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1

CO2 Emissions - Guadeloupe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guadeloupe Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guadeloupe Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guadeloupe image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guadeloupe...

2

Guadeloupe: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guadeloupe: Energy Resources Guadeloupe: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN","zoom":5,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"390px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":16.25,"lon":-61.58333,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

3

Gyeongnam Renewable Energy Co Ltd GRE | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gyeongnam Renewable Energy Co Ltd GRE Gyeongnam Renewable Energy Co Ltd GRE Jump to: navigation, search Name Gyeongnam Renewable Energy Co. Ltd. (GRE) Place Seoul, Korea (Republic) Sector Wind energy Product Wind farm manufacturer based in Seoul but operation normally in the southern region. Coordinates 37.557121°, 126.977379° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.557121,"lon":126.977379,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

4

Numerical simulations of island-induced circulations and windward katabatic flow over the Guadeloupe archipelago  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article deals with the first high resolution numerical modelling of the weather over the small and high islands of the Guadeloupe archipelago. Its main goal is to analyze the mechanisms which drive local-scale airflow circulations over this ...

Raphal Cc; Didier Bernard; Christophe DAlexis; Jean-Franois Dorville

5

ENERGY STAR Update: ENERGY STAR Encourages Car Dealerships to Work with NADA on Survey (May 20, 2013)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Update Update U.S. Environmental Protection Agency May 20, 2013 ENERGY STAR Encourages Car Dealerships to Work with NADA on Survey In conjunction with ENERGY STAR and the EPA, the National Automobile Dealers Association (NADA) has launched a program to help new car and truck dealerships reduce energy consumption through the Agency's ENERGY STAR program. In many other sectors of the commercial buildings market, there exist national data sets detailing how buildings use energy. These data enable EPA to develop 1 - 100 ENERGY STAR scores, which rank individual buildings relative to other similar buildings across the country. A score of 50 represents median energy performance, whereas a score of 75 means that a building is more energy efficient than 75

6

Desiccant solar air conditioning in tropical climates: II-field testing in Guadeloupe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of the experimental investigation of a solar desiccant air conditioning device exposed to the sun in Guadeloupe to test that adaptability of a silicagel compact bed, the most simple technology, in a tropical climate. It has been shown that it is possible to make use of solar flat plate collectors with a balancing water tank, to produce heat for the regeneration of a solid desiccant as silicagel, with solar energy. Second, the compact bed system proposed gives the foreseen cooling power, but considerable losses appear, particularly in the sorption process, which is not close enough to the reversible adiabatic one.

Dupont, M.; Celestine, B.; Beghin, B. (Solar Energy Lab., Pointe-a-Pitre (Guadeloupe))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Guadeloupe - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration ... solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. ... Central & South America World.

8

Guadeloupe - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

US EIA provides data, forecasts, country analysis brief and other analyses, focusing on the energy industry including oil, natural gas and electricity.

9

24 Win ter 2013 Minnesota24 Win ter 2013 Minnesota By GreG BreininG and rich Broderick  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to harnessthesemicroorganismsforsomeoftheseminingprojects to help minimize environmental impact." Fracking--the practice of injecting water, sand of "frac sand" in southeastern Minnesota.) Left untreated, fracking fluids are a threat to drinking that encapsulate bacteria in silica materials to degrade the toxins in the fracking fluids "to save water

Minnesota, University of

10

Questionnaire | BNL Guest, User and Visitor Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard...

11

Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gambia Georgia, Republic of Germany Ghana Gibraltar Great Britain andNorthern Ireland Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong...

12

A Risk Management Approach to the 'Insider Threat'  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

National Laboratory, Richland, WA, Tech. Rep. PNNL TechnicalReport PNNL-60737, 2008. [Gre] Greitzer and Kangas. (

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Microsoft Word - Pamphlet_FINAL22.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy efficiency. Participants can take advantage of free resources from NADA and ENERGY STAR, including: * Technical resource guides and materials. * Energy tracking tools...

14

Evolution of Peaks in the Spectral Distribution of Raindrops from Warm Isolated Maritime Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two and one-half years of observations and measurements of isolated maritime clouds in Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles) are presented. Raindrop spectra are measured on the ground with a Joss device and an Epson PX8 Analyser. The greatest rainfall ...

C. Asselin De Beauville; R. H. Petit; G. Marion; J. P. Lacaux

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

111. Seck, T. 2003. GRE Wind Integration Study. PresentedGroup Technical Workshop: Wind Integration: Focus on theDepartment of Commerce: Wind Integration Study Final

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Mycol. Rrs. 98 (11): 1272-1276 (1994) Prillted ill Great Britain 1272 Graphium pseudormiticum sp. nov.: a new hyphomycete with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and systematics of bark and ambrosia beetles, pp. 181Ð235. In F. Lieutier, K. R. Day, A. Batisttisti, J.-C. Gre

17

Admission Test Preparation Admission test scores help professional and graduate programs determine who to admit (and, in some cases, to award merit-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Admission Test Preparation Admission test scores help professional and graduate programs determine-prepared for these tests. Some are tests of aptitude in quantitative skills, verbal and analytical reasoning and/or writing ability (e.g., GRE, LSAT, GMAT), while others are tests of content knowledge (e.g., GRE Subject Tests

Hampton, Randy

18

Isotope GeoloGy1 Unlike physics or chemistry, teaching isotope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isotope GeoloGy1 Unlike physics or chemistry, teaching isotope geochemistry is difficult because. Writing an effective book on geochemistry is thus even more difficult. Claude Allègre's Isotope Geology geochemistry book, given how effective the texts by Faure and Dickin are. However, Allègre's Isotope Geology

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

19

Copyright Notice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Key Option for Proxy Mobile IPv6 This specification defines a new mobility option for allowing the mobile access gateway and the local mobility anchor to negotiate Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) encapsulation mode and exchange the downlink and uplink GRE keys that are used for marking the downlink and uplink traffic that belong to a specific mobility session. In addition, the same mobility option can be used to negotiate the GRE encapsulation mode without exchanging the GRE keys. Status of This Memo This is an Internet Standards Track document. This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the

A. Muhanna; M. Khalil; S. Gundavelli; K. Leung

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lai, S. and J.C. Smith. 2004. Xcel Energy and the MinnesotaSouth- MN MN west (GRE) (Xcel) PSE Pacifi- PSCo PGE* AvistaPenetration (% capacity) MN, Xcel * (Brooks et al. 2003) MN,

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gre nada guadeloupe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

USC Division of Biokinesiology & Physical Therapy Admissions Office  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

USC Division of Biokinesiology & Physical Therapy Admissions Office 1540 Alcazar Street, CHP 155 or Certificate Major Graduation Date SELF-REPORTED TEST SCORES Graduate Record Exam (GRE): Verbal Score

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

22

Assessment of Achievable Potential from Energy Efficiency Programs for Great River Energy: (2009-2030)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents results of a study to assess the achievable potential for electricity energy savings and peak demand reductions for Great River Energy (GRE) for the years 2009 through 2030. The approach involved applying the methodology and technology data developed for the EPRI National Study on the same subject and adapted to the specific market sector characteristics of the GRE service territory (EPRI report 1016987, Assessment of Achievable Potential from Energy Efficiency and Demand Response P...

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

23

KHALIL AMINE, PH  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nada Dimitrijevic Nada Dimitrijevic Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 200 Argonne, IL 60439 phone: 630/252-3590, fax: 630/972-9289 email: dimitrijevic@anl.gov Professional Experience  Present. Physical Chemist at Argonne National Laboratory, working jointly for the Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division and the Center for Nanoscale Materials. Education  Ph.D., Physical Chemistry, Belgrade University, Yugoslavia Research Interests  Synthesis and characterization of colloidal semiconductor nanoparticles  Focus on 1. semiconductor assisted photocatalysis and solar fuel production by reducing CO2 to methane, and 2. light-induced charge transfer across bio-inorganic interfaces.

24

Caribbean-NREL Cooperation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands UN Region Latin America and the Caribbean References NREL International Program [1] Abstract The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is partnering with Caribbean nations to build Low Carbon Communities in the Caribbean as part of the broader Low Carbon Communities of the Americas program.... The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is partnering with Caribbean nations to build Low Carbon Communities in the Caribbean as part of the broader Low Carbon Communities of the Americas program. References

25

Dynamic Resource Allocation in Disaster Response: Tradeoffs in Wildfire Suppression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic Resource Allocation in Disaster Response: Tradeoffs in Wildfire Suppression Nada Petrovic1: Petrovic N, Alderson DL, Carlson JM (2012) Dynamic Resource Allocation in Disaster Response: Tradeoffs with the allocation of limited resources to mitigate the impact of natural disasters inspire fundamentally new

Carlson, Jean

26

Tumours with PI3K activation are resistant to dietary restriction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARTICLES Tumours with PI3K activation are resistant to dietary restriction Nada Y. Kalaany1 cells that form dietary-restriction-resistant tumours carry mutations that cause constitutive activation that by modulating PI3K activation we can convert a DR-resistant tumour into one that is DR-sensitive. Differential

Sabatini, David M.

27

TWRS hydrogen mitigation gas characterization system design and fabrication engineering task plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The flammable gas watch-list (FGWL) tanks, which have demonstrated a gas release event (GRE) exceeding 0.625% hydrogen by volume will require additional characterization. The purpose of this additional characterization is to accurately measure the flammable and hazardous gas compositions and resulting lower flammability limit (LFL) of the tank vapor space during baseline and GRE emissions. Data from this characterization will help determine methods to resolve the unreviewed safety questions for the FGWL tanks. This document details organization responsibilities and engineering requirements for the design and fabrication of two gas characterization systems used to monitor flammable gas watch-list tanks.

Straalsund, E.K.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

G R A D U A T E R E C O R D E X A M I N A T I O N S Physics Test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

G R A D U A T E R E C O R D E X A M I N A T I O N S ® Physics Test Practice Book Listening. Learning. Leading. This practice book contains one actual full-length GRE Physics Test test-taking strategies Become familiar with test structure and content test instructions and answering procedures Compare

Leventhal, Jacob J.

29

Conservation analysis predicts in vivo occupancy of glucocorticoid receptor-binding sequences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conservation analysis predicts in vivo occupancy of glucocorticoid receptor-binding sequences an individual GRE is highly conserved. In this study, we examined whether sequence conservation of sites re, we found that the level of conservation of these sites at genes up-regulated by glucocorticoids

Yamamoto, Keith

30

Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Primary Cell Wall Composition in Arabidopsis1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fingerprinting techniques: monosaccharide composition analysis by gas chromatography, xyloglucan oligosaccharideQuantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Primary Cell Wall Composition in Arabidopsis1 Gre´gory Mouille2 trait loci (QTL) analysis was used to identify genes underlying natural variation in primary cell wall

Pauly, Markus

31

Admission Requirements Admission Requirements for Graduate Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

required reports. Such a candidate may, for a nominal fee and with the approval of his/her graduate advisor://www.utdallas.edu/admissions/graduate/degrees/ There is a $50.00 nonrefundable application fee. Applicants are advised to carefully review the program a bachelor's degree. Test Scores (GMAT, GRE) Standardized test scores must be official and reported directly

O'Toole, Alice J.

32

Fifth World Congress on Computational Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WCCM V Fifth World Congress on Computational Mechanics July 7-12, 2002, Vienna, Austria Eds.: H Material in a Computational Fluid Dynamics Framework using Micro- Mechanical Models Nicholas Christakis London, UK e-mail: I.Bridle@gre.ac.uk Key words: granular material, continuum mechanics, micro-mechanical

Christakis, Nikolaos

33

Gas flow to a barometric pumping well in a multilayer unsaturated Kehua You,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and timing of post- crystallization fissiogenic xenon loss, and the geochem- ical behaviour of plutonium, J., Staudacher, T., Allègre, C.J., 1998. Plutonium-fission xenon found in Earth's mantle. Science­91. Turner, G., Gilmour, J., Crowther, S., Busfield, A., Mojzsis, S., Harrison, M., 2005. Extinct plutonium

Zhan, Hongbin

34

Restoration of Democracy and Peoples Empowerment in Nepal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or spirilllal, who has credibility. The majority or the p~uplc have almost lost faith in the bureaucrats and politicians. ilnd corruption and gre~d havc becomc a big problem to Nepal's devc.;lnpmcllt. The prolonged economic and social stagnation is having its...

Pyakuryal, Kailash N

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

De Sancie Brengre : les femmes et le pouvoir dans l'historiographie alphonsine et  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fernando [...] Et destas palabras et de otras tantas et tan buenas le sopo la reyna donna 42 De rebus2007 #12;Sancha dezir, et tantol sopo adulcear et falagar, quel ouo a prometer que yrie sobrellos. Et nada. Et la reyna donna Sancha, quando lo sopo, pesóle mucho de coraçón. E començó de rogar al rey don

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

36

WEATHER, p. 2 Volume 131, Number 55 Tuesday, November 29, 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

foul play, leav- ing suicide and accident as pos- sible causes of death. "This is a tragedy for the MITONWORLD&NatiONWORLD&NatiONWORLD&NatiONWORLD&NatiONWORLD By Nada Bakri The New York Times BEIRUT -- Syria opened its main prison in Damascus Monday to a delegation severely by Syrian armed troops. Red Cross delegates visited the pris- on in Adra, a suburb of Damascus

37

The Middle East in Interesting Times Jerry R. Hobbs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

foul play, leav- ing suicide and accident as pos- sible causes of death. "This is a tragedy for the MITONWORLD&NatiONWORLD&NatiONWORLD&NatiONWORLD&NatiONWORLD By Nada Bakri The New York Times BEIRUT -- Syria opened its main prison in Damascus Monday to a delegation severely by Syrian armed troops. Red Cross delegates visited the pris- on in Adra, a suburb of Damascus

Hobbs, Jerry R.

38

Caribbean-GTZ Renewable Energy Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Caribbean-GTZ Renewable Energy Program Caribbean-GTZ Renewable Energy Program Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Caribbean-GTZ Renewable Energy Program Name Caribbean-GTZ Renewable Energy Program Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Partner German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, Policies/deployment programs Website http://www.gtz.de/en/praxis/95 Country Antigua & Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Saint Barthelemy, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad & Tobago, Turks & Caicos Islands, United States

39

T-667: Red Hat Enterprise Linux kernel security and bug fix update |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Red Hat Enterprise Linux kernel security and bug fix update 7: Red Hat Enterprise Linux kernel security and bug fix update T-667: Red Hat Enterprise Linux kernel security and bug fix update July 13, 2011 - 7:24am Addthis PROBLEM: Red Hat Enterprise Linux kernel security and bug fix update PLATFORM: Vulnerable Linux Kernels; Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop (v. 6), Red Hat Enterprise Linux HPC Node (v. 6), Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (v. 6), Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server EUS (v. 6.1.z), Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation (v. 6) ABSTRACT: It was found that the receive hook in the ipip_init() function in the ipip module, and in the ipgre_init() function in the ip_gre module, could be called before network namespaces setup is complete. If packets were received at the time the ipip or ip_gre module was still being loaded into

40

Assessment of alternative mitigation concepts for Hanford flammable gas tanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a review and assessment of four selected mitigation concepts: pump jet mixing, sonic vibration, dilution, and heating. Though the relative levels of development of these concepts are quite different, some definite conclusions are made on their comparative feasibility. Key findings of this report are as follows. A mixer pump has proven to be a safe and effective active mitigation method in Tank 241-SY-101, and the authors are confident that mixer pumps will effectively mitigate other tanks with comparable waste configurations and properties. Low-frequency sonic vibration is also predicted to be effective for mitigation. Existing data cannot prove that dilution can mitigate gas release event (GRE) behavior. However, dilution is the only concept of the four that potentially offers passive mitigation. Like dilution, heating the waste cannot be proven with available information to mitigate GRE behavior. The designs, analyses, and data from which these conclusions are derived are presented along with recommendations.

Stewart, C.W.; Schienbein, L.A.; Hudson, J.D.; Eschbach, E.J.; Lessor, D.L.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gre nada guadeloupe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

To enhance transparency of a piezo-actuated tele-micromanipulator using passive bilateral control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the research work on a 1 degree of freedom (DOF) force reflecting tele-micromanipulation system. This system enables a human operator to position remote objects very precisely having haptic feedback. The slave robot is a nano-positioning ... Keywords: Decomposition, Hysteresis nonlinearity, LuGre friction model, Macromicro teleoperation, Passivity, Piezo-actuator, Position and force tracking, Scaling, Shape and locked systems, Virtual flywheel

R. Seifabadi; S. m. Rezaei; S. shiry Ghidary; M. Zareinejad; M. Saadat

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Assessment of gas accumulation and retention -- Tank 241-SY-101  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An approximate analysis has been carried out to assess and estimate the maximum quantity of gas that is likely to be accumulated within waste tank 241-SY-101, and the maximum quantity which is likely to be retained after gas release events (GRE). According to the phenomenological models used for this assessment, based on interpretation of current and recent operational data, the estimated gas generation rate in the tank is approximately 4 m{sup 3}/day (147 ft{sup 3}/day). About half of this gas is released as it is generated, which is (essentially) continuously. The remainder is accumulated within the slurry layer of settled solids at the bottom of the tank, and released episodically in GREs, known as ``burps,`` that are induced by unstable buoyant conditions which develop when sufficient gas accumulates in the slurry. Calculations based on gas volumes to cause neutral buoyancy in the slurry predict the following: the maximum gas accumulation (at 1 atm pressure) that can occur without triggering a GRE is in the range of 606 to 1,039 m{sup 3} (21,400 to 36,700 ft{sup 3}); and the maximum gas retention immediately after a GRE is equal to the maximum accumulation minus the gas released in the GRE. GREs do not necessarily involve all of the slurry. In the largest GREs, which are assumed to involve all of the slurry, the minimum gas release (at 1 atm pressure) is calculated to be in the range of 193 to 328 m{sup 3} (6,800 to 11,600 ft{sup 3}). The corresponding maximum gas retention would be 413 to 711 m{sup 3} (14,600 to 25,100 ft{sup 3}).

Alleman, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US); Burke, T.M.; Reynolds, D.A.; Simpson, D.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Revista Iguanazul, Number 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- queo pero sabas hacer dibujos. Cmo has crecido mucho y cambiado bastante! Te acuerdas? Me pregunt sonriendo. Si usted no me lo recuerda, yo...para nada. Le con- test. Me qued observando el dibujo que hizo recordar mi in- fancia y mis sueos... nuestra madre. La voz de la vieja rompi mi breve silencio y continu. Te voy a traer algo. De algn lugar vi que sac algo como una cuerdita. Era un collar parecido al que yo traa en el cuello. Se parece a este que dej mi mam. Le coment. S...

Santopietro, Judith

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

A Natural Seismic Isolating System: The Buried Mangrove Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Belleplaine test site, located in the island of Guadeloupe (French Lesser Antilles) includes a three-accelerometer vertical array, designed for liquefac- tion studies. The seismic response of the soil column at the test site is computed using three methods: the spectral ratio method using the vertical array data, a numerical method using the geotechnical properties of the soil column, and an operative fre- quency domain decomposition (FDD) modal analysis method. The Belleplaine test site is characterized by a mangrove layer overlaid by a stiff sandy deposit. This con- figuration is widely found at the border coast of the Caribbean region, which is exposed to high seismic hazard. We show that the buried mangrove layer plays the role of an isolation system equivalent to those usually employed in earthquake engineering aimed at reducing the seismic shear forces by reducing the internal stress within the structure. In our case, the flexibility of the mangrove layer reduces the distortion and the stress in the...

Gueguen, Philippe; Foray, Pierre; Rousseau, Christophe; Maury, Julie; 10.1785/0120100129

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Green Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Solar Place Paris, France Zip 45003 Product Develops and builds PV systems in Guadeloupe and Mauritius. Coordinates 48.85693°, 2.3412° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.85693,"lon":2.3412,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

46

Bringing simulation to implementation: Presentation of a global approach in the design of passive solar buildings under humid tropical climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In early 1995, a DSM pilot initiative has been launched in the French islands of Guadeloupe and Reunion through a partnership between several public and private partners (the French Public Utility EDF, the University of Reunion Island, low cost housing companies, architects, energy consultants, etc...) to set up standards to improve thermal design of new residential buildings in tropical climates. This partnership led to defining optimized bio-climatic urban planning and architectural designs featuring the use of passive cooling architectural principles (solar shading, natural ventilation) and components, as well as energy efficient systems and technologies. The design and sizing of each architectural component on internal thermal comfort in building has been assessed with a validated thermal and airflow building simulation software (CODYRUN). These technical specifications have been edited in a reference document which has been used to build over 300 new pilot dwellings through the years 1996-1998 in Reunion...

Garde, Franois; Celaire, Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RAIS User's Group RAIS User's Group The connection is no longer here Fill out the following section for addition to the RAIS User's List: CONTACT DETAILS First name: * Required Last name: * Required Company: Street: City: State: Country: Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Aruba Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda Virgin Islands, British Canada Cayman Islands Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Martinique Mexico Montserrat Netherlands Antilles Nicaragua Panama Puerto Rico Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and The Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States United States Minor Outlying Islands Virgin Islands, U.S. Argentina Bolivia

48

Lignite Fuel Enhancement  

SciTech Connect

Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was performed in March/April 2010 after commercial coal drying system was commissioned. Preliminary tests with dried coal were performed in March/April 2010. During the test Unit 2 was in outage and, therefore, test unit (Unit 1) was carrying entire station load and, also, supplying all auxiliary steam extractions. This resulted in higher station service, lower gross power output, and higher turbine cycle heat rate. Although, some of these effects could be corrected out, this would introduce uncertainty in calculated unit performance and effect of dried lignite on unit performance. Baseline tests with dried coal are planned for second half of 2010 when both units at Coal Creek will be in service to establish baseline performance with dried coal and determine effect of coal drying on unit performance. Application of GRE's coal drying technology will significantly enhance the value of lignite as a fuel in electrical power generation power plants. Although existing lignite power plants are designed to burn wet lignite, the reduction in moisture content will increase efficiency, reduce pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions, and improve plant economics. Furthermore, the efficiency of ultra supercritical units burning high-moisture coals will be improved significantly by using dried coal as a fuel. To date, Great River Energy has had 63 confidentiality agreements signed by vendors and suppliers of equipment and 15 utilities. GRE has had agreements signed from companies in Canada, Australia, China, India, Indonesia, and Europe.

Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

49

Critical Skills Master's Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skills Master's Program Skills Master's Program (CSMP): The Critical Skills Master's Program (CSMP) provides exceptional bachelor's-level candidates with the opportunity to pursue a fully funded Master's of Science degree. Successful applicants will become regular full-time Sandia employees and join multidisciplinary teams that are advancing the frontiers of science and technology to solve the world's greatest challenges. Program Requirements: * Apply to a minimum of 3 nationally accredited universities. * Successfully complete the GRE as required by the universities of interest. * Complete a master's degree within:

50

Master's Fellowship Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Master's Fellowship Program Master's Fellowship Program (MFP): The Master's Fellowship Program (MFP) provides exceptional minority bachelor's-level candidates with the opportunity to pursue a fully funded Masters of Science degree. The MFP is a minority based program for U.S. under-represented groups in an effort to help enhance the diversity of Sandia's technical workforce. Successful applicants will become regular full-time Sandia employees and join multidisciplinary teams that are advancing the frontiers of science and technology to solve the world's greatest challenges. Program Requirements: * Apply to a minimum of 3 nationally accredited universities. * Successfully complete the GRE as required by the universities of interest.

51

Global Renewable Energy Network | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Network Network Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Global Renewable Energy Network (GReEN) Name Global Renewable Energy Network (GReEN) Address P.O. Box 1999 Place Massapequa, NY Zip 11758 Region Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Number of employees 1-10 Phone number (877) 337-9569 x101 Website http://www.greenjuncture.com Coordinates 40.6762708°, -73.471054° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.6762708,"lon":-73.471054,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

52

'  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

I- i. I- i. : ' . .a \ ' .. .,a. : - . . . . ' -. a ' . ,i ..' - 3/q, f k/A e _ ' ,!,Y.' .' .. yy,.. ' ; ,' 8 8 A GLINO~C~~~ nada of df&ntlirr& oparations at Metsl'Hydrides, Ino*, 0 2. J. Zlc33ur, ~J>llcntlonq Bract ,' , . . . .\ Dh B, 5, \Yo' rs, ?i?,T),, 33diod Eirectcr L " ', ' ' &y' ,' ,' l .l,CT;IT' TY nr?zxT - ~%SIx? J.22~. 8 !X J.IY. I.& ( -.. . /&x,f.- 11 3Y . - _, \. ., ' . ._' .: . -' ;yT;, ' \. 5 ., . ..: :' .<, ..;.- ".~' .,' ,..",..-. i.., ,;.. ,-": ,; ~ . : _ ' 1.' . I ., ..-' . ;. ' . ;,. i - .:- -' . - . . .' . D- -. iklZ ~3 >!rr Eisonbud visitch Dr. &thou, Dlrestor of the Ketiorhg t .?wm.rr;~ Ifra 1gjk-I kb3ratix-y ct Cixinnnti, &io iid' ooxultod with him on cothods of .. _ _' a.nnIyni~ fc~'baryll',urr, aosts of analgaia, dss?p,cmi 1quut of Ia-

53

Implementing the National Broadband  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EAST CENTRAL ENERGY-MINNESOTA EAST CENTRAL ENERGY-MINNESOTA I. Introduction a. Identification/description of your company. East Central Energy is a non-profit electric cooperative serving 57,000 customers and is located in east central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. The cooperative serves an area of approximately 4,300 square miles. The geography varies from flat to large rolling hills with many lakes and wooded areas. For the most part the area is relatively sparsely populated. The average consumer density is about 7 consumers per mile. All power purchases are from our cooperative power supplier Great River Energy (GRE). II. Executive Summary Because of the lack of ubiquitous coverage by major carriers or operating telephone companies, East Central Energy has contracted with our G&T, Great River Energy

54

DOE Receives First Repayment from Successful DryFining™ Clean Coal Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Receives First Repayment from Successful DryFining™ Clean Coal Receives First Repayment from Successful DryFining™ Clean Coal Power Initiative Project DOE Receives First Repayment from Successful DryFining™ Clean Coal Power Initiative Project July 6, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The success of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) project has led to a repayment of $580,000 to U.S. taxpayers, with much more - potentially exceeding $13 million - possible in the future. Great River Energy (GRE) of Maple Grove, Minn., made the payment to the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) recently as part of an agreement associated with the DryFining™ CCPI project. Implemented by NETL, CCPI is a cost-shared collaboration between the Federal government and private industry aimed at stimulating investment

55

Implementing the National Broadband  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DAKOTA ELECTRIC ASSOCIATION DAKOTA ELECTRIC ASSOCIATION I. Introduction a. Identification/description of our company Dakota Electric Association (DEA) is an Incorporated Cooperative Association which distributes electricity to more than 100,000 members in Dakota County and surrounding areas. DEA is the second largest electric cooperative in the state of Minnesota, and is a member cooperative of Great River Energy (GRE). II. Executive Summary DEA has deployed a fully integrated IP network to 26 substation sites. An IP based network transports data information for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Load Management systems. A private Wide Area Network (WAN) was implemented by DEA in 2001 due to lack of comprehensive coverage by major carriers. In addition to the WAN, DEA relies on commercial services to communicate with load

56

Implementing the National Broadband  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GREAT RIVER ENERGY GREAT RIVER ENERGY I. Introduction a. Identification/description of our company Great River Energy (GRE) is a not-for-profit generation and transmission cooperative which provides wholesale electricity to more than 1.7 million people through 28 member distribution cooperatives in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Great River Energy is the second largest utility in the state, based on generating capacity, and the sixth largest generation and transmission (G&T) cooperative in the United States. Great River Energy's member cooperatives range from those in the outer-ring suburbs of the Twin Cities to the Arrowhead region of Minnesota to the farmland of southwestern Minnesota. Great River Energy's largest

57

Clean Energy Economy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Economy Economy Jump to: navigation, search Clean Energy Economy Participants Clean Energy Companies (12882) add Networking Organizations (101) add Research and Development Institutions (189) add Investors and Financial Organizations (141) add Policy Organizations (124) add Clean Energy Hotspots Bay Area Greater Boston Area Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Pacific Northwest Area Rockies Area Southern CA Area Texas Area Clean Energy Infrastructure Clean Energy Generation Facilities add Biomass Facilities (506) Geothermal Facilities (73) Solar Power Plants (81) Wind Facilities (1295) Open PV Smart Meter Pilot Projects Visualizing The U.S. Electric Grid Clean Energy Natural Capital Maps Clean Energy Technology Commercialization Portal Linkedin.jpg CleanTech Cleantech Venture Capital Global Renewable Energy Network (GReEN)

58

Storage Sizing and Placement through Operational and Uncertainty-Aware Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the penetration level of transmission-scale time-intermittent renewable generation resources increases, control of flexible resources will become important to mitigating the fluctuations due to these new renewable resources. Flexible resources may include new or existing synchronous generators as well as new energy storage devices. Optimal placement and sizing of energy storage to minimize costs of integrating renewable resources is a difficult optimization problem. Further,optimal planning procedures typically do not consider the effect of the time dependence of operations and may lead to unsatisfactory results. Here, we use an optimal energy storage control algorithm to develop a heuristic procedure for energy storage placement and sizing. We perform operational simulation under various time profiles of intermittent generation, loads and interchanges (artificially generated or from historical data) and accumulate statistics of the usage of storage at each node under the optimal dispatch. We develop a gre...

Dvijotham, Krishnamurthy; Chertkov, Misha

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on natW up to 40 MeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Excitation functions for the production of the 181,182m,182g,183,184g,186Re and 183,184Ta radionuclides from proton bombardment on natural tungsten were measured using the stacked-foil activation technique for the proton energies up to 40 MeV. A new data set has been given for the formation of the investigated radionuclides. Results are in good agreement with the earlier reported experimental data and theoretical calculations based on the ALICE-IPPE code. The thick target integral yields were also deduced from the measured excitation functions. The deduced yield values were compared with the directly measured thick target yield (TTY), and found acceptable agreement. The investigated radionuclide 186Re has remarkable applications in the field of nuclear medicine, whereas the data of 183,184gRe and 183Ta have potential applications in thin layer activation analysis and biomedical tracer studies, respectively.

M. U. Khandake; M. S. Uddin; K. S. Kim; M. W. Lee; Y. S. Lee; G. N. Kim

2007-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

60

Progress in two major CCPI projects  

SciTech Connect

Two projects under the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Clean Coal Power initiative have made significant progress in demonstrating new technologies to remove mercury from coal and enhance use of low-Btu lignite coals while increasing energy efficiency. The Wisconsin Electricity Power Company is demonstrating the TOXECON{trademark} mercury control process at its Presque Isle Power Plant near Marquette, Michigan, while Great River Energy (GRE) is showing the viability of lignite fuel enhancement at its Coal Creek Station in Underwood, North Dakota. Both projects were awarded in 2004 under Round I of the Clean Coal Power Initiative. Elsewhere in the program, six projects are in various phases of planning or operation. Plans for a third round under the CCPI were announced on May 23, 2007. 2 figs.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gre nada guadeloupe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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61

Electricity Liberalisation in the European Union: A Progress Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

la n d Fr a n ce Ger m a n y Gre e ce Ire la n d Ita ly Lu x Ne d No rw a y Po rtu ga l Sp a in Sw itze rla n d UK Source: IEA Energy Statistics 2008 other sources tide wind solar thermal solar PV geothermal hydro nuclear waste biomass gas oil coal... .2 Solar PV 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7** Solar thermal 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Other sources 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 1.1 HHI 2781 2589 2339 2271 2242 * EU-27 + Norway ** Includes solar thermal generation Source: IEA and Eurostat data 18 increased merger activity to exploit...

Pollitt, Michael G.

62

Notes from DOE/EPRI Meeting on Phase II Mercury Field Test Needs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Notes Notes DOE/EPRI meeting on Phase II Mercury Field Test Needs Washington DC June 5, 2002 Attendees (phone/e-mail at end of notes) AEP - Gary Spitznogle EPRI - Stu Dalton DOE - Scott Renninger EPRI - George Offen DOE - Tom Feeley GRE - Mark Strohfus Duke - Tim Shawver Southern - Larry Monroe EPA - Jim Kilgroe TVA - Tom Burnett TXU - David Lamb DOE and EPRI jointly convened this meeting to obtain feedback from deeply involved industry members on the needs, scope, schedule, etc. for a second phase of full-scale, longer-term field tests of mercury controls on power plants. The program objectives would be to determine performance and costs of the major near-term control approaches with the hope of using this information both to inform the regulatory (MACT) and legislative (Clear Skies Initiative, CSI) processes as well as industry selections of

63

Implementing the National Broadband  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MEEKER COOPERATIVE LIGHT AND POWER-MINNESOTA MEEKER COOPERATIVE LIGHT AND POWER-MINNESOTA I. Introduction a. Identification/description of your company. Meeker Cooperative Light and Power (MCLP) is a non-profit electric cooperative serving 9120 consumers and is located in central Minnesota. The cooperative serves an area of approximately 1410 square miles. The geography varies from flat to moderate rolling hills with many lakes and wooded areas. For the most part the area is relatively sparsely populated. The average consumer density is less than five consumers per mile. All power purchases are from our cooperative power suppliers of Basin Electric Power COOP and Great River Energy (GRE). Overview of communications networks 1. 220 MHz radio point to point 2. 900 MHz MAS radio

64

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time period January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the sixth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the pilot unit with three catalysts, conducting catalyst activity measurements, and procuring the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek pilot unit site. Laboratory efforts were also conducted to support catalyst selection for the second pilot unit site, at CPS' Spruce Plant. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time-period April 1, 2003 through June 30, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the seventh full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the first pilot unit, conducting catalyst activity measurements, installing sonic horns for on-line catalyst cleaning, and installing the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek site. CPS began installation of the second mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit at their Spruce Plant during the quarter. Laboratory efforts were conducted to support catalyst selection for that second pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Total All Countries Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Destination: Total All Countries Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andora Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahama Islands Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Bermuda Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Costa Rica Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djbouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Pacific Islands Gabon Georgia, Republic of Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guinea Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast Jamaica Japan Jordon Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, South Korea, North Kyrgyzstan Kutubu Kuwait Latvia Lebanon Liberia Libya Lithuania Macau S.A.R. Macedonia Madagascar Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Midway Islands Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal Netherlands Netherlands/Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papau New Guinea Paracel Islands Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Russia St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Pierre and Miquelon St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Soloman Islands South Africa Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tanzania Thailand Tonga Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands (British) Virgin Islands (U.S.) Yemen Yugoslavia Zambia Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

67

Total Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the U.S.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Country: Total All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Afghanistan Albania Andora Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djbouti Dominica Dominican Republic Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Eritrea Estonia Fiji Finland France French Pacific Islands French Guiana Gabon Georgia, Republic of Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guinea Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, South Kutubu Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lebanon Liberia Lithuania Macau S.A.R. Macedonia Madagascar Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Midway Islands Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papau New Guinea Paracel Islands Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Romania Russia St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Pierre and Miquelon St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia South Africa Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Uganda Ukraine United Kingdom Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam Virgin Islands (British) Virgin Islands (U.S.) Yemen Yugoslavia Other Non OPEC Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

68

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time-period July 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the eighth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the first pilot unit at the GRE Coal Creek site with all four catalysts in service and sonic horns installed for on-line catalyst cleaning. During the quarter, a catalyst activity measurement trip and mercury SCEM relative accuracy tests were completed, and catalyst pressure drop was closely monitored with the sonic horns in operation. CPS completed the installation of the second mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit at their Spruce Plant during the quarter, and the four catalysts to be tested in that unit were ordered. The pilot unit was started up with two of the four catalysts in service late in August, and initial catalyst activity results were measured in late September. The other two catalysts will not become available for testing until sometime in October. This technical progress report details these efforts at both sites.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

BARKER, S.A.

2006-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

70

METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

TU, T.A.

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

71

Alterations in transcription factor binding in radioresistant human melanoma cells after ionizing radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyzed alterations in transcription factor binding to specific, known promoter DNA consensus sequences between irradiated and unirradiated radioresistant human melanoma (U1-Mel) cells. The goal of this study was to begin to investigate which transcription factors and DNA-binding sites are responsible for the induction of specific transcripts and proteins after ionizing radiation. Transcription factor binding was observed using DNA band-shift assays and oligonucleotide competition analyses. Confluence-arrested U1-Mel cells were irradiated (4.5 Gy) and harvested at 4 h. Double-stranded oligonucleotides containing known DNA-binding consensus sites for specific transcription factors were used. Increased DNA binding activity after ionizing radiation was noted with oligonucleotides containing the CREB, NF-kB and Sp1 consensus sites. No changes in protein binding to AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, or CTF/NF1, GRE or Oct-1 consensus sequences were noted. X-ray activation of select transcription factors, which bind certain consensus sites in promoters, may cause specific induction or repression of gene transcription. 22 refs., 2 figs.

Sahijdak, W.M.; Yang, Chin-Rang; Zuckerman, J.S.; Meyers, M.; Boothman, D.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT HANFORD SITE [SEC 1 & 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generate ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as diluents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semivolatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Issue Resolution. Appendices A through L provide supporting information. This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event.

BARKER, S.A.; HEDENGREN, D.C.

2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

73

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74

Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, "Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge"). The purpose of this technical report is to (1) present and discuss current understandings of gas retention and release mechanisms for deep sludge in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste storage tanks; and (2) to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to deep sludge gas release events (DSGRE) in the near term to support the Hanford C-Farm retrieval mission. A secondary purpose is to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to DSGREs in the longer term to support the mission to retrieve waste from the Hanford Tank Farms and deliver it to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The potential DSGRE issue resulted in the declaration of a positive Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). C-Farm retrievals are currently proceeding under a Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) that only allows tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106 sludge levels of 192 inches and 195 inches, respectively. C-Farm retrievals need deeper sludge levels (approximately 310 inches in 241-AN-101 and approximately 250 inches in 241-AN-106). This effort is to provide analytical data and justification to continue retrievals in a safe and efficient manner.

Sams, Terry L.

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

The potential for buoyant displacement gas release events in Tank 241-SY-102 after waste transfer from Tank 241-SY-101  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) is a double-shell, radioactive waste storage tank with waste that, before the recent transfer and water back-dilution operations, was capable of retaining gas and producing buoyant displacement (BD) gas release events (GREs). Some BD GREs caused gas concentrations in the tank headspace to exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL). A BD GRE occurs when a portion of the nonconvective layer retains enough gas to become buoyant, rises to the waste surface, breaks up, and releases some of its stored gas. The installation of a mixer pump in 1993 successfully mitigated gas retention in the settled solids layer in SY-101 and has since prevented BD GREs. However, operation of the mixer pump over the years caused gas retention in the floating crust layer and a corresponding accelerated waste level growth. The accelerating crust growth trend observed in 1997--98 led to initiation of sequences of waste removal and water back-dilutions in December 1999. Waste is removed from the mixed slurry layer in Tank SY-101 and transferred into Tank 241-Sy-102 (SY-102). Water is then added back to dissolve soluble solids that retain gas. The initial transfer of 89,500 gallons of SY-101 waste, diluted in-line at 0.94:1 by volume with water, to SY-102 was conducted in December 1999. The second transfer of 230,000 gallons of original SY-101 waste, diluted approximately 0.9:1, was completed in January 2000, and the third transfer of 205,500 gallons of original SY-101 waste diluted at 0.9:1 was completed in March 2000.

BE Wells; PE Meyer; G Chen

2000-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

76

LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Design Team continued to conference this quarter. Their primary task during this timeframe was to finalize the dryer design based on information learned from the NDIC Pilot work and detailed design discussions at Barr offices in August. Heyl-Patterson was tasked with incorporating all comments and drafting drawings. They submitted a preliminary proposal which spawned detailed discussions about tube bundle, air locks, and fire suppression systems. The type of fire protection specified dictated the final structural arrangement. Three meetings were spent discussing the pro's and con's of suppression vs. ventilation systems. In the end, the dryer and bucket elevator will have suppression systems and the remaining equipment will be explosion vented. This is in agreement with GRE's current insurer, FM Global. Three inlet airlocks were reduced to two and four outlets were reduced to three. The inlet plenum was subdivided for greater flexibility and sparging air added in the outlet plenum. It was also decided to use bundles with varied material, diameter, and tube & fin spacing. This will be completed in an effort to identify for us which configuration has the best heat transfer characteristics using coal as the fluidizing medium. The dryer will also be delivered in four pieces. This will allow for installation through the current access door on the Air Heater deck. The Input/Output list and functional description was completed and forwarded to Honeywell to finalize controls. Major pieces of equipment received this quarter were the Bucket Elevator, Liewell Screen, conveyors, and Motor Control Center. ICI completed removal of the wall separating Silo 28 from the dryer area; handrail and grating between the two areas has also been removed. They relocated a blowdown line. They moved an Air Heater basket access hatch.

Charles Bullinger

2005-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

77

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the first full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to project initiation and planning. There is no significant technical progress to report for the current period.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

78

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The coprecipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fourth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to completing, installing and starting up the pilot unit, completing laboratory runs to size catalysts, and procuring catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

79

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period April 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the third full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to constructing the pilot unit and conducting laboratory runs to help size catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these two efforts.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

80

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period October 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future fullscale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fifth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included starting up the pilot unit with three catalysts at the first site, conducting catalyst activity measurements, completing comprehensive flue gas sampling and analyses, and procuring additional catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

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81

Lignite Fuel Enhancement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Design Team continues to conference this quarter albeit not as often. Primary focus this quarter is the continued procurement of material, receiving, and construction/installation. Phase 1 extension recommendation, and subsequent new project estimate. Forms 424 and 4600 were submitted to Ms. Zysk. The NETL technology team subsequently agreed that the increase is justified and made their recommendation to DOE HQ. All major mechanical equipment was delivered this quarter. Three hot water in-bed coils are all that remains for delivery. Two of the five are installed above the dryer air distribution bed. The dryer, baghouse, bucket elevator, control room, exhaust fan, process ductwork, and piping have all been installed. The mezzanine level over the inlet ductwork for access to the dryer was installed. Instrumentation was delivered and locations were identified. Cable is being pulled and connections made from the Control Room to the Motor Control Center. ''Emergency Stop'' equipment logic conditions were discussed and finalized. The functional description was competed and reviewed with Honeywell Controls. Piping & Instrument diagrams are completed. Some electrical schematics have been delivered for equipment south of Q-line. Dry & Wet coal conveyors are not completed. The exhaust chimney was installed. An Open House and ribbon cutting took place on August 9th. GRE project manager gave a presentation of the technology. Joe Strakey, NETL, also spoke. The Open House was attended by Governor Hoevon and Senator Conrad who also spoke about Clean Coal and helped kick-off Blue Flint ethanol and a potential Liquefaction plant. The deign team met the following day to discuss test plan and progress update. Headwaters Energy Incorporated also attended the Open House. A meeting was conducted with them to begin planning for the marketing and finalize our memorandum of understanding. Headwaters still plans to contact all US lignite plants and all bituminous plants who have switched to PRB. Major pieces of equipment received this quarter included the Dryer, Exhaust Fan, additional duct work, and control cabinets.

Charles Bullinger

2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

82

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems'', during the time-period January 1 through March 31, 2006. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Generation Company LP, the Southern Company, and Duke Energy. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified catalyst materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months or longer at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests are being conducted periodically at each site to confirm the ability to scrub the catalytically oxidized mercury at high efficiency. This is the ninth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts primarily consisted of operating the catalyst pilot units at the TXU Generation Company LP's Monticello Steam Electric Station and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates. Two catalyst activity measurement trips were made to Plant Yates during the quarter. This Technical Progress Report presents catalyst activity results from the oxidation catalyst pilot unit at Plant Yates and discusses the status of the pilot unit at Monticello.

Gary M. Blythe

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

85

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems'', during the time-period January 1 through March 31, 2006. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Generation Company LP, the Southern Company, and Duke Energy. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified catalyst materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months or longer at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests are being conducted periodically at each site to confirm the ability to scrub the catalytically oxidized mercury at high efficiency. This is the ninth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts primarily consisted of operating the catalyst pilot units at the TXU Generation Company LP's Monticello Steam Electric Station and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates. Two catalyst activity measurement trips were made to Plant Yates during the quarter. This Technical Progress Report presents catalyst activity results from the oxidation catalyst pilot unit at Plant Yates and discusses the status of the pilot unit at Monticello.

Gary M. Blythe

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the second full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to pilot unit design and conducting laboratory runs to help select candidate catalysts. This technical progress report provides an update on these two efforts. A Test Plan for the upcoming pilot-scale evaluations was also prepared and submitted to NETL for review and comment. Since this document was already submitted under separate cover, this information is not repeated here.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

87

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon-based catalyst began with almost 98% elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, but declined to 79% oxidation after nearly 13 months in service. The other two catalysts, an SCR-type catalyst (titanium/vanadium) and an experimental fly-ash-based catalyst, were significantly less active. The palladium-based and SCR-type catalysts were effectively regenerated at the end of the long-term test by flowing heated air through the catalyst overnight. The carbon-based catalyst was not observed to regenerate, and no regeneration tests were conducted on the fourth, fly-ash-based catalyst. Preliminary process economics were developed for the palladium and carbon-based catalysts for a scrubbed, North Dakota lignite application. As described above, the pilot-scale results showed the catalysts could not sustain 90% or greater oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas for a period of two years. Consequently, the economics were based on performance criteria in a later DOE NETL solicitation, which required candidate mercury control technologies to achieve at least a 55% increase in mercury capture for plants that fire lignite. These economics show that if the catalysts must be replaced every two years, the catalytic oxidation process can be 30 to 40% less costly than conventional (not chemically treated) activated carbon injection if the plant currently sells their fly ash and would lose those sales with carbon injection. If the plant does not sell their fly ash, activated carbon injection was estimated to be slightly less costly. There was little difference in the estimated cost for palladium versus the carbon-based catalysts. If the palladium-based catalyst can be regenerated to double its life to four years, catalytic oxidation process economics are greatly improved. With regeneration, the catalytic oxidation process shows over a 50% reduction in mercury control cost compared to conventional activated carbon injection for a case where the plant sells its fly ash. At Spruce Plant, mercury oxidation catalyst testing began in September 2003 and continued through the end of April 2005, interrupted only by a

Richard Rhudy

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

88

Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

This report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41993, 'Evaluation of EPRI's MerCAP{trademark} Technology for Power Plant Mercury Control'. This project has investigated the mercury removal performance of EPRI's Mercury Capture by Amalgamation Process (MerCAP{trademark}) technology. Test programs were conducted to evaluate gold-based MerCAP{trademark} at Great River Energy's Stanton Station Unit 10 (Site 1), which fired both North Dakota lignite (NDL) and Power River Basin (PRB) coal during the testing period, and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 (Site 2) [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company] which fires a low sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. Additional tests were carried out at Alabama Power's Plant Miller, which fires Powder River Basin Coal, to evaluate a carbon-based MerCAP{trademark} process for removing mercury from flue gas downstream of an electrostatic precipitator [Alabama Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company]. A full-scale gold-based sorbent array was installed in the clean-air plenum of a single baghouse compartment at GRE's Stanton Station Unit 10, thereby treating 1/10th of the unit's exhaust gas flow. The substrates that were installed were electroplated gold screens oriented parallel to the flue gas flow. The sorbent array was initially installed in late August of 2004, operating continuously until its removal in July 2006, after nearly 23 months. The initial 4 months of operation were conducted while the host unit was burning North Dakota lignite (NDL). In November 2004, the host unit switched fuel to burn Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and continued to burn the PRB fuel for the final 19 months of this program. Tests were conducted at Site 1 to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent plate spacing, sorbent pre-cleaning and regeneration, and spray dryer operation on MerCAP{trademark} performance. At Site 2, a pilot-scale array was installed in a horizontal reactor chamber designed to treat approximately 2800 acfm of flue gas obtained from downstream of the plant's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The initial MerCAP{trademark} array was installed at Plant Yates in January 2004, operating continuously for several weeks before a catastrophic system failure resulting from a failed flue gas fan. A second MerCAP{trademark} array was installed in July 2006 and operated for one month before being shut down for a reasons pertaining to system performance and host site scheduling. A longer-term continuous-operation test was then conducted during the summer and fall of 2007. Tests were conducted to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent space velocity, and sorbent rinsing frequency on mercury removal performance. Detailed characterization of treated sorbent plates was carried out in an attempt to understand the nature of reactions leading to excessive corrosion of the substrate surfaces.

Carl Richardson

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

Recovery Act: Online Nonintrusive Condition Monitoring and Fault Detection for Wind Turbines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The penetration of wind power has increased greatly over the last decade in the United States and across the world. The U.S. wind power industry installed 1,118 MW of new capacity in the first quarter of 2011 alone and entered the second quarter with another 5,600 MW under construction. By 2030, wind energy is expected to provide 20% of the U.S. electricity needs. As the number of wind turbines continues to grow, the need for effective condition monitoring and fault detection (CMFD) systems becomes increasingly important [3]. Online CMFD is an effective means of not only improving the reliability, capacity factor, and lifetime, but it also reduces the downtime, energy loss, and operation and maintenance (O&M) of wind turbines. The goal of this project is to develop novel online nonintrusive CMFD technologies for wind turbines. The proposed technologies use only the current measurements that have been used by the control and protection system of a wind turbine generator (WTG); no additional sensors or data acquisition devices are needed. Current signals are reliable and easily accessible from the ground without intruding on the wind turbine generators (WTGs) that are situated on high towers and installed in remote areas. Therefore, current-based CMFD techniques have great economic benefits and the potential to be adopted by the wind energy industry. Specifically, the following objectives and results have been achieved in this project: (1) Analyzed the effects of faults in a WTG on the generator currents of the WTG operating at variable rotating speed conditions from the perspective of amplitude and frequency modulations of the current measurements; (2) Developed effective amplitude and frequency demodulation methods for appropriate signal conditioning of the current measurements to improve the accuracy and reliability of wind turbine CMFD; (3) Developed a 1P-invariant power spectrum density (PSD) method for effective signature extraction of wind turbine faults with characteristic frequencies in the current or current demodulated signals, where 1P stands for the shaft rotating frequency of a WTG; (4) Developed a wavelet filter for effective signature extraction of wind turbine faults without characteristic frequencies in the current or current demodulated signals; (5) Developed an effective adaptive noise cancellation method as an alternative to the wavelet filter method for signature extraction of wind turbine faults without characteristic frequencies in the current or current demodulated signals; (6) Developed a statistical analysis-based impulse detection method for effective fault signature extraction and evaluation of WTGs based on the 1P-invariant PSD of the current or current demodulated signals; (7) Validated the proposed current-based wind turbine CMFD technologies through extensive computer simulations and experiments for small direct-drive WTGs without gearboxes; and (8) Showed, through extensive experiments for small direct-drive WTGs, that the performance of the proposed current-based wind turbine CMFD technologies is comparable to traditional vibration-based methods. The proposed technologies have been successfully applied for detection of major failures in blades, shafts, bearings, and generators of small direct-drive WTGs. The proposed technologies can be easily integrated into existing wind turbine control, protection, and monitoring systems and can be implemented remotely from the wind turbines being monitored. The proposed technologies provide an alternative to vibration-sensor-based CMFD. This will reduce the cost and hardware complexity of wind turbine CMFD systems. The proposed technologies can also be combined with vibration-sensor-based methods to improve the accuracy and reliability of wind turbine CMFD systems. When there are problems with sensors, the proposed technologies will ensure proper CMFD for the wind turbines, including their sensing systems. In conclusion, the proposed technologies offer an effective means to achieve condition-based smart maintenance for wind turbines and have a gre

Wei Qiao

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

90

Final Technical Report Recovery Act: Online Nonintrusive Condition Monitoring and Fault Detection for Wind Turbines  

SciTech Connect

The penetration of wind power has increased greatly over the last decade in the United States and across the world. The U.S. wind power industry installed 1,118 MW of new capacity in the first quarter of 2011 alone and entered the second quarter with another 5,600 MW under construction. By 2030, wind energy is expected to provide 20% of the U.S. electricity needs. As the number of wind turbines continues to grow, the need for effective condition monitoring and fault detection (CMFD) systems becomes increasingly important [3]. Online CMFD is an effective means of not only improving the reliability, capacity factor, and lifetime, but it also reduces the downtime, energy loss, and operation and maintenance (O&M) of wind turbines. The goal of this project is to develop novel online nonintrusive CMFD technologies for wind turbines. The proposed technologies use only the current measurements that have been used by the control and protection system of a wind turbine generator (WTG); no additional sensors or data acquisition devices are needed. Current signals are reliable and easily accessible from the ground without intruding on the wind turbine generators (WTGs) that are situated on high towers and installed in remote areas. Therefore, current-based CMFD techniques have great economic benefits and the potential to be adopted by the wind energy industry. Specifically, the following objectives and results have been achieved in this project: (1) Analyzed the effects of faults in a WTG on the generator currents of the WTG operating at variable rotating speed conditions from the perspective of amplitude and frequency modulations of the current measurements; (2) Developed effective amplitude and frequency demodulation methods for appropriate signal conditioning of the current measurements to improve the accuracy and reliability of wind turbine CMFD; (3) Developed a 1P-invariant power spectrum density (PSD) method for effective signature extraction of wind turbine faults with characteristic frequencies in the current or current demodulated signals, where 1P stands for the shaft rotating frequency of a WTG; (4) Developed a wavelet filter for effective signature extraction of wind turbine faults without characteristic frequencies in the current or current demodulated signals; (5) Developed an effective adaptive noise cancellation method as an alternative to the wavelet filter method for signature extraction of wind turbine faults without characteristic frequencies in the current or current demodulated signals; (6) Developed a statistical analysis-based impulse detection method for effective fault signature extraction and evaluation of WTGs based on the 1P-invariant PSD of the current or current demodulated signals; (7) Validated the proposed current-based wind turbine CMFD technologies through extensive computer simulations and experiments for small direct-drive WTGs without gearboxes; and (8) Showed, through extensive experiments for small direct-drive WTGs, that the performance of the proposed current-based wind turbine CMFD technologies is comparable to traditional vibration-based methods. The proposed technologies have been successfully applied for detection of major failures in blades, shafts, bearings, and generators of small direct-drive WTGs. The proposed technologies can be easily integrated into existing wind turbine control, protection, and monitoring systems and can be implemented remotely from the wind turbines being monitored. The proposed technologies provide an alternative to vibration-sensor-based CMFD. This will reduce the cost and hardware complexity of wind turbine CMFD systems. The proposed technologies can also be combined with vibration-sensor-based methods to improve the accuracy and reliability of wind turbine CMFD systems. When there are problems with sensors, the proposed technologies will ensure proper CMFD for the wind turbines, including their sensing systems. In conclusion, the proposed technologies offer an effective means to achieve condition-based smart maintenance for wind turbines and have a gre

Wei Qiao

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z