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  1. Drivers and barriers to e-invoicing adoption in Greek large scale manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinagi, Catherine E-mail: Trivellas, Panagiotis E-mail: Reklitis, Panagiotis E-mail:; Skourlas, Christos


    This paper attempts to investigate the drivers and barriers that large-scale Greek manufacturing industries experience in adopting electronic invoices (e-invoices), based on three case studies with organizations having international presence in many countries. The study focuses on the drivers that may affect the increase of the adoption and use of e-invoicing, including the customers demand for e-invoices, and sufficient know-how and adoption of e-invoicing in organizations. In addition, the study reveals important barriers that prevent the expansion of e-invoicing, such as suppliers’ reluctance to implement e-invoicing, and IT infrastructures incompatibilities. Other issues examined by this study include the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the financial priorities of the organizations assumed to be supported by e-invoicing.

  2. Structure of Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein B (VapB) reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel ?-barrel consisting of two Greek-key motifs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geerds, Christina; Wohlmann, Jens; Haas, Albert; Niemann, Hartmut H.


    The structure of VapB, a member of the Vap protein family that is involved in virulence of the bacterial pathogen R. equi, was determined by SAD phasing and reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel ?-barrel similar to avidin, suggestive of a binding function. Made up of two Greek-key motifs, the topology of VapB is unusual or even unique. Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 Ĺ resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel ?-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded ?-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology.

  3. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of Sea Spray on the Thermodynamics of the Hurricane Boundary Layer Download a printable PDF Submitter: Khain, A., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Area of Research:...

  4. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Science Plan...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States) The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel) Science and Technology Corporation (STC), Hampton, VA (United States) Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States) ...

  5. Geek-Up[3.4.2011]: 3,000+ MW and 2,500 Year-Old Greek Pottery | Department

    Broader source: (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy An Attic black-figured amphora, currently in the British Museum, of the type that will be studied at SLAC. | Photo by Marie-Lan Nguyen, Courtesy of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory An Attic black-figured amphora, currently in the British Museum, of the type that will be studied at SLAC. | Photo by Marie-Lan Nguyen, Courtesy of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Elizabeth Meckes Elizabeth Meckes Director of User Experience & Digital Technologies, Office of Public Affairs

  6. Christina Martos Hilton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hilton already had performed in Russian, Latin, Czech and Hebrew, and she studied Italian for nearly two hours every morning, with quite a bit of French and German sprinkled...

  7. Eco Sun Hellas Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sun Hellas Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eco Sun Hellas Ltd Place: Thessaloniki, Greece Zip: 54248 Product: Greek PV system installer for industrial and residential use;...

  8. Solar Cells Hellas SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cells Hellas SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Cells Hellas SA Place: Athens, Greece Product: Greek manufacturer of PV wafers, cells and modules. References: Solar Cells...

  9. Samaras Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Samaras Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Samaras Group Place: Greece Sector: Renewable Energy, Services Product: Greek consultancy services provider with specialization in...

  10. Ilioependytiki s a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ilioependytiki s a Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ilioependytiki s.a. Place: Galatsi, Greece Product: Greek company active in electricity trading with focus on PV installations...

  11. Heliodynami Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Athens, Greece Zip: 176 72 Product: Greek project developer. Coordinates: 37.97615, 23.736415 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":...

  12. Microsoft Word - Mutation Detection with Next.docx

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mutation Detection with Next-Generation Resequencing through a Mediator Genome Omri Wurtzel,#1 Mally Dori-Bachash,#2 Shmuel Pietrokovski,1 Edouard Jurkevitch,2 and Rotem Sorek1'* 1 Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 2 Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel Abstract The affordability of next generation sequencing (NGS) is

  13. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Theory of Time-dependent Freezing and Its Application to Investigation of Formation of Hail Download a printable PDF Submitter: Khain, A., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Phillips, V., University of Leeds Area of Research: Cloud Processes Working Group(s): Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Journal Reference: Phillips VT, A Khain, N Benmoshe, E Ilotoviz, and A Ryzhkov. 2014. "Theory of time-dependent freezing. II: Scheme for freezing raindrops and simulations by a cloud model

  14. AGFA - Argonne Gas Filled Analyzer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AGFA - Argonne Gas Filled Analyzer AGFA, the Argonne Gas-filled Fragment Analyzer is a state-of-the art gas-filled separator at ATLAS, which is being developed in collaboration among the Argonne Physics Division, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, University of Maryland, University of Edinburgh, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Oregon State University. This separator will be used for a wide range of studies, e.g. 1) in conjunction with Gammasphere for

  15. Excitonic Quantum Random Walk in Biological Phycocyanin Nanowires |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Quantum Random Walk in Biological Phycocyanin Nanowires October 6, 2015 at 4:30pm/ 36-428 Yossi Paltiel Department of Applied Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem yossi-3a The importance of quantum processes in biology is starting to be recognized. Quantum processes are being discussed in the context of enzyme function, olfaction, magnetic sensing and most prominently in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes. These findings suggest that a key to

  16. Microsoft Word - Final-report.doc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FOR AWARD NO. DE-SC0006787 Submitted on 23 December 2015 PI: Dr. Daniel Rosenfeld, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Title: Vertical microphysical profiles of convective clouds as a tool for obtaining aerosol cloud- mediated climate forcings Abstract Quantifying the aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative effect at a global scale requires simultaneous satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and cloud base updraft velocities (Wb). Hitherto, the inability to do so

  17. Celebrating Lyman Spitzer, the father of PPPL and the Hubble Space

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Series of Articles "Albert Einstein is undoubtedly one of the most fascinating and influential figures of the modern era. As a preeminent physicist, he radically transformed our understanding of the universe." - Edited excerpt from Albert Einstein, Albert Einstein Archives, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem In this series about Albert EinsteinÂ’s body of work, his discoveries are related to todayÂ’s research, technology, and common knowledge. Series themes include "How did

  18. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thawing the Mystery of Extra Ice Crystals Download a printable PDF Submitter: Fan, J., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Ovchinnikov, M., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Comstock, J. M., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory McFarlane, S. A., U.S. Department of Energy Khain, A., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Modeling Journal Reference: Fan J, M Ovtchinnikov, JM Comstock, SA McFarlane, and A Khain.

  19. Director Biography | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... Dr. Kountouris holds a BS in Mathematics, an MS in Computer Science, and a Ph.D. in Information Technology. He is fluent in Greek. He is a certified Project Management Professional ...

  20. Studying the Building Blocks of Matter: Public Talk Planned for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In antiquity, the Greeks believed the world to be made up of earth, water, air, fire and the aether. Today, researchers at Jefferson Lab study quarks and gluons: what we now ...

  1. HelioSphera formerly Next Solar SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: HelioSphera (formerly Next Solar SA) Place: Athens, Greece Zip: 11523 Product: Greek thin-film silicon PV module manufacturer with a 60MW plant in Tripolis. Coordinates:...

  2. User:Calpak | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greece Edits 2 Calpak A.E. is the first Greek company since 1976 that deals in solar water heaters and solar panels. Calpak had an unrivalled commercial success in the late...

  3. History of Hydropower

    Broader source: [DOE]

    Humans have been harnessing water to perform work for thousands of years. The Greeks used water wheels for grinding wheat into flour more than 2,000 years ago. The evolution of the modern...

  4. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | June 12, 2014: Kids invited...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Swing Like Neutrinos, are combined into one newly built structure consisting of two poles shaped like the Greek letter Pi. Kids can make waves of various sizes by moving the...

  5. Argonne Gas-filled Fragment Analyzer-AGFA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas-filled Fragment Analyzer-AGFA Argonne National Laboratory B.B. Back, R.V.F. Janssens, W.F. Henning, T.L. Khoo, J.A. Nolen, D.H. Potterveld, G. Savard, D. Seweryniak Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel M. Paul University of Massachusetts Lowell P. Chowdhury, C.J. Lister University of Maryland W.B. Walters University of Edinburgh P.J. Woods Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory K. Gregorich Oregon State University W. Loveland Date: February 11, 2013 Abstract As the premier stable-beam user

  6. Marginalised social groups in contemporary weee management within social enterprises investments: A study in Greece

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaoikonomou, K. Kipouros, S.; Kungolos, A.; Somakos, L.; Aravossis, K.; Antonopoulos, I.; Karagiannidis, A.


    This paper deals with the creation of appropriate conditions aimed at developing social services for reuse and recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), by the inclusion of handicapped and Roma people in the workforce. Application areas for the project are the Hellenic (Greek) regions of Thessaly and North Aegean, where these groups suffer from professional and social exclusion. The efforts to reduce unemployment in the two aforementioned groups, together with the efforts to implement related Greek and European legislation for sustainable WEEE management, are examined here. Furthermore, networking and cooperation at local, regional and central levels between small enterprises, entrepreneurships and local authorities are examined, so that these social enterprises and their corresponding investments may support the development of the Greek alternative WEEE recycling system.

  7. Acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations: Fourth Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolman, B.J.


    This document lists acronyms used in technical writing. The immense list is supplemented by an appendix containing chemical elements, classified information access, common abbreviations used for functions, conversion factors for selected SI units, a flowcharting template, greek alphabet, metrix terminology, proofreader`s marks, signs and symbols, and state abbreviations.

  8. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinagi, C. E-mail: Trivellas, P. E-mail: Reklitis, Panagiotis E-mail:; Skourlas, C.


    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support.

  9. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 1. Atom

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)



    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. The notion of atoms dates back to Greek philosophers who sought a natural mechanical explanation of the Universe, as opposed to a divine one. The existence what we call chemical atoms, the constituents of all we see around us, wasn't proved until a hundred years ago, but almost simultaneously it was realised these weren't the indivisible constituents the Greeks envisaged. Much of the story of physics since then has been the ever-deeper probing of matter until, at the end of the 20th century, a complete list of fundamental ingredients had been identified, apart from one, the much discussed Higgs particle. In this programme, Ben finds out why this last particle is so pivotal, not just to atomic theory, but to our very existence - and how hopeful the scientists are of proving its existence.

  10. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stopping executions, saving computers with new malware detection tool October 21, 2009 Virus detection takes a smarter turn with information- based approach Los Alamos, New Mexico, October 13, 2009-In the cyber security world, looking for viruses or other malicious files on computers opens the door to potentially releasing the file and contaminating one's system. In classical terms, if you peer into Medusa's eyes, you're turned to stone. Greek hero Perseus turned a mirror on the monster to

  11. Lowell, Massachusetts, Restaurant Exceeds Energy Savings Expectations |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Restaurant Exceeds Energy Savings Expectations Lowell, Massachusetts, Restaurant Exceeds Energy Savings Expectations The logo for Better Buildings Lowell. The Athenian Corner, a Greek restaurant owned by the Panagiotopoulos family, has been a familiar sight in the historic district of downtown Lowell, Massachusetts, since 1974. Energy efficiency upgrades are helping the Panagiotopoulos family reduce operating costs and make their restaurant more successful. The Athenian

  12. Nike | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nike Nike mirror array and lens array Named after the Greek goddess of victory, the Nike facility includes the world's largest krypton fluoride (KrF) laser. Nike was developed primarily to investigate interactions of high intensity KrF light with matter. The target facility is well equipped for experiments on laser generated shocks, high velocity ablative acceleration of targets, hydrodynamic instabilities, laser-produced x-rays, and studies of laser plasma instabilities. The system is capable

  13. Particles and Forces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quarks, Gluons, and Co. Meet the Quirky Inhabitants of the Proton Saturday Morning Physics Saturday Morning Physics -- -- Texas A&M University Texas A&M University Dr. Rainer J. Fries February 21, 2009 Quarks, Gluons and Co. 2 Zooming in on the World around us Quarks, Gluons and Co. 3 Atoms Democritus, Greek philosopher ~ 400 B.C: "All matter is made up of very small indivisible elements" He called them 'atomos'. 19 th century chemistry confirms: there are only 92 different

  14. igcc config |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    icf Nike Named after the Greek goddess of victory, the Nike facility includes the world's largest krypton fluoride (KrF) laser. Nike was developed primarily to investigate interactions of high intensity KrF light with matter. The target facility is well equipped for experiments on laser generated shocks,... OMEGA and OMEGA EP Two glass laser systems make up the Omega Laser Facility: the 60-beam, 30kJ UV OMEGA laser that has been operational since 1995, and the OMEGA EP addition with four new

  15. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of the Syracuse Athena Temple: Scale Invariance in the Timing of Ruptures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niccolini, G.; Carpinteri, A.; Lacidogna, G.; Manuello, A.


    We perform a comparative statistical analysis between the acoustic-emission time series from the ancient Greek Athena temple in Syracuse and the sequence of nearby earthquakes. We find an apparent association between acoustic-emission bursts and the earthquake occurrence. The waiting-time distributions for acoustic-emission and earthquake time series are described by a unique scaling law indicating self-similarity over a wide range of magnitude scales. This evidence suggests a correlation between the aging process of the temple and the local seismic activity.

  16. Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontier | ArgoNeuT ArgoNeuT ArgoNeut detector at Proton Assembly Building Intensity Frontier ArgoNeuT The Argon Neutrino Teststand or ArgoNeuT detector, nicknamed for Jason and the Argonauts of Greek mythology, is a liquid argon neutrino detector at Fermilab. Argon is a noble, non-toxic element that in its gaseous form constitutes about 1 percent of air. It exists as a colorless liquid only in the narrow temperature range of minus 186 to minus 189 degrees Celsius. Neutrinos passing through

  17. Gold Nanoparticles by Alfalfa Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jorge Gardea-Torresdey, University of Texas at El Paso In the well-known Greek legend the touch of King Midas would convert anything to metallic gold. Recently, a team working at SSRL lead by Professor Jorge Gardea-Torresdey from the University of Texas at El Paso have shown that ordinary alfalfa plants can accumulate very small particles (nanoparticles) of metallic gold (1). The best-known materials that contain nanoparticles of metallic gold are gold colloids. These lack the familiar metallic

  18. Secrets in the Ancient Goatskins: X-Rays Reveal Archimedes' Oldest Writings

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bergmann, Uwe [SLAC Linear Accelerator Center, United States


    Archimedes of Syracruse (287 - 212 B.C.) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all time. The tenth-century parchment known as the Archimedes Palimpsest is by far the oldest surviving manuscript containing works of Archimedes. it is also the unique source for three of the Greek's treatises: the Stomachion, the Method of Mechanical Theorems, and the Greek version of On Floating Bodies. The privately owned palimpsest is the subject of a integrated campaign of conservation, imaging, and scholarship being undertaken at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore. Much of the text has been imaged by various optical techniques, but significant gaps in our knowledge of the writing of Archimedes remained. A breakthrough in uncovering the missing Archimedes writings was achieved at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Using x-ray fluorescence imaging, writings from faint traces of the partly erased iron gall ink were brought to light. The x-ray image revealed Archimedes writings from some of his most important works covered by twelfth-century biblical texts and twentieth-century gold forgeries. This talk will focus on the fascinating journal of a 1,000 year old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to an x-ray beamline at SLAC.

  19. Effective deployment of photovoltaics in the Mediterranean countries: Balancing policy risk and return

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luethi, S.


    Although the Mediterranean region is blessed with abundant solar resources, photovoltaic energy currently represents a very small share of power production. In Germany however, a much less sunny country, the photovoltaic (PV) industry is booming. This country has become a front runner in the adoption of PV because of effective policy incentives. Based on a cross-case study analysis of the German, Spanish and Greek PV markets, this paper investigates factors determining the effectiveness of PV policies. Our analysis shows that, above a certain level of return, risk-related factors (such as policy instability and administrative hurdles) play a more important role in influencing investment decisions than return-related factors (such as the level of a feed-in tariff). (author)

  20. Domi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spotz, William F.


    Domi (Greek for “structure”) is a Trilinos package that provides support for multi-dimensional data arrays distributed over multiple processors of a high performance computing system. The software supports data arrays of arbitrary number of dimensions mapped to a multi-dimensional grid of processors. Domi provides local access to the data, as well as the ability to compute global quantities such as norms, maxima and minima. Data arrays can be constructed with boundary and communication padding, necessary for finite difference algorithms, and provides high-level methods for communicating data between processors to update these buffers. The distributed maps and vectors in Domi can be converted to the equivalent data structures in Epetra and Tpetra (both of which assume unstructured data), using view semantics when appropriate, for use with other Trilinos solvers.

  1. Domi

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)


    Domi (Greek for “structure”) is a Trilinos package that provides support for multi-dimensional data arrays distributed over multiple processors of a high performance computing system. The software supports data arrays of arbitrary number of dimensions mapped to a multi-dimensional grid of processors. Domi provides local access to the data, as well as the ability to compute global quantities such as norms, maxima and minima. Data arrays can be constructed with boundary and communication padding, necessarymore » for finite difference algorithms, and provides high-level methods for communicating data between processors to update these buffers. The distributed maps and vectors in Domi can be converted to the equivalent data structures in Epetra and Tpetra (both of which assume unstructured data), using view semantics when appropriate, for use with other Trilinos solvers.« less

  2. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samolada, M.C.; Zabaniotou, A.A.


    Highlights: • The high output of MSS highlights the need for alternative routes of valorization. • Evaluation of 3 sludge-to-energy valorisation methods through SWOT analysis. • Pyrolysis is an energy and material recovery process resulting to ‘zero waste’. • Identification of challenges and barriers for MSS pyrolysis in Greece was investigated. • Adopters of pyrolysis systems face the challenge of finding new product markets. - Abstract: For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a ‘zero waste’ solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated.

  3. Chapter 20: Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchell, Timothy D


    Graphite is truly a unique material. Its structure, from the nano- to the millimeter scale give it remarkable properties that lead to numerous and diverse applications. Graphite bond anisotropy, with strong in-plane covalent bonds and weak van der Waals type bonding between the planes, gives graphite its unique combination of properties. Easy shear of the crystal, facilitated by weak interplaner bonds allows graphite to be used as a dry lubricant, and is responsible for the substances name! The word graphite is derived from the Greek to write because of graphites ability to mark writing surfaces. Moreover, synthetic graphite contains within its structure, porosity spanning many orders of magnitude in size. The thermal closure of these pores profoundly affects the properties for example, graphite strength increases with temperature to temperatures in excess of 2200 C. Consequently, graphite is utilized in many high temperature applications. The basic physical properties of graphite are reviewed here. Graphite applications include metallurgical; (aluminum and steel production), single crystal silicon production, and metal casting; electrical (motor brushes and commutators); mechanical (seals, bearings and bushings); and nuclear applications, (see Chapter 91, Nuclear Graphite). Here we discuss the structure, manufacture, properties, and applications of Graphite.

  4. Heat energy from hydrogen-metal nuclear interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjichristos, John; Gluck, Peter


    The discovery of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect in 1989, a promise of an abundant, cheap and clean energy source was premature in the sense that theoretical knowledge, relative technologies and the experimental tools necessary for understanding and for scale-up still were not available. Therefore the field, despite efforts and diversification remained quasi-stagnant, the effect (a scientific certainty) being of low intensity leading to mainstream science to reject the phenomenon and not supporting its study. Recently however, the situation has changed, a new paradigm is in statunascendi and the obstacles are systematically removed by innovative approaches. Defkalion, a Greek company (that recently moved in Canada for faster progress) has elaborated an original technology for the Ni-H system [1-3]. It is about the activation of hydrogen and creation of nuclear active nano-cavities in the metal through a multi-stage interaction, materializing some recent breakthrough announcements in nanotechnology, superconductivity, plasma physics, astrophysics and material science. A pre-industrial generator and a novel mass-spectrometry instrumentations were created. Simultaneously, a meta-theory of phenomena was sketched in collaboration with Prof. Y. Kim (Purdue U)

  5. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavrotas, George; Skoulaxinou, Sotiria; Gakis, Nikos; Katsouros, Vassilis; Georgopoulou, Elena


    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH{sub 4} generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the application of the model in a Greek region.

  6. Investigation and development of alternative methods for shale oil processing and analysis. Final technical report, October 1979--April 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, R.A.


    Oil shale, a carbonaceous rock which occurs abundantly in the earth`s crust, has been investigated for many years as an alternate source of fuel oil. The insoluble organic matter contained in such shales is termed {open_quotes}Kerogen{close_quotes} from the Greek meaning oil or oil forming. The kerogen in oil shale breaks down into oil-like products when subjected to conditions simulating destructive distillation. These products have been the subject of extensive investigations by several researchers and many of the constituents of shale oil have been identified. (1) Forsman (2) estimates that the kerogen content of the earth is roughly 3 {times} 10{sup 15} tons as compared to total coal reserves of about 5 {times} 10{sup 12}. Although the current cost per barrel estimate for commercial production of shale oil is higher than that of fossil oil, as our oil reserves continue to dwindle, shale oil technology will become more and more important. When oil shale is heated, kerogen is said to undergo chemical transformation to usable oil in two steps (3): Kerogen (in oil shale) 300-500{degrees}C bitumen. Crude shale oil and other products. The crude shale oil so obtained differs from fossil oil in that: (1) kerogen is thought to have been produced from the aging of plant matter over many years; (2) shale oil has a higher nitrogen content than fossil oil; (3) non-hydrocarbons are present to a much greater extent in shale oil; and (4) the hydrocarbons in shale oil are much more unsaturated than those in fossil oil (petroleum).

  7. IUPAC Periodic Table of Isotopes for the Educational Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden N. E.; Holden,N.E.; Coplen,T.B.


    John Dalton first proposed the concept of atomic weights of the elements in the first decade of the nineteenth century. These atomic weights of the chemical elements were thought of as constants of nature, similar to the speed of light. Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the atomic weights of the elements in ascending order of value and used the systematic variation of their chemical properties to produce his Periodic Table of the Elements in 1869. Measurement of atomic weight values became an important chemical activity for a century and a half. Theodore Richards received a Noble Prize for his work in this area. In 1913, Fredrick Soddy found a species of radium, which had an atomic weight value of 228, compared to the familiar radium gas value of 226. Soddy coined the term 'isotope' (Greek for 'in the same place') to account for this second atomic weight value in the radium position of the Periodic Table. Both of these isotopes of radium are radioactive. Radioactive isotopes are energetically unstable and will decay (disintegrate) over time. The time it takes for one half of a sample of a given radioactive isotope to decay is the half-life of that isotope. In addition to having different atomic weight values, radium-226 and radium-228 also have different half-life values. Around the same time as Soddy's work, J.J. Thomson (discoverer of the electron) identified two stable (non-radioactive) isotopes of the same element, neon. Over the next 40 years, the majority of the known chemical elements were found to have two or more stable (or long-lived radioactive isotopes that contribute significantly to the determination of the atomic weights of the elements).

  8. Tethys and Annex IV Progress Report for FY 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanna, Luke A.; Butner, R. Scott; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.


    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System, dubbed “Tethys” after the mythical Greek titaness of the seas, is being developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program (WWPP). Functioning as a smart database, Tethys enables its users to identify key words or terms to help gather, organize and make available information and data pertaining to the environmental effects of MHK and offshore wind (OSW) energy development. By providing and categorizing relevant publications within a simple and searchable database, Tethys acts as a dissemination channel for information and data which can be utilized by regulators, project developers and researchers to minimize the environmental risks associated with offshore renewable energy developments and attempt to streamline the permitting process. Tethys also houses a separate content-related Annex IV data base with identical functionality to the Tethys knowledge base. Annex IV is a collaborative project among member nations of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Ocean Energy Systems – Implementing Agreement (OES-IA) that examines the environmental effects of ocean energy devices and projects. The U.S. Department of Energy leads the Annex IV working with federal partners such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). While the Annex IV database contains technical reports and journal articles, it is primarily focused on the collection of project site and research study metadata forms (completed by MHK researchers and developers around the world, and collected by PNNL) which provide information on environmental studies and the current progress of the various international MHK developments in the Annex IV member nations. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the content, accessibility and functionality enhancements made to the Annex IV and Tethys knowledge bases in FY12.

  9. Compensatory Feeding Following a Predator Removal Program : Detection and Mechanisms, 1982-1996 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, James H.


    Predator removal is one of the oldest management tools in existence, with evidence that ancient Greeks used a bounty reward for wolves over 3,000 years ago (Anonymous 1964). Efforts to control predators on fish have been documented in scientific journals for at least 60 years (Eschmeyer 1937; Lagler 1939; Foerster and Ricker 1941; Smith and Swingle 1941; Jeppson and Platts 1959), and has likely been attempted for much longer. Complete eradication of a target species from a body of water has rarely been the objective of predator removal programs, which instead have attempted to eliminate predators from specific areas, to reduce the density or standing stock of predators, or to kill the largest individuals in the population (Meronek et al. 1996). In evaluating management programs that remove only part of a predator population, the compensatory response(s) of the remaining predators must be considered. Some potential compensatory responses by remaining individuals include increased reproductive output, increased growth rate, or increased consumption of certain prey species (Jude et al. 1987). If compensation by predators that remain in the system following a removal effort occurs, it may reduce the effectiveness of the predator control program. Northern pike-minnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis (formerly called northern squawfish) consume juvenile salmon in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs in British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Northern pikeminnow have been estimated to consume about 11% of all juvenile salmon that migrate through John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River (Rieman et al. 1991). Modeling studies suggested that removal of 20% of the northern pikeminnow population in John Day Reservoir would result in a 50% decrease in predation-related mortality of juvenile salmon migrating through this reach (Beamesderfer et al. 1991). Since the early 1940's, other programs have been implemented to remove northern pikeminnow, with hopes of improving the survival of juvenile salmon (Ricker 1941; Jeppson and Platts 1959).

  10. Virtue vs utility: Alternative foundations for computer ethics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artz, J.M.


    Ethical decisions within the field of computers and information systems are made at two levels by two distinctly different groups of people. At the level of general principles, ethical issues are debated by academics and industry representatives in an attempt to decide what is proper behavior on issues such as hacking, privacy, and copying software. At another level, that of particular situations, individuals make ethical decisions regarding what is good and proper for them in their particular situation. They may use the general rules provided by the experts or they may decide that these rules do not apply in their particular situation. Currently, the literature on computer ethics provides some opinions regarding the general rules, and some guidance for developing further general rules. What is missing is guidance for individuals making ethical decisions in particular situations. For the past two hundred years, ethics has been dominated by conduct based ethical theories such as utilitarianism which attempt to describe how people must be behave in order to be moral individuals. Recently, weaknesses in conduct based approaches such as utilitarianism have led moral philosophers to reexamine character based ethical theories such as virtue ethics which dates back to the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. This paper will compare utilitarianism and virtue ethics with respect to the foundations they provide for computer ethics. It will be argued that the very nature of computer ethics and the need to provide guidance to individuals making particular moral decisions points to the ethics of virtue as a superior philosophical foundation for computer ethics. The paper will conclude with the implications of this position for researchers, teachers and writers within the field of computer ethics.

  11. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narasimhan, T.N.


    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  12. A Tribute to Klaus Ruedenberg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Gordon, Mark S.


    “I am indebted to my father for living, but to my teacher for living well" said Alexander the Great, the King of Greek Macedonia, about his teacher, the philosopher Aristotle. This statement echoes the widely held belief of the students, research associates, collaborators and admirers of Klaus Ruedenberg regarding his invaluable contribution towards shaping their scientific lives. This special issue of the Journal of Physical Chemistry presents a tribute to Professor Klaus Ruedenberg, on the occasion of his 90th birthday, for his numerous scientific contributions to the field of quantum chemistry. The many outstanding papers that are part of this issue document his seminal contributions to a broad range of quantum chemistry, including the evaluation of electron repulsion integrals, the free-electron network model for conjugated molecules, the origin of covalent bonding, including the central role of the kinetic energy in the covalent bond, and the intrinsic identification of chemical bonding patterns in molecular systems, orbital localization that has enabled a deep understanding of many chemical phenomena, the multi-configurational self-consistent field method and the concept of the Full Optimized Reaction Space (FORS) to study chemical rearrangements and its application to the study of global potential energy surfaces and conical intersections, the first construction of systematic, eventempered sequences of orbital sets that approach the complete basis set limit, and the novel simultaneous extrapolation of basis set and level of theory to achieve nearly exact molecular energies and vibrational spectra. In addition, as past students and research associates of Klaus Ruedenberg, that is people whose scientific and personal lives have been critically affected by a great teacher, we wish to point out a less well-known aspect of his professional career, that of an educator. Professor Klaus Ruedenberg has a passion for communicating scientific ideas and educating students, whether they were at the undergraduate, graduate or post-graduate levels or whether they were visitors to his laboratory. No matter how much of his time it took, there were never any shortcuts or excuses, but also no pressure on the students. Knowledge was just there waiting to be gained - for free - by just mining a vast repository of mathematical, physical and chemical concepts. It is not hyperbole to stress his contribution in molding the scientific lives and in turn the personal success of so many people who have had the privilege to learn from him.

  13. Composition and production rate of pharmaceutical and chemical waste from Xanthi General Hospital in Greece

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voudrias, Evangelos; Goudakou, Lambrini; Kermenidou, Marianthi; Softa, Aikaterini


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied pharmaceutical and chemical waste production in a Greek hospital. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of total hazardous medical waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unit production rate for total pharmaceutical waste was 12.4 {+-} 3.90 g/patient/d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical waste comprised 1.8% w/w of total hazardous medical waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unit production rate for total chemical waste was 5.8 {+-} 2.2 g/patient/d. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rates of pharmaceutical and chemical waste produced by Xanthi General Hospital in Greece (XGH). This information is important to design and cost management systems for pharmaceutical and chemical waste, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 233 kg pharmaceutical and 110 kg chemical waste was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of five working weeks. The total production of pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Total pharmaceutical waste was classified in three categories, vial waste comprising 51.1%, syringe waste with 11.4% and intravenous therapy (IV) waste with 37.5% w/w of the total. Vial pharmaceutical waste only was further classified in six major categories: antibiotics, digestive system drugs, analgesics, hormones, circulatory system drugs and 'other'. Production data below are presented as average (standard deviation in parenthesis). The unit production rates for total pharmaceutical waste for the hospital were 12.4 (3.90) g/patient/d and 24.6 (7.48) g/bed/d. The respective unit production rates were: (1) for vial waste 6.4 (1.6) g/patient/d and 13 (2.6) g/bed/d, (2) for syringe waste 1.4 (0.4) g/patient/d and 2.8 (0.8) g/bed/d and (3) for IV waste 4.6 (3.0) g/patient/d and 9.2 (5.9) g/bed/d. Total chemical waste was classified in four categories, chemical reagents comprising 18.2%, solvents with 52.3%, dyes and tracers with 18.2% and solid waste with 11.4% w/w of the total. The total production of chemical waste comprised 1.8% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Thus, the sum of pharmaceutical and chemical waste was 5.7% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. The unit production rates for total chemical waste for the hospital were 5.8 (2.2) g/patient/d and 1.1 (0.4) g/exam/d. The respective unit production rates were: (1) for reagents 1.7 (2.4) g/patient/d and 0.3 (0.4) g/examination/d, (2) for solvents 248 (127) g/patient/d and 192 (101) g/examination/d, (3) for dyes and tracers 4.7 (1.4) g/patient/d and 2.5 (0.9) g/examination/d and (4) for solid waste 54 (28) g/patient/d and 42 (22) g/examination/d.

  14. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in the decay mode H-> WW-> lnulnu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penning, B.; /Freiburg U.


    The question of the nature and principles of the universe and our place in it is the driving force of science since Mesopotamian astronomers glanced for the first time at the starry sky and Greek atomism has been formulated. During the last hundred years modern science was able to extend its knowledge tremendously, answering many questions, opening entirely new fields but as well raising many new questions. Particularly Astronomy, Astroparticle Physics and Particle Physics lead the race to answer these fundamental and ancient questions experimentally. Today it is known that matter consists of fermions, the quarks and leptons. Four fundamental forces are acting between these particles, the electromagnetic, the strong, the weak and the gravitational force. These forces are mediated by particles called bosons. Our confirmed knowledge of particle physics is based on these particles and the theory describing their dynamics, the Standard Model of Particles. Many experimental measurements show an excellent agreement between observation and theory but the origin of the particle masses and therefore the electroweak symmetry breaking remains unexplained. The mechanism proposed to solve this issue involves the introduction of a complex doublet of scalar fields which generates the masses of elementary particles via their mutual interactions. This Higgs mechanism also gives rise to a single neutral scalar boson with an unpredicted mass, the Higgs boson. During the last twenty years several experiments have searched for the Higgs boson but so far it escaped direct observation. Nevertheless these studies allow to further constrain its mass range. The last experimental limits on the Higgs mass have been set in 2001 at the LEP collider, an electron positron machine close to Geneva, Switzerland. The lower limit set on the Higgs boson mass is m{sub H} > 114.4 GeV/c{sup 2} and remained for many years the last experimental constraint on the Standard Model Higgs Boson due to the shutdown of the LEP collider and the experimental challenges at hadron machines as the Tevatron. This thesis was performed using data from the D0 detector located at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. Final states containing two electrons or a muon and a tau in combination with missing transverse energy were studied to search for the Standard Model Higgs boson, utilizing up to 4.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. In 2008 the CDF and D0 experiments in a combined effort were able to reach for the first time at a hadron collider the sensitivity to further constrain the possible Standard Model Higgs boson mass range. The research conducted for this thesis played a pivotal role in this effort. Improved methods for lepton identification, background separation, assessment of systematic uncertainties and new decay channels have been studied, developed and utilized. Along with similar efforts at the CDF experiment these improvements led finally the important result of excluding the presence of a Standard Model Higgs boson in a mass range of m{sub H} = 160-170 GeV/c{sup 2} at 95% Confidence Level. Many of the challenges and methods found in the present analysis will probably in a similar way be ingredients of a Higgs boson evidence or discovery in the near future, either at the Tevatron or more likely at the soon starting Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Continuing to pursue the Higgs boson we are looking forward to many exciting results at the Tevatron and soon at the LHC. In Chapter 2 an introduction to the Standard Model of particle physics and the Higgs mechanism is given, followed by a brief outline of existing theoretical and experimental constraints on the Higgs boson mass before summarizing the Higgs boson production modes. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the experimental setup. This is followed by a description of the reconstruction of the objects produced in proton-antiproton collisions in Chapter 4 and the necessary calorimeter calibrations in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 follows with an explanation of the phenomenology of the proton-antiproton colli