAMAs and sectoral crediting policies, MRV and international GHG accounting and 2nd-best trading programmes. As in previous years, the workshop will assemble representatives from government,

164

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report covers the first two years of a three-year long project entitled "Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions." This EPRI-sponsored project is investigating an innovative approach to developing large-scale and potentially cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that could be implemented across broad geographic areas of the U.S. and internationally. The tools and information developed in this project will broaden the GHG emissions offset ...

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

165

Guidance on measuring and reporting Greenhouse Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Guidance on measuring and reporting Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from freight transport This guidance provides clear instructions on calculating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from freight and report your greenhouse gas emissions', by providing more specific information and examples relating

166

EXTENSION OF ISO 14001 ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE METAL CASTING INDUSTRY TO INCLUDE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions legislation in the United States is forthcoming. Manufacturers have dealt with past emissions regulations differently, some through implementing environmental management systems… (more)

Miller, Gretchen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

The Regional Incidence of a National Greenhouse Gas Emission Limit: Title VII of the American Clean Energy and Security Act  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Regional Incidence of a National Greenhouse Gas Emission Limit: Title VII of the American the macroeconomic costs of greenhouse gas emission reductions under Title VII of the American Clean Energy limits on domestic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This paper analyzes the macroeconomic costs

Wing, Ian Sue

168

A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

169

Impact of Canada’s Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Canada. ANL/ESD/02-5, Argonne National Laboratory, U.S.Department of Energy. Argonne, Illinois. Schwarz, W. and J.and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. ” Argonne National Laboratory,

Lutsey, Nicholas P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Impact of Canada's Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Canada. ANL/ESD/02-5, Argonne National Laboratory, U.S.Department of Energy. Argonne, Illinois. Schwarz, W. and J.and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. ” Argonne National Laboratory,

Lutsey, Nicholas P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than the ANL Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

172

State of the Science of Biopower Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass power offers utilities a potential pathway to increase their renewable generation portfolio for compliance with renewable energy standards and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions relative to current fossil-based technologies. To date, a large body of life-cycle assessment (LCA) literature assessing biopower's life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has been published. An exhaustive search of the biopower LCA literature yielded 117 references that passed quality and relevance screening criteria. ...

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

173

Impact of U.S. Nuclear Generation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Impact of U.S. Nuclear Generation Impact of U.S. Nuclear Generation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Ronald E. Hagen, John R. Moens, and Zdenek D. Nikodem Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna, Austria November 6-9, 2001 iii Energy Information Administration/ Impact of U.S. Nuclear Generation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Contents Page I. The Electric Power Industry and the Greenhouse Gas Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 II. The Current Role of the U.S. Nuclear Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 III. The Future Role of the U.S. Nuclear Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 IV. Factors That Affect Nuclear Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 V. Conclusion

174

Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Volume 1: Nationwide Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Volume 1: Nationwide Greenhouse Gas Emissions Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Volume 1: Nationwide Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1015325 Final Report, July 2007 Each of the ... scenarios showed significant Greenhouse Gas reductions due to PHEV fleet penetration ... ... PHEVs adoption results in significant reduction in the consumption of petroleum fuels. ' ' DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING

175

2, 77102, 2005 Greenhouse gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BGD 2, 77­102, 2005 Greenhouse gas emissions from Indian rice fields H. Pathak et al. Title Page Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Greenhouse gas emissions from Indian Commons License. 77 #12;BGD 2, 77­102, 2005 Greenhouse gas emissions from Indian rice fields H. Pathak et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef

Zhou, Yaoqi

177

Greenhouse-gas emissions from biofuel use in Asia.  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a primary fuel for much of the world's population. In some developing countries it can contribute 80-90% of total primary energy consumption. In Asia as a whole we estimate that biomass contributes about 22 EJ, almost 24% of total energy use. Much of this biomass is combusted in inefficient domestic stoves and cookers, enhancing the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PIC), many of which are greenhouse gases. An inventory of the combustion of biofuels (fuelwood, crop residues, and dried animal waste) in Asia is used to develop estimates of the emissions of carbon-containing greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2},CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHC) in Asian countries. The data are examined from two perspectives: total carbon released and total global warming potential (GWP) of the gases. We estimate that blofuels contributed 573 Tg-C in 1990, about 28% of the total carbon emissions from energy use in Asia. China (259 Tg-C) and India (187 Tg-C) were the largest emitting countries by far. The majority of the emissions, 504 Tg-C, are in the form of CO{sub 2}; however, emissions of non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases are significant: 57 Tg-C as CO, 6.4 Tg-C as CH{sub 4}, and 5.9 Tg-C as NMHC. Because of the high rate of incomplete combustion in typical biofuel stoves and the high GWP coefficients of the products of incomplete combustion, biofuels comprise an even larger share of energy-related emissions when measured in terms of global warming potential (in CO{sub 2} equivalents): 38% over a 20-year time frame and 31% over 100 years. Even when the biofuel is assumed to be harvested on a completely sustainable basis (all CO{sub 2} emissions are reabsorbed in the following growing season), PIC emissions from biofuel combustion account for almost 5% of total carbon emissions and nearly 25% of CO{sub 2} equivalents in terms of short-term (20-year) GWP.

Streets, D. G.; Waldhoff, S. T.

1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

178

Greenhouse-gas emissions from biofuel use in Asia.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass is a primary fuel for much of the world's population. In some developing countries it can contribute 80-90% of total primary energy consumption. In Asia as a whole we estimate that biomass contributes about 22 EJ, almost 24% of total energy use. Much of this biomass is combusted in inefficient domestic stoves and cookers, enhancing the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PIC), many of which are greenhouse gases. An inventory of the combustion of biofuels (fuelwood, crop residues, and dried animal waste) in Asia is used to develop estimates of the emissions of carbon-containing greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2},CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHC) in Asian countries. The data are examined from two perspectives: total carbon released and total global warming potential (GWP) of the gases. We estimate that blofuels contributed 573 Tg-C in 1990, about 28% of the total carbon emissions from energy use in Asia. China (259 Tg-C) and India (187 Tg-C) were the largest emitting countries by far. The majority of the emissions, 504 Tg-C, are in the form of CO{sub 2}; however, emissions of non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases are significant: 57 Tg-C as CO, 6.4 Tg-C as CH{sub 4}, and 5.9 Tg-C as NMHC. Because of the high rate of incomplete combustion in typical biofuel stoves and the high GWP coefficients of the products of incomplete combustion, biofuels comprise an even larger share of energy-related emissions when measured in terms of global warming potential (in CO{sub 2} equivalents): 38% over a 20-year time frame and 31% over 100 years. Even when the biofuel is assumed to be harvested on a completely sustainable basis (all CO{sub 2} emissions are reabsorbed in the following growing season), PIC emissions from biofuel combustion account for almost 5% of total carbon emissions and nearly 25% of CO{sub 2} equivalents in terms of short-term (20-year) GWP.

Streets, D. G.; Waldhoff, S. T.

1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

179

Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have been raised whether development of shale gas resources results in an overall lower greenhouse gas, "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas," appeared in Environmental Research Letters

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

180

Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week{sup -1} and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 {sup o}C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH{sub 4} Mg{sup -1} input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N{sub 2}O Mg{sup -1} ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH{sub 4} during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH{sub 4} emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg{sup -1} ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

Andersen, J.K., E-mail: jka@env.dtu.d [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Int. J. Global Energy Issues, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2005 307 Canada's efforts towards greenhouse gas emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Int. J. Global Energy Issues, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2005 307 Canada's efforts towards greenhouse gas greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Without a major change in direction towards more compulsory policies, it seems unlikely that Canada will achieve significant domestic greenhouse gas reductions over and beyond

182

Corporate Carbon Strategy and Procurement of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets for Compliance with Mandatory Carbon Constraints  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report explores strategies that may be employed by electric companies and other industrial enterprises to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to comply with potential future mandatory GHG emissions reduction programs. It explores the opportunities, challenges and risks associated with reducing GHG emissions from within a company's own operations, as well as other approaches that may be used for compliance such as real-time coal-to-natural gas fuel switching in the regional dispatch of electr...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

183

Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Science Computing, Environment & Life Sciences Energy Engineering & Systems Analysis Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Science Highlights Postdoctoral Researchers Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic ethanol July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that may accompany land-use change (LUC) from increased biofuel feedstock production are a source of debate in the discussion of drawbacks and advantages of biofuels. Estimates of LUC GHG emissions focus mainly on corn ethanol and vary widely. Increasing the understanding of LUC GHG impacts associated with both corn and cellulosic ethanol will inform the on-going debate concerning their magnitudes and

184

Estimating the benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction from agricultural policy reform  

SciTech Connect

Land use and agricultural activities contribute directly to the increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Economic support in industrialized countries generally increases agriculture's contribution to global greenhouse gas concentrations through fluxes associated with land use change and other sources. Changes in economic support offers opportunities to reduce net emissions, through this so far has gone unaccounted. Estimates are presented here of emissions of methane from livestock in the UK and show that, in monetary terms, when compared to the costs of reducing support, greenhouse gases are a significant factor. As signatory parties to the Climate Change Convection are required to stabilize emissions of all greenhouse gases, options for reduction of emissions of methane and other trace gases from the agricultural sector should form part of these strategies.

Adger, W.N. (Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment); Moran, D.C. (Univ. College, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Emissions Offsets: The Key Role of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets in a U.S. Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For U.S. industries with operations that emit greenhouse gases (GHGs), climate policy is no longer a distant possibility it is being planned and, in some cases, implemented today. While debate on a federal GHG trade program continues in Congress, CO2 emission reduction requirements have been put in effect in Northeastern States (i.e., the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative RGGI), are being developed in California (to implement the state's "Global Warming Solutions Act" AB32), and are being designed in th...

2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

186

Assessing the fuel Use and greenhouse gas emissions of future light-duty vehicles in Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of great concern in Japan, as well as elsewhere, such as in the U.S. and EU. More than 20% of GHG emissions in Japan come from the transportation sector, and a more than 70% ...

Nishimura, Eriko

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

A Comprehensive Overview of Project-Based Mechanisms to Offset Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This EPRI Technical Update provides senior managers and environmental staff of U.S. electric companies with a comprehensive understanding of the role that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets can play in their own company's future carbon emissions compliance strategy and how offsets offer a key contribution to meet global GHG emissions reduction targets faster and at comparatively low cost. So-called project-based mechanisms use the power of markets to supply cost-efficient GHG emission reductions to e...

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

188

Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENERGY USAGE, AND GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS GAS 4. ASSESSMENT ANDgas consumption (miles per gallon or Wh mile) of a vehicle, calculation of the fuel usageGas from Biomass from Solar Carbon Dioxide Table 2: [gin ~mlsslons~-~iJf°r Usage

Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

The effect of household consumption patterns on energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: Comparison between Spain and Sweden.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study is to provide a better understanding of the effect of increasing income on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions… (more)

Cintas Sánchez, Olivia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Re-evaluating California’s greenhouse gas emission law: Is it rational under the current economic situation?.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research evaluates the impact of the economic recession on the California Air Resource Board (CARB) strategy for reducing current greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from… (more)

Algadi, Hassan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation : the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and policy-making in Panama.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Framework Convention on Climate Change has yet to deal with tropical deforestation although it represents an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. In December… (more)

Guay, Bruno.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009 | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009 Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009 Agency/Company /Organization: European Environment Agency Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type: Maps Website: www.eea.europa.eu/publications/eea_report_2009_9 Country: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Ireland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom UN Region: "Western & Eastern Europe" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

193

Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost Elizabeth Traut a,n , Chris Hendrickson b,1 , Erica reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by shifting energy demand from gasoline to electricity. GHG benefits. HEVs are optimal or near-optimal for minimum cost in most scenarios. High gas prices and low

Michalek, Jeremy J.

194

Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Avoided Deforestation of Tropical Rainforests on Privately-owned Lands in High Conservation Value Areas Jump to: navigation, search Name Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse...

195

Technology and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An IntegratedScenario Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an analysis of possible technology-based scenarios for the U.S. energy system that would result in both carbon savings and net economic benefits. We use a modified version of the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System (LBNL-NEMS) to assess the potential energy, carbon, and bill savings from a portfolio of carbon saving options. This analysis is based on technology resource potentials estimated in previous bottom-up studies, but it uses the integrated LBNL-NEMS framework to assess interactions and synergies among these options. The analysis in this paper builds on previous estimates of possible "technology paths" to investigate four major components of an aggressive greenhouse gas reduction strategy: (1) the large scale implementation of demand-side efficiency, comparable in scale to that presented in two recent policy studies on this topic; (2) a variety of "alternative" electricity supply-side options, including biomass cofiring, extension of the renewable production tax credit for wind, increased industrial cogeneration, and hydropower refurbishment. (3) the economic retirement of older and less efficient existing fossil-find power plants; and (4) a permit charge of $23 per metric ton of carbon (1996 $/t),l assuming that carbon trading is implemented in the US, and that the carbon permit charge equilibrates at this level. This level of carbon permit charge, as discussed later in the report, is in the likely range for the Clinton Administration's position on this topic.

Koomey, J.G.; Latiner, S.; Markel, R.J.; Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

The Transportation Greenhouse Gas Inventory: A First Step Toward City-Driven Emissions Rationalization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Criteria Pollutnat Inventories of Automobiles, Buses,Transportation Greenhouse Gas Inventory: A First Step TowardTransportation Greenhouse Gas Inventory: A First Step toward

Ganson, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Aggregation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets: Benefits, Existing Methods, and Key Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is designed to develop and disseminate to members of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the public at large, and participants in the world's evolving carbon markets a set of lessons learned about the aggregation of individual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offset projects into larger, organized configurations that can yield large-scale GHG emissions offsets. Aggregation puts together geographically and/or temporally dispersed activities that reduce emissions in a similar manner to ...

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Greenhouse Gas Management: Local Efforts to Curb a Global Phenomenon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SB 375 seeks to lower greenhouse gas emissions by changing2020 and 2035 greenhouse gas targets. The regional targetsburden to accomplish its greenhouse gas target. But setting

Matute, Juan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update covers the first year of a three-year-long EPRI research project entitled Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production. The report provides a project overview and explains the preliminary results yielded from the first year of on-farm research.

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

Emissions trading to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States : the McCain-Lieberman Proposal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) is the most detailed effort to date to design an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for US greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The Act caps sectors at their 2000 emissions in ...

Paltsev, Sergey.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agency (IEA), 2004c. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion,of Carbon Dioxide Emissions on GNP Growth: Interpretation ofD. , 2000. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: Report of

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

all fuels including electricity and syngas will be used forGas Electricity Biomass Syngas Space Heating Coal Oil Gas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

factors for production of coal products -- patent fuel, cokeoven coke,coke oven gas, blast furnace gas and briquettes (BKB) --

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

The Technology Path to Deep Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cuts by 2050: The  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Path to Deep Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cuts by 2050: The Technology Path to Deep Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cuts by 2050: The Pivotal Role of Electricity Title The Technology Path to Deep Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cuts by 2050: The Pivotal Role of Electricity Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Unknown Year of Publication 2012 Authors Williams, James H., Andrew DeBenedictis, Rebecca Ghanadan, Amber Mahone, Jack Moore, William R. Morrow, Snuller Price, and Margaret S. Torn Journal Science Volume 335 Start Page 53 Issue 6064 Pagination 53-59 Date Published 01/2012 Abstract Several states and countries have adopted targets for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but there has been little physically realistic modeling of the energy and economic transformations required. We analyzed the infrastructure and technology path required to meet California's goal of an 80% reduction below 1990 levels, using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability. We found that technically feasible levels of energy efficiency and decarbonized energy supply alone are not sufficient; widespread electrification of transportation and other sectors is required. Decarbonized electricity would become the dominant form of energy supply, posing challenges and opportunities for economic growth and climate policy. This transformation demands technologies that are not yet commercialized, as well as coordination of investment, technology development, and infrastructure deployment.

205

Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential By Bruce biofuel usage. Biofuel feedstocks are a source of raw material that can be transformed into petroleum for coal. In the USA, liquid fuel biofuel production has not proven to be broadly economically feasible

McCarl, Bruce A.

206

Abatement of Air Pollution: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Projects (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Projects that either capture and destroy landfill methane, avoid sulfur hexafluoride emissions, sequester carbon through afforestation, provide end-use energy efficiency, or avoid methane emissions...

207

The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We find that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Muritshaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

EIA Energy Efficiency-Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links for the  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Posted Date: May 2007 Page Last Modified: September 2010 EIA Links Disclaimer: These pages contain hypertext links to information created and maintained by other public and private organizations. These links provide additional information that may be useful or interesting and are being provided consistent with the intended purpose of the EIA website. EIA does not control or guarantee the accuracy, relevance, timeliness, or completeness of this outside information. EIA does not endorse the organizations sponsoring linked websites, the views they express, or the products and services they offer. Government Agencies / Associations Energy Information Administration - Annual Energy Outlook: Carbon Dioxide Emissions, CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are proportional to fuel consumption. Among fossil fuel types, coal has the highest carbon content, natural gas the lowest, and petroleum in between. In the AEO2006 reference case, the shares of these fuels change slightly from 2004 to 2030, with more coal and less petroleum and natural gas. The combined share of carbon-neutral renewable and nuclear energy is stable from 2004 to 2030 at 14 percent

209

national carbon accounting system Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Land Use Change in Australia: Results of the National Carbon Accounting System 1988-2001 Australian Greenhouse Office  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

• Supports Australia’s position in the international development of policy and guidelines on sinks activity and greenhouse gas emissions mitigation from land based systems. • Reduces the scientific uncertainties that surround estimates of land based greenhouse gas emissions and sequestration in the Australian context. • Provides monitoring capabilities for existing land based emissions and sinks, and scenario development and modelling capabilities that support greenhouse gas mitigation and the sinks development agenda through to 2012 and beyond. • Provides the scientific and technical basis for international negotiations and promotes Australia’s national interests in international fora.

unknown authors

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:36am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 After a Federal agency has collected detailed information about its vehicle inventory, fuel consumption, usage, mission, and alternative fuel availability, it can analyze the data to determine the most cost-effective options for petroleum reduction and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Data can be analyzed at the agency, program, fleet (or site), or vehicle level for the following purposes: Determining the most important mobile emission sources Determining whether vehicles are performing and being utilized to minimize GHG emissions Identifying mission constraints. Next Step After analyzing data for evaluating an emissions profile, the next step in

211

Literature Review and Sensitivity Analysis of Biopower Life-Cycle Assessments and Greenhouse Gas Emission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass power offers utilities a potential pathway to increase their renewable generation portfolios for compliance with renewable energy standards and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current fossil-based technologies. To date, a large body of life-cycle assessment (LCA) literature assessing biopower’s life-cycle GHG emissions has been published.Phase A of this project performed an exhaustive search of the biopower LCA literature yielding 117 references that ...

2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

212

California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In July 2002, California Assembly Bill 1493 (A.B. 1493) was signed into law. The law requires that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) develop and adopt, by January 1, 2005, greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles that provide the maximum feasible reduction in emissions. In estimating the feasibility of the standard, CARB is required to consider cost-effectiveness, technological capability, economic impacts, and flexibility for manufacturers in meeting the standard.

Information Center

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Case Studies of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Projects Implemented in the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes case studies of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offset project activities undertaken within the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) program. This paper is designed to communicate key lessons learned from the implementation of different types of GHG emissions offsets projects in the CDM to policy makers in the U.S. who may be interested in developing national, regional or state-based GHG offsets programs. This paper also is designed to provide important insights to entitie...

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

214

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

are available for emissions from purchased electricity, stationary combustion, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and several industrial sectors. References...

215

Abatement of Air Pollution: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Projects...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Type Environmental Regulations Projects that either capture and destroy landfill methane, avoid sulfur hexafluoride emissions, sequester carbon through afforestation, provide...

216

Abating Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Cash-for-Clunker Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 e emissions attributable to corn ethanol vary widely, oursuggests a gallon of corn ethanol produces 13 percent fewer

Allen, Alexander; Carpenter, Rachel; Morrison, Geoff

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Danish Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scenarios for 2020  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Danish Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scenarios for 2020 and 2050 February 2008 Prepared by Ea Energy 54 2.9 ENERGY RESOURCES 55 3 DANISH GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION 58 3.1 GREENHOUSE GAS SOURCES 58 4 of 2007, Ea Energy Analyses and Risø DTU developed a number of greenhouse gas emissions reduction

218

Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

219

Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the United States began a program to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types--categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly--from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path.

Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

How Portfolio Manager calculates greenhouse gas emissions | ENERGY...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methane, and nitrous oxide) from on-site fuel combustion and purchased electricity and district heating and cooling. Portfolio Manager also enables tracking of avoided emissions...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GHG emissions specifically from the combustion of fuels in stationary sources such as boilers and furnaces. AgencyCompany Organization World Resources Institute, World Business...

222

California’s first greenhouse gas emissions auction sells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Biofuels: Ethanol & Biodiesel ... The Cap and Trade program intends to limit GHG emissions to an annual target of 427 million metric tons (mmt) ...

223

Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

installed to replace hydro power, in terms of GHG emissions.coal-fired power plant or a hydro-power facility. 4. The GHG

Reich-Weiser, Corinne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fact that there is electricity trade between regions, ownlevels of inter-state electricity trade. For all of thesegiven that regional electricity trade and upstream emissions

Reich-Weiser, Corinne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CALCULATORS Tables 1 and 2 list the GHG emissions calculators found by a literature search of published sources. The literature search for calculators was conducted through...

226

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

Not Available

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and module manufacturing. · System/Plant Decommissioning · Disposal · PowerPlant Decommissioning · Waste life cycle GHG emissions from solar PV systems are similar to other renewables and nuclear energy.nrel.gov/harmonization. · Life cycle GHG emissions from c-Si and TF PV technologies appear broadly similar; the small number

228

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Greenhouse Gas ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 25, 2008 ... This U. S. EPA webpage gives an overview of greenhouse gases and a description of greenhouse gas inventories. It provides emission trends ...

229

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

are estimated at 3.1 percent per year over the next 40 years, resulting in a 300 percent increase in emissions by 2050 (IEA 2008b). The projected growth rate of global marine...

230

Greenhouse gas emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa  

SciTech Connect

Current and future carbon emissions from land-use change and energy consumption were analyzed for Sub-Saharan Africa. The energy sector analysis was based on UN energy data tapes while the land-use analysis was based on a spatially-explicit land-use model developed specifically for this project. The impacts of different energy and land-use strategies on future carbon emissions were considered. (A review of anthropogenic emissions of methane, nitrous oxides, and chlorofluorocarbons in Sub-Saharan Africa indicated that they were probably minor in both a global and a regional context. The study therefore was focused on emissions of carbon dioxide.) The land-use model predicts carbon emissions from land use change and the amount of carbon stored in vegetation (carbon inventory) on a yearly basis between 1985 and 2001. Emissions and inventory are modeled at 9000 regularly-spaced point locations in Sub-Saharan Africa using location-specific information on vegetation type, soils, climate and deforestation. Vegetation, soils, and climate information were derived from continental-scale maps while relative deforestation rates(% of forest land lost each year) were developed from country-specific forest and deforestation statistics (FAO Tropical Forest Resources Assessment for Africa, 1980). The carbon emissions under different land use strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa were analyzed by modifying deforestation rates and altering the amount of carbon stored under different land uses. The considered strategies were: preservation of existing forests, implementation of agroforestry, and establishment of industrial tree plantations. 82 refs., 16 figs., 25 tabs.

Graham, R.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Prasad, A.M.G.; Ranney, J.W.; Waddle, D.B.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation-specific policies, they recommend (in addition to the land use policies mentioned above), that they combine an upstream trading system with a carbon efficiency standard similar to the current CAFE standard. Under this approach a fuel price signal would be complemented by incentives for manufacturers to produce more carbon efficient vehicles. To prevent vehicle manufacturers from being forced to pay more than other sectors for reducing GHG emissions, they recommend that the vehicle makers be allowed to pay a cash penalty equal to the market price of allowances in lieu of meeting carbon efficiency requirements.

Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Consumption) Transport Modal Service Supply Chain ­ Fuel Parts Manufacture Vehicle Assembly Warehousing the upstream and downstream processes associated with alternative vehicle fuel infrastructure supply technologies, in addition to the end use or "tailpipe" emissions that are directly correlated with vehicle

233

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

Not Available

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region's net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region's energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US  

SciTech Connect

This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region's net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region's energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various countries and US cities  

SciTech Connect

Past studies have shown that use of electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled internal-combustion-engine vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel cycle. In this paper, the authors estimate greenhouse gas emission reductions for EVs, including these important aspects. They select four US cities (Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.) and six countries (Australia, France, Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the US) and analyze greenhouse emission impacts of EVs in each city or country. These selected cities and countries have distinct differences in electric power-plant fuel mixes. They also select six driving cycles developed around the world. They choose one specific driving cycle for a given city or country and estimate the energy consumption of four-passenger compact electric and gasoline cars in the given city or country. Thus, the city- or country-specific vehicle energy consumption estimates reflect effects of both vehicle driving cycles and electric power-plant mixes. Finally, they estimate total fuel cycle greenhouse gas emissions of both GVs and EVs by accounting for emissions from primary energy recovery, transportation, and processing; energy product transportation; and power-plant and vehicle operations. They estimate that relative to GVs, EVs reduce greenhouse gas emissions in all selected US cities and countries.

Wang, M.Q.; Marr, W.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Collect Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:34am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Data needs for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning related to Federal agency vehicles and mobile equipment can be described in terms of five key categories: Vehicle Inventory A detailed vehicle profile is essential to right-sizing an agency's vehicle inventory and thereby reducing fuel use, emissions, and operating costs. In combination with vehicle usage and mission data, this information can be used to develop an optimal vehicle acquisition plan and vehicle allocation methodology (VAM) to identify vehicles that may represent good candidates for reassignment or disposal. This data assists in correctly sizing a fleet

238

A comparison of policies to mitigate US greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

The Congress of the United States requested that the Secretary of Energy: Prepare a report for the Congress that comprehensively inventories the sources of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and arranges the policy options to be formulated in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (including, but not limited to, energy pricing, energy efficiency requirements, alternative fuels, alternative end use, and supply technology) which would lead to a substantial reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper summarizes work in progress to respond to the Congressional request. Further, it builds on the DOE's first National Energy Strategy (NES) (DOE 191). As a result of the substantial research effort in support of this report, five major conclusions are drawn and discussed.

Edmonds, J.A.; McDonald, S.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Bradley, R.A. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

A comparison of policies to mitigate US greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

The Congress of the United States requested that the Secretary of Energy: Prepare a report for the Congress that comprehensively inventories the sources of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and arranges the policy options to be formulated in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (including, but not limited to, energy pricing, energy efficiency requirements, alternative fuels, alternative end use, and supply technology) which would lead to a substantial reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper summarizes work in progress to respond to the Congressional request. Further, it builds on the DOE`s first National Energy Strategy (NES) (DOE 191). As a result of the substantial research effort in support of this report, five major conclusions are drawn and discussed.

Edmonds, J.A.; McDonald, S.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Bradley, R.A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Greenhouse Gas ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 25, 2008 ... This European Environment Agency webpage includes links to a downloadable report entitled Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Academic Years 2001 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Academic Years 2001 2007 #12;Greenhouse Gas Inventory Academic Years 2001 is to identify and quantify the major sources of greenhouse q y j g gas emissions which result from the operation of the University.y #12;Greenhouse Gas Inventory Academic Years 2001 2007 · Major sources

McConnell, Terry

242

A fuel cycle framework for evaluating greenhouse gas emission reduction technology  

SciTech Connect

Energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions arise from a number of fossil fuels, processes and equipment types throughout the full cycle from primary fuel production to end-use. Many technology alternatives are available for reducing emissions based on efficiency improvements, fuel switching to low-emission fuels, GHG removal, and changes in end-use demand. To conduct systematic analysis of how new technologies can be used to alter current emission levels, a conceptual framework helps develop a comprehensive picture of both the primary and secondary impacts of a new technology. This paper describes a broad generic fuel cycle framework which is useful for this purpose. The framework is used for cataloging emission source technologies and for evaluating technology solutions to reduce GHG emissions. It is important to evaluate fuel mix tradeoffs when investigating various technology strategies for emission reductions. For instance, while substituting natural gas for coal or oil in end-use applications to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, natural gas emissions of methane in the production phase of the fuel cycle may increase. Example uses of the framework are given.

Ashton, W.B.; Barns, D.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bradley, R.A. (USDOE Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Environmental Analysis)

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and non-CO? combustion effects from alternative jet fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The long-term viability and success of a transportation fuel depends on both economic and environmental sustainability. This thesis focuses specifically on assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-CO ...

Stratton, Russell William

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Executive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 19902009 1 n emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stone, flue gas desulfurization, and glass manufacturing), soda ash production and consumption, titaniumExecutive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990­2009 1 n, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations

Little, John B.

245

Key Issues in Designing Mechanisms to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2008, EPRI launched the EPRI Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Offset Policy Dialogue project. The goals of this project are 1) to inform key constituencies involved in the development of U.S. climate mitigation strategies and policies about GHG emissions offset–related policies and design issues and 2) to provide a forum in which representatives of key sectors of the U.S. economy and communities involved in the ongoing development and debate on climate change policies can discuss these issues. On May 13...

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

246

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On-Road Mobile Sources Project for the Houston-Galveston Area Council  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On-Road Mobile Sources ­ Project for the Houston-Galveston Area Council This project addresses greenhouse gas

247

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various counties and US cities  

SciTech Connect

Electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel cycle. In this paper, we estimate greenhouse gas emission reductions for EVs, including these important aspects. We select four US cities (Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.) and six countries (Australia, France, Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and analyze greenhouse emission impacts of EVs in each city or country. We also select six driving cycles developed around the world (i.e., the US federal urban driving cycle, the Economic Community of Europe cycle 15, the Japanese 10-mode cycle, the Los Angeles 92 cycle, the New York City cycle, and the Sydney cycle). Note that we have not analyzed EVs in high-speed driving (e.g., highway driving), where the results would be less favorable to EVs; here, EVs are regarded as urban vehicles only. We choose one specific driving cycle for a given city or country and estimate the energy consumption of four-passenger compact electric and gasoline cars in the given city or country. Finally, we estimate total fuel cycle greenhouse gas emissions of both GVs and EVs by accounting for emissions from primary energy recovery, transportation, and processing; energy product transportation; and powerplant and vehicle operations.

Wang, M.Q.; Marr, W.W.

1994-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

248

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

249

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

SciTech Connect

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

250

Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

There is a multiplicity of development pathways in which low energy sector emissions are not necessarily associated with low economic growth. However, changes in development pathways can rarely be imposed from the top. On this basis, examples of energy efficiency opportunities to change development pathways toward lower emissions are presented in this paper. We review opportunities at the sectoral and macro level. The potential for action on nonclimate policies that influence energy use and emissions are presented. Examples are drawn from policies already adopted and implemented in the energy sector. The paper discusses relationships between energy efficiency policies and their synergies and tradeoffs with sustainable development and greenhouse gas emissions. It points to ways that energy efficiency could be mainstreamed into devel?opment choices.

Alterra, Swart; Masanet, Eric; Lecocq, Franck; Najam, Adil; Schaeffer, Robert; Winkler, Harald; Sathaye, Jayant

2008-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

251

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary of transportation greenhouse gas mitigation optionsof alternative fuels. Low greenhouse gas fuels Mixing ofreplacement. Greenhouse gas budgets for households and

Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production: Experience Validating a New GHG Offset Protocol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project report describes in part the second phase (years four through six, 2010–2012) of a two-phase, six-year long EPRI-sponsored research project entitled “Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions.” This project investigated an innovative approach to developing large-scale, cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that potentially can be implemented across broad geographic areas of the ...

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

253

The contribution that reporting of greenhouse gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The contribution that reporting of greenhouse gas emissions makes to the UK meeting its climate that reporting of greenhouse gas emissions makes to the UK meeting its climate change objectives: A review leadership. The UK has published guidance on how organisations should measure and report their greenhouse gas

254

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn and 15% gasoline by volume), compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Long-term technologies, assumed to be available around the year 2010, include battery-powered electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles fueled with E85 (ethanol produced from biomass), and fuel-cell vehicles fueled with hydrogen or methanol. The near-term technologies are found to have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy (such as biomass and solar energy), have great potential for reducing vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, R and D efforts must continue on the long-term technology options so that they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.

Wang, M.Q.

1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

255

Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in BPs PTA Manufacturing Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BP is the world’s leading producer of purified terephthalic acid, or PTA, a commodity chemical used in the production of polyester. Through both self-help initiatives and innovations in our state-of-art process technology, the energy efficiency of our PTA manufacturing process has significantly improved over the past several years, which has translated into substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions across our global sites. The talk will provide a general overview of the PTA business and manufacturing process, as well as the enabling technology evolutions leading to this improved performance.

Clark, F.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Volume 1: Nationwide Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

How would air quality and greenhouse gas emissions be affected if significant numbers of Americans drove cars that were fueled by the power grid? A recently completed assessment conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute and the Natural Resources Defense Council made a detailed study of the question looking at a variety of scenarios involving the U.S. fleet of power generation and its fleet of light-duty and medium-duty cars and trucks.The study focused on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)...

2007-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

258

Exploring the Interaction Between California’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cap-and-Trade Program and Complementary Emissions Reduction Policies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

California enacted Assembly Bill 32 (AB 32) to address climate change in 2006. It required the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to develop a plan to reduce the State’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. ARB developed a plan (i.e., the “Scoping Plan”) made up of a GHG emissions cap-and-trade program and regulatory measures known as “complementary policies” (CPs) to achieve the 2020 target. The CPs, which were designed to achieve climate policy and ...

2013-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

259

Understanding the Design and Performance of Emissions Trading Systems for Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Research Spotlight presents new research findings and projects underway at Resources for the Future that are relevant to the analysis of climate change policy. As interest in greenhouse gas trading policies grows in the United States and other Annex I countries, so does the need for stronger analytical tools. The paper by Tietenberg in this collection lays out some of the principal conceptual issues that analysts face in providing more accurate and relevant tools and results for decisionmakers. In this paper we build on Tietenberg's analysis to consider some of the key modeling challenges that analysts face in developing an improved capacity for quantitatively assessing real-world policies.

Toman, M.

1999-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

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261

The Effect of Transaction Costs on Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation for Agriculture and Forestry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate change and its mitigation is rapidly becoming an item of social concern. Climate change mitigation involves reduction of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations through emissions reduction and or sequestration enhancement (collectively called offsets). Many have asked how agriculture and forestry can participate in mitigation efforts. Given that over 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions arise from the energy sector, the role of agriculture and forestry depends critically on the costs of the offsets they can achieve in comparison with offset costs elsewhere in the economy. A number of researchers have examined the relative offset costs but have generally looked only at producer level costs. However there are also costs incurred when implementing, selling and conveying offset credits to a buyer. Also when commodities are involved like bioenergy feedstocks, the costs of readying these for use in implementing an offset strategy need to be reflected. This generally involves the broadly defined category of transaction costs. This dissertation examines the possible effects of transactions costs and storage costs for bioenergy commodities and how they affect the agriculture and forestry portfolio of mitigation strategies across a range of carbon dioxide equivalent prices. The model is used to simulate the effects with and without transactions and storage costs. Using an agriculture and forestry sector model called FASOMGHG, the dissertation finds that consideration of transactions and storage costs reduces the agricultural contribution total mitigation and changes the desirable portfolio of alternatives. In terms of the portfolio, transactions costs inclusion diminishes the desirability of soil sequestration and forest management while increasing the bioenergy and afforestation role. Storage costs diminish the bioenergy role and favor forest and sequestration items. The results of this study illustrate that transactions and storage costs are important considerations in policy and market design when addressing the reduction of greenhouse gas concentrations in climate change related decision making.

Kim, Seong Woo

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O).

C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

1999-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

264

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2001  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

carbon dioxide emissions, total greenhouse gas emissions, sector-specific emissions, and emissions by fuel type. Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels, principally petroleum,

265

Alternative Approaches to Analyzing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Climate Change in CEQA Documents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global climate change (GCC) is a change in the average weather of the earth that can be measured by wind patterns, storms, precipitation, and temperature. This paper is not a scientific analysis of the existence or potential causes of GCC. Further, this paper does not address National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements. Instead, the intent of this paper is to provide practical, interim information to California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) practitioners to help Lead Agencies determine how to address GCC in CEQA documents prior to the development and adoption of guidance by appropriate government agencies. A typical individual project does not generate enough greenhouse gas emissions to influence GCC significantly on its own; the issue of GCC is by definition a cumulative environmental impact. Therefore, if the Lead Agency chooses to address GCC effects in a CEQA document, it should be discussed in the context of a cumulative impact. A complicating factor, however, is that there are currently no published CEQA thresholds or approved methods for determining whether a project’s potential contribution to a cumulative GCC impact is considerable. This paper provides a summary of background information on GCC, the current regulatory environment surrounding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the various approaches that a Lead

Tony Held, Ph.D.; Terry Rivasplata; Tim Rimpo; Kenneth M. Bogdan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for a given facility were divided by its throughput to develop emissions factors Distribution curves were and Storage (99%) Transportation, Storage, and Distribution of Gasoline (99.5%) MTBE or EtOH for Gasoline.5%) Steam or Electricity Export NA: North American nNA: non-North American NG: natural gas G.H2 Compression

Argonne National Laboratory

267

An Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas Emission MitigationGreenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas Afforestation, Forest management, Biofuels, Ag soil, Animals, Fertilization, Rice, Grassland expansion, Manure of Biofuel strategies Examine the dynamics of mitigation strategies #12;PolicyPolicy ContextContext U

McCarl, Bruce A.

268

DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas...

269

Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

CSEM WP 166 California's Greenhouse Gas Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CSEM WP 166 California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: Local Solutions to a Global Problem? James. 2547 Channing Way Berkeley, California 94720-5180 www.ucei.org #12;California's Greenhouse Gas Policies a broad portfolio of policies and regulations aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This paper

Kammen, Daniel M.

271

Incentive-based approaches for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions : issues and prospects for India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a consequence of the flexibility mechanisms incorporated in the Kyoto Protocol, incentive-based policies such as emissions trading and the clean development mechanism are being widely discussed in the context of greenhouse ...

Gupta, Shreekant.

272

Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

Yang Na [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen Miao; Shao Liming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); He Pinjing, E-mail: xhpjk@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Proposal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions via landfill gas management in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases by collection, flaring, and possibly beneficially using the gas from landfills in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina (GBA). Another purpose was to prepare a proposal to the US Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) for a project to collect and possibly use the landfill gas (LFG). The project was carried out from September 30, 1997 through September 30, 1998. Collection and flaring of gas is feasible provided private firms have sufficient incentive to obtain greenhouse gas emission reduction benefits. The value of those benefits that would be required to motivate funding of an LFG management project was not explicitly determined. However, one independent power producer has expressed an interest in funding the first phase of the proposed project and paid for a detailed feasibility study which was conducted in August and September of 1998. As a result of this project, a proposal was submitted to the USIJI Evaluation Panel in June, 1998. In August, 1998, an office was established for reviewing and approving joint implementation proposals. The proposal is currently under review by that office.

Jones, D.B.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Daily Quantity Daily GhG Emissions Oil Price Price elasGas Daily Quantity Daily GhG Emissions Oil Price Price elasDaily Quantity Daily GhG Emissions Surcharge Revenues Oil

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Best Practices Guidebook for Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Freight  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Best Practices Guidebook for Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Freight Transportation Final Report ..................................................................................7 2.1 "Best Practices" for Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Freight Transportation ......... 7 2.2 Modes......................................................................................................... 10 2.6 Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Frey, H. Christopher

276

Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emission Implicaitons of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Simulated with the GREET Model  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emission Implications of Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emission Implications of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Simulated with the GREET Model Michael Wang*, May Wu, Hong Huo and Jiahong Liu Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA. *Contact author: Tel: +1 (630) 252 2819 Fax: +1 (630) 252 3443 Email: mqwang@anl.gov In International Sugar Journal 2008, Vol. 110, No. 1317 ABSTRACT By using data available in the open literature, we expanded the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne National Laboratory to include Brazilian-grown sugarcane ethanol. With the expanded GREET model, we examined the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and

277

Secretary of Energy Memorandum on DOE Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Goals  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

March 31,2010 March 31,2010 MEMORANDUM FOR HEADS OF FROM: STEVEN CHU SUBJECT: Implementation of Executive Order 135 14, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance Addressing the crisis of climate change is the challenge of our time, and a fundamental priority for the Department of Energy. As the agency charged with advancing the Nation's energy security, we are committed to developing energy efficient technologies that support the transformation to a low-carbon economy. We must also lead by example in reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with our own operations and facilities. On October 5,2009, the President issued Executive Order (EO) 135 14, "Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance." This requires all

278

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Hydrogen production and delivery analysis in US markets : cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen production cost conclusions are: (1) Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) is the least-cost production option at current natural gas prices and for initial hydrogen vehicle penetration rates, at high production rates, SMR may not be the least-cost option; (2) Unlike coal and nuclear technologies, the cost of natural gas feedstock is the largest contributor to SMR production cost; (3) Coal- and nuclear-based hydrogen production have significant penalties at small production rates (and benefits at large rates); (4) Nuclear production of hydrogen is likely to have large economies of scale, but because fixed O&M costs are uncertain, the magnitude of these effects may be understated; and (5) Given H2A default assumptions for fuel prices, process efficiencies and labor costs, nuclear-based hydrogen is likely to be more expensive to produce than coal-based hydrogen. Carbon taxes and caps can narrow the gap. Hydrogen delivery cost conclusions are: (1) For smaller urban markets, compressed gas delivery appears most economic, although cost inputs for high-pressure gas trucks are uncertain; (2) For larger urban markets, pipeline delivery is least costly; (3) Distance from hydrogen production plant to city gate may change relative costs (all results shown assume 100 km); (4) Pipeline costs may be reduced with system 'rationalization', primarily reductions in service pipeline mileage; and (5) Liquefier and pipeline capital costs are a hurdle, particularly at small market sizes. Some energy and greenhouse gas Observations: (1) Energy use (per kg of H2) declines slightly with increasing production or delivery rate for most components (unless energy efficiency varies appreciably with scale, e.g., liquefaction); (2) Energy use is a strong function of production technology and delivery mode; (3) GHG emissions reflect the energy efficiency and carbon content of each component in a production-delivery pathway; (4) Coal and natural gas production pathways have high energy consumption and significant GHG emissions (in the absence of carbon caps, taxes or sequestration); (5) Nuclear pathway is most favorable from energy use and GHG emissions perspective; (6) GH2 Truck and Pipeline delivery have much lower energy use and GHG emissions than LH2 Truck delivery; and (7) For LH2 Truck delivery, the liquefier accounts for most of the energy and GHG emissions.

Mintz, M.; Gillette, J.; Elgowainy, A. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( ES)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

282

Evaluating the Potential to Develop New Greenhouse Gas Emission Offsets on Electricity Transmission System Rights-of-Way  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a final deliverable for a research project conceived and supported by EPRI. This project explored the potential technical feasibility of developing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets by implementing enhanced Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) to enhance management of biomass vegetation growing on high-voltage electricity ...

2013-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

283

Towards Standardization of Life-Cycle Metrics for Biofuels: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation and Net Energy Yield  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite a rapid worldwide expansion of the biofuel industry, there is a lack of consensus within the scientific community about the potential of biofuels to reduce reliance on petroleum and decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although life cycle assessment provides a means to quantify Delivered by Ingenta to:

Biobased Materials; Adam J. Liska; Kenneth G. Cassman; Donna Michel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analyzed distribution of vehicles by last trip ending time for each region Generated PHEVs load profiles PSAT were adjusted to on-road values for this analysis PHEV miles driven by grid electricity and onWell-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Amgad

285

Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We fi nd that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RFG Running Hot Soak Diurnal CNG :Diesel Fuels Emissions RFGwith compressednatural gas (CNG),the hydrocarbontaitpipemethanol, natural gas (CNG),and hydrogen. As noted above,

Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Environment. Greenhouse gas data, voluntary report- ing, electric power plant emissions. Highlights Short-Term Energy Outlook ...

289

Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes within xeric temperate locations in the northwestern United States. Sampling environments on the Snake (Lower Monumental Dam Complex) and Columbia Rivers (Priest Rapids Dam Complex) included tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas during winter and summer 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, degassing as water passed through dams during power generation, ebullition within littoral embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate unaltered conditions. Surface flux resulted in very low emissions, with reservoirs acting as a sink for CO2 (up to –262 mg m-2 d-1, which is within the range previously reported for similarly located reservoirs). Surface flux of methane remained below 1 mg CH4 m-2d-1, a value well below fluxes reported previously for temperate reservoirs. Water passing through hydroelectric projects acted as a sink for CO2 during winter and a small source during summer, with mean degassing fluxes of –117 and 4.5 t CO2 d-1, respectively. Degassing of CH4 was minimal, with mean fluxes of 3.1 × 10-6 and –5.6 × 10-4 t CH4 d-1 during winter and summer, respectively. Gas flux due to ebullition was greater in coves located within reservoirs than in coves within the free flowing Hanford Reach–and CH4 flux exceeded that of CO2. Methane emissions varied widely across sampling locations, ranging from 10.5 to 1039 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, with mean fluxes of 324 mg CH4 m-2 d-1in Lower Monumental Dam reservoir and 482 mg CH4 m-2d-1 in the Priest Rapids Dam reservoir. The magnitude of methane flux due to ebullition was unexpectedly high, and falls within the range recently reported for other temperate reservoirs around the world, further suggesting that this methane source should be considered in estimates of global greenhouse gas emissions. Methane flux from sediment pore-water within littoral embayments averaged 4.2 mg m-2 d-1 during winter and 8.1 mg m-2 d-1 during summer, with a peak flux of 19.8 mg m-2d-1 (at the same location where CH4 ebullition was also the greatest). Carbon dioxide flux from sediment pore-water averaged approximately 80 mg m-2d-1 with little difference between winter and summer. Similar to emissions from ebullition, flux from sediment pore-water was higher in reservoirs than in the free flowing reach.

Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Niehus, Sara E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Interactions of Cost-Containment Measures and Linking of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cap-and-Trade Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cap-and-trade proposals in the United States0150including proposals in the Northeast, California, and at the national level0150include specific measures designed to contain the potential compliance costs of the proposed programs. These cost-containment measures include "new" provisions not included in existing emissions trading programs0150notably a "safety valve" that would cap the allowance price0150as well as provisions such as banking or the use of offsets t...

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

291

Energy conservation: The main factor for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

The energy intensity of the former Soviet Union is more than twice that of other market economics in similar stages of economic development. Low energy efficiency in the Soviet Union has contributed significantly to global carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions. The technological potential for energy conservation in the former Soviet Union is the largest in the world. The inefficiencies of the previously command-system economy, however, have provided little incentive for conserving energy. The present transition to a market-based economy should encourage the incorporation of energy-efficiency improvements in order for the former Soviet Union to successfully lower its energy intensity. There are several obstacles that limit implementing energy conservation: for example, energy prices and discount rates influence the volume of investment in energy efficiency. Nevertheless, cost-effective measures for energy conservative do exist even in the most energy-intensive sectors of the Soviet economy and should form the core of any energy conservation program. The overall cost-effective potential for carbon savings in the former Soviet Union is estimated to be 280 to 367 million tons of carbon per year by the year 2005, or 23 to 29 percent of 1988 energy-related emissions.

Bashmakov, I.A.; Chupyatov, V.P.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Biofuels, causes of land-use change, and the role of fire in greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

IN THEIR REPORTS IN THE 29 FEBRUARY ISSUE ('LAND CLEARING AND THE BIOFUEL CARBON debt,' J. Fargione et al., p. 1235, and 'Use of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change,' T. Searchinger et al., p. 1238), the authors do not provide adequate support for their claim that biofuels cause high emissions due to land-use change. The conclusions of both papers depend on the misleading premise that biofuel production causes forests and grasslands to be converted to agriculture. However, field research, including a meta-analysis of 152 case studies, consistently finds that land-use change and associated carbon emissions are driven by interactions among cultural, technological, biophysical, political, economic, and demographic forces within a spatial and temporal context rather than by a single crop market. Searchinger et al. assert that soybean prices accelerate clearing of rainforest based on a single citation for a study not designed to identify the causal factors of land clearing. The study analyzed satellite imagery from a single state in Brazil over a 4-year period and focused on land classification after deforestation. Satellite imagery can measure what changed but does little to tell us why. Similarly, Fargione et al. do not rely on primary empirical studies of causes of land-use change. Furthermore, neither fire nor soil carbon sequestration was properly considered in the Reports. Fire's escalating contribution to global climate change is largely a result of burning in tropical savannas and forests. Searchinger et al. postulate that 10.8 million hectares could be needed for future biofuel, a fraction of the 250 to 400 million hectares burned each year between 2000 and 2005. By offering enhanced employment and incomes, biofuels can help establish economic stability and thus reduce the recurring use of fire on previously cleared land as well as pressures to clear more land. Neither Searchinger et al. nor Fargione et al. consider fire as an ongoing land-management tool. In addition, deep-rooted perennial biofuel feedstocks in the tropics could enhance soil carbon storage by 0.5 to 1 metric ton per hectare per year. An improved understanding of the forces behind land-use change leads to more favorable conclusions regarding the potential for biofuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Published scientific literature contains many studies estimating life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of residential and utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PVs). Despite the volume of published work, variability in results hinders generalized conclusions. Most variance between studies can be attributed to differences in methods and assumptions. To clarify the published results for use in decision making and other analyses, we conduct a meta-analysis of existing studies, harmonizing key performance characteristics to produce more comparable and consistently derived results. Screening 397 life cycle assessments (LCAs) relevant to PVs yielded 13 studies on crystalline silicon (c-Si) that met minimum standards of quality, transparency, and relevance. Prior to harmonization, the median of 42 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from those 13 LCAs was 57 grams carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with an interquartile range (IQR) of 44 to 73. After harmonizing key performance characteristics, irradiation of 1,700 kilowatt-hours per square meter per year (kWh/m{sup 2}/yr); system lifetime of 30 years; module efficiency of 13.2% or 14.0%, depending on module type; and a performance ratio of 0.75 or 0.80, depending on installation, the median estimate decreased to 45 and the IQR tightened to 39 to 49. The median estimate and variability were reduced compared to published estimates mainly because of higher average assumptions for irradiation and system lifetime. For the sample of studies evaluated, harmonization effectively reduced variability, providing a clearer synopsis of the life cycle GHG emissions from c-Si PVs. The literature used in this harmonization neither covers all possible c-Si installations nor represents the distribution of deployed or manufactured c-Si PVs.

Hsu, D. D.; O'Donoughue, P.; Fthenakis, V.; Heath, G. A.; Kim, H. C.; Sawyer, P.; Choi, J. K.; Turney, D. E.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Frey, H.C., and P.Y. Kuo, "Potential Best Practices for Reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in Freight Transportation," Paper No. 2007-AWMA-443, Proceedings, 100th  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Frey, H.C., and P.Y. Kuo, "Potential Best Practices for Reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions for approximately 9% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States.1-2 The individual contributions or developing potential best practices and their effectiveness at reducing greenhouse gas emissions

Frey, H. Christopher

296

Contacting the Authors: David McCollum (dlmccollum@ucdavis.edu), Dr. Christopher Yang (ccyang@ucdavis.edu) Scientific studies suggest that annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions must be cut 50 to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

@ucdavis.edu) · Scientific studies suggest that annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions must be cut 50 to 80% worldwide by 2050 Source: "Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the U.S. Transportation Sector" (EPA, 2006) and author's calculations Options for Reducing Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions: · Domestic includes only those

California at Davis, University of

297

Variability in greenhouse gas emissions from permafrost thaw ponds Isabelle Lauriona,b,* Warwick F. Vincent,b,c Sally MacIntyre,d Leira Retamal,a,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Variability in greenhouse gas emissions from permafrost thaw ponds Isabelle Lauriona,b,* Warwick F period for greenhouse gas emissions from subarctic ponds. These results underscore the increasingly important contribution of permafrost thaw ponds to greenhouse gas emissions and the need to account

California at Santa Barbara, University of

298

Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS. Present monitoring systems would be heavily relied on in any GHGIS implementation at the outset and would likely continue to provide valuable future contributions to GHGIS. However, present monitoring systems were developed to serve science/research purposes. This study concludes that no component or capability presently available is at the level of technological maturity and readiness required for implementation in an operational GHGIS today. However, purpose-designed and -built components could be developed and implemented in support of a future GHGIS. The study concludes that it is possible to develop and provide a capability-driven prototype GHGIS, as part of a Phase-1 effort, within three years from project-funding start, that would make use of and integrate existing sensing and system capabilities. As part of a Phase-2 effort, a requirem

Jonietz, Karl K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E [JPL/CAL TECH; Roman, Douglas A [LLNL; Walker, Bruce C [SNL

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

300

The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US. Northeast Regional Biomass Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region`s net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region`s energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Amgad Elgowainy and Michael Wang Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory LDV Workshop July26, 2010 2 2 2 Team Members 2  ANL's Energy Systems (ES) Division  Michael Wang (team leader)  Dan Santini  Anant Vyas  Amgad Elgowainy  Jeongwoo Han  Aymeric Rousseau  ANL's Decision and Information Sciences (DIS) Division:  Guenter Conzelmann  Leslie Poch  Vladimir Koritarov  Matt Mahalik  Thomas Veselka  Audun Botterud  Jianhui Wang  Jason Wang 3 3 3 Scope of Argonne's PHEV WTW Analysis: Vehicle Powertrain Systems and Fuel Pathways 3  Vehicle powertrain systems:  Conventional international combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs)

302

Evaluation of Borrowing as a Method to Contain Costs in a Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cap-and-Trade Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates the potential ability of "borrowing" to help reduce the costs and the cost volatility of cap-and-trade programs for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Borrowing allows sources to emit more than the number of current (or banked) allowances available in the current period by utilizing allowances that otherwise could not be used until future years. Borrowing may be on an individual or system basis and it may be explicit or implicit.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

303

Introduction to Sustainability, Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 25, 2008 ... Introduction to Sustainability, Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions Knowledge Package by Halvor Kvande ...

304

Greenhouse Gas Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Areas » Greenhouse Gases » Greenhouse Gas Basics Program Areas » Greenhouse Gases » Greenhouse Gas Basics Greenhouse Gas Basics October 7, 2013 - 10:01am Addthis Federal agencies must understand key terms and management basics to successfully manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Greenhouse gases are trace gases in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect." This process keeps the planet habitable. International research has linked human activities to a rapid increase in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere, contributing to major shifts in the global climate. Graphic of the top half of earth depicting current arctic sea ice. A red outline depicts arctic sea ice boundaries in 1979. Current arctic sea ice is shown roughly 50% smaller than the 1979 depiction.

305

Greenhouse Gas Reductions or Greenwash?: The DOE's 1605b Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse Gas Reductions or Greenwash?: The DOE's 1605b Program Thomas P. Lyon Eun-Hee Kim of Energy's voluntary greenhouse gas registry. Although participants report emissions reductions, we find reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, despite the lack of any federal mandate for emissions cuts.1

Eustice, Ryan

306

ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR REDUCING TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GREENHOUSE GAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR REDUCING TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN CANADA by Rose: Analysis of Measures for Reducing Transportation Sector Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Canada Project Number the problem of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian transportation sector. Reductions

307

Putting policy in drive : coordinating measures to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. light-duty vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The challenges of energy security and climate change have prompted efforts to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions in light-duty vehicles within the United States. Failures in the market for lower rates of fuel ...

Evans, Christopher W. (Christopher William)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Annual Grasslands: Effects of Management and Potential for Climate Change Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D.A. Angers. 2005. Greenhouse gas contributions ofchange and the impact on greenhouse gas exchange in northprimary productivity and greenhouse gas emissions in annual

Ryals, Rebecca

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A. (Energy Systems)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

A methodology for assessing MIT's energy used and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) actions can be made to decrease losses and therefore increase plant efficiencies. As production efficiencies are maximized, fuel use and thus emissions are minimized. From fiscal year 1998 to 2003, the gas turbine ...

Groode, Tiffany Amber, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Greenhouse Gas Return on Investment: A New Metric for Energy Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CarbonPlanet, 2007, Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Country,In this discussion of greenhouse gas emissions and energyGreenhouse Gas Return on Investment: A New Metric for Energy

Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David; Horne, Steve

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling Agency/Company /Organization: Future Perfect Sector: Climate Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development, Greenhouse Gas Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type: Case studies/examples, Training materials Website: www.gpstrategiesltd.com/divisions/future-perfect/ Country: South Korea Eastern Asia Language: English References: Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling[1] Logo: Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling Jointly sponsored by Greenhouse Gas Inventory & Research (GIR) Center of

314

Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

315

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions with Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration in Deep Geological Formations  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration (CCS) in deep geological formations has quickly emerged as an important option for reducing greenhouse emissions. If CCS is implemented on the scale needed for large reductions in CO2 emissions, a billion of tonnes or more of CO2 will be sequestered annually a 250 fold increase over the amount sequestered annually today. Sequestering these large volumes will require a strong scientific foundation of the coupled hydrological-geochemical-geomechanical processes that govern the long term fate of CO2 in the subsurface. Methods to characterize and select sequestration sites, subsurface engineering to optimize performance and cost, safe operations, monitoring technology, remediation methods, regulatory oversight, and an institutional approach for managing long term liability are also needed.

Benson, Dr. Sally [Stanford University; Cole, David R [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse GasesGHG Emissions from Biofuels . in STEPS Research Symposium .NRDC, Growing Energy: How Biofuels Can Help End America's

Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Vehicle Fuel Economy Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards on AddThis.com...

318

Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

Denholm, P.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: How Do They Add Up?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: How Do They Add Up? James Bushnell UC Energy Institute California is implementing a broad portfolio of regulations aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions in California, calls for an overall reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. While the law

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

320

Yale's Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Yale's Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy ...creating a sustainable future August 2007 #12;Yale is a greenhouse gas re- duction goal. This goal has guided the development of an aggressive and in- formed to similar commitments to greenhouse gas reductions by other institutions of higher learning nationally

Haller, Gary L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

4, 23292384, 2007 Greenhouse gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BGD 4, 2329­2384, 2007 Greenhouse gas balance of NE Siberian tundra M. K. van der Molen et al The seasonal cycle of the greenhouse gas balance of a continental tundra site in the Indigirka lowlands, NE, 2329­2384, 2007 Greenhouse gas balance of NE Siberian tundra M. K. van der Molen et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability ..................................... 30 Appendix E: Canadian Default Factors for Calculating CO2 Emissions from Combustion of Natural Gas

Brownstone, Rob

323

The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Capturing and Sequestering CO2 from a Coal-Fired Power Plant - Assessing the Net Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capturing and Sequestering CO Capturing and Sequestering CO 2 from a Coal-fired Power Plant - Assessing the Net Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Pamela L. Spath (pamela_spath @nrel.gov; (303) 275-4460) Margaret K. Mann (margaret_mann @nrel.gov; (303) 275-2921) National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, CO 80401 INTRODUCTION It is technically feasible to capture CO 2 from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant and various researchers are working to understand the fate of sequestered CO 2 and its long term environmental effects. Sequestering CO 2 significantly reduces the CO 2 emissions from the power plant itself, but this is not the total picture. CO 2 capture and sequestration consumes additional energy, thus lowering the plant's fuel to electricity efficiency. To compensate for this, more fossil fuel must be

325

Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this report was peer reviewed by these contributors and their comments have been incorporated. Among key findings is that, for all cases examined on a mass emission per travel mile basis, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol utilized as both E85 and E10 outperforms that of conventional (current) and of reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and greenhouse gas production. In many cases, the superiority of the energy and GHG result is quite pronounced (i.e., well outside the range of model "noise")

Michael Wang Christopher; Michael Wang; Christopher Saricks

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes

Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded the direct value of the energy savings. Commissioning also improves worker comfort, mitigates in

Mills, Evan

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

328

Greenhouse gas emissions and the developing countries: Strategic options and the U. S. A. I. D. response. Report to the Congress  

SciTech Connect

The report responds to the Fiscal Year 1990 Foreign Assistance Appropriations Act, which requested the Agency for International Development (A.I.D.) to prepare a report that (1) examines the potential contributions of developing countries to future global emissions of greenhouse gases under different economic growth scenarios, (2) estimates the relative contributions of those countries to global greenhouse gas emissions, and (3) identifies specific key countries that stand to contribute significantly to global greenhouse gas emissions, and in which actions to promote energy efficiency, reliance on renewable resources, and conservation of forest resources could significantly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The report presents ongoing programs and new initiatives being considered by A.I.D. to promote sustained economic growth in developing countries while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Estimates of present and projected emissions, including emissions from A.I.D.-designated key countries, are based on the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Despite the uncertainties regarding the timing, magnitude, and impacts of global climate change, the issue has dramatized the daunting problems faced by developing countries in achieving sustained economic and social development. Responding to the policy imperative of managing the global commons while accelerating development in individual countries is one of the significant challenges of our time.

Jhirad, D.; Padmanabhan, S.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts.

Huo, H.; Wang, M.; Bloyd, C.; Putsche, V.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Most countries have made commitments to limit human-caused emissions of greenhouse gases. To  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(which is soot, rather than a greenhouse gas) would both improve our ability to manage its impact GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS There are three primary methods for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases, all be used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and sinks with sufficient accuracy at the national level

331

Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development  

SciTech Connect

The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1994 Volume 2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report provides information on greenhouse gases GHGs) as required by Section 503 a(4) and b(3) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT).

Fred Mayes

1996-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Transitional strategies for the reduction of "greenhouse gas" emission in the United States electric power sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental issues have become increasingly important in the political arena, particularly with growing concern over the "greenhouse effect," a potential global climatic warming caused by increases in anthropogenic ...

Monroe, Burt L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

IMPLEMENTING GREENHOUSE GAS TRADING IN EUROPE: LESSONS FROM ECONOMIC LI-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IMPLEMENTING GREENHOUSE GAS TRADING IN EUROPE: LESSONS FROM ECONOMIC LI- TERATURE AND INTERNATIONAL;#12;IMPLEMENTING GREENHOUSE GAS TRADING IN EUROPE: LESSONS FROM ECONOMIC LIT- ERATURE AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES a directive proposal to the European Parliament and Council in order to implement a greenhouse gas emission

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

335

The Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Platform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Platform 2010 -2015 Accounting Building/Data Mining · Aim: improve the UK's greenhouse gas inventory by replacing generic IPCCC emission inventory #12;Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Platform ­ missing data #12;AC0115 ­ led by IBERS

Edinburgh, University of

336

Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies  

SciTech Connect

A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

Garcia, N.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

A Greenhouse-Gas Information System: Monitoring and Validating Emissions Reporting and Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS.

Jonietz, Karl K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E. [JPL/CAL Tech; Rotman, Douglas A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Walker, Bruce C. [Sandia National Laboratory

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

339

Potential of solar domestic hot water systems in rural areas for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Poland  

SciTech Connect

Application of solar energy for preparing domestic hot water is one of the easiest methods of utilization of this energy. At least part of the needs for warm tap water could be covered by solar systems. At present, mainly coal is used for water heating at dwellings in rural areas in Poland. Warm tap water consumption will increase significantly in the future as standards of living are improved. This can result in the growth of electricity use and an increase in primary fuel consumption. Present and future methods of warm sanitary water generation in rural areas in Poland is discussed, and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are estimated. It is predicted that the emission of CO{sub 2} and NOx will increase. The emission of CO and CH{sub 4} will decrease because of changes in the structure of the final energy carriers used. The economic and market potentials of solar energy for preparing warm water in rural areas are discussed. It is estimated that solar systems can meet 30%-45% of the energy demand for warm water generation in rural areas at a reasonable cost, with a corresponding CO{sub 2} emission reduction. The rate of realization of the economic potential of solar water heaters depends on subsidies for the installation of equipment. 13 refs., 9 tabs.

Skowronski, P. [Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency, Warsaw (Poland); Wisniewski, G. [Institute for Building, Mechanization and Electrification of Agriculture, Warsaw (Poland)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Sustainability and Energy Development: Influences of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Options on Water Use in Energy Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate change mitigation strategies cannot be evaluated solely in terms of energy cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential. Maintaining GHGs at a 'safe' level will require fundamental change in the way we approach energy production, and a number of environmental, economic, and societal factors will come into play. Water is an essential component of energy production, and water resource constraints (e.g., insufficient supplies and competing ecological and anthropogenic needs) will limit our options for producing energy and for reducing GHG emissions. This study evaluates these potential constraints from a global perspective by revisiting the 'climate wedges' proposal of Pacala and Sokolow [1], and evaluating the potential water impacts of the 'wedges' associated with energy production. Results indicate that there is a range of water impacts, with some options reducing water demand while others increase water demand. Mitigation options that improve energy conversion and end-use efficiency have the greatest potential for reducing water resources impacts. These options provide 'win-win-win' scenarios for reducing GHG emissions, lowering energy costs and reducing water demand. Thet may merit higher priority than alternative options that emphasize deploying new low-carbon energy facilities or modifying existing facilities with energy intensive GHG mitigation technologies to reduce GHG emissions. While the latter can reduce GHG emissions, they will typically increase energy costs and water impacts.

D. Craig Cooper; Gerald Sehlke

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Tradeoffs between Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Design of Urban Transit Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mi) Maintenance emissions (g/veh-mi) Total emissions (g/veh-mi) Total emissions (g/veh-km) Comments 15,300 Based onfrom Chester (2008); emissions from EIO-LCA (CMU 2012) 1,841

Griswold, Julia Baird

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Guidance and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guidance and Reporting Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Federal...

343

DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology...

344

Mitigating greenhouse gas and nitrogen loss with improved fertilizer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, N loss and economic implication are rarely analysed. A decision support system (DSS) has been developed to.

345

Plant power : the cost of using biomass for power generation and potential for decreased greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To date, biomass has not been a large source of power generation in the United States, despite the potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits from displacing coal with carbon neutral biomass. In this thesis, the fuel cycle ...

Cuellar, Amanda Dulcinea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Response of the HadGEM2 Earth System Model to Future Greenhouse Gas Emissions Pathways to the Year 2300  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new ensemble of simulations from the Earth System configuration of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 2 (HadGEM2-ES), is used to evaluate the response to historical and projected future greenhouse gas forcings that follow ...

John Caesar; Erika Palin; Spencer Liddicoat; Jason Lowe; Eleanor Burke; Anne Pardaens; Michael Sanderson; Ron Kahana

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NDRC), 2007. Natural Gas Use Policy [??? ????]. NDRC EnergyNDRC), 2007. Natural Gas Use Policy [??? ????]. NDRC Energypolicy. In its 2007 Natural Gas Use Policy, the NDRC listed

Kahrl, Fredrich James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogenfrom natural gas and the distribution and storage ofProduction and Storage Fuel Cycle" Natural gas/CompressedHz

Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electricity emissions, inventory calculators utilize data from the U.S. EPA's eGRID database of electrical power generation emission factors (32). The eGRID emission factors include neither upstream fuel power generation emission factors (lbs GHGs/MWh) from the EPA's eGRID database (32). Regional electric

351

The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

draft). Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for thefactors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

draft). Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for theemissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Kalman-filtered compressive sensing for high resolution estimation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sparse measurements.  

SciTech Connect

The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. The limited nature of the measured data leads to a severely-underdetermined estimation problem. If the estimation is performed at fine spatial resolutions, it can also be computationally expensive. In order to enable such estimations, advances are needed in the spatial representation of ffCO2 emissions, scalable inversion algorithms and the identification of observables to measure. To that end, we investigate parsimonious spatial parameterizations of ffCO2 emissions which can be used in atmospheric inversions. We devise and test three random field models, based on wavelets, Gaussian kernels and covariance structures derived from easily-observed proxies of human activity. In doing so, we constructed a novel inversion algorithm, based on compressive sensing and sparse reconstruction, to perform the estimation. We also address scalable ensemble Kalman filters as an inversion mechanism and quantify the impact of Gaussian assumptions inherent in them. We find that the assumption does not impact the estimates of mean ffCO2 source strengths appreciably, but a comparison with Markov chain Monte Carlo estimates show significant differences in the variance of the source strengths. Finally, we study if the very different spatial natures of biogenic and ffCO2 emissions can be used to estimate them, in a disaggregated fashion, solely from CO2 concentration measurements, without extra information from products of incomplete combustion e.g., CO. We find that this is possible during the winter months, though the errors can be as large as 50%.

Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin, Ireland

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Guidance for Electric Companies on the Use of Forest Carbon Sequestration Projects to Offset Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The earth8217s climate is warming and the majority of scientists believe that human-caused emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are contributing significantly to the warming of our atmosphere. Mandatory limits of GHG emissions now exist in most industrialized nations and are being developed in individual states and regions within the United States. It appears increasingly likely that a national mandatory program to limit GHG emissions could be implemented in the U.S. sometime in the next few years. Fores...

2006-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

355

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Basics on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Basics on...

356

Fiscal Year 2010 Greenhouse Gas Inventory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fiscal Year 2010 Greenhouse Gas Inventory OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY #12;OREGON STATE UNIVERSITYGHG . 2 . Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) represents the quantity of a greenhouse gas multiplied

Escher, Christine

357

Federal Energy Management Program: Prioritize Greenhouse Gas...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Prioritize Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Prioritize Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies on Facebook Tweet...

358

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Contacts on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Contacts on...

359

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emissions Surcharge Revenues Oil Price Price elas= -0.1 elasEmissions Surcharge Revenues Oil Price Price elas= -0.1 elasotherwise result if oil prices remain at current levels. . o

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Guidelines for Company Reporting on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Annexes updated July 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with an energy supplier, that has acquired Climate Change Levy Exemption Certificates (LECs) for the electricity, you can attribute the emissions from the CHP plant 1:2 and calculate emissions per kWh of heat or electricity produced by the CHP plant using the appropriate formula below: Emissions (in kgCO2) per k

362

The US department of Energy's R&D program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through beneficial uses of carbon dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg Perspective Correspondence to: Darin Damiani, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV 26507, USA. E-mail: darin.damiani@netl.doe.gov † This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Received June 24, 2011; revised July 26, 2011; accepted July 27, 2011 Published online at Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/ghg.35 The US Department of Energy's R&D program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through benefi cial uses of carbon dioxide † Darin Damiani and John T. Litynski, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of

363

Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

365

Data Sources 3. Data Sources This indicator uses data and analysis from EPA’s Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This indicator describes emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States and its territories between 1990 and 2010. This indicator reports emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) according to their global warming potential, a measure of how much a given amount of the GHG is estimated to contribute to global warming over a selected period of time. For the purposes of comparison, global warming potential values are given in relation to carbon dioxide (CO2) and are expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents. Components of this indicator include: • U.S. GHG emissions by gas (Figure 1) • U.S. GHG emissions and sinks by economic sector (Figure 2) • U.S. GHG emissions per capita and per dollar of GDP (Figure 3)

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Slashing Greenhouse Emissions from Magnesium Production - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 1, 2008 ... Topic Title: Slashing Greenhouse Emissions from Magnesium Production Topic Summary: CSIRO, an Australia's national science agency ...

367

Greenhouse gas performance standards: From each according to his emission intensity or from each according to his emissions?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From each according to his emission intensity or fromeach according to his emissions? D. RajagopalFrom each according to his emission intensity or from each

Rajagopal, Deepak

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Federal Greenhouse Gas Requirements | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Requirements Requirements Federal Greenhouse Gas Requirements October 7, 2013 - 10:02am Addthis Executive Order (E.O.) 13514 expands the energy reduction and environmental requirements of Executive Order 13423 by making greenhouse gas (GHG) management a priority for the Federal government. Under Section 2 of E.O. 13514, each Federal agency must: Within 90 days of the order, establish and report to the CEQ Chair and OMB Director a percentage reduction target for agency-wide reductions of Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions in absolute terms by fiscal year 2020 relative to a fiscal year 2008 baseline of the agency's Scope 1 greenhouse gas emissions. In establishing the target, agencies shall consider reductions associated with: Reducing agency building energy intensity Increasing agency renewable energy use and implementing on-site renewable

369

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from coal- or natural gas-fired power plants occur "up-of natural gas is lost before reaching the power plant." 30power plant. Yet, when it comes to upstream emissions, the lifecycle for natural gas

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Tradeoffs between Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Design of Urban Transit Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Public transit is often touted as a "green" transportation option and a way for users to reduce their environmental footprint by avoiding automobile emissions. Many… (more)

Griswold, Julia Baird

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Data Report; emissions from imports calculated using U.S.source of energy in the Southwest U.S. Thus, imports from

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuel distribution, powerplantand refinery emissions -- areemissions fromoil refineries and electrical powerplants. Inproduction of the fuel at the refinery, the distribution of

Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Impact of U.S. Nuclear Generation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

electric power industry that EIA projects continued reliance on them for at least two decades. ... energy-related car bon emissions will be about 550 million

374

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that makes great strides in clarifying inconsistent and conflicting GHG emission estimates in the published literature while providing more precise estimates of GHG emissions from utility-scale CSP systems.

Not Available

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With Climate Change legislation on the horizon, the need to integrate energy reduction initiatives with greenhouse gas reduction efforts is critical to manufactures competitiveness and financial strength going forward. MPC has developed an integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System that allows companies to reduce energy and carbon intensity at the same time all the while bolstering bottom line performance. Reducing energy use and greenhouse gases is not an option but a necessity today. All manufacturing companies need to develop in-house capabilities to manage these important resources or pay the price of high carbon taxes and/or face a depletion in operating margins. MPC will present a case history highlighting the steps taken, the results obtained and the lessons learned in developing an integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System with a major industrial manufacturing company in the Midwest. Key subject areas covered include: Integration of Climate Change and Energy Management Strategies- a winning approach to meet the challenge; Turn a potential cost of compliance into a new cash flow source; Leveraging Energy Management Systems to optimize savings; Navigating through the new Greenhouse Gas reporting requirements; Utilizing Plant and Corporate Energy Management Dashboards to Control Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas emissions.

Spates, C. N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (Update) (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The State of California was given authority under CAAA90 to set emissions standards for light-duty vehicles that exceed Federal standards. In addition, other States that do not comply with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) set by the EPA under CAAA90 were given the option to adopt Californias light-duty vehicle emissions standards in order to achieve air quality compliance. CAAA90 specifically identifies hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and NOx as vehicle-related air pollutants that can be regulated. California has led the Nation in developing stricter vehicle emissions standards, and other States have adopted the California standards.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Greenhouse gas emissions trading in U.S. States: observations and lessons from the OTC NOx Budget Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of U.S. states are considering market-based policies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The experience gained from emissions trading for sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) offers a useful body of information and data to draw on to design a GHG emissions trading system. This report examines NOx trading under the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program, which resulted principally from the leadership, decisions, and actions by a group of states, ultimately becoming the first multilateral cap-and-trade system for emissions of air pollutants. 72 refs.

Andrew Aulisi; Alexander E. Farrell; Jonathan Pershing; Stacy VanDeveer [World Resources Institute, Washington, DC (United States). Sustainable Enterprise Program

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 gm/mifor the mid-size electric car. All the emissions areemissions for the mid-size electric cars vary from about Isize. In the case of electric cars, the efficiency standard

Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Petroleum Use for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

based on GREET. The ethanol component of cellulosic E85 4 is assumed to be produced from corn stover. Emissions from land use change for corn stover are included but estimated to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Life-cycle assessment of Greenhouse Gas emissions from alternative jet fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The key motivation for this work was the potential impact of alternative jet fuel use on emissions that contribute to global climate change. This work focused on one specific aspect in examining the feasibility of using ...

Wong, Hsin Min

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on agricultural land  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are widely acknowledged to be responsible for much of the global warming in the past century. A number of approaches have been proposed to mitigate GHG emissions. Since the burning of ...

Wang, Xiaodong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LCA can help determine environmental burdens from "cradle LCA can help determine environmental burdens from "cradle to grave" and facilitate more consistent comparisons of energy technologies. Figure 1. Generalized life cycle stages for energy technologies Source: Sathaye et al. (2011) Life cycle GHG emissions from renewable electricity generation technologies are generally less than those from fossil fuel-based technologies, based on evidence assembled by this project. Further, the proportion of GHG emissions from each life cycle stage differs by technology. For fossil-fueled technologies, fuel combustion during operation of the facility emits the vast majority of GHGs. For nuclear and renewable energy technologies, the majority of GHG emissions occur upstream of operation. LCA of Energy Systems

384

Well-to-wheel energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of advanced fuel/vehicle systems North American analysis.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are differing, yet strongly held views among the various ''stakeholders'' in the advanced fuel/propulsion system debate. In order for the introduction of advanced technology vehicles and their associated fuels to be successful, it seems clear that four important stakeholders must view their introduction as a ''win'': Society, Automobile manufacturers and their key suppliers, Fuel providers and their key suppliers, and Auto and energy company customers. If all four of these stakeholders, from their own perspectives, are not positive regarding the need for and value of these advanced fuels/vehicles, the vehicle introductions will fail. This study was conducted to help inform public and private decision makers regarding the impact of the introduction of such advanced fuel/propulsion system pathways from a societal point of view. The study estimates two key performance criteria of advanced fuel/propulsion systems on a total system basis, that is, ''well'' (production source of energy) to ''wheel'' (vehicle). These criteria are energy use and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of distance traveled. The study focuses on the U.S. light-duty vehicle market in 2005 and beyond, when it is expected that advanced fuels and propulsion systems could begin to be incorporated in a significant percentage of new vehicles. Given the current consumer demand for light trucks, the benchmark vehicle considered in this study is the Chevrolet Silverado full-size pickup.

Wang, M.

2001-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

385

Well-to-tank energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of transportation fuels vol. 1, 2, 3.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are differing yet strongly held views among the various ''stakeholders'' in the advanced fuel/propulsion system debate. In order for the introduction of advanced technology vehicles and their associated fuels to be successful, it seems clear that four important stakeholders must view their introduction as a ''win'': (1) Society, (2) Automobile manufacturers and their key suppliers, (3) Fuel providers and their key suppliers, and (4)Auto and energy company customers. If all four of these stakeholders, from their own perspectives, are not positive regarding the need for and value of these advanced fuels/vehicles, the vehicle introductions will fail. This study was conducted to help inform public and private decision makers regarding the impact of the introduction of such advanced fuel/propulsion system pathways from a societal point of view. The study estimates two key performance criteria of advanced fuel/propulsion systems on a total system basis, that is, ''well'' (production source of energy) to ''wheel'' (vehicle). These criteria are energy use and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of distance traveled. The study focuses on the U.S. light-duty vehicle market in 2005 and beyond, when it is expected that advanced fuels and propulsion systems could begin to be incorporated in a significant percentage of new vehicles. Given the current consumer demand for light trucks, the benchmark vehicle considered in this study is the Chevrolet Silverado full-size pickup.

NONE

2001-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Sector Specific Tools | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gas Protocol Initiative: Sector Specific Tools Gas Protocol Initiative: Sector Specific Tools Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Sector Specific Tools Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Industry, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased Electricity[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion[2] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport or Mobil Sources[3]

387

Economic and Greenhouse Gas Emission Assessment of Utilizing Energy Storage Systems in ERCOT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States has vast wind generation potential; and state renewable portfolio standards (RPS), tax incentives, and national climate policy could lead to dramatic increases in new wind generation. While wind generation could result in significant reductions in emissions from existing fossil generation, the challenges imposed by intermittency and balancing transmission of power to load centers may limit the effective use of wind capacity additions. Electricity storage may play a pivotal role in overc...

2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

388

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon  

SciTech Connect

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fearnside, P.M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues.

Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlamadinger, B. [Institute for Energy Research, Joanneum Research, Graz, (Austria)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

Not Available

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and to provide energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor method) were also examined and reported. According to the utility factor method, the share of veh

Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

392

Energy Department Releases New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance, Seeks  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance, Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance, Seeks Public Comment Energy Department Releases New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance, Seeks Public Comment March 22, 2005 - 10:54am Addthis Program Will Ensure Greater Accuracy & Completeness WASHINGTON, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today asked for further public comment on its revised guidelines for voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, sequestration and emission reductions. The program was established by section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and will help fulfill President George W. Bush's directive that DOE enhance its voluntary reporting program to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions while improving the accuracy, verifiability and completeness of emissions data reported to the Federal Government.

393

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Buildings | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Buildings Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Buildings Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Buildings October 7, 2013 - 10:29am Addthis Energy use in buildings represents the single largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Federal sector. Buildings can contribute to Scope 1 emissions from direct stationary combustion sources; Scope 2 from indirect electricity, heat, or steam purchases; and Scope 3 emissions from transmission and distribution losses. Also see Use Renewable Energy in Buildings for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation. Step 1: Assess Agency Size Changes Step 2: Evaluate Emissions Profile Step 3: Evaluate Reduction Strategies Step 4: Estimate Implementation Costs Step 5: Prioritize Strategies Helpful Data and Tools See GHG planning data and tools for buildings.

394

Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

Zhao Wei, E-mail: zhaowei.tju@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning University of Technology, 121000 Jinzhou (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huppes, Gjalt, E-mail: huppes@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der, E-mail: Voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Biomass Power and Conventional Fossil Systems with and without CO2 Sequestration … Comparing the Energy Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* NREL/TP-510-32575 * NREL/TP-510-32575 Biomass Power and Conventional Fossil Systems with and without CO 2 Sequestration - Comparing the Energy Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economics Pamela L. Spath Margaret K. Mann National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 January 2004 * NREL/TP-510-32575 Biomass Power and Conventional Fossil Systems with and without CO 2 Sequestration - Comparing the Energy Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economics Pamela L. Spath Margaret K. Mann Prepared under Task No. BB04.4010 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393

396

Prioritize Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Prioritize Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Prioritize Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Prioritize Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies October 7, 2013 - 10:20am Addthis Once a Federal agency understands what greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions are feasible and at what cost, proposed GHG reduction activities may be prioritized. While it may be useful for personnel responsible for managing GHG emissions to prioritize actions within emission categories-for example, prioritizing building emission reduction measures-prioritization should also occur across all major emission Scope 1 and 2 emission sources and all Scope 3 emission sources. Guidance on prioritizing strategies for specific emission sources includes: Buildings Vehicles and mobile equipment Business travel Employee commuting. Prioritizing actions across fleet, facility, and fugitive sources will

397

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect

The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the US (US EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the US This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the cost-effective energy savings potential in case B increases to 22%.

Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the U.S. (U.S. EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the U.S. This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the cost-effective energy savings potential in case B increases to 22%.

Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics Basics Federal agencies must understand key terms and management basics to successfully manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Graphic of the top half of earth depicting current arctic sea ice. A red outline depicts arctic sea ice boundaries in 1979. Current arctic sea ice is shown roughly 50% smaller than the 1979 depiction. Greenhouse gases correlate directly to global warming, which impacts arctic sea ice. This image shows current arctic sea ice formation. The red outline depicts arctic sea ice boundaries in 1979. Greenhouse gases are trace gases in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect." This process keeps the planet habitable. International research has linked human activities to a rapid increase in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere, contributing to major shifts in the global climate.

400

DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions June 29, 2012 - 12:19pm Addthis Judy McLemore from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant led efforts to reduce the DOE’s vehicle fleet by 20 percent, improving sustainability and saving money. Under her leadership, greenhouse gas emissions associated with business travel were reduced by 63 percent and travel costs were reduced by greater than 60 percent. Judy McLemore from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant led efforts to reduce the DOE's vehicle fleet by 20 percent, improving sustainability and saving money. Under her leadership, greenhouse gas emissions associated with business travel were reduced by 63 percent and travel costs were

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions DOE Honors WIPP Representative for Cutting Travel Costs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions June 29, 2012 - 12:19pm Addthis Judy McLemore from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant led efforts to reduce the DOE’s vehicle fleet by 20 percent, improving sustainability and saving money. Under her leadership, greenhouse gas emissions associated with business travel were reduced by 63 percent and travel costs were reduced by greater than 60 percent. Judy McLemore from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant led efforts to reduce the DOE's vehicle fleet by 20 percent, improving sustainability and saving money. Under her leadership, greenhouse gas emissions associated with business travel were reduced by 63 percent and travel costs were

402

Greenhouse Gas Management Institute (GHGMI) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Institute (GHGMI) Institute (GHGMI) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Greenhouse Gas Management Institute (GHGMI) Name Greenhouse Gas Management Institute (GHGMI) Address Washington, D.C. Place Washington, District of Columbia Phone number 1-888-778-1972 Website http://ghginstitute.org/housek References http://ghginstitute.org/housekeeping/contact-us/ No information has been entered for this organization. Add Organization The Greenhouse Gas Management Institute (GHGMI) was founded in response to the growing demand for qualified greenhouse gas (GHG) professionals. Just as engineering and financial accounting rely on certified professionals, GHG emissions management requires a highly competent and ethical professional class to undertake measurement, reporting, auditing, and

403

An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

Townsend, Aaron K., E-mail: aarontownsend@utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Webber, Michael E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Estimating Emissions of Other Greenhouse Gases  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Estimating Emissions of Other Greenhouse Gases Presentation to the Department of Energy Republic of the Philippines September 17, 1997 Arthur Rypinski Energy ...

405

Data Sources 3. Data Sources This indicator uses data and analysis from EPA’s Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This indicator describes emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the United States and its territories between 1990 and 2011. This indicator reports emissions of GHGs according to their global warming potential, a measure of how much a given amount of the GHG is estimated to contribute to global warming over a selected period of time. For the purposes of comparison, global warming potential values are given in relation to carbon dioxide (CO2) and are expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents. Components of this indicator include: U.S. GHG emissions by gas (Figure 1) U.S. GHG emissions and sinks by economic sector (Figure 2) U.S. GHG emissions per capita and per dollar of GDP (Figure 3)

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Greenhouse gas performance standards: From each according to his emission intensity or from each according to his emissions?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Refining of Crude oil. Our dataset comprises of 89is then upgraded to crude oil for furthering refining. Forfuel sources such as coal, oil and natural gas and which are

Rajagopal, Deepak

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Greenhouse Gas Initiative Scenario Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Initiative Scenario Database Greenhouse Gas Initiative Scenario Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Greenhouse Gas Initiative Scenario Database Agency/Company /Organization: Science for Global Insight Sector: Climate, Energy, Land Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Dataset, Online calculator, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.iiasa.ac.at/web-apps/ggi/GgiDb/dsd?Action=htmlpage&page=about Cost: Free References: Greenhouse Gas Initiative Scenario Database[1] The GGI (Greenhouse Gas Initiative) scenario database documents the results of a set of greenhouse gas emission scenarios that were created using the IIASA Integrated Assessment Modeling Framework and previously documented in a special issue of the Technological Forecasting and Social Change.

408

Yale's Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas emissions has guided the development of an aggressive and informed response to perhaps the most-indirect emissions from purchased electricity and purchased cogeneration for heating or chilled water

Haller, Gary L.

409

Resources on Greenhouse Gas | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Areas » Greenhouse Gases » Resources on Greenhouse Gas Program Areas » Greenhouse Gases » Resources on Greenhouse Gas Resources on Greenhouse Gas October 7, 2013 - 2:30pm Addthis Many helpful resources about greenhouse gases (GHG) are available. Also see Contacts. GHG Reporting and Accounting Tools Annual GHG and Sustainability Data Report: Lists resources for reporting annual greenhouse gas activities. FedCenter Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reporting Website: Features additional information, training, and tools to assist agencies with completing comprehensive GHG inventory reporting requirements under Executive Order (E.O.) 13514. General Services Administration (GSA) Carbon Footprint and Green Procurement Tool: Voluntary tool developed by GSA to assist agencies in managing GHGs as required by E.O. 13514. Also see Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning Data and Tools.

410

Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute Sector: Energy, Land Topics: Co-benefits assessment, GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Publications Website: pdf.wri.org/navigating_numbers.pdf References: Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy[1] Overview "This report examines greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the global, national, sectoral, and fuel levels and identifies implications of the data for international cooperation on global climate change. Emissions are assessed within the broader socioeconomic context faced by countries,

411

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Measurement and Estimation of  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Measurement and Estimation of The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Measurement and Estimation of Uncertainty of GHG Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Measurement and Estimation of Uncertainty of GHG Emissions Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: GHG Uncertainty Guide[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Uncertainty Tool is designed to facilitate a quantitative and qualitative estimation of uncertainty associated with a

412

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies Using Renewable Energy in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies Using Renewable Energy Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:23am Addthis Once Federal sites have been screened for viability of different renewable energy resources to evaluate emissions profile, the next step is to establish what renewable energy resources developed at which particular sites would have the greatest impact on the agency's overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions goals. It is important to consider that some types of renewable energy generation could impact not only Scope 1 and 2 GHG goals, but also Scope 3 goals through avoided transmission and distribution losses. Estimate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential It is important to note that solar systems can have the greatest reduction

413

Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management processes for municipalities - A comparative review focusing on Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted due to waste management in the cities of developing countries is predicted to rise considerably in the near future; however, these countries have a series of problems in accounting and reporting these gases. Some of these problems are related to the status quo of waste management in the developing world and some to the lack of a coherent framework for accounting and reporting of greenhouse gases from waste at municipal level. This review summarizes and compares GHG emissions from individual waste management processes which make up a municipal waste management system, with an emphasis on developing countries and, in particular, Africa. It should be seen as a first step towards developing a more holistic GHG accounting model for municipalities. The comparison between these emissions from developed and developing countries at process level, reveals that there is agreement on the magnitude of the emissions expected from each process (generation of waste, collection and transport, disposal and recycling). The highest GHG savings are achieved through recycling, and these savings would be even higher in developing countries which rely on coal for energy production (e.g. South Africa, India and China) and where non-motorized collection and transport is used. The highest emissions are due to the methane released by dumpsites and landfills, and these emissions are predicted to increase significantly, unless more of the methane is captured and either flared or used for energy generation. The clean development mechanism (CDM) projects implemented in the developing world have made some progress in this field; however, African countries lag behind.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Greenhouse Gas Program Overview (Revised) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Greenhouse Gas program, including Federal requirements, FEMP services, and contacts.

Not Available

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET Fleet) Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas, Transportation Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: greet.es.anl.gov/main Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool, The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model, GREET References: GREET Fleet Main Page[1] Logo: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET Fleet)

416

Tax-versus-trading and efficient revenue recycling as issues for greenhouse gas abatement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tax-versus-trading and efficient revenue recycling as issues for greenhouse gas abatement Final, climate policy, global Abstract. We give empirical welfare results for global greenhouse gas emission recycling together. #12;1. Introduction Designing policy mechanisms for abating greenhouse gas emissions

Pezzey, Jack

417

RESEARCH ROADMAP FOR GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESEARCH ROADMAP FOR GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY METHODS Prepared For: California Energy Commission Consulting · Riitta Pipatti, IPCC Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories · Dennis Rolston Agency · Fabian Wagner, IPCC Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories · Wilfried Winiwarter

418

Fiscal Year 2007 Greenhouse Gas Inventory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fiscal Year 2007 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Greg Smith Brandon Trelstad OSU Facilities Services June greenhouse gas multiplied by a Global Warming Potential (GWP) factor. (3) "Global Warming Potential factor" (GWP) means the radiative forcing impact of one mass-based unit of a given greenhouse gas relative

Escher, Christine

419

4, 277316, 2007 Full greenhouse gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BGD 4, 277­316, 2007 Full greenhouse gas balance of abandoned peat meadow D. M. D. Hendriks et al greenhouse gas balance of an abandoned peat meadow D. M. D. Hendriks, J. van Huissteden, A. J. Dolman, and M (dimmie.hendriks@falw.vu.nl) 277 #12;BGD 4, 277­316, 2007 Full greenhouse gas balance of abandoned peat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

Fiscal Year 2009 Greenhouse Gas Inventory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fiscal Year 2009 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Oregon State University Greg Smith Sustainability Program of oxygen. (2) "Carbon dioxide equivalent" (CO2e) represents the quantity of a greenhouse gas multiplied of one mass-based unit of a given greenhouse gas relative to an equivalent unit of carbon dioxide over

Escher, Christine

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "greenhouse gas emission" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Greenhouse gas budgets of crop production current  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas budgets of crop production ­ current and likely future trends Helen C. Flynn and Pete Smith #12;Greenhouse gas budgets of crop production ­ current and likely future trends Helen C or boundaries. #12;3Greenhouse gas budgets of crop production ­ current and likely future trends About

Levi, Ran

422

Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests in Britain Research Report #12;#12;Research Report Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests in Britain Forestry., White, M. and Yamulki, S. (2012). Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests

423

Modeling the Interaction of Transport Mechanisms through Bedded Manure to Evaluate the Effects on Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the foremost contributor to global warming is the release of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases have been… (more)

Williams, Marlyse

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20112012 Office of Sustainability September 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20112012 Office of Sustainability ..................................... 31 Appendix E: Canadian Default Factors for Calculating CO2 Emissions from Combustion of Natural Gas

Brownstone, Rob

425

Greenhouse gas action plan for the transportation sector in Iowa  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research has been to identify ways in which the state of Iowa can do its part in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in its transportation sector. A variety of strategies and policy actions for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Iowa are explored in this report. Some of these actions would be relatively easy to implement, while others would require significant changes in how people live and travel. The authors` work on this research effort has been conducted in tandem with a larger study to develop a greenhouse gas action plan for Iowa.

Ney, R.A.; Schnoor, J.L.; Foster, N.S.J.; Forkenbrock, D.J.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

426

Energy Efficency and Greenhouse Gas Connection  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Carbon Emissions Efficiency and Carbon Emissions Efficiency and Carbon Emissions Energy use for various services has a number of impacts on the environment. Energy combustion by-products include SOx, NOx, and precursors of ground-level ozone. Another combustion by-product is CO2 (carbon dioxide). CO2, a greenhouse gas, has been identified as a potential major contributor to global climate change. Climate_Change.jpg (6885 bytes) The carbon emissions from energy use depend on a number of factors: The level of demand for energy services; The service energy intensity (energy requirement per unit of service); The mix of energy sources for the service; The carbon content of the energy sources. Electricity and district energy both derive from other forms of energy. For these two sources, the mix of fuels used in their production is an additional factor in carbon emissions.

427

Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn Ethanol.” Paper presented at the 8 th Bio-Energy Conference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study has been undertaken at the request of the Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) on the twin premises that (1) data and information essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than estimates based specifically on activities and practices in the principal domestic corn production and milling region-- the upper Midwest. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contracted with DCCA to apply the ANL Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model with updated information appropriate to corn operations in America’s heartland in an effort to examine the role of corn-feedstock ethanol with respect to GHG emissions given present and near future production technology and practice. Information about these technologies and practices has been obtained from a panel of outside experts consisting of representatives of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, midwestern universities with expertise in corn production and soil emissions, and acknowledged authorities in the field of ethanol plant

Michael Wang; Christopher Saricks

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Economic Potential for Agricultural NonEconomic Potential for Agricultural Non--CO2 GreenhouseCO2 Greenhouse Gas Mitigation:Gas Mitigation: An Investigation in the United StatesAn Investigation in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation:Gas Mitigation: An Investigation in the United StatesAn Investigation in the United for Agricultural Non--CO2 Greenhouse GasCO2 Greenhouse Gas Mitigation:Mitigation: An Investigation in the United revealing an "optimal" portfolio of agricultural greenhouse gas emission related management alternatives. We

McCarl, Bruce A.

430

Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.  

SciTech Connect

This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

What are the likely roles of fossil fuels in the next 15, 50, and 100 years, with or without active controls on greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

Since the industrial revolution, the production and utilization of fossil fuels have been an engine driving economic and industrial development in many countries worldwide. However, future reliance on fossil fuels has been questioned due to emerging concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and its potential contribution to global climate change (GCC). While substantial uncertainties exist regarding the ability to accurately predict climate change and the role of various greenhouse gases, some scientists and policymakers have called for immediate action. As a result, there have been many proposals and worldwide initiatives to address the perceived problem. In many of these proposals, the premise is that CO{sub 2} emissions constitute the principal problem, and, correspondingly, that fossil-fuel combustion must be curtailed to resolve this problem. This paper demonstrates that the worldwide fossil fuel resource base and infrastructure are extensive and thus, will continue to be relied on in developed and developing countries. Furthermore, in the electric generating sector (the focus of this paper), numerous clean coal technologies (CCTs) are currently being demonstrated (or are under development) that have higher conversion efficiencies, and thus lower CO{sub 2} emission rates than conventional coal-based technologies. As these technologies are deployed in new power plant or repowering applications to meet electrical load growth, CO{sub 2} (and other GHG) emission levels per unit of electricity generated will be lower than that produced by conventional fossil-fuel technologies. 37 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

Kane, R.L. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (USA)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Establish Building Locations for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Establish Building Locations for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Establish Building Locations for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Establish Building Locations for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation October 7, 2013 - 10:53am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 After estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by building type, building location is an important consideration in evaluating the relevance of energy-saving strategies due to variations in heating and cooling needs, and the GHG reduction potential due to variability of emissions factors across regions of the grid. If site-level energy use estimates are available for each of the program's key building types, the program can identify building locations with the greatest emission reduction potential by using the benchmarking approach. Locations with the worst energy performance relative to the benchmark are

433

Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Agency/Company /Organization Clean Air Asia Partner World Bank Development Grant Facility (DGF), Asian Development Bank (ADB), the German Development Cooperation (GiZ), Energy Foundation, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Institute for Transport Policy Studies (ITPS), Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP), Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD), Veolia Energy Sector Climate, Energy, Land Focus Area Greenhouse Gas, Transportation Topics Background analysis, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, - Health, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, -TNA, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs

434

Estimate and Analyze Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategy Implementation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimate and Analyze Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategy Estimate and Analyze Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategy Implementation Costs Estimate and Analyze Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategy Implementation Costs October 7, 2013 - 10:18am Addthis Analyzing the cost of implementing each greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measure provides an important basis for prioritizing different emission reduction strategies. While actual costs should be used when available, this guidance provides cost estimates or considerations for the major emission reduction measures to help agencies estimate costs without perfect information. Cost criteria the agency may consider when prioritizing strategies include: Lifecycle cost Payback Cost effectiveness ($ invested per MTCO2e, metric tonne carbon dioxide equivalent avoided). Implementation costs should be analyzed for each emissions source:

435

Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in the ENERGY STAR Commercial, Industrial and Residential Sectors. An Example of How the Refinery Industry is Capitalizing on ENERGY STAR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past 10 years ENERGY STAR has developed a track record as a certification mark to hang buildings performance hat on. By implementing upgrade strategies and pursuing operations and maintenance issues simultaneously, ENERGY STAR has led the nation and many states to pursue greenhouse gas reduction initiatives using energy efficiency as a model program. In developing these partnerships with industry, states and local government, what has occurred is a variety of program approaches that works to accomplish strategically a reduction in emissions. Through its development, ENERGY STAR has become an integral player with many Green Buildings Program to help them carry the energy efficiency banner to higher levels of cooperation. What is occurring today is that more and more local programs are looking to green buildings as an approach to reducing problems they face in air pollution, water pollution, solid waste, needed infrastructure and better of resources needs and the growth of expensive utility infrastructures. EPA - Region 6's ENERGY STAR and Green Building Program assistance has led to some unique solutions and the beginning workups for the integrated expansion of effort to support State Implementation Plans in new innovative voluntary approaches to transform certain markets, similarly to those of energy efficient products. This presentation will be an overview of activity that is being spearheaded in Texas in the DFW and Houston metro areas in ENERGY STAR and Green Buildings. The voluntary programs impacts are reducing energy consumption, creating markets for renewables, reducing air polluting chemicals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions using verifiable approaches.

Patrick, K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Assess Potential Changes in Business Travel that Impact Greenhouse Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Changes in Business Travel that Impact Greenhouse Changes in Business Travel that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions Assess Potential Changes in Business Travel that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions October 7, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 For a Federal agency, changes in the demand for business travel can be difficult to predict. Changes in the nature of the agency's work may have a substantial impact on the demand for business travel. It is therefore important to account for these changes when planning for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction. Conditions that may contribute to a significant increase or decrease in the agency's business travel, beyond specific efforts to reduce business travel demand, include: Significant changes in the agency's budget Addition or completion of major program activities that require

437

Identify Vehicle Usage Mission Constraints for Reducing Greenhouse Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Identify Vehicle Usage Mission Constraints for Reducing Greenhouse Identify Vehicle Usage Mission Constraints for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Identify Vehicle Usage Mission Constraints for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions October 7, 2013 - 11:46am Addthis YOU ARE HERE: Step 2 As Federal agencies work to identify opportunities for right-sizing the fleet and replacing inefficient vehicles with new, efficient, and/or alternatively fueled models to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, they should flag potential mission constraints associated with vehicle usage. This may involve further data collection to understand the mission considerations associated with individual vehicles. For instance, in Figure 1, Vehicle 004 appears to be underutilized, having both a low user-to-vehicle ratio and a relatively low time in use per day. However,

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The University of Western Ontario Greenhouse Gas Inventory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.2 Ontario Regulation 452/09 9 I.3 Non-mandatory programs 10 I.4 Greenhouse Gas Inventories 10 I.4 combustion accounted for the vast majority of the emissions. Within this category, natural gas reactions. Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas and oil. Methane

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

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Use Renewable Energy in Buildings for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Use Renewable Energy in Buildings for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Use Renewable Energy in Buildings for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Use Renewable Energy in Buildings for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation October 7, 2013 - 11:13am Addthis After all cost-effective energy efficiency projects have been explored as part of a Federal agency's planning efforts for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in buildings, renewable energy may be considered as an option for meeting the agency's GHG reduction goals. Renewable energy can reduce emissions in all three GHG emission scopes by displacing conventional fossil fuel use. The focus of this guidance is prioritizing on-site renewable energy projects that will best support GHG reduction goals. It is intended to provide a high-level screening approach for on-site renewable energy projects to support agency- or program-level portfolio planning. General

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Portfolio-Based Planning Process for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Portfolio-Based Planning Process for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Portfolio-Based Planning Process for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Portfolio-Based Planning Process for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation October 7, 2013 - 10:10am Addthis The portfolio-based planning process for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation offers an approach to: Evaluating the GHG reduction potential at the site, program, and agency level Identifying strategies for reducing those emissions Prioritizing activities to achieve both GHG reduction and cost objectives. Portfolio-based management for GHG mitigation helps agencies move from "peanut-butter-spreading" obligations for meeting GHG reduction targets evenly across all agency operating units to strategic planning of GHG reduction activities based on each operating unit's potential and cost to reduce emissions. The result of this prioritization will lay the foundation

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Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Employee Commuting | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Employee Commuting Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Employee Commuting Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Employee Commuting October 7, 2013 - 1:39pm Addthis Employee commuting is the single largest source of Scope 3 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions accounted for by Federal agencies. The establishment of Federal telework and transportation coordination programs over the past decade creates a strong foundation for commute behavior change. However few agencies have achieved substantial commuting emissions reductions from their fiscal year 2008 baseline inventories. Effective planning for aggressive commute reductions starts with the location of agency facilities. Facility siting and design decisions should be made with public transportation access in mind to make it easier for

442

EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses by sector were obtained from the January 2011 Monthly Energy Review (MER). In keeping with current international practice, this report presents data on greenhouse gas emissions in million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data can be converted to carbon equivalent units by

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enhancing greenhouse gas "sinks," such as forests). The report identifies strategies that  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

enhancing greenhouse gas "sinks," such as forests). The report identifies strategies that appear-term. Setting a Greenhouse Gas Budget Many important efforts to limit green- house gases are underway by state and natural ecosys- tems around the world. The largest overall source of greenhouse gas emissions

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Achieving a ten percent greenhouse gas reduction by 2020 Response to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ERG/200801 Achieving a ten percent greenhouse gas reduction by 2020 Response to The Nova Scotia. Sandy Cook. #12;Achieving a ten percent greenhouse gas reduction by 2020 1 Introduction In April 2007 matters. Central to the act is the government's commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions

Hughes, Larry