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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Biodegradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Extremely Acidic Environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons can occur in environments...Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur as common...formed by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels...enrichments with aromatic hydrocarbons, mineralization assays...lysis was initiated by heat and sodium dodecyl...

Raymond D. Stapleton; Dwayne C. Savage; Gary S. Sayler; Gary Stacey

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

High Levels of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mate Drinks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons| Introduction Esophageal...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. PAHs...usually exposed to combustion products from burning...SRM 2260a Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Toluene, SRM 2269...dichloromethane; heat: preheat cell at 100C...

Farin Kamangar; Michele M. Schantz; Christian C. Abnet; Renato B. Fagundes; and Sanford M. Dawsey

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

High Levels of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mate Drinks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons| Introduction...mechanism. However, data on the association...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content...usually exposed to combustion products from burning...dichloromethane; heat: preheat cell...

Farin Kamangar; Michele M. Schantz; Christian C. Abnet; Renato B. Fagundes; and Sanford M. Dawsey

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

High Levels of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mate Drinks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including...80C) or cold (5C) water. Measurements were...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mate drinks. | Drinking...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including...cold (5 degrees C) water. Measurements were...

Farin Kamangar; Michele M. Schantz; Christian C. Abnet; Renato B. Fagundes; and Sanford M. Dawsey

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Metabolism of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cell Cultures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to water-soluble and organic-soluble...metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to water-soluble and organic-soluble...cytotoxicity and conversion of hydrocarbons to water-soluble products (Chart...

Eliezer Huberman; James K. Selkirk; and Charles Heidelberger

1971-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in Mississippi Fan sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Sandberg, B. A. , University of Colorado Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. James M. Brooks Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions in Upper Pleistocene sediments of the Mississippi Fan and two intraslope basins in the Gulf of Mexico... chemistries is separate phase migration driven by hydrodynamic flow upward along fault planes. The same variables at intraslope basin sites are highly altered, possibly due to extensive gravity slump faulting. High- performance liquid chromatography...

Sandberg, William Allan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

7

Removal of trace olefins from aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for treating a hydrocarbon process stream by converting trace quantities of olefinic impurities to nonolefinic hydrocarbons. The process comprises contacting the process stream, which contains trace olefins in an amount of from about 50 to about 2000 as measured by Bromine Index and at least 80% by weight of aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons having from 6 to 20 carbon atoms per molecule, at reaction conditions which ensure liquid phase operation with a solid catalyst composite comprising a crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite and a refractory inorganic oxide. A catalytic olefin-consuming alkylation reaction then produces an essentially olefinfree product stream with approximately the same quantity and distribution of aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons as contained in the process stream.

Sachtler, J.W.A.; Barger, P.T.

1989-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

8

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...

9

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons based Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aromatic Hydrocarbons Volatile Organic... Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... Rana Novini ATOC 3500 Burn...

10

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons assessment Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aromatic Hydrocarbons Volatile Organic... Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... of airborne soot. The air...

11

aromatic hydrocarbons coated: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ??Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in animal models....

12

Mutagenicity of Soot and Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Salmonella typhimurium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were quantitatively...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon constituent in a kerosene...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fraction in terms of...formed by the incomplete combustion of organic material...and sediments (1), heat and power generation...

Debra A. Kaden; Ronald A. Hites; and William G. Thilly

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs up to 788 amu (C64H20) were detected in the combustion gases. Only the most applications including heating systems and gas turbines for electric power generation.62­64 The combustionFormation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames K. Siegmanna) Swiss

Sattler, Klaus

14

High levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mate drinks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mate drinks Farin Kamangar...exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including known...80 oC) or cold (4 oC) water and two commonly used brands...Infusions were made by adding water to the leaves, steeping for...

Farin Kamangar; Michele Schantz; Christian Abnet; Renato Fagundes; and Sanford Dawsey

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon exposure Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of Port Phillip Bay... of aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal waters, using solvent extraction and...

16

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon contamination Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: called aromatic hydrocarbons. These include harmful pollutants like dioxins, PCBs and a group called... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are...

17

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons extracted Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Toxic Contamination Summary: called aromatic hydrocarbons. These include harmful pollutants like dioxins, PCBs and a group called... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)....

18

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons fluorene Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

19

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

20

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons pah5 Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and potentially carcinogenic pollutants. Plants Summary: 1461 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons inenvironmental Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

22

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon o-quinones Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

23

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon emission Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

emission Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aromatic hydrocarbon emission...

24

Biodegradability of select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmentally significant because of their ubiquity and the toxicity of some. Their recalcitrance and persistence makes them problematic environmental contaminants. Microbial degradation is considered...

Desai, Anuradha M.

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

25

THE HEATS OF COMBUSTION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND HEXAMETHYLENE.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

THE HEATS OF COMBUSTION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND HEXAMETHYLENE. ... Citation data is made available by participants in CrossRef's Cited-by Linking service. ... Experimental methods included adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry (5 K to 420 K), comparative ... ...

Theodore W. Richards; Frederick Barry

1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH emission, as well as emission profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the total PAH emission in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The emission profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% of the total emission, respectively. Total emission, emission density, emission intensity, and emission per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher emission density, while those in western and northern China featured higher emission intensity and population-normalized emission. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, annual emission of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.

Shanshan Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons phahs Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

WH, Caton JE. 1983. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for qualitative analysis. In... : Handbook of Polycyclic Aromatic ... Source: Rock, Chris - Department of...

28

Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fresh Milk by Hollow Fiber Liquid-Phase Microextraction–Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fresh Milk by...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fresh...more volatile and heat sensitive. The...Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds...the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing...respectively. Data were collected......

Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Saw Hong Loh; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Mohamed Noor Hasan; Hassan Y. Aboul Enein

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Hepatic coenzyme Q redox balance of fishes as a potential bioindicator of environmental contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...at the land-water interface are...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination...Markers 0 Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic 0 Water Pollutants, Chemical...metabolism Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic toxicity...Ubiquinone metabolism Water Pollutants, Chemical...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon receptor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aromatic hydrocarbons... the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through which dioxins and dioxin-like compounds cause altered gene... -methylcholanthrene AHH: aryl...

31

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ydrocarbonDegradation It was hypothesized... aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Hypothesis Test Result Groundwater stimulates Fe(lll) reduction Cell... Hydrocarbon Degradation At...

32

High Levels of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mate Drinks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...leaves and/or exposure to combustion products or formation of ash...analysis of the mainstream smoke chemistry of samples of the U.S. cigarette...comparison of the tumors induced by coal tar and benzo[a]pyrene...Spectrometry Ilex paraguariensis chemistry Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic...

Farin Kamangar; Michele M. Schantz; Christian C. Abnet; Renato B. Fagundes; and Sanford M. Dawsey

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

FROM INTERSTELLAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND ICE TO ASTROBIOLOGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

photolysis of these ices produces a host of new compounds, some of which show intriguing prebiotic behavior1 FROM INTERSTELLAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND ICE TO ASTROBIOLOGY LOUIS J. ALLAMANDOLA, the concept of ices in dense molecular clouds ignored, and the notion of large, abundant, gas phase, carbon

34

Mass Transfer of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the individual components of four synthetic dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) mixtures into the aqueous hydrocarbons (PAHs), were designed to serve as models for coal tars and creosotes. The reactor employed (PAHs) are often present in the environment as components of such dense non- aqueous phase liquids

Peters, Catherine A.

35

THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Allamandola, Louis J., E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov [Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

36

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in C8 Isomer Aromatic Feed: Analysis by GC, GC/MS, and GC/FTIR Techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the concentrated hydrocarbon residue of C 8...Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognized...fossil fuels, combustion products, and...monocyclic aro matic hydrocarbons like benzene or...feed-effluent heat exchangers (16...and a Shimadzu data pro cessor (C-R......

V.N. Garg; B.D. Bhatt; V.K. Kaushik; K.R. Murthy

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Characterizing and Biological Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Exposures to Diesel Exhaust  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Characterizing and Biological Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Exposures to Diesel Exhaust ... Diesel and Gasoline Engine Exhausts and Some Nitroarenes; IARC:? Lyon, France 1989. ...

Wei Huang; Thomas J. Smith; Long Ngo; Tong Wang; Hongqiao Chen; Fanggu Wu; Robert F. Herrick; David C. Christiani; Hui Ding

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

38

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: : Acetylenes: Aromatics: 57 15 2 26 A breakdown of 17...

39

Calculation of the heats of combustion of aromatic hydrocarbons contained in power-generating fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The additive method of group contributions is used for the calculation of the heats of combustion of aromatic hydrocarbons of different structures.

E. V. Sagadeev; V. V. Sagadeev

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with a DNA... ), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. A residue of fuel and tobacco combustion and frequently ingested by humans... , BP is metabolized in mammals to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon pah-degrading Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

degradation Summary: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N... , terminate in the sludge, and can be released to the...

42

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Formation in Sludge Incineration by Fluidised Bed and Rotary Kiln Furnace  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are typical pollutants arising from incineration. They are produced in any incomplete combustion principally due to inhomogeneities in a combustion chamber. The effects ...

Giuseppe Mininni; Andrea Sbrilli; Ettore Guerriero…

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in four fish species from different trophic levels in the Persian Gulf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Concentration of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were determined in liver of four fish species from different trophic levels (Aurigequula fasciata, omnivore; Alepes djedaba, carnivore; Liza ab...

Shirin Rahmanpour; Nasrin Farzaneh Ghorghani…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon compounds Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bases in Iraq and Afghanistan that lack Summary: Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... and detected all of the...

45

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coal, oil, gas... called aromatic hydrocarbons. These include harmful pollutants like dioxins, PCBs and a group called Source: Rock, Chris - Department of Biological Sciences,...

46

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons modulate Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

S0045-6535(02)00145-5 Summary: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION...

47

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon tracers Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

S0045-6535(02)00145-5 Summary: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION...

48

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon water-soluble Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

S0045-6535(02)00145-5 Summary: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... with their lipophilicity and water...

49

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soil... hydrocarbon degraders, and polycyclic aromatic ... Source: Ma, Lena - Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida Collection: Environmental Sciences and...

50

Examination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban stormwater system and bioaccumulation in Odonata.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic organic pollutants produced from combustion processes. Associated with urban runoff they have been detected worldwide in urban wetlands. PAH… (more)

Heintzman, Lucas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Mutagenicity of Soot and Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Salmonella typhimurium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fraction in terms...by the incomplete combustion of organic material...sediments (1), heat and power generation...PAH from fuel combustion found in the atmosphere...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; PMS, postmitochondrial...amounts of mutation (data not presented...

Debra A. Kaden; Ronald A. Hites; and William G. Thilly

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

QSPR models of boiling point, octanolwater partition coefficient and retention time index of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QSPR models of boiling point, octanol­water partition coefficient and retention time index of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Fabiana Alves de Lima Ribeiro, Ma´rcia Miguel Castro Ferreira* Laborato Structure­Property Relationship (QSPR) analysis and study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

53

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a QSPR study Marcia M.C. Ferreira  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a QSPR study Marcia M.C. Ferreira UNICAMP Instituto de Quõmica studies such as the boiling temperature (Tb), the retention index (RI), n-octanol/water partition coecient; Chemometrics 1. Introduction The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been, for a long time, a focus

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

54

PARTICLE-ASSOCIATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF HONG KONG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PARTICLE-ASSOCIATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF HONG KONG M. ZHENG and M Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China ( present address: Graduate School of Oceanography, University@ust.hk) (Received 3 June 1998; accepted 22 December 1998) Abstract. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in total

Zheng, Mei

55

Biological Monitoring of Fire Fighters: Sister Chromatid Exchange and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-DNA Adducts in Peripheral Blood Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct levels...exposure to carcinogenic combustion products. Cytoge...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; CI, confidence interval...estimating exposures to combustion and pyrolysis products...into water, briefly heat denatured (100 Cfor...

Saou-Hsing Liou; David Jacobson-Kram; Miriam C. Poirier; Dung Nguyen; Paul T. Strickland; and Melvyn S. Tockman

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Biological Monitoring of Fire Fighters: Sister Chromatid Exchange and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-DNA Adducts in Peripheral Blood Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct levels...to carcinogenic combustion products. Cytoge...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; CI, confidence...controlled for during data analysis. Collection...estimating exposures to combustion and pyrolysis products...water, briefly heat denatured (100...

Saou-Hsing Liou; David Jacobson-Kram; Miriam C. Poirier; Dung Nguyen; Paul T. Strickland; and Melvyn S. Tockman

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Levels of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mainstream Smoke from Different Tobacco Varieties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream cigarette...21 U.S. EPA. Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons. EPA 440/5-80-069...Quality Criteria for Water; EPA 440/5-86-001...

Yan S. Ding; Liqin Zhang; Ram B. Jain; Ntasha Jain; Richard Y. Wang; David L. Ashley; and Clifford H. Watson

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Arabian Gulf  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emphasis has been placed upon the identification and qualification of compounds with potential adverse health effects on humans. Prominent among this group are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), several of which are known or suspected carcinogens. PAHs enter the marine environment from a variety of sources including petroleum pollution, industrial and domestic effluents, atmospheric particles, and biosynthesis by plants and microorganisms. Although one-third of the world's oil is produced around the Arabian Gulf, no detailed analysis have been conducted to determine PAHs in this region. Nevertheless, numerous investigations have shown the ability of marine organisms including fish to accumulation PAHs from solution or dispersion in seawater. When fish are harvested, a human health hazard may result. In the present communication, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and measure sixteen PAHs priority pollutants issued by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in fourteen species of commercially significant fish from the NW Arabian Gulf.

DouAbdul, A.A.Z.; Abaychi, J.K.; Al-Edanee, T.E.; Ghani, A.A.; Al-Saad, H.T.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in marsh sediments, Iraq  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently there has been a growing concern in the release of harmful organics into the environment. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are a class of compounds of interset due to their possible harmful effects to man as well as organisms. Anthropogenic PAH's may reach aquatic environment as a result of both industrial and domestic effluents, deposition of airborne particles, surface runoff and oil spillage. Having a relatively low water solubility and high affinity to sorb to the suspended particulate matter, most of the PAH's introduced to the aquatic environment tend to accumulate in bottom sediments. Sedimentary PAH's may thus provide a record of the input and history of these pollutants. Consequently, the distribution of PAH's in aquatic sediments have received considerable attention. The purpose of the present work was to establish the distribution of PAH's in the sediments of the marsh region located in southern Iraq.

Al-Saad, H.T.; Al-Timari, A.A. (Univ. of Basrah (Iraq))

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Dinelli, B. M. [ISAC-CNR, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E. [IAPS-INAF, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Moriconi, M. L. [ISAC-CNR, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: puertas@iaa.es [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Metabolism of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Cunninghamella elegans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmentally significant compounds due to the toxicity of some members. They are ubiquitous and are persistent bioaccumulative toxins(PBTs). The toxicity of PAHs represents a risk to human health...

Olatubi, Oluwaseun Alfred

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

62

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Science ; Chemistry 52 0600B5--Brooks-McCall Cruise 05 MAY 30-JUN 1 2010 ****DATA SOURCE**** Summary: Aromatic Hydrocarbons | 8270M BTHIOPHNE Benzo(b)thiophene...

63

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Biotechnology 78 0600B5--Brooks-McCall Cruise 05 MAY 30-JUN 1 2010 ****DATA SOURCE**** Summary: Aromatic Hydrocarbons | 8270M BTHIOPHNE Benzo(b)thiophene...

64

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Science ; Chemistry 52 0600B5--Brooks-McCall Cruise 05 MAY 30-JUN 1 2010 ****DATA SOURCE**** Summary: Aromatic Hydrocarbons | 8270M BTHIOPHNE Benzo(b)thiophene...

65

Sources and bioavailability of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in Galveston Bay, Texas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oyster and sediment samples collected from six sites in Galveston Bay from 1986 to 1998 were analyzed for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of parent PAHs in oysters ranged from 20...

Yaorong Qian; Terry L. Wade; Jose L. Sericano

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Black carbon in marine sediments : quantification and implications for the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sorption is a key factor in determining the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Here, PAH sorption is proposed as the sum of two mechanisms: absorption into a biogenic, organic carbon (OC) ...

Accardi-Dey, AmyMarie, 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Biodegradation of polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons by a bacterial consortium from Marine environment; -.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??newlinePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are ubiquitous, newlineCarcinogenic mutagenic and persistent environmental pollutants generated by newlinenatural combustion processes as well as from human activities newlineAnthropogenic inputs… (more)

Arulazhagan, P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Temperature dependence of IR absorption spectra of water in aromatic hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of the temperature of a medium on the IR absorption spectra of water dissolved in aromatic hydrocarbons was studied. It was found that the ... of the determination of the quantity of dissolved water

Sh. I. Seidov; L. I. Prokhvatilova

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Particle Phase Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Atmospheric Environment of Jinámar, Gran Canaria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Airborne concentrations of 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): fluoranthene, Flt, Pyrene, Pyr, benzo(a)anthracene, BaA, chrysene, Chr, benzo(b)fluoranthene + benzo(k)fluoranthene,B(b + k)F, benzo(a)pyrene,...

José A. López Cancio; Antonio Vera Castellano…

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

71

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fatal ischemic heart disease  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have produced evidence that occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, a clear exposure-response relation has not been demonstrated. We studied a relation between exposure to PAH and mortality from IHD (418 cases) in a cohort of 12,367 male asphalt workers from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, The Netherlands and Norway. Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene were assessed quantitatively using measurement-driven exposure models. Exposure to coal tar was assessed in a semiquantitative manner on the basis of information supplied by company representatives. We carried out sensitivity analyses to assess potential confounding by tobacco smoking. Both cumulative and average exposure indices for benzo(a)pyrene were positively associated with mortality from IHD. The highest relative risk for fatal IHD was observed for average benzo(a)pyrene exposures of 273 ng/m{sup 3} or higher, for which the relative risk was 1.64(95% confidence interval = 1.13-2.38). Similar results were obtained for coal tar exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that even in a realistic scenario of confounding by smoking, we would observe approximately 20% to 40% excess risk in IHD in the highest PAH-exposure categories. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that occupational PAH exposure causes fatal IHD and demonstrate a consistent exposure-response relation for this association.

Burstyn, I.; Kromhout, H.; Partanen, T.; Svane, O.; Langard, S.; Ahrens, W.; Kauppinen, T.; Stucker, I.; Shaham, J.; Heederik, D.; Ferro, G.; Heikkila, P.; Hooiveld, M.; Johansen, C.; Randem, B.G.; Boffetta, P. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Regressing Gas/Particle Partitioning Data for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Regressing Gas/Particle Partitioning Data for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ... Although PAHs can be emitted to the environment as a result of natural combustion processes (e.g., forest fires and volcanoes), human activities are believed to dominate global PAH emissions, because high atmospheric concentrations of PAHs are usually observed in urban and industrial areas where vehicle traffic, aluminum smelting, residential heating, and other activities emit PAHs into the atmosphere (4, 5). ... One of the earliest approaches to describing the G/P partitioning equilibrium of PAHs, known as the Junge?Pankow model, relates ? to PL using the following: The parameter A in this equation is sometimes interpreted as the product of two terms c and ?. ? is the surface area of particles in a unit volume of air (cm2·cm-3) and c (Pa·cm) is a substance-specific factor depending on ambient temper ature, compound, sorption sites, and the heats of desorption from surface and vaporization from the liquid compound (7, 10, 14). ...

Yushan Su; Ying Duan Lei; Frank Wania; Mahiba Shoeib; Tom Harner

2006-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

73

Activated carbon and biochar amendments decrease pore-water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge Patryk Oleszczuk a,b, , Sarah E. Hale a , Johannes Lehmann c , Gerard Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Bioavailability Sewage sludge a b s t r a c t The aim of the research of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge. Two different biochars (MSB and PMW) and two ACs

Lehmann, Johannes

74

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in C8 Isomer Aromatic Feed: Analysis by GC, GC/MS, and GC/FTIR Techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......in fossil fuels, combustion products, and automotive...understanding the chemistry of the formation...The analytical chemistry of P A H compounds...PAHs present in coal-derived hydrocarbons...Hazardous chemicals from coal conversion process...Bartle. Analytical Chemistry of Polycyclic Aromatic......

V.N. Garg; B.D. Bhatt; V.K. Kaushik; K.R. Murthy

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Double molecular imprinting – a new sensor concept for improving selectivity in the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Highly selective and robust polymer coatings for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media have been ... of aromatic rings. Measurements of PAHs in water were also performed with...

Franz L. Dickert; Paul Achatz…

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Sorption characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aluminum smelter residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High temperature carbon oxidation in primary aluminum smelters results in the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) into the environment. The main source of PAH are the anodes, which are composed of petroleum coke (black carbon, BC) and coal tar pitch. To elucidate the dominant carbonaceous phase controlling the environmental fate of PAH in aluminum smelter residues (coke BC and/or coal tar), the sorptive behavior of PAHs has been determined, using passive samplers and infinite-sink desorption methods. Samples directly from the wet scrubber were studied as well as ones from an adjacent 20-year old storage lagoon and roof dust from the smelter. Carbon-normalized distribution coefficients of native PAHs were 2 orders of magnitude higher than expected based on amorphous organic carbon (AOC)/water partitioning, which is in the same order of magnitude as reported literature values for soots and charcoals. Sorption isotherms of laboratory-spiked deuterated phenanthrene showed strong (about 100 times stronger than AOC) but nonetheless linear sorption in both fresh and aged aluminum smelter residues. The absence of nonlinear behavior typical for adsorption to BC indicates that PAH sorption in aluminum smelter residues is dominated by absorption into the semi-solid coal tar pitch matrix. Desorption experiments using Tenax showed that fresh smelter residues had a relatively large rapidly desorbing fraction of PAH (35-50%), whereas this fraction was strongly reduced (11-16%) in the lagoon and roof dust material. Weathering of the coal tar residue and/or redistribution of PAH between coal tar and BC phases could explain the reduced availability in aged samples. 38 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Gijs D. Breedveld; Emilien Pelletier; Richard St. Louis; Gerard Cornelissen [Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Oslo (Norway)

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

DNA Damage from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Measured by Benzo[a]pyrene-DNA Adducts in Mothers and Newborns from Northern Manhattan, The World Trade Center Area, Poland, and China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may disproportionately increase...adducts|polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons|cancer|susceptibility...Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are common environmental...air, food, and drinking water from incomplete combustion...

Frederica Perera; Deliang Tang; Robin Whyatt; Sally Ann Lederman; and Wieslaw Jedrychowski

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Path Analysis of Biomarkers of Exposure and Early Biological Effects among Coke-Oven Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...8-diol of benzo(a)pyrene to more water-soluble trans-dihydrodiols, which...workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in engine repair workshops. Mutat Res...determination of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2002...

Li Qiu; Shuguang Leng; Zhongxu Wang; Yufei Dai; Yuxin Zheng; and Zengzhen Wang

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Modeling the biodegradability and physicochemical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and methylated PAHs containing up to four aromatic rings were biodegraded individually by Sphingomonas paucimobilis strain EPA505, and Monod-type kinetic coefficients were estimated for each PAH using the integral method. Estimated extant kinetic parameters...

Dimitriou-Christidis, Petros

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

80

Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Particulate Phase of Cigarette Smoke Using a Gas Chromatographic-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from...previously reported data. Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in the combustion products of many...reported literature data (9,11...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tobacco smoke...cigarette which heats but not burn......

Q. Zha; N.X. Qian; S.C. Moldoveanu

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes of PAH with subcritical water [5,6] since it provides the extractability limit which can be used groups, for the representation of the solubility of solid PAH in subcritical water. These hal-00872639Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

Identification of Sediment Organic Carbon Location and Association with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Contaminated Sediment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identification of Sediment Organic Carbon Location and Association with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Contaminated Sediment Upal Ghosh1 , Richard G. Luthy1 , J. Seb Gillette2 , and Richard N long-term issue confronting sediment bioremediation is the lack of understanding of contaminant-sediment

83

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for treatment in EU, followed by spreading on land, which accounted for 37% of the sewage sludge produced allow recycling of nutrients. Hence, bioprocessed sewage sludge application on agricultural soilRemoval of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N

84

UV Resonance Raman Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Liquid Distillates*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UV Resonance Raman Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Liquid Distillates samples, such as petroleum and coal, or for man-made samples, such as coal liquids, a major desire- nique for studying coal-liquid samples. 1-4 We demon- strated that the Raman spectra of polycyclic

Asher, Sanford A.

85

Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Size distribution; Atmospheric pollution; POVA (POllution des Vallées, published in "Atmospheric Environment 42, 173 (2008) 55 à 64" DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.008 #12 was determined during the intensive sampling campaigns of the POVA (POllution des Vallées Alpines) research

Boyer, Edmond

86

Modeling personal particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pb-pah) exposure in human subjects in Southern California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Health 2012, 11:47 http://www.ehjournal.net/content/11/1/47 Introduction Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are produced from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels

Wu, Jun; Tjoa, Thomas; Li, Lianfa; Jaimes, Guillermo; Delfino, Ralph J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fresh Milk by Hollow Fiber Liquid-Phase Microextraction–Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......my 1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science...Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, National Research...products of the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing material, such as coal, oil or municipal waste...aromatic hydrocarbons: Chemistry and analysis. (2000......

Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Saw Hong Loh; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Mohamed Noor Hasan; Hassan Y. Aboul Enein

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the centralized wastewater treatment plant of a chemical industry zone: Removal, mass balance and source analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Increased attention has been given to the fate of pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) introduced to the wastewater treatment plants. Dissolved and adsorbed PAHs were detected in the central...

Min Yao; XingWang Zhang; LeCheng Lei

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Long-Range Atmospheric Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A Global 3-D Model Analysis Including Evaluation of Arctic Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem to simulate long-range atmospheric transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To evaluate the model’s ability to simulate PAHs with different volatilities, ...

Friedman, Carey

90

Determination of Volatile Organic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil with Efficient Gas-Chromatographic Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......in crude oil samples showed little change after 3 months of storage in glass bottles. Calibration for 2-methyl butane, n-pentane...determination HPLC for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater samples and its application to Japan Sea. Chemical Pharmaceutical......

Haijing Wang; Helmut Geppert; Thomas Fischer; Wolfgang Wieprecht; Detlev Möller

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Transport method for determining the association constants of complexes formed between aromatic hydrocarbons and?- and?-cyclodextrin in water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The association constants of 1 : 1 complexes formed in water between six aromatic hydrocarbons (o-,m-, andp-xylene, naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene) and?- and?-cyclodextrin were determined by the transport me...

Bo-Long Poh; Yoke Mooi Chow

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Identification and quantification of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and food by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chances are examined for the identification and determination of pesticides of different types and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 46 items, in water and food by means of gas chromatography ... make from 2 to 1...

V. G. Amelin; T. B. Nikeshina; A. V. Tret’yakov

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in top soil, leachate and groundwater from Ruseifa solid waste landfill, Jordan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The distribution profiles and pathways of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the surroundings of Ruseifa landfill area in Jordan were investigated for surface sediments, leachate, and groundwater. The total concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments ranged from 286 to 1704 ppm with an average value of 751 ppm. Meanwhile, concentrations of PAH in groundwater ranged between 7.1 and 12.6 ppm with an average value of 9.1 ppm. The PAH in leachate varied between 0.10 and 0.40 with an average value of 0.29 ppm. The overall PAH distribution profiles appeared to be similar for leachate and groundwater dominated by 2â??3 rings system molecules. While, the sediments profile was dominated by 4â??6 rings system molecules which indicated the loss of low molecular weight compounds of PAH and accumulation of higher molecular weight of PAH under prevailing semiarid and hot climatic conditions.

Anwar Jiries; Omar Rimawi; Jutta Lintelmann; Mufeed Batarseh

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Solubility and Solubility Modeling of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Subcritical Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solubility and Solubility Modeling of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Subcritical Water ... A static analytical equilibrium method was used to measure the binary and ternary solubilities of anthracene and p-terphenyl in subcritical water between 393 and 473 K and at 50 and 150 bar. ... Nitrogen gas preset to 54 bar was allowed to contact the solution in the equilibrium vessel via valve V3. ...

Wen Hui Teoh; Raffaella Mammucari; Silvio A. B. Vieira de Melo; Neil R. Foster

2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

95

Sources and Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Western U.S. National Parks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sources and Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Western U.S. National Parks ... Department of Chemistry and Department of Environmental & Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin 9014 New Zealand, United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region Air Program, Corvallis, Oregon 97330, US Geological Survey - Water Resources Division, Denver Federal Center, Lakewood, Colorado, Environmental Radioactivity Research Centre, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, U.K., United States Environmental Protection Agency - Western Ecology Division, Corvallis, Oregon 97333 ...

Sascha Usenko; Staci L. Massey Simonich; Kimberly J. Hageman; Jill E. Schrlau; Linda Geiser; Don H. Campbell; Peter G. Appleby; Dixon H. Landers

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

96

Indoor Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Homes with or without Wood Burning for Heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Indoor Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Homes with or without Wood Burning for Heating ... One wood-burning home had a boiler located in a shelter outside the house and was excluded from the study. ... The concentrations of BaP in the wood-burning homes (0.52 ng/m3) were within the range reported for an American home during operation of different airtight wood stoves (20) and for seven homes during wood burning in airtight wood stoves (21). ...

Pernilla Gustafson; Conny Östman; Gerd Sällsten

2008-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

97

Emission of Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Indoor Solid Fuel Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(17) The relatively high OPAH emissions from indoor burning can be explained by the different amount of oxygen supply resulting in lower combustion efficiencies and relatively high temperature in the enclosed residential stoves due to low heat loss. ... hydrocarbon (PAH) emission source in developing countries; however, PAH emission factor (EF) data for indoor crop residue combustion, particularly field-measured data, are scarce, leading to large uncertainties in emission inventories. ... Shen, G.; Wang, W.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, C.; Min, Y.; Xue, M.; Ding, J.; Li, W.; Wang, B.; Shen, H.; Wang, R.; Wang, X.; Tao, S.Emission factors and particulate matter size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustions in rural Northern China Atmos. ...

Guofeng Shen; Shu Tao; Wei Wang; Yifeng Yang; Junnan Ding; Miao Xue; Yujia Min; Chen Zhu; Huizhong Shen; Wei Li; Bin Wang; Rong Wang; Wentao Wang; Xilong Wang; Armistead G. Russell

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

98

Biomarker sensitivity for polynuclear and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in fish species from Galveston Bay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Galveston Bay estuary exhibits a contamination gradient for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, which is useful for comparing biomarker response sensitivity in fish taken from different bay locations. Two fish species, hardhead catfish (Arius felis) and Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus), were collected from four stations where sediment total PAHs ranged from 68 to > 1,000 ng/g. Hardhead catfish showed no consistent CYP1A mediated responses (hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD), CYP1A mRNA levels, or CYP1A immunoreactive protein) in the field collected fish or in fish dosed with up to 15 mg/kg benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Significant differences were seen in field collected hardhead catfish in biliary concentrations of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and BaP metabolites. Conversely, in croakers taken from the same four Galveston Bay locations, there were significant elevations IN EROD and glutathione-S-transferase activities, CYP1A immunoreactive protein, and biliary PAH metabolites at the contaminated stations. These studies suggest that croaker is a good monitoring species especially with respect to induction of CYP1A mediated responses by PAHs. Biliary PAH metabolites and PAH-DNA adducts were sensitive to PAH contamination in both species.

Willett, K.; McDonald, S.; Steinberg, M.; Beatty, K.; Safe, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Actions of Mycobacterium sp. Strain AP1 on the Saturated- and Aromatic-Hydrocarbon Fractions of Fuel Oil in a Marine Medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Aromatic-Hydrocarbon Fractions of Fuel Oil in a Marine Medium Published ahead...Biodegradation of TPHs of fuel oil by Mycobacterium sp. strain AP1 in marine medium. Strain AP1...aromatic-hydrocarbon fractions of fuel oil in a marine medium. | The pyrene-degrading...

Joaquim Vila; Magdalena Grifoll

2009-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

100

Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH’S) at the Low ng/l Level in the Biesbosch Water Storage Reservoirs (NETH.) for the Study of the Degradation of Chemicals in Surface Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concentrations of six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s) in water of the storage reservoirs of the Dutch...

N. Van Den Hoed; Ms M. T. H. Halmans…

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Process for using alkyl substituted C8-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons as preferential physical solvents for selective processing of hydrocarbon gas streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the removal of hydrocarbon gas liquids, comprising hydrocarbons heavier than methane, from a hydrocarbon gas stream. The improvement consists of selectively extracting the hydrocarbon gas liquids from the hydrocarbon gas stream with a preferential physical solvent which provides selective capability for recovery according to the selected degree of (a) ethane in amounts ranging from 2-98%, (b) propane in amounts ranging from 2-99%, (c) butane in amounts ranging from 2-100%, or (d) pentanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons in amounts ranging up to 100% which comprises: A. selectively extracting and stripping the hydrocarbon gas stream with the physical solvent to produce a residue hydrocarbon gas stream of pipeline specifications and a rich solvent stream containing ethane and heavier hydrocarbon components, the preferential physical solvent being: (1) rich in C/sub 8/-C/sub 10/ aromatic compounds having methyl, ethyl, or propyl aliphatic groups and (2) selective for ethane and heavier hydrocarbon components of the gas stream such that: (a) the relative volatility of methane over ethane is at least 5.0 and the hydrocarbon loading capacity, defined as solubility of ethane in solvent, is at least 0.25 standard cubic feet of ethane per gallon of solvent, or (b) the preferential factor determined by the multiplication of relative volatility of methane over ethane by the solubility of ethane in solvent, in standard cubic feet of ethane per gallon of solvent, of at least 1.25; and B. distilling the rich solvent to produce the hydrocarbon gas liquids and the physical solvent.

Mehra, Y.R.

1987-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

102

Involuntary Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Urinary Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the United States, 1999 to 2002  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...environment as a result of incomplete combustion of natural and man-made organic materials...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coal-burning environment. Sci Total Environ...Jenkins RA, Guerin MR, Tomkins BA. The chemistry of environmental tobacco smoke: composition...

Plernpit Suwan-ampai; Ana Navas-Acien; Paul T. Strickland; and Jacqueline Agnew

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Bees (Apis mellifera) and Honey in Urban Areas and Wildlife Reserves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Bees (Apis mellifera) and Honey in Urban Areas and Wildlife Reserves ... In fact, rain and wind can clean the flowers and transfer the pollutants to other environmental sectors, and it is also important to consider that the nectar flow, which is usually greater in the spring than in the summer and autumn, could dilute the pollutants. ...

Monia Perugini; Gabriella Di Serafino; Alessandra Giacomelli; Piotr Medrzycki; Anna Gloria Sabatini; Livia Persano Oddo; Enzo Marinelli; Michele Amorena

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

104

Association of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emissions and Smoking with Lung Cancer Mortality Rates on a Global Scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(2, 4) For most populations, approximately 80% of all lung cancer cases are associated with tobacco smoking and the remaining 20% have been attributed to exposure to secondhand smoke, radon (and its decay products), asbestos, some metals (including arsenic, beryllium, cadmium), organic compounds (including carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), radiation, and genetic susceptibility. ...

Oleksii Motorykin; Melissa M. Matzke; Katrina M. Waters; Staci L. Massey Simonich

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

105

Involuntary Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Urinary Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the United States, 1999 to 2002  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the Internet]. U.S. Census Bureau, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division. [updated 2008 Aug 26; cited 2008 Dec...human exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coal-burning environment. Sci Total Environ 1990;92:145-54...

Plernpit Suwan-ampai; Ana Navas-Acien; Paul T. Strickland; and Jacqueline Agnew

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

THE NASA AMES POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC DATABASE: THE COMPUTED SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The astronomical emission features, formerly known as the unidentified infrared bands, are now commonly ascribed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The laboratory experiments and computational modeling done at the NASA Ames Research Center to create a collection of PAH IR spectra relevant to test and refine the PAH hypothesis have been assembled into a spectroscopic database. This database now contains over 800 PAH spectra spanning 2-2000 {mu}m (5000-5 cm{sup -1}). These data are now available on the World Wide Web at www.astrochem.org/pahdb. This paper presents an overview of the computational spectra in the database and the tools developed to analyze and interpret astronomical spectra using the database. A description of the online and offline user tools available on the Web site is also presented.

Bauschlicher, C. W.; Ricca, A. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 230-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Boersma, C.; Mattioda, A. L.; Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Allamandola, L. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Sanchez de Armas, F.; Puerta Saborido, G. [SETI Institute, 515 N. Whisman Road, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Hudgins, D. M., E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.go [NASA Headquarters, MS 3Y28, 300 E St. SW, Washington, DC 20546 (United States)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

On-line database of the spectral properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an on-line database of computed molecular properties for a large sample of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in four charge states: -1, 0, +1, and +2. At present our database includes 40 molecules ranging in size from naphthalene and azulene (C10H8) up to circumovalene (C66H20). We performed our calculations in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent DFT to obtain the most relevant molecular parameters needed for astrophysical applications. For each molecule in the sample, our database presents in a uniform way the energetic, rotational, vibrational, and electronic properties. It is freely accessible on the web at http://astrochemistry.ca.astro.it/database/ and http://www.cesr.fr/~joblin/database/.

G. Malloci; C. Joblin; G. Mulas

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

108

Anisotropy and Size Effects on the Optical Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electronic and optical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present a strong dependence on their size and geometry. We tackle this issue by analyzing the spectral features of two prototypical classes of PAHs, belonging to D6h and D2h symmetry point groups and related to coronene as multifunctional seed. While the size variation induces an overall red shift of the spectra and a redistribution of the oscillator strength between the main peaks, a lower molecular symmetry is responsible for the appearance of new optical features. Along with broken molecular orbital degeneracies, optical peaks split and dark states are activated in the low-energy part of the spectrum. Supported by a systematic analysis of the composition and the character of the optical transitions, our results contribute in shedding light to the mechanisms responsible for spectral modifications in the visible and near UV absorption bands of medium-size PAHs.

Caterina Cocchi; Deborah Prezzi; Alice Ruini; Marilia J. Caldas; Elisa Molinari

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

109

Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of \\{PAHs\\} in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove \\{PAHs\\} from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs.

Ee Von Lau; Suyin Gan; Hoon Kiat Ng; Phaik Eong Poh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti [Technical University of Bari, Bari (Italy). Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of the Hormuz strait, Persian Gulf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the sediment from the Hormuz strait, Persian Gulf. The sum of 16 \\{PAHs\\} (?PAH) concentrations varied from 72.17 to 277.77 ng g?1 dry weight, with an average value of 131.20 ± 59.29 ng g?1 dry weight. An ecological risk assessment of PAHs, indicated that adverse biological effects caused by acenaphthene and acenaphthylene occasionally may take place in the sediment of Hormuz strait. PAH source identification showed that the \\{PAHs\\} in the sediments come from pyrogenic and mixed origin. Based on classification of pollution levels, sediments from Hormuz strait could be considered as low to moderately polluted with PAHs.

Shirin Rahmanpoor; Hosein Ghafourian; Seyed Mehri Hashtroudi; Kazem Darvish Bastami

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS WITH SOME OR ALL HYDROGEN ATOMS REMOVED  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The loss of one hydrogen from C{sub 96}H{sub 24} does not significantly affect the infrared spectra of the neutral, cation, or anion. Excluding a very weak C-C stretching band at 5.1 ?m, the loss of two adjacent duo hydrogens does not significantly affect the spectra compared with the parent. Removing all of the hydrogen atoms significantly increases the intensity of the new C-C stretching band, and, for the cation, shifts it to a longer (5.2 ?m) wavelength. Observations show a feature near 5.25 ?m, which has been attributed to overtone and combination bands from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This current work suggests that dehydrogenated PAHs might also contribute to this band, but its weakness implies that fully dehydrogenated cationic or dicationic species are very rare.

Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ricca, Alessandra, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov, E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

113

A study on the coagulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon clusters to determine their collision efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a theoretical study on the physical interaction between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their clusters of different sizes in laminar premixed flames. Two models are employed for this study: a detailed PAH growth model, referred to as the kinetic Monte Carlo - aromatic site (KMC-ARS) model [Raj et al., Combust. Flame 156 (2009) 896-913]; and a multivariate PAH population balance model, referred to as the PAH - primary particle (PAH-PP) model. Both the models are solved by kinetic Monte Carlo methods. PAH mass spectra are generated using the PAH-PP model, and compared to the experimentally observed spectra for a laminar premixed ethylene flame. The position of the maxima of PAH dimers in the spectra and their concentrations are found to depend strongly on the collision efficiency of PAH coagulation. The variation in the collision efficiency with various flame and PAH parameters is studied to determine the factors on which it may depend. A correlation for the collision efficiency is proposed by comparing the computed and the observed spectra for an ethylene flame. With this correlation, a good agreement between the computed and the observed spectra for a number of laminar premixed ethylene flames is found. (author)

Raj, Abhijeet; Sander, Markus; Janardhanan, Vinod; Kraft, Markus [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

various hydrocarbons on monolithic hydrocarbon adsorber Dae Jung Kim,a Ji Man Kim,a Jae Eui Yie... and conversion of various hydrocarbons on monolithic hydrocarbon adsorbers were...

115

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons part Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

various hydrocarbons on monolithic hydrocarbon adsorber Dae Jung Kim,a Ji Man Kim,a Jae Eui Yie... and conversion of various hydrocarbons on monolithic hydrocarbon adsorbers were...

116

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons methyl Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Renewable Energy 2 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: -fueled automobiles, most cyclic hydrocarbons are...

117

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons progress Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Chemistry 3 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: -fueled automobiles, most cyclic hydrocarbons are...

118

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon-exposed lung Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in non-smoking and smoking lung cancer... of the fetus. These mutageniccarcinogenic pollutants include aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic... of transplacental exposure...

119

Studies on the Applicability of Biomarkers in Estimating the Systemic Bioavailability of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Manufactured Gas Plant Tar-Contaminated Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The systemic bioavailability of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from ingested soils containing manufactured gas plant (MGP) tar was evaluated in mice. Soil and organic extract of each soil were incorporated into a diet and fed to mice for two ...

Aruna Koganti; Deborah A. Spina; Kimberly Rozett; Bing-Li Ma; Eric H. Weyand; Barbara B. Taylor; David M. Mauro

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

120

Synthesis of Aromatic-Rich Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons from Biomass-Derived Syngas over a Pd-Promoted Fe/HZSM-5 Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synthesis of Aromatic-Rich Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons from Biomass-Derived Syngas over a Pd-Promoted Fe/HZSM-5 Catalyst ... The cool syngas was then compressed to a storage tank or sent to a burner. ...

Qiangu Yan; Yongwu Lu; Caixia Wan; Jun Han; Jose Rodriguez; Jing-jing Yin; Fei Yu

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Extraction of Lignite Coal Fly Ash for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Modified and Unmodified Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Enhanced-Fluidity Solvents, and Accelerated Solvent Extraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......7440-44-0 Carbon | Carbon analysis chemistry Coal analysis Coal Ash Gas Chromatography-Mass...Hydrocarbons, Aromatic analysis chemistry Industrial Waste analysis Particulate...particles on the interaction of coal combustion stack ash with organic matter......

Donald V. Kenny; Susan V. Olesik

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure in Household Air Pollution from Solid Fuel Combustion among the Female Population of Xuanwei and Fuyuan Counties, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from burning “smoky” (bituminous) coal has been implicated as a cause of the high lung cancer incidence in the counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China. Little is known about variations in PAH exposure from ...

George S. Downward; Wei Hu; Nat Rothman; Boris Reiss; Guoping Wu; Fusheng Wei; Robert S. Chapman; Lutzen Portengen; Lan Qing; Roel Vermeulen

2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

123

The unusual hydrocarbon emission from the early carbon star HD 100764: The connection between aromatics and aliphatics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to obtain spectra of HD 100764, an apparently single carbon star with a circumstellar disk. The spectrum shows emission features from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are shifted to longer wavelengths than normally seen, as characteristic of ``class C'' systems in the classification scheme of Peeters et al. All seven of the known class C PAH sources are illuminated by radiation fields that are cooler than those which typically excite PAH emission features. The observed wavelength shifts are consistent with hydrocarbon mixtures containing both aromatic and aliphatic bonds. We propose that the class C PAH spectra are distinctive because the carbonaceous material has not been subjected to a strong ultraviolet radiation field, allowing relatively fragile aliphatic materials to survive.

G. C. Sloan; M. Jura; W. W. Duley; K. E. Kraemer; J. Bernard-Salas; W. J. Forrest; B. Sargent; A. Li; D. J. Barry; C. J. Bohac; D. M. Watson; J. R. Houck

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

124

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon investigation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

various hydrocarbons on monolithic hydrocarbon adsorber Dae Jung Kim,a Ji Man Kim,a Jae Eui Yie... and conversion of various hydrocarbons on ... Source: Kim, Ji Man - Department...

125

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons investigated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

various hydrocarbons on monolithic hydrocarbon adsorber Dae Jung Kim,a Ji Man Kim,a Jae Eui Yie... and conversion of various hydrocarbons on ... Source: Kim, Ji Man - Department...

126

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon components Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

various hydrocarbons on monolithic hydrocarbon adsorber Dae Jung Kim,a Ji Man Kim,a Jae Eui Yie... and conversion of various hydrocarbons on ... Source: Kim, Ji Man - Department...

127

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon molecules Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

various hydrocarbons on monolithic hydrocarbon adsorber Dae Jung Kim,a Ji Man Kim,a Jae Eui Yie... and conversion of various hydrocarbons on monolithic ... Source: Kim, Ji Man -...

128

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons molecules Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

various hydrocarbons on monolithic hydrocarbon adsorber Dae Jung Kim,a Ji Man Kim,a Jae Eui Yie... and conversion of various hydrocarbons on monolithic ... Source: Kim, Ji Man -...

129

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons resulting Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

various hydrocarbons on monolithic hydrocarbon adsorber Dae Jung Kim,a Ji Man Kim,a Jae Eui Yie... and conversion of various hydrocarbons on monolithic ... Source: Kim, Ji Man -...

130

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons affect Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 3 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: -fueled automobiles, most cyclic hydrocarbons are...

131

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons annual Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: releases about 5 billion kilograms of hydrocarbons...

132

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons implications Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: -fueled automobiles, most cyclic hydrocarbons are...

133

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

hydrocarbon is introduced into the ocean via oil spillage, offshore drilling leaks, industrial... hydrocarbons have been attributed to inhibition of ... Source: National...

134

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in burning and non-burning coal waste piles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coal waste material that results from Douro Coalfield exploitation was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for the identification and quantification of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), defined as priority pollutants. It is expected that the organic fraction of the coal waste material contains \\{PAHs\\} from petrogenic origin, and also from pyrolytic origin in burning coal waste piles. The results demonstrate some similarity in the studied samples, being phenanthrene the most abundant PAH followed by fluoranthene and pyrene. A petrogenic contribution of \\{PAHs\\} in unburned samples and a mixture of \\{PAHs\\} from petrogenic and pyrolytic sources in the burning/burnt samples were identified. The lowest values of the sum of the 16 priority \\{PAHs\\} found in burning/burnt samples and the depletion LMW \\{PAHs\\} and greater abundance of HMW \\{PAHs\\} from the unburned coal waste material relatively to the burning/burnt material demonstrate the thermal transformation attributed to the burning process. The potential environmental impact associated with the coal waste piles are related with the release of petrogenic and pyrolytic \\{PAHs\\} in particulate and gaseous forms to soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and biodiversity.

Joana Ribeiro; Tais Silva; Joao Graciano Mendonca Filho; Deolinda Flores

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 {times} 10{sup 6} barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ``super`` plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed.

Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ball, J.C. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.; Stevens, R. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States). Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION IN THE PROPLYD HST10: WHAT IS THE MECHANISM BEHIND PHOTOEVAPORATION?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proplyds are photodissociation-region-(PDR)-like cometary cocoons around young stars which are thought to originate through photoevaporation of the central protoplanetary disk by external UV radiation from the nearby OB stars. This Letter presents spatially resolved mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the proplyd HST10 obtained with the Very Large Telescope/VISIR instrument. These observations allow us to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the proplyd PDR and to study the general properties of PAHs in proplyds for the first time. We find that PAHs in HST10 are mostly neutral and at least 50 times less abundant than typical values found for the diffuse interstellar medium or the nearby Orion Bar. With such a low PAH abundance, photoelectric heating is significantly reduced. If this low abundance pertains also to the original disk material, gas heating rates could be too low to efficiently drive photoevaporation unless other processes can be identified. Alternatively, the model behind the formation of proplyds as evaporating disks may have to be revised.

Vicente, S.; Kamp, I. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands); Berne, O. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huelamo, N. [CAB (INTA-CSIC), LAEFF, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Pantin, E. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM - CNRS - Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAP, F-91191 sur Yvette (France); Carmona, A. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France)

2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

137

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from surfactant solutions by selective sorption with organo-bentonite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Surfactant-enhanced soil washing is known to be an effective remediation approach for contaminated soils and groundwater. However, the recovery of surfactant solutions after soil washing is required for reducing the operation costs of the soil washing process. In this study, selective sorption with organo-bentonite was employed for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous surfactant solution as a potential means of recovering surfactant solution after soil washing. The sorption of phenanthrene onto organo-bentonite from surfactant solution was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the linear sorption isotherm model, respectively. \\{PAHs\\} can be effectively removed by organo-bentonite from surfactant solutions in a high proportion relative to the sorption loss of surfactant under all experimental conditions. The selectivity for PAH removal to surfactant sorption increased with increasing PAH hydrophobicity and surfactant hydrophilicity, but decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. However, increasing the organo-bentonite dose did not have obvious effect on the selectivity for surfactant recovery since it synchronously enhanced phenanthrene removal and surfactant sorption. The sorbent of organo-bentonite could be repeatedly used for recovering surfactant solution, which greatly reduced the sorption loss of surfactant and subsequently increased the selectivity for surfactant recovery considerably. The results suggest that selective sorption with organo-bentonite provides an alternative means of recovering surfactant solution after soil washing.

Wenjun Zhou; Xuehao Wang; Cuiping Chen; Lizhong Zhu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modification of a previously published method for determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produces very clean seafood extracts in less than half the time. After alkaline digestion of the seafood, PAHs were partitioned into 1,2,3-trichlorotrifluoroethane. The resulting extract was cleaned up by solid-phase extraction on alumina, silica, and C{sub 18} adsorbents and then analyzed by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography with programmable fluorescence detection. Average recoveries of 12 PAHs [acenaphthene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)-fluoranthene, benzo(k)-fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(ghi)perylene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene] from 5 different matrixes (mussels, oysters, clams, crabmeat, and salmon)spiked at low parts-per-billion levels ranged from 76 to 94%. Estimated limits of quantitation ranged from 0.01 to 0.6 ppb PAHs in extracts that were free of matrix interferences. Results of analyses of a mussels standard reference material obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology were in good agreement with the certified values. 16 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Perfetti, G.A.; Nyman, P.J.; Fisher, S.; Joe, F.L. Jr.; Diachenko, G.W. [Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to simulate the degradation of aromatic ... Source: Lovley, Derek - Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts at Amherst Collection: Environmental Management...

140

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to simulate the degradation of aromatic ... Source: Lovley, Derek - Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts at Amherst Collection: Environmental Management...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in C8 Isomer Aromatic Feed: Analysis by GC, GC/MS, and GC/FTIR Techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......anthracene. Because aromatic car- * Author to whom correspondence...a growing interest in alternative sources of energy and environ mental quality...conditions: ionization energy of the mass spectra...by GC/MS as recently car ried out by Tong and......

V.N. Garg; B.D. Bhatt; V.K. Kaushik; K.R. Murthy

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

EXTINCTION AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON INTENSITY VARIATIONS ACROSS THE H II REGION IRAS 12063-6259  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spatial variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band intensities are normally attributed to the physical conditions of the emitting PAHs, however in recent years it has been suggested that such variations are caused mainly by extinction. To resolve this question, we have obtained near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), and radio observations of the compact H II region IRAS 12063-6259. We use these data to construct multiple independent extinction maps and also to measure the main PAH features (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 {mu}m) in the MIR. Three extinction maps are derived: the first using the NIR hydrogen lines and case B recombination theory; the second combining the NIR data with radio data; and the third making use of the Spitzer/IRS MIR observations to measure the 9.8 {mu}m silicate absorption feature using the Spoon method and PAHFIT (as the depth of this feature can be related to overall extinction). The silicate absorption over the bright, southern component of IRAS 12063-6259 is almost absent while the other methods find significant extinction. While such breakdowns of the relationship between the NIR extinction and the 9.8 {mu}m absorption have been observed in molecular clouds, they have never been observed for H II regions. We then compare the PAH intensity variations in the Spitzer/IRS data after dereddening to those found in the original data. It was found that in most cases, the PAH band intensity variations persist even after dereddening, implying that extinction is not the main cause of the PAH band intensity variations.

Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.; Otaguro, J. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Bik, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Atmospheric distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and deposition to Galveston Bay, Texas, USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Estimates of the atmospheric deposition to Galveston Bay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are made using precipitation and meteorological data that were collected continuously from 2 February 1995 to 6 August 1996 at Seabrook, TX, USA. Particulate and vapor phase \\{PAHs\\} in ambient air and particulate and dissolved phases in rain samples were collected and analyzed. More than 95% of atmospheric \\{PAHs\\} were in the vapor phase and about 73% of \\{PAHs\\} in the rain were in the dissolved phase. Phenanthrene and napthalene were the dominant compounds in air vapor and rain dissolved phases, respectively, while 5 and 6 ring PAH were predominant in the particulate phase of both air and rain samples. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 4 to 161 ng m?3 in air samples and from 50 to 312 ng l?1 in rain samples. Temporal variability in total PAH air concentrations were observed, with lower concentrations in the spring and fall (4–34 ng m ?3) compared to the summer and winter (37–161 ng m?3). \\{PAHs\\} in the air near Galveston Bay are derived from both combustion and petroleum vaporization. Gas exchange from the atmosphere to the surface water is estimated to be the major deposition process for \\{PAHs\\} (1211 ?g m? 2 yr? 1), relative to wet deposition (130 ?g m?2 yr? 1) and dry deposition (99 ?g m?2 yr? 1). Annual deposition of \\{PAHs\\} directly to Galveston Bay from the atmosphere is estimated as 2  t yr?1.

June-Soo Park; Terry L. Wade; Stephen Sweet

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fresh and smoked fish samples from three Nigerian cities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nigeria is a major producer of crude oil in sub-Saharan Africa. In-shore and off-shore wells are located in richly watered creeks in the southern part of the country. Although published data on environmental impact assessment of the petroleum industry in Nigeria are lacking, there is a growing concern about the possible contamination of estuarine and coastal waters and of marine species by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs). PAHs are ubiquitous priority pollutants that occur naturally in crude oil, automobile exhaust emissions and smoke condensates from incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials. PAHs with high molecular weight are less readily biodegraded by indigenous microorganisms in some regions, and given their marked hydrophobic characteristics, may persist in the aqueous environment, thus contaminating the food chain by bioaccumulating in aquatic species like fish and mussels. Major Nigerian oil wells are located in the vicinity of breeding and harvesting sites serving the fresh-water fishing industry. Large hauls of fresh fish are normally consumed cooked in soups or smoke cured in handcrafted traditional ovens using freshly cut red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa) wood as fuel. Though smoke curing is economical and may ensure longer conservation of fish, it undoubtedly increases the burden of PAHs in finished products as a result of partial charring and from smoke condensates or mangroves that also contain PAHs in measurable quantities as reported by Asita et al. (1991). Apart from PAHs analyzed by Emerole (1980) in smoked food samples from Ibadan using simple analytical methods, those from industrial and other anthropogenic sources have rarely been analyzed in Nigeria. We tried therefore to update the data and address this discrepancy. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Akpan, V.; Lodovici, M.; Dolara, P. (Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Florence (Italy))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Combustion of viscous hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for utilizing viscous hydrocarbons as combustible pre-atomized fuels, comprising: (A) forming a hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion using an effective amount of a surfactant package comprising at least one water-soluble surfactant, the hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion (1) comprising a hydrocarbon characterized by API gravity of about 20/sup 0/ API or less, viscosity of about 1000 centipoise or greater at 212/sup 0/F., a paraffin content of about 50% by weight or less and, an aromatic content of about 15% by weight or greater, and (2) having a hydrocarbon water ratio from about 60:40 to about 90:10 by volume; and (B) burning the resultant hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion.

Hayes, M.E.; Hrebenar, K.R.; Murphy, P.L.; Futch, L.E. Jr.; Deal, J.F. III; Bolden, P.L. Jr.

1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

146

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons molecular Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

various hydrocarbons on monolithic hydrocarbon adsorber Dae Jung Kim,a Ji Man Kim,a Jae Eui Yie... ,b, Seong Gyu Seo,c and Sang-Chai Kim d a Department of Molecular Science and...

147

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon clusters Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aliphatic chains as key intermediates for the nucleation Summary: to macromolecular building blocks (nanoparticles) that eventually turn into soot. Polycyclic aromatic...

148

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon removal Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Intrinsic Exciton Probe M. Adil Khan,, Chris Neale,| Catherine Michaux, Regis Pomes,|,@ Gilbert G. Prive,|, Robert W. Woody, and Summary: aromatic rings. The resulting...

149

Sources of local variation in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon and pesticide body burden in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from Galveston Bay, Texas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1. Eggs and sperm contain significantly more PAH (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon) than somatic tissues in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) taken from Galveston Bay. 2. The quantity of gonadal material was the most important correlate of PAH body burden. 3. Eggs, but not sperm, were enriched in chlorinated compounds (e.g. DDD, chlordane), while both eggs and sperm were enriched in total \\{PCBs\\} relative to somatic tissue. 4. Oysters may lose up to 50% of their total body burden of certain \\{PAHs\\} and pesticides in a single spawn.

Matthew S. Ellis; Kwang-Sik Choi; Terry L. Wade; Eric N. Powell; Thomas J. Jackson; Donald H. Lewis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (?g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in ?g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in ?g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ?10{sup 6}?s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

Chakrabarty, Rajan K., E-mail: rajan.chakrabarty@gmail.com [Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Novosselov, Igor V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Enertechnix Inc., Maple Valley, Washington 98068 (United States); Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmüller, Hans [Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Sorensen, Christopher M. [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Stipe, Christopher B. [TSI Incorporated, 500 Cardigan Rd, Shoreview, Minnesota 55126 (United States)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

151

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons adducted Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

hydrocarbon... to its high reactivity toward DNA and cellular proteins. The major acrolein-DNA adduct, -hydrox- ypropano... -hy- droxynonenal, and acrolein, that readily form...

152

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons pahs Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 30 0600Fg--Chem--Forensic Oil Sampling 01 2010 ****DATA SOURCE**** Summary: M - Alkylated PAHs) Volatile Organic Hydrocarbons -- Paraffins,...

153

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons pah Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 30 0600Fg--Chem--Forensic Oil Sampling 01 2010 ****DATA SOURCE**** Summary: M - Alkylated PAHs) Volatile Organic Hydrocarbons -- Paraffins,...

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon pah Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 30 0600Fg--Chem--Forensic Oil Sampling 01 2010 ****DATA SOURCE**** Summary: M - Alkylated PAHs) Volatile Organic Hydrocarbons -- Paraffins,...

155

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon aryl Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Receptors in Fishes Summary: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through which dioxins and dioxin-like compounds cause altered gene... -methylcholanthrene AHH: aryl...

156

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic polycyclic aromatic Sample Search...  

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Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...

157

E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne polycyclic aromatic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aromatic Hydrocarbons Volatile Organic... Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... has been criticized for...

158

Biomarker sensitivity for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in two marine fish species collected in Galveston Bay, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Galveston Bay estuary exhibited a contamination gradient for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and the comparative sensitivity of various biomarkers in fish from different bay locations were determined. Two fish species, hardhead catfish (Arius felis) and Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus), were collected from four stations where sediment total PAHs ranged from 68 > 1,000 ng/g. The induction of cytochrome P4501A-(CYP1A)-dependent hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, CYPIA mRNA levels, or CYPIA immunoreactive protein in hardhead catfish was highly variable in the field-collected fish and in fish dosed with up to 15 mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). In contrast, significant differences were seen in biliary concentrations of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and BaP metabolites in hardhead catfish from polluted versus less polluted areas. In croakers taken from the same four Galveston Bay locations, EROD and glutathione S-transferase activities, immunoreactive CYP1A protein, biliary PAH metabolites, and PAH-DNA adducts were higher at the contaminated stations compared with less polluted locations. These studies suggest that the croaker is a good species for monitoring contaminants that induce CYP1A-mediated responses. Biliary PAH metabolites and PAH-DNA adducts were also sensitive indicators of exposure to PAH contamination in both species of fish.

Willett, K.L.; Steinberg, M.A.; Safe, S.H. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology; McDonald, S.J.; Beatty, K.B.; Kennicutt, M.C. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, College Station, TX (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon neutrals Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in deep seated HP-HT reservoirs or produced during in-situ upgrading steps... of heavy oils and oil shales. Our research shows that experimental hydrocarbon cracking results...

160

UV-vis spectra of singlet state cationic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Time-dependent density functional theory study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical study of singlet state cations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is performed. Appropriate symmetry suitable for further calculations is chosen for each of the systems studied. The excitation states of such species are obtained by the time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) method. The computations are performed using both Pople and electronic response properties basis sets. The results obtained with the use of different basis sets are compared. The electronic transitions are described and the relationships for the lowest-lying transitions states of different species are found. The properties of in-plane and out-of-plane transitions are also delineated. The TD-DFT results are compared with the experimental data available.

Dominikowska, Justyna, E-mail: justyna@uni.lodz.pl; Domagala, Malgorzata; Palusiak, Marcin [Department of Theoretical and Structural Chemistry, University of ?ód?, Pomorska 163/165, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland)] [Department of Theoretical and Structural Chemistry, University of ?ód?, Pomorska 163/165, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism by Rhodococcus sp. I24 : computational, biochemical and transcriptional analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rhodococcus sp. 124 is a Gram-positive soil bacterium being developed for the manufacture of (-)cis-(1S,2R)-1-aminoindan-2-ol, a key precursor in the production of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor CrixivanTM, from the aromatic ...

Parker, Jefferson A. (Jefferson Alexander), 1974-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Environmental Research 105 (2007) 101118 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(6.8 million, US Census Bureau, 2000) and urbanized region and is subject to polycyclic aromatic congestion in the US (TTI, 2003). The Bay receives freshwater inflow primarily from the Delta.10.007 Ã?Corresponding author. Fax: +1 510 746 7300. E-mail address: john@sfei.org (J.R.M. Ross). #12;wastewater

163

A correlation of water solubility in jet fuels with API gravity: aniline point percent aromatics, and temperature.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A CORRELATION OF WATER SOLUBILITY IN JET FUELS WITH API GRAVITY, ANILINE POINT PERCENT AROMATICS, AND TEMPERATURE A Thesis By ALONZO B YINGTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1964 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A CORRELATION OF MATER SOLUBILITT IH JET FUELS WITS API GEAVITT, ANILINE POINT, PERCENT ARONATICS, AND TENPERATURE A Thesis By ALOHZO BYIHGTOH Approved...

Byington, Alonzo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

164

Free Energy Profiles of Base Flipping in Intercalative Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Damaged DNA Duplexes: Energetic and Structural Relationships to Nucleotide Excision Repair Susceptibility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Free Energy Profiles of Base Flipping in Intercalative Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Damaged DNA Duplexes: Energetic and Structural Relationships to Nucleotide Excision Repair Susceptibility ... These structural differences produce different computed van der Waals stacking interaction energies between the flipping partner base with the lesion aromatic ring system and adjacent bases; we find that the better the stacking, the higher the relative flipping free energy barrier and hence lower flipping probability. ... We emphasize, however, that the brief MD only served the purpose of equilibrating the model but is far too short for analyses of the constellation of protein–DNA interactions that stabilize the structure. ...

Yuqin Cai; Han Zheng; Shuang Ding; Konstantin Kropachev; Adam G. Schwaid; Yijin Tang; Hong Mu; Shenglong Wang; Nicholas E. Geacintov; Yingkai Zhang; Suse Broyde

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

165

Real-Time Quantitative Analysis of Combustion-Generated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Resonance-Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Real-Time Quantitative Analysis of Combustion-Generated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Resonance-Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry ... Field data1 suggest that naphthalene, fluorene, and anthracene are among the most abundant PAH products of incomplete hydrocarbon production. ... The sample transfer line is 6.35 mm diameter, quartz-lined stainless steel tubing (Alltech, Deerfield, IL) that is heated to 250?300 °C using flexible cable heaters (Omega Engineering, Stamford, CT). Care is taken to uniformly heat the sample transfer line, since the efficiency of the line is reduced dramatically by the presence of cold spots. ...

Christopher M. Gittins; Marco J. Castaldi; Selim M. Senkan; Eric A. Rohlfing

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Results of multiyear studies on the dynamics of pollution of lake Baikal by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the area waste water discharge from the Baikal Pulp and Paper Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New data on the concentration and spatial distribution of the benz(a)pyrene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bottom sediments in the testing area ... Baikal Pulp and Paper Plant (BPPP) waste water discharg...

A. M. Nikonorov; A. A. Matveev; S. A. Reznikov; V. S. Arakelyan…

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Spatial and temporal variation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls in Crassostrea virginica and sediments from Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, PESTICIDES, AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN CRASSOSTREA VZRGINICA AND SEDIMENTS FROM GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS A Thesis by RICHARD GEORGE FOX Submitted to the Graduate College... BIPHENYLS IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA AND SEDIMENTS FROM GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS A Thesis by RICHARD GEORGE FOX Approved as to style and content by: James M. Brooks (Chair of Committee) Bobby J. esley (Member) Mahlon C Kennicutt II Member) Ethan...

Fox, Richard George

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

168

Investigation on the solidification of several pure cyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons at pressures to 300 MPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of pressure on the solidification of several saturated cyclic hydrocarbons and three xylene isomers are experimentally determined with a variable-volume view cell at pressures to 300 MPa and temperatures starting at 293.15 K. Solid–liquid transitions are observed for cyclooctane, cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane, trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane, p-xylene, o-xylene, and 2-methylnaphthalene. However, methylcyclohexane, ethylcyclohexane, cis-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane, and m-xylene remained liquid over the same operating pressure and temperature ranges. The experimental solid–liquid transition data are well represented with two empirical equations, the Simon equation and a 2nd-order polynomial equation. Data obtained in this study agree with literature data within ±0.4% for 2-methylnaphthalene and ±0.2% for p-xylene.

Wu, Yue; Liu, Kun; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; McHugh, Mark A.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emissions from the Combustion of Alternative Fuels in a Gas Turbine Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

? Centre of Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Reduction Research, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409, United States ... Within the aviation sector, the development and certification of alternative drop-in fuels are progressing at a rapid pace: a standard specification for aviation fuel containing synthesized hydrocarbons was approved by ASTM in 2009,(4) Hydrogenated esters and fatty acids (HEFA), also often referred to as hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ), qualified as a 50/50 blend with petroleum Jet A-1 in 2011,(4) and the Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI) anticipate fully synthetic Fischer–Tropsch (FT) fuel to qualify in 2012. ... Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine – Part 1: Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions ...

Simon Christie; David Raper; David S. Lee; Paul I. Williams; Lucas Rye; Simon Blakey; Chris W. Wilson; Prem Lobo; Donald Hagen; Philip D. Whitefield

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

170

Source Contribution Analysis of Surface Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Northeastern Asia by Source-receptor Relationships  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyzed the sourceereceptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40°N, 40-60%) and central China (30-40°N, 10-40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40-80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes.

Inomata, Yayoi; Kajino, Mizuo; Sato, Keiichi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi; Ueda, Hiromasa; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash during coal and residual char combustion in a pressurized fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To investigate the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fly ash, the combustion of coal and residual char was performed in a pressurized spouted fluidized bed. After Soxhlet extraction and Kuderna-Danish (K-D) concentration, the contents of 16 PAHs recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in coal, residual char, and fly ash were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence and diode array detection. The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency is lower and the carbon content in fly ash is higher during coal pressurized combustion, compared to the residual char pressurized combustion at the pressure of 0.3 MPa. Under the same pressure, the PAH amounts in fly ash produced from residual char combustion are lower than that in fly ash produced from coal combustion. The total PAHs in fly ash produced from coal and residual char combustion are dominated by three- and four-ring PAHs. The amounts of PAHs in fly ash produced from residual char combustion increase and then decrease with the increase of pressure in a fluidized bed. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Hongcang Zhou; Baosheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Zhaoping Zhong; Yaji Huang [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN GALAXIES AT z approx 0.1: THE EFFECT OF STAR FORMATION AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) spectra of a sample of 92 typical star-forming galaxies at 0.03 < z < 0.2 observed with the Spitzer intensified Reticon spectrograph (IRS). We compare the relative strengths of PAH emission features with Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical diagnostics to probe the relationship between PAH grain properties and star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) activity. Short-to-long wavelength PAH ratios, and in particular the 7.7 mum-to-11.3 mum feature ratio, are strongly correlated with the star formation diagnostics D{sub n} (4000) and Halpha equivalent width, increasing with younger stellar populations. This ratio also shows a significant difference between active and non-active galaxies, with the active galaxies exhibiting weaker 7.7 mum emission. A hard radiation field as measured by [O{sub III}]/Hbeta and [Ne{sub III}]{sub 15.6m}u{sub m}/[Ne{sub II}]{sub 12.8m}u{sub m} effects PAH ratios differently depending on whether this field results from starburst activity or an AGN. Our results are consistent with a picture in which larger PAH molecules grow more efficiently in richer media and in which smaller PAH molecules are preferentially destroyed by the AGN.

O'Dowd, Matthew J.; Schiminovich, David [Astronomy Department, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Johnson, Benjamin D. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Treyer, Marie A.; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted K. [California Institute of Technology, MC 405-47, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charlot, S. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98 bis Bvd Arago, 75014, Paris (France); Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Martins, Lucimara P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seibert, Mark [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Van der Hulst, J. M., E-mail: matt@astro.columbia.ed [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

Yoon, S.S. [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi-do 445-706 (Korea); Anh, D.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Probabilistic ecological risk assessment and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Yellow Sea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 12 surface sediment samples from Yellow Sea, the relative risk of 9 PAHs was investigated using joint risk probability distribution curves and overlapping area, which were generated based on the distributions of exposure and acute toxicity data (LC50), and the sources of PAHs were apportioned using principal component analysis. It was found that joint probability curve and overlapping area indicated the acceptable ecological risk of individual PAHs, only a small fraction of the benthic organisms was affected. Among the nine PAHs studied, the overall risk of pyrene was the highest, with that of naphthalene the lowest. For lower exposure levels at which the percentage of species affected was less than 10%, the risk associated with phenanthrene and fluorene were clearly higher than that of the other seven PAHs. It was indicated that PAHs in surface sediments mainly originated from vehicular emissions, coal combustion sources, coke oven emission and wood combustion, petroleum origin made little influence on sources of PAHs by PCA.

Liu, A.X.; Lang, Y.H.; Xue, L.D.; Liao, S.L.; Zhou, H. [Ocean University of China, Qingdao (China). College for Environmental Science & Engineering

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Physicochemical characterization of coke-plant soil for the assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon availability and the feasibility of phytoremediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coke oven site soil was characterized to assess the particle association and availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We identified various carbonaceous materials including coal, coke, pitch, and tar decanter sludge. Most of the PAHs were associated with the polymeric matrix of tar sludge or hard pitch as discrete particles, coatings on soil mineral particles, or complex aggregates. The PAH availability from these particles was very low due to hindered diffusive release from solid tar or pitch with apparent diffusivities of 6 x 10{sup -15} for phenanthrene, 3 x 10{sup -15} for pyrene, and 1 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}/s for benzo(a)pyrene. Significant concentrations of PAHs were observed in the interior of solid tar aggregates with up to 40,000 mg/kg total PAHs. The release of PAHs from the interior of such particles requires diffusion over a substantial distance, and semipermeable membrane device tests confirmed a very limited availability of PAHs. These findings explain the results from three years of phytoremediation of the site soil, for which no significant changes in the total PAH concentrations were observed in the test plot samples. The observed low bioavailability of PAHs probably inhibited PAH phytoremediation, as diffusion-limited mass transfer would limit the release of PAHs to the aqueous phase.

Ahn, S.; Werner, D.; Luthy, R.G. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Bioremediation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil by composting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review of research on different co-composting approaches to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminated soil, organisms that have been found to degrade PAHs, and PAH breakdown products. Advantages and limitations of using certain groups of organisms and recommended areas of further research effort are identified. Studies investigating the use of composting techniques to treat contaminated soil are broad ranging and differ in many respects, which makes comparison of the different approaches very difficult. Many studies have investigated the use of specific bio-additives in the form of bacteria or fungi with the aim of accelerating contaminant removal; however, few have employed microbial consortia containing organisms from both kingdoms despite knowledge suggesting synergistic relationships exist between them in contaminant removal. Recommendations suggest that further studies should attempt to systemize the investigations of composting approaches to bio-remediate PAH-contaminated soil, to focus on harnessing the biodegradative capacity of both bacteria and fungi to create a cooperative environment for PAH degradation, and to further investigate the array of PAHs that can be lost during the composting process by either leaching or volatilization.

Loick, N.; Hobbs, P.J.; Hale, M.D.C.; Jones, D.L. [University of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Environmental & Natural Resources

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Estimation of Individual C8 to C10 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Naphthas and Motor Gasolines by Capillary Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......naphthas and motor gasolines is o f great importance...C10 aromatics in straight run, processed naphtha...reformed, and motor gasolines), or i n aromatic...analysis in any straight run, reformed naphthas, and gasolines with final boiling......

Basant Kumar; R.K. Kuchhal; Pradeep Kumar; P.L. Gupta

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

E-Print Network 3.0 - astronomical polycyclic aromatic Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

180

The Analysis of C6 to C10 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in The Presence of C1 to C11 Saturated Hydrocarbons By Open Tubular Column Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......is well suited for studies of straight run naph- thas and gasolines as well as studies involving...aromatics are data of four replicate runs. The Table II. Replicate Measurements C-6836 Cut 3 Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Run 4 Avg. Ethylbenzene......

Charles L. Stuckey

1969-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Effect of Soederberg smelting technology, anode paste composition, and work shift on the relationship between benzo(a)pyrene and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This follow-up of the Farant and Gariepy study investigates the relationship between benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal tar pitch volatiles in two types of Soederberg aluminum smelters horizontal and vertical stud. The study confirms the strong relationships between B(a)P and total PAHs, and that B(a)P was a good indicator for other PAHs in this industry. The PAH profiles were consistent within each smelter, but the smelter technology used and the changes in the raw material formulation resulted in significantly different profiles. B(a)P toxic equivalency factors for emitted PAH mixtures were greater in the horizontal stud smelter than in the vertical stud smelter. Overall, this study illustrates the potential usefulness of B(a)P relative abundance ratios to simplify exposure assessment in the workplace and reduce associated costs.

Eric G. Sanderson; Peter J. Kelly; Jean-Pierre Farant [McGill University, Montreal (Canada). Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Water Ice, Silicate, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features in the Infrared Space Observatory Spectrum of the Carbon-Rich Planetary Nebula CPD -56 degree 8032  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combined ISO SWS and LWS spectroscopy is presented of the late WC-type planetary nebula nucleus CPD-56 8032 and its carbon-rich nebula. The extremely broad coverage (2.4-197 microns) enables us to recognize the clear and simultaneous presence of emission features from both oxygen- and carbon- rich circumstellar materials. Removing a smooth continuum highlights bright emission bands characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hereafter PAHs) in the 3-14 micron region, bands from crystalline silicates longwards of 18 microns, and the 43- and 62-micron bands of crystalline water ice. We discuss the probable evolutionary state and history of this unusual object in terms of (a) a recent transition from an O-rich to a C-rich outflow following a helium shell flash; or (b) a carbon-rich nebular outflow encountering an O-rich comet cloud.

Cohen, M; Sylvester, R J; Liu, X W; Cox, P; Lim, T; Schmitt, B; Speck, A K; Cohen, Martin

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

QSAR model of the phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Fabiana Alves de Lima Ribeiro, Marcia Miguel Castro Ferreira*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of carcinogenic and toxic potential. These chemicals are well known as water, sediment, soil and air contaminants [1­5]. They are predominant in urban and rural areas, due to the burning of wood and coal, exhaust molecular masses, including even methane, may act as precursors for the polycyclic aromatic compounds. Low

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

184

Estimating Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A Comparison of Survey, Biological Monitoring, and Geographic Information System–Based Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...geographic information system|polycyclic aromatic...evaluating exposure to vehicle exhaust for epidemiologic...geographic information system (GIS). It is not...personal exposures to vehicle exhaust or how they...Performance and Monitoring System of the U.S. Department...average number of vehicles per day traveling...

Robert B. Gunier; Peggy Reynolds; Susan E. Hurley; Sauda Yerabati; Andrew Hertz; Paul Strickland; and Pamela L. Horn-Ross

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

2094 J.Org. Chem. 1988,53, 2094-2099 Table 11. Bromination of Aromatic Hydrocarbons with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Br,/aromatic = 5; solvent: carbon tetrachloride. *Chloro- benzene. tetrachloride and 1,4-dibromonaphthalenewas from ICN Biomedicals (WoelmN-Super 1). Carbon tetrachloride was dried with calcium chloride,26, 759. (10) Kovacic, P.; Wu, C. J. Org. Chem. 1961,26, 762. mmol), 2 (30 g), and carbon tetrachloride

Hudlicky, Tomas

186

Aromatic hydrocarbon receptor inhibits lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in PC-3 prostate cancer cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •LPA-induced VEGF-A expression was regulated by HIF-1? and ARNT. •PI3K mediated LPA-induced VEGF-A expression. •AHR signaling inhibited LPA-induced VEGF-A expression in PC-3 cells. -- Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid growth factor with multiple biological functions and has been shown to stimulate cancer cell secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and trigger angiogenesis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimer consisting of HIF-1? and HIF-1? (also known as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)) subunits, is an important regulator of angiogenesis in prostate cancer (PC) through the enhancement of VEGF-A expression. In this study, we first confirmed the ability of LPA to induce VEGF-A expression in PC-3 cells and then validated that LPA-induced VEGF-A expression was regulated by HIF-1? and ARNT through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation. Aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a receptor for dioxin-like compounds, functions as a transcription factor through dimerization with ARNT and was found to inhibit prostate carcinogenesis and vanadate-induced VEGF-A production. Since ARNT is a common dimerization partner of AHR and HIF-1?, we hypothesized that AHR might suppress LPA-induced VEGF-A expression in PC-3 cells by competing with HIF-1? for ARNT. Here we demonstrated that overexpression and ligand activation of AHR inhibited HIF-1-mediated VEGF-A induction by LPA treatment of PC-3 cells. In conclusion, our results suggested that AHR activation may inhibit LPA-induced VEGF-A expression in PC-3 cells by attenuating HIF-1? signaling, and subsequently, suppressing angiogenesis and metastasis of PC. These results suggested that AHR presents a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of PC metastasis.

Wu, Pei-Yi; Lin, Yueh-Chien; Lan, Shun-Yan [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yuan-Li [Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hsinyu, E-mail: hsinyu@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2013-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

187

Estimation method for the thermochemical properties of polycyclic aromatic molecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polycyclic aromatic molecules, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted considerable attention in the past few decades. They are formed during the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and are ...

Yu, Joanna

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Effect of paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic distribution in the hydrocarbon mixture and water on the phase equilibria of carbon dioxide-hydrocarbon systems over the temperature range from 333 K to 366 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide flooding has been suggested as an efficient and effective means of achieving additional oil recoveries from depleted and/or water flooded reservoirs. The numerical simulation of a carbon dioxide flood requires a phase equilibria predictor that will provide the compositional distribution of the reservoir fluids as the displacement propagates through the reservoir. The objective of this work was to provide a phase equilibria predictor that utilizes the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state. A new PUT apparatus was constructed. This apparatus was used to measure the isothermal P-x data of the systems: CO/sub 2/-toluene, CO/sub 2/-ethylbenzene, CO/sub 2/-propylbenzene, CO/sub 2/-cyclopentane, CO/sub 2/-cyclohexane and CO/sub 2/-methylcyclohexane at 333.15 K, 349.82 K and 366.48 K. Interaction parameters were regressed from literature data for CO/sub 2/-paraffin systems and from the experimental data of this work for CO/sub 2/-aromatic and CO/sub 2/-naphthenic systems. Recommended interaction parameters for these systems are provided. Experimental results indicated that the dominant effect of water on CO/sub 2/-hydrocarbon systems was the solubilization of carbon dioxide by water into the aqueous phase. This concept was simulated with the SRK equation of state and a correlation of literature data on the solubility of carbon dioxide in water. The predicted results agreed well with the experimental results. The presence of dissolved salts in water mitigates the effect of water on CO/sub 2/-hydrocarbon systems. The presence on n-butylbenzene or n-butylcylcohexane in the heavy ends with n-decane improved the maximum miscibility composition of the system. Pressure has a substantial effect on maximum miscibility compositions.

Ezekwe, J.N.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Synthesis of g-C3N4/Fe3O4 nanocomposites and application as a new sorbent for solid phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An easy preparation of g-C3N4/Fe3O4 nanocomposites by chemical co-precipitation has been demonstrated. The as-prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The high affinity of g-C3N4 toward polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the magnetic behavior of Fe3O4 were combined to provide an efficient and simple magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE). The adsorption and desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on g-C3N4/Fe3O4 were examined. Different factors affecting the magnetic solid phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were assessed in terms of adsorption, desorption, and recovery. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed good limits of detection (LOD, S/N=3) in the range of 0.05–0.1 ng mL?1 and precision in the range of 1.8–5.3% (RSDs, n=3). This method was also successfully applied to the analysis of real water samples; good spiked recoveries over the range of 80.0–99.8% were obtained.

Man Wang; Shihai Cui; Xiaodi Yang; Wentao Bi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Femtosecond-picosecond laser photolysis studies on the dynamics of excited charge-transfer complexes: Aromatic hydrocarbon-acid anhydride, -tetracyanoethylene, and -tetracyanoquinodimethane systems in acetonitrile solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formation processes of contact ion pairs (CIP) from the excited Franck-Condon (FC) state of charge-transfer (CT) complexes of aromatic hydrocarbons with acid anhydride as well as cyano compound acceptors in acetonitrile solution and charge recombination (CR) rates (k{sub CR}{sup CIP}) of produced CIP states have been investigated by femtosecond and picosecond laser phototlysis and time-resolved absorption spectral measurements covering a wide range of free energy gap-{Delta}G{degree}{sub ip} between the ion pair and the ground state. It has been confirmed that the CIP formation becomes faster and k{sub CR}{sup CIP} of the produced CIP increases with increase of the strengths of the electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) in the complex, i.e., with decrease of the {minus}{Delta}G{degree}{sub ip} value. This peculiar energy gap dependence of k{sub CR}{sup CIP}, quite different from the bell-shaped one observed in the case of the solvent-separated ion pairs (SSIP) or loose ion pairs (LIP) formed by encounter between fluorescer and quencher in the fluoresence quenching reaction, has been interpreted by assuming the change of electronic and geometrical structures of CIP depending on the strengths of D and A.

Asahi, Tsuyoshi; Mataga, Noboru (Osaka Univ. (Japan))

1991-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

191

MID-INFRARED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON AND H{sub 2} EMISSION AS A PROBE OF PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN EXTREME PHOTODISSOCIATION REGIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mid-infrared (mid-IR) observations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and molecular hydrogen emission are a potentially powerful tool to derive physical properties of dense environments irradiated by intense UV fields. We present new, spatially resolved, Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy of the high UV field and dense photodissociation region (PDR) around Monoceros R2, the closest ultracompact H II region, revealing the spatial structure of ionized gas, PAHs, and H{sub 2} emissions. Using a PDR model and PAH emission feature fitting algorithm, we build a comprehensive picture of the physical conditions prevailing in the region. We show that the combination of the measurement of PAH ionization fraction and of the ratio between the H{sub 2} 0-0 S(3) and S(2) line intensities, respectively, at 9.7 and 12.3 mum, allows us to derive the fundamental parameters driving the PDR: temperature, density, and UV radiation field when they fall in the ranges T = 250-1500 K, n {sub H} = 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}, and G {sub 0} = 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5}, respectively. These mid-IR spectral tracers thus provide a tool to probe the similar but unresolved UV-illuminated surface of protoplanetary disks or the nuclei of starburst galaxies.

Berne, O.; Goicoechea, J. R. [Centro de AstrobiologIa (CSIC/INTA), Laboratiorio de Astrofisica Molecular, Ctra. de Torrejon a Ajalvir, km 4 28850, Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Fuente, A. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Apdo. Correos 112, 28803 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Pilleri, P.; Joblin, C. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CESR, 9 ave colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Gonzalez-GarcIa, M. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris and Universite Paris, 7 place Jansen, 92190 Meudon (France)

2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

192

Effect of potassium halide salts on mutual solubility of water + aromatic hydrocarbons liquid–liquid interface studied with surface and interfacial tensions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Surface tension (?, mN/m) of benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene (EB) aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs, low density liquids, LDL) and interfacial tension (IFT, mN/m) both with water and aqueous 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mol kg? 1 KF, KCl, KBr, KI (high density liquids, HDL) separately at 303.15 K are reported. Contributions of –CH3 and –CH2CH3 of toluene and EB to hydrophobic interactions are calculated from ?toluene–?benzene and ?EB–?benzene, respectively. \\{IFTs\\} of water + AHCs liquid–liquid interfaces (LLI) are as toluene (34.71) > EB (32.35) > benzene (32.32 mN m? 1), with a ~ 32.32 mN m? 1 decrease from 71.40 mN m? 1 of water. \\{AHCs\\} with hyperconjugation (HC) and positive inductive effects (+ ve IE) with toluene and EB LLI have reduced IFT by 39.08, 2.39, ? 1.56 mN m? 1, respectively. The effects of ?-conjugation, –H, –CH3 and –CH2CH3 on surface tension are calculated as ?-conjugation = ?(IFTair–liquid ? IFTAPHS–benzene), –CH3 = ?(IFTAPHS–toluene ? IFTAPHS–benzene). The effects of halide salts on hypercongugation –H(–CH3)/3, –CH2CH3 are obtained from ?(IFTAPHS–EB ? IFTAPHS–benzene).

Man Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Chemometric optimization of dispersive suspended microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in natural waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A dispersive suspended microextraction (DSME) method coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in real water samples. The optimization of the method was achieved with a 27–4 Plackett–Burman design, while the significant factors were optimized using a central composite design (CCD). The parameters that were studied included the sample volume, organic solvent volume, extraction time, restoration time and organic solvent. The optimum experimental conditions for the proposed method comprised 4.3 mL of the water sample, 93 ?L of toluene as the extraction solvent, a 104-s extraction time and a 10-min restoration time. The recoveries varied from 70 to 111%. Chrysene was the least recovered compound, while anthracene displayed the highest extraction efficiency. The analytical method (DSME) was shown to be linear (R2 > 0.993) over the studied range of concentrations, exhibiting satisfactory precision (RSD% < 10.6%) and reaching limits of detection between 8 and 46 ng L?1.

Nikolaos P. Petridis; Vasilios A. Sakkas; Triantafyllos A. Albanis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Development of a new sorptive extraction method based on simultaneous direct and headspace sampling modes for the screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A new straightforward and inexpensive sample screening method for both EPA and EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water has been developed. The method is based on combined direct immersion and headspace (DIHS) sorptive extraction, using low-cost disposable material, coupled to ultraperformance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and UV detection (UPLC-FD-UV). Extraction parameters, such as the sampling mode, extraction time and ionic strength were investigated in detail and optimized. Under optimized conditions, water samples (16 mL) were concentrated in silicone disks by headspace (HS) and direct immersion (DI) modes simultaneously, at room temperature for 9 h for the majority of the 24 studied compounds. Ultrasound-assisted desorption of extracted analytes in acetonitrile was carried out also at room temperature. The optimized chromatographic method provided a good linearity (R?0.9991) and a broad linear range for all studied PAHs. The proposed analytical procedure exhibited a good precision level with relative standard deviations below 15% for all analytes. Quantification limits between 0.7 and 2.3 µg L?1 and 0.16 and 3.90 ng L?1 were obtained for compounds analyzed by UV (acenaphtylene, cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene and benzo[j]fluoranthene) and fluorescence, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the determination of \\{PAHs\\} in different real tap, river and wastewater samples.

Sara Triñanes; Ma Teresa Pena; Ma Carmen Casais; Ma Carmen Mejuto

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Gas chromatographic determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and smoked rice samples after solid-phase microextraction using multiwalled carbon nanotube loaded hollow fiber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel solid-phase microextraction fiber was prepared based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loaded on hollow fiber membrane pores. Stainless steel wire was used as unbreakable support. The major advantages of the proposed fiber are its (a) high reproducibility due to the uniform structure of the hollow fiber membranes, (b) high extraction capacity related to the porous structure of the hollow fiber and outstanding adsorptive characteristics of MWCNTs. The proposed fiber was applied for the microextraction of five representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous media (river and hubble–bubble water) and smoked rice samples followed by gas chromatographic determination. Analytical merits of the method, including high correlation coefficients [(0.9963–0.9992) and (0.9982–0.9999)] and low detection limits [(9.0–13.0 ng L?1) and (40.0–150.0 ng kg?1)] for water and rice samples, respectively, made the proposed method suitable for the ultra-trace determination of PAHs.

Amir Abbas Matin; Pourya Biparva; Mohammad Gheshlaghi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

VanVeller, Brett

197

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission profiles and removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, and in ESP dust is 0.53 {mu}g/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Ettore Guerriero; Antonina Lutri; Rosanna Mabilia; Maria Concetta Tomasi Sciano; Mauro Rotatori [Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico, Monterotondo Scalo (Italy). Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

Constraining uncertainties about the sources and magnitude of ambient air exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): The state of Minnesota as a case study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions data are often lacking or uncertain for many airborne contaminants. Chemicals, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), emitted from combustion sources, fall into this category. Currently available ambient-air emission inventories of PAHs either fail to account for population-based activities (such as residential wood combustion and motor vehicle activity) and/or report ''total PAH'' or particulate organic matter emissions instead of individual compounds. We measure the degree of overlap between predicted concentrations from estimated emissions with measured concentrations. Our analysis is, based on probabilistic analysis of measured outdoor air concentrations with those predicted from mass-balance models. Based on available information, we estimate the relative magnitude of emissions from four major sources of PAHs to outdoor air- (1) on-road motor vehicles, including light-duty gasoline vehicles and diesel-powered buses and medium and heavy duty trucks; (2) residential wood combustion; and (3) power generation from external combustion boilers. We use the CalTOX regional multimedia mass-balance model to evaluate our emissions estimates in rural and urban regions of the state of Minnesota, USA. We compare model estimates of outdoor PAH airborne concentrations with those reported by the Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES). With these measured concentrations we probabilistically evaluate our emissions and interpret the reliability of our emissions estimates for specific PAHs. The median estimates of our predicted outdoor air concentrations agree within an order of magnitude of measured concentrations. For four representative PAHs, we were able to obtain a reasonable degree of overlap between empirical and predicted distributions of outdoor air concentrations. Our combination of models, emissions estimates, and empirical concentration data estimate exposure in a manner that is more reliable than any of these tools alone. Thereby, we increase our confidence about our plausible ranges of emissions and predicted concentrations.

Lobscheid, Agnes B.; McKone, Thomas E.

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

A 700 year sediment record of black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons near the EMEP air monitoring station in Aspvreten, Sweden  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In view of poor constraints on historical combustion emissions, past environmental loadings of black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were reconstructed from dated lake sediment cores collected 70 km south of Stockholm, Sweden. Compared to several dramatic variations over the recent 150 years, the preindustrial loadings were steady within {+-}50% through the entire medieval with BC fluxes of 0.071 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} and PAH fluxes of 6 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. In the wood-burning dominated century leading up to the industrial revolution around 1850, increasing BC fluxes were leading PAH fluxes. BC fluxes reached their millennial-scale maximum around 1920, whereas PAH fluxes increased exponentially to its record maximum around 1960, 50-fold above preindustrial values. For 1920-1950, BC fluxes consistently decreased as PAH fluxes kept increasing. Coal and coke represented >50% of the Swedish energy market in the 1930s. Combined with sharply decreasing (1,7-)/(1,7{+-}2,6-dimethylphenanthrene), indicative of diminishing wood combustion, and decreasing methylphenanthrenes/phenanthrene, indicative of higher-temperature combustion (coal instead of wood), the sediment archive suggests that the relative BC/PAH emission factors thus are lower for coal than for wood combustion. For the first time, both BC and PAH fluxes decreased after 1960. This trend break is a testament to the positive effects of decreasing reliance on petroleum fuels and a number of legislative actions aimed at curbing emissions and by 1990, the loading of BC was back at preindustrial levels, whereas that of PAH were the lowest since the 1910s. However, for the most recent period (1990-2004) the BC and PAH fluxes are no longer decreasing. 55 refs., 3 figs.

Marie Elmquist; Zdenek Zencak; Oerjan Gustafsson [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Applied Environmental Science

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in road-deposited sediments, water sediments, and soils in Sydney, Australia: Comparisons of concentration distribution, sources and potential toxicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) considered as priority environmental pollutants were analysed in surface natural soils (NS), road-deposited sediments (RDS), and water sediments (WS) at Kogarah in Sydney, Australia. Comparisons were made of their concentration distributions, likely sources and potential toxicities. The concentrations (mg/kg) in NS, RDS, and WS ranged from 0.40 to 7.49 (mean 2.80), 1.65 to 4.00 (mean 2.91), and 0.49 to 5.19 (mean 1.76), respectively. \\{PAHs\\} were dominated by relatively high molecular weight compounds with more than three fused benzene rings, indicating that high temperature combustion processes were their predominant sources. The proportions of high molecular weight \\{PAHs\\} with five or six fused benzene rings were higher in NS than in RDS, whereas the low molecular weight \\{PAHs\\} were higher in RDS. Concentrations of all \\{PAHs\\} compounds were observed to be the lowest in WS. The concentrations of most of the high molecular weight \\{PAHs\\} significantly correlated with each other in RDS and WS. All \\{PAHs\\} (except naphthalene) were significantly correlated in NS suggesting a common PAH source. Ratios for individual diagnostic \\{PAHs\\} demonstrated that the primary source of \\{PAHs\\} in WS and NS was of pyrogenic origin (combustion of petroleum (vehicle exhaust), grass, and wood) while in RDS it was petrogenic (i.e. unburned or leaked fuel and oil, road asphalt, and tyre particles) as well as pyrogenic. The potential toxicities of \\{PAHs\\} calculated using a toxicity equivalent quotient (TEQ) were all low but higher for NS compared to WS and RDS.

Thuy Chung Nguyen; Paripurnanda Loganathan; Tien Vinh Nguyen; Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran; Jaya Kandasamy; Danny Slee; Gavin Stevenson; Ravi Naidu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Some Inorganic Substances, Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Amines, N-Nitroso Compounds,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and Acrolein 1979; 513 pages ISBN 92 832 1219 3 (out of print) Volume 20 Some Halogenated Hydrocarbons 1979

Barthelat, Francois

202

Combustion of viscous hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for utilizing viscous hydrocarbons as combustible fuels comprising: (A) forming a hydrocarbosol using a surfactant package in a proportion of about 1:100 to about 1:20,000 by weight based on hydrocarbon, (1) the surfactant package comprising (a) at least one water-soluble surfactant, an effective amount of which surfactant promotes emulsification of a hydrocarbon with API gravity of about 20/sup 0//sup o/ API or less; and (b) at least one water-soluble bioemulsifier, being a microboally-derived substance which predominantly resides at hydrocarbon/water interfaces to substantially surround hydrocarbon droplets in hydrocarbon-in-water emulsions; (2) the hydrocarbosol (a) comprising a hydrocarbon characterized by an API gravity of about 20/sup 0//sup o/ API or less; (b) having a hydrocarbon:water ratio of about 70:30 by volume; and (B) burning the resultant hydrocarbosol.

Hayes, M.E.; Hrebenar, K.R.; Murphy, P.L.; Futch, L.E. Jr.; Deal, J.F. III

1986-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

203

Compound class specific {sup 14}C analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with PM10 and PM1.1 aerosols from residential areas of suburban Tokyo  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compound class specific radiocarbon analysis (CCSRA) was performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with airborne particulate matter (APM) with diameter {lt}10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) and {lt}1.1 {mu}m (PM{sub 1.1}) collected from a residential area of suburban Tokyo, Japan, and seasonal and particle-size radiocarbon variations were investigated. Source diagnostic isomer pair ratios indicated mixed contributions from petroleum combustion and from biomass and coal combustion to the PAHs in APM. The {Delta}{sup 14}C-PAHs in APM, ranging from -787 to -514{per_thousand}, indicated dominance of fossil fuel combustion. The {Delta}{sup 14}C of 5-6 rings (HMW) PAHs were higher than the 3-4 rings (LMW) species in both PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 1.1} samples. The {Delta}{sup 14}C of HMW-PAHs indicated greater biomass-burning contributions in summer than in winter and no apparent particle-size variation. Conversely, the {Delta}{sup 14}C of LMW species showed a greater contribution from fossil sources in summer and in larger particles (PM10). This finding could be tentatively attributed to the recondensation of fossil-PAHs vaporized from petroleum sources. A {Delta}{sup 14}C isotopic mass balance approach estimated that biomass burning contributes 17-45% of the PAH burden in suburban Tokyo, and that the increase in the biomass-PAH accounts for approximately 27% and 22% of winter-time elevation of LMW- and HMW-PAHs, respectively. These are far exceeding what is expected from the emission statistics for CO{sub 2} and combusted materials in Japan and emphasizing the importance of biomass-burning as a source of PAHs; which, in turn, demonstrates the utility and the significance of field-based source assessment by using CCSRA for an effective regulation of atmospheric pollution by PAHs. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Hidetoshi Kumata; Masao Uchida; Eisuke Sakuma; Tatsuya Uchida; Kitao Fujiwara; Mikio Tsuzuki; Minoru Yoneda; Yasuyuki Shibata [Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Life Science

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

MICROCHEMICALJOURNAL39, 160-165Hydrocarbons in Air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from Waters Associates. Water used was deionized, distilled, and hydrocarbon filtered (BarnsteadMICROCHEMICALJOURNAL39, 160-165Hydrocarbons in Air to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from air particulate sampleswas investigated. High

Canberra, University of

205

Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Low Temperature under Aerobic and Nitrate-Reducing Conditions in Enrichment Cultures from Northern Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from well-drained areas. In general, most successful enrichment...temperature and freeze-thaw cycles on hydrocarbon biodegradation...Krieg. 1994. Methods for general and molecular bacteriology...Canada creosote degradation diesel fuel Eastern Canada Ellesmere...

Mikael Eriksson; Erik Sodersten; Zhongtang Yu; Gunnel Dalhammar; William W. Mohn

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

adherent polycyclic aromatic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Risk in First Nations People Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Near In-situ Bitumen Extraction in Cold Lake, Alberta . Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary:...

207

In-situ partitioning and bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among water, suspended particulate matter, and fish in the Dongjiang and Pearl Rivers and the Pearl River Estuary, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The partitioning and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and fish samples from the Dongjiang River (DR), Pearl River (PR), and the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) were examined. Although \\{PAHs\\} are much lower in PRE than in DR or PR, \\{PAHs\\} in some fish species are significantly higher in PRE than in DR or PR. Aqueous or particulate \\{PAHs\\} respectively show significant correlations with dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic matter, and chlorophyll a, suggesting that biological pumping effect regulates their distribution. The in situ partitioning coefficients (log Koc) for \\{PAHs\\} are one order magnitude higher than the empirical log Koc–log Kow correlation. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is slightly higher for the marine fish than for the freshwater fish. The above phenomena indicate that BCF may vary due to the diversity of fish species, feeding habits, and metabolism of \\{PAHs\\} in fish.

Haiyan Li; Lei Lu; Wen Huang; Juan Yang; Yong Ran

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Urinary Excretion of Phenolic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (OH-PAH) in Nonsmokers and in Smokers of Cigarettes with Different ISO Tar Yields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......products of the incomplete combustion of organic materials...Tars analysis Tobacco chemistry 301 Polycyclic aromatic...products of the incomplete combustion of organic materials...during the incomplete combustion of organic materials...ambient air, and coal-tar-containing med......

Heinz-Werner Hagedorn; Gerhard Scherer; Johannes Engl; Kirsten Riedel; Francis Cheung; Graham Errington; Jim Shepperd; Mike McEwan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Solubilities of nitrogen in selected naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons at temperatures from 344 to 433 K and pressures to 22.8 MPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubilities of nitrogen in selected naphthenic (cyclohexane and trans-Decalin) and aromatic (benzene, naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene) solvents were measured using a static equilibrium cell over the temperature range from 344.3 to 433.2 K at pressures to 22.8 MPa. The uncertainty in these measurements is estimated to be less than 0.001 in mole fraction. The Peng-Robinson equation of state was shown to represent the experimental data with root-mean-square deviations of about 0.002 when a single interaction parameter (C{sub ij}) is used for each binary system.

Gao, W.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L. Jr. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering] [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Measurement and correlation of phase equilibria for (water + aromatic hydrocarbon) binary mixtures at T = (573 to 623) K using microfluidic mixing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(Vapour + liquid) and (liquid + liquid) equilibria for (water + p-xylene) and (water + decalin) mixtures at T = (573 to 623) K were measured by a flow type apparatus with microfluidic system. The liquid–liquid slug flows in the microfluidic system were used for mixing of water and hydrocarbon due to high mass transfer between two liquid phases. The formations of the liquid–liquid slugs for (water + p-xylene) system were studied by changing the flow rate. The results of the liquid–liquid slug formations at hydrocarbon and water rich compositions were used for the measurements for (vapour + liquid) and (liquid + liquid) equilibria, respectively. It was found that the phase equilibria using the apparatus with the microfluidic system can be measured in a short residential time (1.6 to 3.2) min. The experimental results of the phase equilibria for (water + p-xylene) and (water + decalin) systems give that the regions of the (vapour + liquid) and (liquid + liquid) equilibria for both mixtures reduce with the increasing temperature. The mixture of (water + decalin) at T = (583 to 623) K forms the two phase regions of the (vapour + liquid) and (liquid + liquid) equilibria larger than those for (water + p-xylene) mixture. The experimental data of the phase equilibria obtained in this work were correlated with Peng–Robinson–Stryjek–Vera equation of state. The correlated results of the (liquid + liquid) equilibria for both systems represent the experimental data. For (vapour + liquid) equilibria, the results give the qualitative representations in the shape of the two phase region for both mixtures.

Masaki Togo; Taisuke Maeda; Akira Ito; Yusuke Shimoyama

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Urine, Benzo(a)pyrene Diol Epoxide-DNA Adducts in Lymphocyte DNA, and Antibodies to the Adducts in Sera from Coke Oven Workers Exposed to Measured Amounts of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Work Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Environmental urine Coal DNA analysis immunology...products from incomplete combustion and destructive distillation products of coal are carcinogenic to humans...formaldehyde or an aerosol of coal tar by C3H mice. J...Weinstein, I. B. The chemistry of polycyclic aromatic...

Aage Haugen; Georg Becher; Christel Benestad; Kirsi Vahakangas; Glennwood E. Trivers; Mark J. Newman; and Curtis C. Harris

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Sorptive extraction using polydimethylsiloxane/metal–organic framework coated stir bars coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs, Al-MIL-53-NH2) were synthesized via the hydrothermal method, and novel polydimethylsiloxane/metal–organic framework (PDMS/MOFs, PDMS/Al-MIL-53-NH2)-coated stir bars were prepared by the sol–gel technique. The preparation reproducibility of the PDMS/MOFs-coated stir bar was good, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 4.8% to 14.9% (n = 7) within one batch and from 6.2% to 16.9% (n = 6) among different batches. Based on this fact, a new method of PDMS/MOFs-coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and ultrasonic-assisted liquid desorption (UALD) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. To obtain the best extraction performance for PAHs, several parameters affecting SBSE, such as extraction time, stirring rate, and extraction temperature, were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions, wide linear ranges and good \\{RSDs\\} (n = 7) were obtained. With enrichment factors (EFs) of 16.1- to 88.9-fold (theoretical EF, 142-fold), the limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) of the developed method for the target \\{PAHs\\} were found to be in the range of 0.05–2.94 ng/L. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of \\{PAHs\\} in Yangtze River and East Lake water samples.

Cong Hu; Man He; Beibei Chen; Cheng Zhong; Bin Hu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water from Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The fate of polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water columns from Poyang Lake was studied. The total concentrations of \\{OCPs\\} and \\{PAHs\\} were 19.10–111.78 ng L?1 and 5.56–266.1 ng L?1, respectively. Among OCPs, endosulfans, chlordanes, and \\{HCHs\\} accounted for 21.96%, 24.6% and 24.65%, and were the predominant pollutants. Results suggested that the main sources of \\{DDTs\\} were residue from technical \\{DDTs\\} and dicofol, as well as antifouling paints for ships, while for HCHs, the main sources included long-distance transmission, agriculture activities and the combination of industrial products with separate lindane in use. As for PAHs, the predominance of lower molecular weight congeners demonstrated that petroleum and the combustion products of fuel oil, as well as other pyrogenic sources, contributed to the main input of \\{PAHs\\} in the Poyang region. The vehicle emissions were mostly from diesel engines. Moreover, HCH, DDT and BaP concentrations in water of Poyang Lake were all below the threshold values.

Hui Zhi; Zhonghua Zhao; Lu Zhang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric polycyclic aromatic Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

burning of coal, oil, gas... called aromatic hydrocarbons. These include harmful pollutants like dioxins, PCBs and a group called... by atmospheric currents and ocean currents...

215

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic pollutants exit Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Toxic Contamination Summary: called aromatic hydrocarbons. These include harmful pollutants like dioxins, PCBs and a group called... the Pacific Ocean carry evidence of...

216

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic organic compounds Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bases in Iraq and Afghanistan that lack Summary: Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... and detected all of the...

217

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic chemical compounds Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bases in Iraq and Afghanistan that lack Summary: Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... in burn pits include, but...

218

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland soils under different land uses in a coastal estuary: Toxic levels, sources and relationships with soil organic matter and water-stable aggregates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the soils from industrial, wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites to characterize their distributions, toxic levels and possible sources in the Pearl River Estuary and identify their relationships with soil organic matter (SOM) and water-stable aggregates (WSAs). Our results indicate that the average concentration of total \\{PAHs\\} in this region reached a moderate pollution level, which was higher than that in other larger estuaries in Asia. The average level of total \\{PAHs\\} in industrial soils was 1.2, 1.5, 1.6 and 2.3 times higher than those in soils from wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites, respectively. Greater accumulation of \\{PAHs\\} occurred in the middle and/or bottom soil layers where 3-ring \\{PAHs\\} were dominant. Industrial soils also exhibited the highest toxic levels with the highest toxic equivalent concentrations of PAHs, followed by wharf and milldam soils, and the cropland and wetland soils had the lowest toxicity. The diagnostic ratios suggested that \\{PAHs\\} primarily originated from biomass and coal combustion at industrial and milldam sites, and petroleum combustion was determined to be the primary source of \\{PAHs\\} at the wharf, cropland and wetland sites. Both 3-ring and 4-ring \\{PAHs\\} in the milldam and wharf soils were significantly positively correlated with the SOM, whereas the 4,5,6-ring \\{PAHs\\} and total \\{PAHs\\} in industrial soils and the 2-ring \\{PAHs\\} in cropland soils were significantly negatively correlated with the SOM. In addition, large \\{WSAs\\} also exhibited a significant positive correlation with PAHs.

Rong Xiao; Junhong Bai; Junjing Wang; Qiongqiong Lu; Qingqing Zhao; Baoshan Cui; Xinhui Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Hydrocarbon Separations in Metal–Organic Frameworks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Given the large differences in the physical properties of methane and C2 hydrocarbons, both size selective effects and metal–hydrocarbon interactions can be tuned to achieve a high selectivity within a metal–organic framework. ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs, are carcinogenic byproducts of incomplete combustion of organic matter such as fossil fuels. ... data and the heats of adsorption were found to fit well to a small group of mol. ...

Zoey R. Herm; Eric D. Bloch; Jeffrey R. Long

2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

220

Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and its heterodimerization partner the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...WI 53706 The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is...The mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is...complex with the 90-kDa heat shock protein (HSP90) and...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as {beta...cigarette smoking and other combustion processes, initiate...

Jo Anne Powell-Coffman; Christopher A. Bradfield; William B. Wood

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and its heterodimerization partner the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor...the 90-kDa heat shock protein (HSP90...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as {beta...smoking and other combustion processes...we searched data from the...Helminth HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins...Molecular Sequence Data Protein Binding...Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon genetics metabolism...

Jo Anne Powell-Coffman; Christopher A. Bradfield; William B. Wood

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor-1 Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PARENTAL FACTORS ON GAMETE CONDITION AND VIABILITY Summary: . 15. 16. 17. 18-21. 22. Pollutants - petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons, aryl Pollutants - pesticides... high levels of...

223

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PARENTAL FACTORS ON GAMETE CONDITION AND VIABILITY Summary: . 15. 16. 17. 18-21. 22. Pollutants - petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons, aryl Pollutants - pesticides... high levels of...

224

Characterization of hydrocarbons found in the arctic aquatic environment near the Ekati diamond mine.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic environment of the Ekati Diamond Mine were evaluated in snow, sediment, air and water (via passive membrane samplers).… (more)

Nabess, Stephanie Ann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Faraday Discuss., 1998, 109, 417436 Evidence for the extraterrestrial origin of polycyclic aromatic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aromatic hydrocarbons in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 Simon J. Clemett, Maria T. Dulay, J. Seb Gillette for the obser- vation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Martian meteor- ite ALH84001 be largely the result of terrestrial contamination by Antarctic ice melt water and that a minor

Zare, Richard N.

226

Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Aromatic Hydrocarbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M.D. , Sokolov, O. , Wallington, T.J. , Takekawa, H. ,M.D. , Sokolov, O. , Wallington, T.J. , Takekawa, H. ,M.D. , Sokolov, O. , Wallington, T.J. , Takekawa, H. ,

Tang, Ping

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Sedimentary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: The Historical Record  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from anthropogenic airborne partic-ulates...such as in a forest fire. Still another experimental...sources such as forest fires. These sources should...The annual relative release of PAH re-sulting...consistently. A large fraction of the glucose consumedfrom...and it is able to release glucose into pulmonary...

RONALD A. HITES; ROBERT E. LAFLAMME; JOHN W. FARRINGTON

1977-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

228

Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Aromatic Hydrocarbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Edney E.O. Izumi K. Sato K. 244 cm fluorescent bulbs 244cm fluorescent bulbs 1.6 kW Xe lamps 19 kW xenon arc lamps

Tang, Ping

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Toxicity Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in people who work in pulp and paper mills, at hazardous waste sites, municipal and hazardous waste incinerators, and those involved in production, use, and disposal of chlorinated pesticides and herbicides. The most toxic of the PCDDs, 2...

Naspinski, Christine S.

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

230

Chemical nature of high-molecular hydrocarbons of gaseous condensates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mass spectrometry was used to study the group-structure composition of high-boiling 50 deg (200/degrees/-250/degrees/, 250/degrees/-300/degrees/, and 300/degrees/-350/degrees/C) fractions of East Turkmenistan condensates: the hydrocarbons composition is characterized by a high content of paraffinic hydrocarbons, and that of others by aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons. For all the condensates under investigation, as the boiling temperature of fractions increases, the content of paraffinic hydrocarbons in them is increased, while that of naphthenic hydrocarbons is reduced. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons according to the number of rings is identical. In high-paraffin condensates, monoaromatic hydrocarbons consist mainly structures with alkyl substituents, but in condensates with a high content of aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons they consist mainly of structures with naphthenic substituents. 4 references, 1 figures, 2 tables.

Kul'dzhayev, B.A.; Makarov, V.V.; Sergiyenko, S.R.; Khramova, E.V.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Oil sands development contributes polycyclic aromatic compounds to the Athabasca River and its tributaries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and viscous hydrocarbon, that is recovered...upgraded by using heat, pressure...12). RAMP data are not publicly...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons+ dibenzothiophene...volatile and combustion-derived PAC...and geologic data, and calculate...perdeuterated hydrocarbon surrogate standards...and stored in heat-sealed Ziploc...

Erin N. Kelly; Jeffrey W. Short; David W. Schindler; Peter V. Hodson; Mingsheng Ma; Alvin K. Kwan; Barbra L. Fortin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Multicomponent isolation and analysis of polynuclear aromatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Semi-preparative scale high-pressure liquid chromatography using bonded normal-phase columns offers an attractive alternative to the classical solvent partition/adsorption column chromatographic procedure for obtaining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or a polycyclic aromatic amines (PAA) fraction of purity suitable for analysis by gas chromatography. Sample matrices ranging from fossil fuels to air particulate extracts can be fractionated successfully if the appropriate polarity column is chosen. The apparatus is low-cost, gives reproducible results, does not require an expensive solvent gradient programmer, and can operate unattended.

Tomkins, B.A.; Griest, W.H.; Caton, J.E.; Reagan, R.R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

234

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oils near the Caspian depression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural-group composition of hydrocarbons of Mesozoic crude oils near the Caspian depression was investigated by mass-spectrometry, followed by the analysis of the mass-spectra using a computer. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons, according to the number of rings and of aromatic hydrocarbons, according to the degree of hydrogen unsaturation is similar for all the crude oils examined. The hydrocarbon composition of Mesozoic crude oils is characterized by a reduction in the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkyl benzenes.

Botneva, T.A.; Khramova, E.V.; Nekhamkina, L.G.; Polyakova, A.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Composition of paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons in petroleum asphalts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uses a combination of chromatographic, chemical, and spectroscopic methods to determine the composition of the paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons recovered from asphalts. Monitors the completeness of separation of the hydrocarbons from the aromatics on the basis of UV spectra. Finds that in the mixture of adduct-forming hydrocarbons, along with the n-paraffins there were admixtures of isoparaffins and longchain alkylnaphthenes. Concludes that a comparison of the structural-group composition of the asphalt fractions from the different crudes shows that there are only slight differences in the structure of the paraffinic/naphthenic hydrocarbons present in these asphalts, particularly with regard to those hydrocarbons that do not react with urea.

Botvin'eva, A.M.; Dubkova, R.V.; Shkredova, N.A.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Copenhaver, Sally C. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Comparisons of hydrocarbon and nitrogen distributions in geologically diverse tar sand bitumen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The characteristics of bitumens from different tar sand deposits are generally significantly different and affect the utilization of the resource. The chemical and physical properties of bitumen are a result of maturation reactions on the varied organic sediments. For example, saturated hydrocarbon distributions have been related to the geochemical history of organic matter. Very paraffinic or sometimes paraffinic-naphthenic distributions in organic matter are derived from a nonmarine depositional environment. More aromatic and paraffinic-naphthenic hydrocarbon distributions are derived from organic matter deposited in a marine environment. The characteristics of the bitumen also influence the potential for recovery and subsequent processing of the material. For example, saturated hydrocarbons contribute to the high pour points of recovered oils. The origin and composition of an oil influence its viscosity, API gravity, and coke formation during processing, particularly under low-temperature oxidation conditions. The objective of this work is to determine the chemical and physical properties of several samples of bitumen from geologically diverse tar sand deposits. The compound-type distributions and LTD properties of these bitumens are discussed relative to the depositional environment and processing potential of the organic matter.

Holmes, S.A.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Oil sands development contributes polycyclic aromatic compounds to the Athabasca River and its tributaries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...upgraded by using heat, pressure...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons+ dibenzothiophene...volatile and combustion-derived PAC [i...volatilized by heat or particulates produced by combustion. The dominance...perdeuterated hydrocarbon surrogate standards...and stored in heat-sealed Ziploc...

Erin N. Kelly; Jeffrey W. Short; David W. Schindler; Peter V. Hodson; Mingsheng Ma; Alvin K. Kwan; Barbra L. Fortin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

FORMATION OF CARBON-CARBON BONDS IN THE PHOTOCHEMICAL ALKYLATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDROCARBONS TANIA B. MAHAJAN1, JAMIE E. ELSILA1, DAVID W. DEAMER2 and RICHARD N. ZARE1 1 Department July 2002) Abstract. The reaction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with alkanes was examined films in contact with simulated ocean water, and in matrices simulating ISM conditions. Photoalkylation

Zare, Richard N.

240

Naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons of residual lube stock from West Siberian crudes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lube stocks from West Siberian crudes are characterized by high contents of aromatic hydrocarbons and by high viscosity indexes of the naphthenic/paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that isoparaffins account for one-third of the total naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons. The study showed that the naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons of the residual lube stock from West Siberia crudes, even with a variation of molecular weight over broad limits, are relatively uniform in composition. They consist mainly of isoparaffinic and monocyclic and noncondensed naphthenic structures.

Detusheva, E.P.; Bogdanov, Sh.K.; Khramtsova, L.P.; Nekrasova, A.V.; Shkol'nikov, V.M.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Improved procedure for extraction of aromatic bases from synfuel materials. [Aromatic amines; azaarenes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the conventional aqueous acidbase extraction procedures and to explore alternate conditions for optimizing recovery of aromatic bases. For four procedures the recoveries were measured for 13 components in a mixture containing phenols, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH), primary aromatic amines (PAA), and azaarenes (AA) representative of the types of compounds found in synfuel materials. The results demonstrated that recoveries of hydrophobic 3 to 5 ring PAA and AA can be dramatically increased by using methanol as a cosolvent. The modified procedure is highly efficient for extraction of larger PAA and AA, and does not lead to emulsions when extracting samples of coal-derived materials. 2 figures, 2 tables.

Boparai, A.S.; Haugen, D.A.; Schneider, J.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Selectivity Enhancement for Petroleum Hydrocarbons Using a Smectic Liquid Crystalline Stationary Phase in Supercritical Fluid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Lee* Department of Chemistry, Brigham Young University...Bartle. Analytical Chemistry of Polycyclic Aromatic...Physical and Biological Chemistry. M. Cooke, A.J...hydrocarbon isomers in coal tars and combustion products. Environ......

H-C.K. Chang; K.E. Markides; J.S. Bradshaw; M.L. Lee

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Determination of Hydrocarbons Types and Oxygenates in Motor Gasoline: A Comparative Study by Different Analytical Techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various standard and published methods based on chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques are routinely used for hydrocarbon types (aromatics, olefins, oxygenates, etc.) in gasoline range fuel products for the assessment of product quality monitoring (...

V. Bansal; G. J. Krishna; A. P. Singh; A. K. Gupta; A. S. Sarpal

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

244

Distribution coefficients of phenol between water and hydrocarbons at 283–328 K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Distribution of phenol between aqueous and organic phases at maximal dilution in the range 283–328 K was studied chromatographically. Ten systems containing saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons were examined.

I. E. Dobryakova; Yu. G. Dobryakov

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor polymorphisms and dioxin resistance in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor polymorphisms and dioxin resistance in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as well as polynuclear and that the frequencies of the major allele types differ between dioxin- sensitive and dioxin-resistant populations

Hahn, Mark E.

246

Chapter 3 - Hydrocarbons from Petroleum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary Petroleum products (in contrast to petrochemicals) are those hydrocarbon fractions that are derived from petroleum and have commercial value as a bulk product. A major group of hydrocarbon products from petroleum (petrochemicals) are the basis of a major industry. They are, in the strictest sense, different to petroleum products insofar as the petrochemicals are the basic building blocks of the chemical industry. The specific gravity of product gases, including liquefied petroleum gas, may be determined conveniently by a number of methods and a variety of instruments. The heat value of gases is generally determined at constant pressure in a flow calorimeter in which the heat released by the combustion of a definite quantity of gas is absorbed by a measured quantity of water or air. A continuous recording calorimeter is available for measuring heat values of natural gases.

James G. Speight

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

A study of the structure of the hydrocarbons of primary hard-coal tar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrocarbons isolated from primary hard-coal (G/sub 6/ gas coal) tar have been investigated by a combination of physicochemical and chemical methods. It has been established that the hydrocarbons boiling up to 573 K are mainly aliphatic, hydroaromatic, and naphthenic and are aromatic only to a smaller degree. Molecular and presumable structural formulas of the oxygen compounds isolated from the 473-573 K hydrocarbon fraction have been derived.

Platonov, V.V.; Gerasimova, N.I.; Ivleva, L.N.; Klyavina, O.A.; Vishnyakov, S.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

In utero Exposure of Mice to Dibenzo[a,l]Pyrene Produces Lymphoma in the Offspring: Role of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 3-methylcholanthrene...from incomplete combustion of many organic...diesel. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR...nonspecific binding. Data were collected...water, were heat denatured and...Modeling survival data: extending the...to polycyclic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic...

Zhen Yu; Christiane V. Loehr; Kay A. Fischer; Mandy A. Louderback; Sharon K. Krueger; Roderick H. Dashwood; Nancy I. Kerkvliet; Clifford B. Pereira; Jamie E. Jennings-Gee; Stephanie T. Dance; Mark Steven Miller; George S. Bailey; and David E. Williams

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Aromatics, Narcotics, Stimulants, Spices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This rather heterogeneous chapter includes native psycho-active plants and aromatics, as well as industrially highly developed stimulants and spices. We have refrained from discussing the many drugs and halluc...

Prof. Dr. Heinz Brücher

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Naphthenic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An important type of naphthenic hydrocarbons is the monocyclic type, (k/sub 2/, 0, 0). In this instance the number of carbon atoms, n = k/sub 2/, and a formula, C/sub n/H/sub 2n/, can be written where H/C = 2. The value n can vary from 2 to infinity. In the case of n = 2, it is ethylene (I) (2-membered cyclic ring); n = 3, cyclopropane (II) (3-membered cyclic ring); n = 4, cyclobutane (III) (4-membered cyclic ring); etc. If the monocyclic naphthenic is planar, then the bond angle theta can be expressed as theta = (1 - 2/n)..pi.. where n is the number of carbon atoms. However, the tetrahedron angle of the carbon atom being phi = cos/sup -1/ (- 1/3).

Yen, T.F.; Kuo, J.F.; Chilingarian, G.V.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Glossary API Gravity: An  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 60 60 131 5 . . The higher the API gravity, the lighter the compound. Light crudes generally exceed 38 degrees API and heavy crudes are commonly labeled as all crudes with an API gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifi- cations are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on fin- ished aviation gasoline. Barrel: A volumetric unit of measure for crude oil and petroleum products equivalent to 42 U.S. gallons. Bulk Sales: Wholesale sales of gasoline in individual

253

Glossary API Gravity: An  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

60 60 1315 . . The higher the API gravity, the lighter the compound. Light crudes generally exceed 38 degrees API and heavy crudes are commonly labeled as all crudes with an API gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifi- cations are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on fin- ished aviation gasoline. Barrel: A volumetric unit of measure for crude oil and petroleum products equivalent to 42 U.S. gallons. Bulk Sales: Wholesale sales of gasoline in individual

254

A generalized viscosity equation for pure heavy hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a method for the correlation and prediction of the viscosity of pure heavy hydrocarbons listed in API Research Project 42. The 273 heavy hydrocarbons in the database include branched/unbranched paraffins and olefins together with a variety of complex nonfused/fused aromatic and naphthenic compounds. A generalized one-parameter viscosity-temperature equation, log ({mu} + 0.8) = 100(0.01T){sup b}, is proposed (overall AAD {lt} 7-10%) for all heavy hydrocarbons in the database. For each hydrocarbon, an optimum value of parameter b is provided. It is shown that parameter b varies linearly with the logarithm of molar mass as well as the inverse of boiling temperature (at 10 mmHg). This important observation leads to the development of a predictive method for the liquid-phase viscosity of pure heavy hydrocarbons.

Mehrotra, A.K. (Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (CA))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

API Gravity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n Measure of specific gravity of petroleum and petroleum products, defined by the following equation: $$\\eqalign{{\\rm{API\\,\\,Gravity,\\,\\,degrees }}...

Jan W. Gooch

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Critically Evaluated Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Spain James S. Chickos Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One with sublimation, vaporization, and fusion enthalpies, are critically evaluated. Whenever possible, recommended. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1867 3.2. Sublimation enthalpies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1867 3.3. Fusion Enthalpies

Chickos, James S.

257

Sorption Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Aluminum Smelter Residues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon-normalized distribution coefficients of native PAHs were 2 orders of magnitude higher than expected based on amorphous organic carbon (AOC)/water partitioning, which is in the same order of magnitude as reported literature values for soots and charcoals. ... Desorption experiments using Tenax showed that fresh smelter residues had a relatively large rapidly desorbing fraction of PAH (35?50%), whereas this fraction was strongly reduced (11?16%) in the lagoon and roof dust material. ... To determine the BC levels, the Gelinas modification (15) of the chemo-thermal oxidation (CTO) method by Gustafsson (16) was applied. ...

Gijs D. Breedveld; Émilien Pelletier; Richard St. Louis; Gerard Cornelissen

2007-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

258

GC/FTIR Study of Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......addressed. Department of Chemistry, Mississippi State...Whitehead Department of Chemistry, Mississippi State...which are present during combustion (10). There is a...diesel particulates and coal combustion complicates the identification......

V.F. Kalasinsky; C. Saiwan; K.G. Whitehead

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Photodynamic Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tissue Culture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...fixture containing two fluorescent light bulbs, GE daylight-type...conventional, commercial fluorescent light. All experiments...as, for example, fluorescent dyes, which can elicit...substances has previously led to the postulation...

Yoshiyuki Morimura; Paul Kotin; and Hans L. Falk

1964-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pushing operations at the coke-oven battery section) involving exposure to high levels...PCR System (Applied Biosystems). The thermal cycling conditions for mtDNA PCR were...60-second anneal/extend at 60C. The thermal cycling conditions for the hbg PCR were...

Sofia Pavanello; Laura Dioni; Mirjam Hoxha; Ugo Fedeli; Danuta Mielzynska-Švach; and Andrea A. Baccarelli

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN STORMWATER RUNOFF FROM SEALCOATED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNH SC RESEARCH FACILITY TREE FILTER Watershed Boundary #12;#12;Sealcoat ­ What is it, and why do we-Fluorene Phenanthrene Anthracene C1-Ph/An C2-Ph/An C3-Ph/An C4-Ph/An Dibenzothiophene C1-Dib C2-Dib C3-Dib

262

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in San Francisco Estuary sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The estuary receives stormwater and wastewater effluents from 40 municipal wastewater treatment plants, 30 urbanized and rural areas surrounding the Delta. Temporal trend analysis showed a statistically significant

263

Partitioning of Crude Oil Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmental and Water Resources Division, Civil Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3136, Conrad Blucher Institute for Surveying and Science, Texas A&M UniversityCorpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412, and Environmental Engineering Department, Texas A&M UniversityKingsville, Kingsville, Texas 78363 ... In natural water systems, entrainment and mixing result primarily from wind and current stresses. ... For compound analysis, a 1-?L aliquot of the extracted sample was injected into a Hewlett-Packard 5890 Series II gas chromatograph (GC) interfaced to a Hewlett-Packard 5972 mass selective (MS) detector and operated using Hewlett-Packard MS Chemstation software. ...

Michael C. Sterling, Jr.; James S. Bonner; Cheryl A. Page; Christopher B. Fuller; Andrew N. S. Ernest; Robin L. Autenrieth

2003-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

264

Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...airborne threshold limit value of coal tar pitch volatiles (i.e...genotoxic carcinogens produced by coal combustion emissions (for a...exclude that different socio-economic statuses might have contributed...of individuals with wood- or coal-based heating at home. ePAH...

Sofia Pavanello; Laura Dioni; Mirjam Hoxha; Ugo Fedeli; Danuta Mielzynska-Švach; and Andrea A. Baccarelli

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

Yarbro, Stephen Lee

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

266

Mutual solubilities of water and hydrocarbons from the Cubic plus Association equation of state: A new mixing rule for the correlation of observed minimum hydrocarbon solubilities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The cubic plus association (CPA) equation of state was employed to correlate the mutual solubilities of water and hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics). In order to reproduce the minimums observed in concentration vs. temperature curves, a new mixing rule is proposed based on Kabadi and Danner's idea, whereby the water–water dispersive term is corrected to include the hydrophobic hydration effect. With this correction, correlated hydrocarbon solubilities curves have observable curvature at low temperatures. Two binary interaction parameters are required for saturated hydrocarbons and three for aromatics, which is just one more than the original CPA formulation. Using parameters determined from binary data, this improved mixing rule was employed for multicomponent water–hydrocarbon systems, with no further regression, producing better predictions when compared to the conventional van der Waals’ rules.

Milton Medeiros

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Catalytic properties of nickel activated by elements of I-VII of the periodic system in conversion of hydrocarbons with steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient recovery of benzene from pyrocondensates is considered to be one of the important problems of modern petroleum chemistry. In the paper presented, several nickel catalysts activated by elements of groups I to VII of the periodic system were synthesized and tested in steam conversion of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures. Samples of nickel catalysts activated by W and Bi had the highest selectivity in obtaining aromatic hydrocarbons from their mixtures with aliphatic hydrocarbons. Nickel catalysts activated by V/sub 2/O/sub 3/ showed the highest activity in steam conversion of hydrocarbons of both classes. (JMT)

Grinberg, D.N.; Shapiro, A.L.; Gankin, V.Yu.; Ivanova, M.L.; Yakovleva, N.V.; Moshkevich, A.S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Electronic Structure and Carcinogenic Activity of Aromatic Compounds: I. Condensed Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the isolated molecule. The fundamental supposition in the localization...13).In that theory the electronic interaction between the molecule...in the sense of or ganic electronic theory, and is taken as...mm@ffNE NAGATA et al. "Electronic Structure and Carcinogenic...

Chikayoshi Nagata; Kenichi Fukui; Teijiro Yonezawa; and Yusaku Tagashira

1955-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oil from Lam Bank  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors discuss the crude oil from a new offshore field called the Lam Bank in the Caspian Sea. A segregated commercial crude was distilled and the distillation data is shown. In order to determine the content of n-paraffins, the naphthenic-paraffinic part of the narrow cuts was subjected to adsorptive separation on CaA zeolite. Owing to the high contents of naphthenic and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons and the low content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate part, this crude can be used to produce high-quality fuels and oils by the use of the dewaxing processes.

Samedova, F.I.; Agaeva, R.M.; Alieva, F.Z.; Valiev, M.A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Kidney cancer and hydrocarbon exposures among petroleum refinery workers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To evaluate the hypothesis of increased kidney cancer risk after exposure to hydrocarbons, especially those present in gasoline, we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of approximately 100,000 male refinery workers from five petroleum companies. A review of 18,323 death certificates identified 102 kidney cancer cases, to each of whom four controls were matched by refinery location and decade of birth. Work histories, containing an average of 15.7 job assignments per subject, were found for 98% of the cases and 94% of the controls. Tb each job, industrial hygienists assigned semiquantitative ratings for the intensity and frequency of exposures to three hydrocarbon categories: nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, aromatic hydrocarbons, and the more volatile hydrocarbons. Ratings of {open_quotes}present{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}absent{close_quotes} were assigned for seven additional exposures: higher boiling hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, chlorinated solvents, ionizing radiation, and lead. Each exposure had either no association or a weak association with kidney cancer. For the hydrocarbon category of principal a priori interest, the nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, the estimated relative risk (RR) for any exposure above refinery background was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-1.9). Analyses of cumulative exposures and of exposures in varying time periods before kidney cancer occurrence also produced null or near-null results. In an analysis of the longest job held by each subject (average duration 9.2 years or 40% of the refiner&y work history), three groups appeared to be at increased risk: laborers (RR = 1.9,95% CI 1.0-3.9); workers in receipt, storage, and movements (RR = 2.5,95% CI 0.9-6.6); and unit cleaners (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.5-9.9). 53 refs., 7 tabs.

Poole, C.; Dreyer, N.A.; Satterfield, M.H. [Epidemiology Resources Inc., Newton Lower Falls, MA (United States); Levin, L. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Thermochemistry for Hydrocarbon Intermediates Chemisorbed on Metal Surfaces: CHn-m(CH3)m with n ) 1, 2, 3 and m e n on Pt, Ir,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for hydrocarbons on metal surfaces similar to the Benson scheme so useful for gas-phase hydrocarbons. This is used-bond isomerization of olefins, (3) dehydrogenation and dehydro- isomerization to aromatics, (4) isomerization processes. Although molecular orbital and valence bond theories have helped explain the nature of reactivity

Goddard III, William A.

272

Hydrocarbon Potential of Deep Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Hydrocarbon Potential of Deep Water H. R. Warman In...the geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Earth's deeper water areas, an attempt...United Kingdom 1981 Hydrocarbon potential of deep water Warman H. R. Author...

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

2007-01-0472 Particulate and Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spray Guided  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

International ABSTRACT The blending of oxygenated compounds with gasoline is projected to increase because in substitution of the aromatic fraction in gasoline. Blending oxygenates with gasoline changes the fuels-out emissions. In this work, the effect of blending methanol and ethanol with gasoline on unburned hydrocarbon

275

Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in feces of river otters from the southern Pacific  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), while in 2004, chemistry was confined to PCBs and OC) detected in all samples. In 1998, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and other higher chlorinated PCDD, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

276

Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

NMR Determination of Carbon Aromatization during Hydrous Pyrolysis of Coals from the Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NMR Determination of Carbon Aromatization during Hydrous Pyrolysis of Coals from the Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin ... This process is thought to activate capillary seals and could lead to abnormally pressured compartments, which represent a new class of hydrocarbon gas resources. ...

Francis P. Miknis; Daniel A. Netzel; Ronald C. Surdam

1996-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

278

API gravity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

API gravity [The standard American Petroleum Institute method for specifying the density of crude petroleum. The density in degrees API is 141.5/P – 131.5...] ? (Roh)Öldichte f in API-Graden

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chloated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

Tyndall, R.L.

1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

282

Carbon neutral hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...depends on a source of primary energy to drive the required chemical...synthetic hydrocarbons are an energy carrier produced from a primary energy source such as wind, nuclear...Gustavsson et al. 2007), using a conversion value of $1.00=0.72...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

Miller, Holly (Bethel Island, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Fred S. (Bethel Island, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

285

Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 6 figs.

Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

1987-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

286

Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

Miller, Holly (Bethel Island, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Fred S. (Bethel Island, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The thermodynamic properties of mixtures of normal octane and branched paraffin hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to that predicated by Raoult's law. Eight years later, Nyers (17) measured the vapor- liquid equilibrium data of eighteen binary hydrocarbon mixtures containing naphthene, paraffin and aromatic bina- ry mixtures at 760 mm Hg absolute pressure by using a vapor..., it was shown that the five paraffin-aromatic systems have the greatest deviation from ideality, with activity coeffi- cients ranging from 1. 3 to 1. 8. For the naphthene-aro- matic systems, activity coefficients are slightly lower, varying from 1. 2 to 1. 4...

Liu, Edward Kou-Shan

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Potential of producing various hydrocarbons from canola oil by catalytic treatment over Pt-ZSM-5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Canola oil conversion was studied at atmospheric pressure over Pt-ZSM-5 catalyst (0.5 wt% Pt) in a fixed bed micro-reactor. The operating conditions were: temperature range of 400--500 C, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 1.8 and 3.6 h{sup {minus}1} and steam/oil ratio of 4:1. The products were coke, gas, an organic liquid product (OLP) and residue. The gas and OLP consisted mainly of hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to maximize the amount of gasoline range hydrocarbons in the OLP and the selectivity to isohydrocarbons in the gas. The gas yields varied between 22--65 wt% and were higher in the presence of steam compared to the operation without steam. Also, the gas fraction decreased with increase in space velocity. The olefin/paraffin ratio of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbon gases varied between 0.31--0.79. The amount of isohydrocarbons relative to n-hydrocarbons were higher with Pt-ZSM-5 (1.6--4.8) compared to pure HZSM-5 catalyst (0.2--0.3). The OLP yields with Pt-ZSM-5 (20--55wt% of canola oil) were slightly lower compared to HZSM-5 (40--63wt% of canola oil) under similar conditions. The major components of OLP were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The main aromatic hydrocarbons were benzene, toluene, xylenes and trimethylbenzenes. Alkylated pentane and hexane were the main aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the presence of steam, Pt-ZSM-5 gave higher yields of liquid hydrocarbons within the gasoline boiling range than HZSM-5.

Katikaneni, S.P.R.; Adjaye, J.D.; Bakhshi, N.N. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

290

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

293

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

294

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

296

Radical scavengers from heavy hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrogen-donating properties of some hydrocarbons form the basis for processes such as coal liquefaction and heavy oil upgrading. However, these hydrocarbons have seldom been used for other purposes, because their potential applications have not been well recognized. Research has indicated that these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons can be used in important reactions as radical scavengers and have properties particular to those of pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms. Over years of study researchers have found that pure hydrocarbons with radical-scavenging effects nearly as high as those in conventional hindered phenolic antioxidants can be produced from petroleum, and these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons exhibit such effects even in oxidative atmospheres (i.e., they function as antioxidants). He has also shown that these mixtures have some properties particular to pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms, and they`ve seen that a mechanism based on the steric effects appears when these hydrocarbons are used in heavy oil hydroprocessing. Hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons should be a viable resource in many applications. In this article, he presents radical-scavenging abilities, characteristics as pure hydrocarbons, and applications on the basis of the studies.

Kubo, Junichi [Nippon Oil Co. Ltd. (Japan)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Quantum Field Theory & Gravity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Field Theory & Gravity Quantum Field Theory & Gravity Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email...

298

Mid-continent rift system: a frontier hydrocarbon province  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mid-continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Outcrop and well penetrations of the late rift Keweenawan sedimentary rocks reveal sediments reflecting a characteristic early continental rift clastic sequence, including alluvial fans, deep organic-rich basins, and prograding fluvial plains. Sedimentary basins where these early rift sediments are preserved can be located by upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and by gravity models. Studies of analog continental rifts and aulacogens show that these gravity models should incorporate (1) a deep mafic rift pillow body to create the narrow gravity high of the MGA, and (2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low. Preserved accumulations of rift clastics in central rift positions can then be modeled to explain the small scale notches which are found within the narrow gravity high. Indigenous oil in Keweenawan sediments in the outcrop area and coaly partings in the subsurface penetrations of the Keweenawan clastics support the analogy between these rift sediments and the exceptionally organic-rich sediments of the East African rift. COCORP data across the rift trend in Kansas show layered deep reflectors and large structures. There is demonstrable source, reservoir, and trap potential within the Keweenawan trend, making the Mid-Continent rift system a frontier hydrocarbon province.

Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Mid-Continent rift system: a frontier hydrocarbon province  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Outcrop and well penetrations of the late rift Keweenawan sedimentary rocks reveal sediments reflecting a characteristic early continental rift clastic sequence, including alluvial fans, deep organic-rich basins, and prograding fluvial plains. Sedimentary basins where these early rift sediments are preserved can be located by upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and by gravity models. Studies of analog continental rifts and aulacogens show that these gravity models should incorporate (1) a deep mafic rift pillow body to create the narrow gravity high of the MGA, and (2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low. Preserved accumulations of rift clastics in central rift positions can then be modeled to explain the small scale notches which are found within the narrow gravity high. Indigenous oil in Keweenawan sediments in the outcrop area and coaly partings in the subsurface penetrations of the Keweenawan clastics support the analogy between these rift sediments and the exceptionally organic-rich sediments of the East African rift. COCORP data across the rift trend in Kansas show layered deep reflectors and large structures. There is demonstrable source, reservoir, and trap potential within the Keweenawan trend, making the Mid-Continent rift system a frontier hydrocarbon province.

Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

The Utilization of Certain Hydrocarbons by Microorganisms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...UTILIZATION OF CERTAIN HYDROCARBONS BY MICROORGANISMS...1940 INTRODUCTION Hydrocarbons, as a class, represent...obtained by comparing the heat of combustion of some six carbon...biological utilization of hydrocarbons as sources of energy...

L. D. Bushnell; H. F. Haas

1941-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Interaction between Carcinogenic Hydrocarbons and Nucleosides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...addition, the findings that hydrocarbons inhibit DNA syn thesis...for these carcinogens. Hydrocarbon-nucleic acid interaction...and the interactions of water molecules. Indeed, carcinogenic hydrocarbons tend to form 1 This investigation...

Ronald G. Harvey and Marilyn Halonen

1968-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Enhanced liquid hydrocarbon recovery process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for recovering liquid hydrocarbons. It comprises: injecting into a fractured subterranean formation a polymer enhanced foam comprising a polymer selected from a synthetic polymer or a biopolymer, a surfactant, an aqueous solvent and a gas, recovering liquid hydrocarbons from the formation.

Sydansk, R.D.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

303

Hydrocarbon sensors and materials therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor and materials for use in sensors. A suitable proton conducting electrolyte and catalytic materials have been found for specific application in the detection and measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons. The sensor comprises a proton conducting electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. At least one of the electrodes is covered with a hydrocarbon decomposition catalyst. Two different modes of operation for the hydrocarbon sensors can be used: equilibrium versus non-equilibrium measurements and differential catalytic. The sensor has particular application for on-board monitoring of automobile exhaust gases to evaluate the performance of catalytic converters. In addition, the sensor can be utilized in monitoring any process where hydrocarbons are exhausted, for instance, industrial power plants. The sensor is low cost, rugged, sensitive, simple to fabricate, miniature, and does not suffer cross sensitivities.

Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Distribution and elimination routes of a naphthenic hydrocarbon (Dodecylcyclohexane) in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contamination of fish by hydrocarbons, whether it occurred directly via the water or indirectly via the food chain has been the object of many studies during the last decade. The interest of laboratories have been focused on the most toxic components of crude oils, i.e., aromatic hydrocarbons but there is a lack of information on the fate of cyclic alkanes in fish. Naphthenic hydrocarbons are the least biologically active of the more mobile fractions of petroleum; nevertheless the fate of these compounds are worth considering, because they constitute respectively 41% and 19.2% of light and heavy crude oils. This paper reports the results of our experiment in which /sup 3/H-dodecylcyclohexane has been given per os to rainbow trout in order to evaluate the distribution and elimination routes of this cycloparaffin.

Cravedi, J.P.; Tulliez, J.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

306

Mutual solubilities of hydrocarbon–water systems with F-SAC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, the F-SAC model was extended in order to better represent the mutual solubility of hydrocarbons (alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, cycloalkenes and aromatics) in water. Aqueous mixtures of hydrocarbons exhibit an extremely non-ideal behavior, resulting in very low solubilities. A new parameter for the computation of the association energy was proposed, enabling a better agreement with temperature dependent experimental data in wide temperature ranges. Infinite-dilution activity coefficient as well as liquid–liquid equilibrium data were considered. The results were compared with some UNIFAC variants, found in the literature. For the studied systems, the proposed method performed better, including the quantitative representation of the experimentally observed minimum solubility point of hydrocarbons in the water-rich phase, while none of UNIFAC models tested were capable of predicting such behavior. Further, improved high-pressure results were obtained when the proposed model was coupled with a cubic equation of state through the SCMR mixing rule.

L.F.K. Possani; R.L. Simões; P.B. Staudt; R. de P. Soares

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Computer Simulations Reveal Multiple Functions for Aromatic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computer Simulations Reveal Multiple Functions for Aromatic Residues in Cellulase Enzymes NREL researchers use high-performance computing to demonstrate fundamental roles of aromatic residues in cellulase enzyme tunnels. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) computer simulations of a key indus- trial

308

Process for recovering hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon-bearing formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for transporting heavy crude oil through a pipeline which involves introducing into a pipeline or well-bore with the viscous hydrocarbons an aqueous solution containing (1) a sulfonate surfactant, (2) a rosin soap or a naphthenic acid soap and, optionally (3) coupling agent whereby there is spontaneously formed a low viscosity, salt tolerant, oil-in-water emulsion. Also disclosed is a method of recovery of hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon bearing formation employing an aqueous solution containing (1) a sulfonate surfactant, (2) a rosin soap or a naphthenic acid soap and, optionally (3) a coupling agent.

Alston, R.B.; Braden, W.B.; Flournoy, K.H.

1980-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

309

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

310

Multimedia fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil: Oil matrix of constructed biopiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A dynamic multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the partitioning and fate of petroleum hydrocarbon fractions and aromatic indicator compounds within the soil: oil matrix of three biopiles. Each biopile was characterised by four compartments: air, water, soil solids and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). Equilibrium partitioning in biopile A and B suggested that most fractions resided in the NAPL, with the exception of the aromatic fraction with an equivalent carbon number from 5 to 7 (EC5?7). In Biopile C, which had the highest soil organic carbon content (13%), the soil solids were the most important compartment for both light aliphatic fractions (EC5?6 and EC6?8) and aromatic fractions, excluding the EC16?21 and EC21?35. Our starting hypothesis was that hydrocarbons do not degrade within the NAPL. This was supported by the agreement between predicted and measured hydrocarbon concentrations in Biopile B when the degradation rate constant in NAPL was set to zero. In all scenarios, biodegradation in soil was predicted as the dominant removal process for all fractions, except for the aliphatic EC5?6 which was predominantly lost via volatilization. The absence of an explicit NAPL phase in the model yielded a similar prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) behaviour; however the predicted concentrations in the air and water phases were significantly increased with consequent changes in potential mobility. Further comparisons between predictions and measured data, particularly concentrations in the soil mobile phases, are required to ascertain the true value of including an explicit NAPL in models of this kind.

Frédéric Coulon; Michael J. Whelan; Graeme I. Paton; Kirk T. Semple; Raffaella Villa; Simon J.T. Pollard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Glossary API Gravity: An  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

drip gas, as well as liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gil- sonite, and oil shale. Excludes topped crude oil, resid- ual oil, other unfinished oils, and liquids...

313

A new technology for producing synthetic liquid hydrocarbons from gaseous hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conventional technologies of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF) production from gaseous hydrocarbons by producing synthesis ... liquid hydrocarbons are examined. A high-efficiency SLF production technology that allows ...

D. L. Astanovskii; L. Z. Astanovskii; A. L. Lapidus

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk.

J. Pinedo; R. Ibáñez; J.P.A. Lijzen; Á. Irabien

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Increased combustion rate of chlorobenzene on Pt/?-Al2O3 in binary mixtures with hydrocarbons and with carbon monoxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene on a 2 wt.% Pt/?-Al2O3 catalyst in binary mixtures with various hydrocarbons (toluene, benzene, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, 1,4-cyclohexadiene, 2-butene, and ethene) and with carbon monoxide has been explored. For all binary mixtures used the (excess of) added hydrocarbon increased the rate of conversion of chlorobenzene. With 2-butene, T50% and T100% for chlorobenzene were reduced by 100 and 200°C, respectively. Toluene and ethene were almost equally efficient as 2-butene. Co-feeding benzene or carbon monoxide resulted in a much smaller decrease of the T50%. The additional heat and water production in hydrocarbon combustion may contribute to some extent to the observed rate acceleration, but removal of Cl from the surface due to the hydrocarbon appears to be the major factor. The co-feeding of hydrocarbons invariably reduced the output of polychlorinated benzenes, which are formed as byproducts in the combustion of chlorobenzene on Pt/?-Al2O3. Again, especially toluene, ethene, and 2-butene were very efficient. Benzene — as well as cyclohexane, cyclohexene, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene, which were converted in situ into benzene — was much less effective, due to chlorination of the aromatic nucleus. In chlorobenzene–CO mixtures the levels of polychlorinated benzenes were almost as high as with chlorobenzene per se. Removal of Cl from the surface (mainly in the form of HCl) by (non-aromatic) hydrocarbons is responsible for reducing the formation of byproducts.

R.W. van den Brink; R. Louw; P. Mulder

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

JASPERSE CHEM 341 TEST 4 VERSION 1 Conjugation, Diels-Alder, Aromaticity, Aromatic Reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hybridization Basicity Na Nb Nc Nd Heat of Hydrogenation O O O Reactivity Towards Br BrBr Reactivity toward SN21 JASPERSE CHEM 341 TEST 4 VERSION 1 Conjugation, Diels-Alder, Aromaticity, Aromatic Reactions 1 #12;2 5. Synthesis Reactions. Draw the feature product of the following reactions (need not show any

Jasperse, Craig P.

317

Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

318

The Universe Adventure - Gravity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gravity: The Main Attraction Gravity: The Main Attraction Gravity Acts on All Matter Gravity's effect is apparent even at the largest scales: just as gravity keeps the Earth orbiting the sun, it holds these two irregular galaxies M32 and M110 in orbit around the larger Andromeda galaxy. In the late 1600s, the English mathematician Sir Isaac Newton gave the first scientific description of gravitation. Gravity is an attractive force existing between any two objects that have mass, causing them to accelerate towards each other. It is the weakest of the four fundamental forces but can act over great distances and is responsible for the formation of planets, stars, galaxies, and even larger scale structures such as groups and superclusters. Gravity is also the force that governs the motion of

319

Molecular biology of environmental aromatic hydrocarbons. Progress report, September 1, 1985-July 31, 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies in our laboratory have indicated that short DNA oligonucleotides can be used as targets for alkylation by activated benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) to examine the effect of PAH-induced mutagenesis. The alkylated oligomers are ligated into viral DNA and this construct is used to tranfect Escherichia coli. Progeny virus are selected from agar plates, amplified, and the viral DNA isolated is sequenced at the site of oligomer insertion. A scheme for the assembly of synthetic DNA oligonucleotides has been devised such that: (a) the site of alkylation in the oligomer is specific for a single deoxynucleotide species; and (b) the position of the adduct(s) in the oligomer can be varied. At the present stage of our work, we have prepared four synthetic duplex DNA oligomers. These oligomers are 32 base pairs in length and contain either a single or double dG residue in each strand separated by 4 or 12 base pairs (see text in this report). When these oligomers are reacted with (+)BPDE, only the dG residues form adducts. Transfection of E. coli with the four different assembled oligomers alkylated with (+)BPDE gives rise to the production of progency viral DNAs which primarily show the restoration of the original ologomer DNA sequence, but also, the appearance of a large deletion at the site of alkylation. The number of progeny viral DNAs sequenced to date are too few to determine a reliable mutation frequency. Construction of DNA oligomers containing other alkylated residues, e.g., dA and dC, is in progress. Preliminary attempts to detect BPDE-induced enzymes that participate in the repair of PAH-damaged DNA are also described. 27 refs., 1 fig.

Weiss, S.B.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Unrepaired Fjord Region Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-DNA Adducts in ras Codon 61 Mutational Hot Spots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for carcinogen-induced proto-oncogene activation. Synthetic DNA substrates were assembled using a portion of human N-ras...for carcinogen-induced proto-oncogene activation. Synthetic DNA substrates were assembled using a portion of human N-ras...

Tonko Buterin; Martin T. Hess; Natalia Luneva; Nicholas E. Geacintov; Shantu Amin; Heiko Kroth; Albrecht Seidel; Hanspeter Naegeli

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

... Source: Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center (CFADC) Collection: Plasma Physics and Fusion 2 2003 NETL Onsite Merit Review Development of Predictive Summary: is a complex,...

322

Biodegradation of Three- and Four-Ring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons under Aerobic and Denitrifying Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dan L. McNally ,*† James R. Mihelcic ,‡ and Donald R. Lueking § ... Han S. Kim andWalter J. Weber, Jr. ...

Dan L. McNally; James R. Mihelcic; Donald R. Lueking

1998-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

323

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Indoor and Outdoor Environments and Factors Affecting Their Concentrations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

43?000 cars/day in 1999; diesel vehicle, 46%; gasoline fuel vehicle, 54%), and an expressway (ca. ... Cretney et al. proposed that the ratio of [BbF] + [BkF] (=BFs) to [BghiP] was a more reliable signature for distinguishing between automobiles (0.20?0.29 in car park air particulate) and domestic soot (1.5?14 in domestic open-fire soot) (31). ... (23)?Panther, B. C.; Hooper, M. A.; Tappen, N. J. Atmos. ...

Takeshi Ohura; Takashi Amagai; Masahiro Fusaya; Hidetsuru Matsushita

2003-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

324

Quantifying the Total and Bioavailable Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Dioxins in Biochars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sarah E. Hale †*, Johannes Lehmann ‡, David Rutherford §, Andrew R. Zimmerman ?, Robert T. Bachmann ?, Victor Shitumbanuma #, Adam O’Toole ?, Kristina L. Sundqvist ?, Hans Peter H. Arp †, and Gerard Cornelissen †?¶ ... We speculate that slow pyrolysis results in any PAHs that are produced during the process escaping to the gaseous phase while during gasification and fast pyrolysis, any PAHs that are produced may condense on the biochar material itself. ... The gases were analyzed off-line by packed column gas chromatog. ...

Sarah E. Hale; Johannes Lehmann; David Rutherford; Andrew R. Zimmerman; Robert T. Bachmann; Victor Shitumbanuma; Adam O’Toole; Kristina L. Sundqvist; Hans Peter H. Arp; Gerard Cornelissen

2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

325

Measurement by Room Temperature Phosphorescence of Polynuclear Aromatic Containing Hydrocarbon Fuels that Permeate Glove Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......technique provided a simple, cost effective, and very sensitive means for measuring breakthrough times and permeation rates of the class of potentially carcinogenic PNA in liquid fuels derived from crude petroleum, oil shale, and coal....

R.B. Gammage; T. Vo-Dinh; D.A. White

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons diagnostic Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

that map onto Source: Knuth, Kevin H. - Department of Physics, State University of New York at Albany Collection: Physics 91 DISCOTIC MESOPHASES POTENTIALITIES Abstract....

327

Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and isomer ratios as tracers of biomass burning emissions in Northern India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emission from large-scale post-harvest agricultural-waste burning (paddy-residue burning during October–November and wheat-residue burning in April–May) is a conspicuous feature ... in northern India. The poor an...

Prashant Rajput; M. M. Sarin; Deepti Sharma…

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Characterization of a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation Gene Cluster in a Phenanthrene-Degrading Acidovorax Strain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and QuantiTect SYBR green PCR kit (Qiagen...source of carbon and energy after 6 days but...In support of its current classification...source of carbon and energy in the defined media...contributions to the summer internship program. REFERENCES...a sole carbon and energy source and could...

David R. Singleton; Liza Guzmán Ramirez; Michael D. Aitken

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

329

On-line electrochemistry/electrospray mass spectrometry: Studies of oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of on-line coupling of electrochemistry with mass spectrometry, i.e., {open_quotes}electrochemical mass spectrometry{close_quotes} (EC/MS) date back to work by Bruckenstein et al. in the 1970`s. In these and other early experiments, porous working electrodes or permeable membranes were usually used as the interface between the cell and the MS ionization source which exclusively employed electron ionization (EI). As a result, only volatile products of electrochemical reactions could be detected by the mass line electrochemistry/mass spectroscopy was the coupling of an mass spectrometer (EC/TS/MS) reported by Hambitzer and g an aqueous ammonium acetate thermospray buffer solution, all detected or ammoniated species in the positive ion mode or as deprotonated or acetate adduct species in the negative ion mode. Radical cations or anions were not detected. Although {open_quotes}electrochemically assisted electrospray mass spectrometry{close_quotes} has been progressing for a few years, chiefly due to the pioneering efforts of Van Berkel and coworkers, on-line coupling electrochemistry with electrospray mass spectrometry (EC/ESMS) is still a developing area because of the experimental difficulties involved, such as high voltage hazard to the electrochemistry hardware (e.g. potentiostat), and MS signal suppression caused by the presence of high concentrations of supporting electrolytes. We report the coupling of an electrochemical device on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry (EC/ESMS) to extend the potential of ESMS to detect non-polar neutral compounds, and to monitor and identify intermediates and products generated by electrochemical reactions.

Xu, Xiaoming; Lu, Wenzhe; Cole, R.B. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

1 Solvent-Extractable Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Biochar: 2 Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Feedstock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion (or 30 pyrolysis) of plant biomass are important natural constituents 31 of soils and sediments.1 45 different starting materials. 46 Pyrolysis of biomass is known to produce a wide variety of 47 low and high molecular weight (LMW and HMW, respectively) 48 PAHs depending on the biomass type, pyrolysis

331

A method for using polyethylene passive samplers to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chemical activity in sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to aid in the determination of the hazards posed by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in sediment beds, a method for the use of polyethylene (PE) sheets as passive sampling devices for measuring chemical ...

Fernandez, Loretta A. (Loretta Ana)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Chromosomal Aberrations in Cord Blood Are Associated with Prenatal Exposure to Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...toxicants in ambient air resulting in large...incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Multiple studies...completed prenatal air monitoring. Sixty...and hybridization solution were prewarmed to...relationship between air pollution or PAHs and chromosomal...

Kirsti A. Bocskay; Deliang Tang; Manuela A. Orjuela; Xinhua Liu; Dorothy P. Warburton; and Frederica P. Perera

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Tenax as sorption sink for in vitro bioaccessibility measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Ma a, d a State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment & Environment, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China d Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 30 June 2014

Ma, Lena

334

A Prototype Passive Air Sampler for Measuring Dry Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(6, 11) The use of the Pas-DD collector to collect PAH dry deposition data at a high spatial resolution to generate deposition maps is analogous to the way that mosses, lichens, and other biomonitors are used to map spatial deposition, but overcoming some of the inconsistency and interpretation challenges associated with biomonitoring. ... Approximately 36% of the PUF disk total outer surface area is covered by the open plate and perforated support that holds the PUF disk in place; countering reduction in sampling for the Pas-DD collector is the higher wind speed through the Pas-DD collector plates that will reduce air-side mass transfer resistance and enhance chemical sampling rates. ... using models that account for particle size distribution show that the results are extremely sensitive to the mass of large particles and that large particles control dry deposition flux due to their high deposition velocities. ...

Anita Eng; Tom Harner; Karla Pozo

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

335

Multimedia Model for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitro-PAHs in Lake Michigan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publication Date (Web): November 5, 2014 ... This study uses fugacity, food web, and Monte Carlo models to examine 16 PAHs and five NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and to derive PAH and NPAH emission estimates. ... The food web model matched measurements of heavier PAHs (?5 rings) in lake trout, but lighter PAHs (?4 rings) were overpredicted, possibly due to overestimates of metabolic half-lives or gut/gill absorption efficiencies. ...

Lei Huang; Stuart A. Batterman

2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

336

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Increase in Athabasca River Delta Sediment: Temporal Trends and Environmental Correlates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(4) Fish hatching alterations, increases in mortality, spinal malformations, reduced size, cardiac dysfunction, edema, and reduction in the size of the jaw and other craniofacial structures have been observed in fishes exposed to PAHs found in Athabasca sediments. ... The footprint values underestimate the true extent of industrial activity because linear features such as roads, pipelines, powerlines, and seismic lines are not included. ...

Kevin P. Timoney; Peter Lee

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

337

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon cations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

... Source: Canberra, University of - Institute for Applied Ecology Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 6 Dr. Shu Tao, ProfessorEnvironmental Geography and...

338

Optimizing a Washing Procedure To Mobilize Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a Field-Contaminated Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soil washing was combined with surfactant regeneration and detoxification steps to generate innocuous products. ... Yet guidance in selecting surfactants for ex situ soil washing remains somewhat fragmentary. ...

Tao Yuan; William D. Marshall

2007-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

339

Relationships between Carcinogenicity and Theoretical Reactivity Indices in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...usually several alternatives are available for...meso-9,10-car bon atoms of anthracene...molecular orbital energies are , @= a + mj3...de localization energy @Edel@/f3...led us to examine alternative indices. One such...Table 10. Composite Energy Indices Transformation...

Iden A. Smith; Gregory D. Berger; Paul G. Seybold; and M. P. Servé

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Mutagenicity of Soot and Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Salmonella typhimurium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pyrene. To examine the alternative explanation that other...pyrene. To examine the alternative explanation that other...States Department ot Energy Grant EE-77-S-02-4267...Agreement through the MIT Energy Laboratory, and the...demonstrated that soot is car cinogenic to experimental...

Debra A. Kaden; Ronald A. Hites; and William G. Thilly

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Photochemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons: implications for ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

formation is essential to assess the urban air pollution. This dissertation consists of two parts: (1) theoretical investigation of the toluene oxidation initiated by OH radical using quantum chemical and kinetic calculations to understand the mechanism of O...

Suh, Inseon

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

342

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood from the Gulf of Alaska following a major crude oil spill  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than ten million gallons of Prudo Bay crude oil spilled into Prince William Sound, Alaska, when the supertanker EXXON VALDEZ ran aground March 1989. The oil spread over thousands of square miles of prime commercial fishing waters, causing State and Federal agencies to initiate immediate controls to ensure that seafood contaminated with this crude oil did not enter commercial channels. Consequently, the 1989 herring fishery was closed for the season, and other fisheries were closely monitored. Whenever there was visible evidence of oil in an area, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG) closed that area to commercial fishing. Salmon harvested from open areas during the remainder of that season were screened organoleptically as they were being off-loaded from the vessels. PAHs were selected for analysis because they are constituents of crude oil and some are carcinogenic. During the 1990 herring fishing season, ADFG collected samples at the various catch sites prior to the season opening. Only when there was no evidence of oil contamination was the herring fishery allowed to open. In addition, samples were collected during the course of the harvest season and similarly analyzed. The 1990 salmon fishery was controlled in a like manner. After the fishery was allowed to open, catches continued to be monitored organoleptically by ADEC and FDA investigators. Negative organoleptic samples continued to be sent to the ADEC, Palmer Laboratory, selective tissue portions removed and sent to the FDA laboratory where they were further analyzed for PAH levels by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Saxton, W.L.; Newton, R.T.; Rorberg, J.; Sutton, J.; Johnson, L.E. (Food and Drug Administration, Bothell, WA (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Preliminary exposure assessment for Kuwaiti consumers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Levels of PAHs in seafood from Kuwaiti market were determined. Results showed that most of the samples contained significant amounts of total PAHs. Naphthalene constituted the highest PAH burden of the samples. Nuwaibi had the highest level of total PAHs (472.6 {mu}g/kg, dry wt). Others ranged from 0.86 to 55.96 {mu}g/kg dry wt. The results of exposure assessment for the average consumer indicated a daily intake of 0.231 {mu}g of total PAH from seafood. BaP equivalent intake was calculated to be 0.0167 {mu}g/d. For the above average consumer, total PAH intake was 0.326 {mu}g/d; and BaP equivalents were 0.025 {mu}g/d. These daily intake levels were quite comparable with those reported for the average American consumer. 18 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Saeed, T.; Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hashash, H.; Al-Bahloul, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)] [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

The behaviors and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coking wastewater treatment plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The occurrence, behaviors and fate of 18 \\{PAHs\\} were investigated in a coking wastewater treatment plant in Songshan coking plant, located in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province of China. It was found that the target compounds occurred widely in raw coking wastewater, treated effluent, sludge and gas samples. In raw coking wastewater, high molecular weight (MW) \\{PAHs\\} were the dominant compounds, while 3–6 ring \\{PAHs\\} predominated in the final effluent. The dominant compounds in gas samples were phenathrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, while they were fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[k]fluoranthene for sludge. The process achieved over 97% removal for all the PAHs, 47–92% of eliminations of these target compounds in liquid phase were achieved in biological stage. Different behaviors of \\{PAHs\\} were observed in the primary tank, anaerobic tank, aerobic tank, hydrolytic tank and coagulation tank units, while heavier and lower ones were mainly removed in anaerobic tank and aerobic tanks, respectively. Regarding the fate of PAHs, calculated fractions of mass losses for low MW \\{PAHs\\} due to transformation and adsorption to sludge accounted for 15–50% and 24–49%, respectively, while the rest was less than 1%. For high MW PAHs, the mass losses were mainly due to adsorption to sludge and separation with tar (contributing 56–76% and 22–39%, respectively), and the removal through transformation was less.

Wanhui Zhang; Chaohai Wei; Xinsheng Chai; Jingying He; Ying Cai; Man Ren; Bo Yan; Pingan Peng; Jiamo Fu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and potentially carcinogenic pollutants. Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, sediments, and/or ground water. It has gained acceptance over the last decade as a cost- effective an economic and ecologically attractive remediation technique. This study focused on the effects of different, noninvasive, and complementary technology for engineering-based remediation methods (Pilon-Smits, 2005

346

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons on the vegetation of a railroad right-of-way  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exhaust emissions (LYONS, 1962). The presence of PAH in diesel exhaust emissions is well documented (KOTIN et al. , 1955; NOORE and KATZ, 1960; RECKNER et al, , 1965). Although diesel emissions are generally slight in comparison to overall air... fuel, indi cating a higher combustion efficiency in the 4-cycle engine, Engines in poor mechanical condition generally were found to be operating with incom piete combustion of fuel. This led to the production of increased quantities of soot...

Hancock, James Leonard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

347

Partitioning and Bioavailability of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Intertidal Marsh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

satisfied their requirements. BSAF vs. log Kow by organismsediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for PAHs to the octanol-accumulation factor (BSAF). These BSAFs spanned nearly three

Maruya, Keith A; Horne, Alex J

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons ii Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Technology Council (WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 37 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR analysis of the thermal degradation products from vitrinites in relation to their Summary:...

349

Mutagenicity of Soot and Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Salmonella typhimurium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...soot was obtained by burning a kerosene fuel in a turbulent, continuous-flow combustor...be important in analyzing the soots of fuels, such as coal, that contain significant...RESEARCH VOL 39 10. Freeman. A. E., Price. P. J.. Bryan, R. J.. Gordon...

Debra A. Kaden; Ronald A. Hites; and William G. Thilly

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Fossil Fuel Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biogeochemistry in the Marine Environment: Research Challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Knowledge of biogeochemical cycles provides information about when, where, for how long, and in which physical-chemical or biological form organisms will be exposed to a pollutant. Biogeochemical research seek...

John W. Farrington

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to minerals and low-organic-carbon aquifer sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The molecular mechanisms and major geochemical factors ics. controlling the sorption of nontoxic organic chemicals (NOC) to mineral surfaces in low-organic-carbon soils and sediments remain unclear. The objectives of this research were to study...

Grimaldi, Gabriel Orlando

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

352

Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to minerals and low-organic-carbon aquifer sediments.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The molecular mechanisms and major geochemical factors ics. controlling the sorption of nontoxic organic chemicals (NOC) to mineral surfaces in low-organic-carbon soils and sediments remain… (more)

Grimaldi, Gabriel Orlando

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Bacterial mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reconstituted mixtures and crude coal tar extracts and fractions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

factors which assume additive interactions between individual PAHS. The mutagenic interactions of PAH mixtures were investigated using the Salmonellalmicrosome assay. Two groups of samples included PAH mixtures modeling a coal tar and an environmental...

Onufrock, Amy Mildred

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

354

Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments from Estuaries of South-eastern Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(PAH) in the environment has increased since the Industrial Revolution, chiefly through the widespread-eastern Australia John Bagg,AJ. David SmithBand William A. MaherB A Department of Industrial Science, University and Suess 1970). Estuarine and river sediments can be contaminated by inputs from domestic and industrial

Canberra, University of

355

Presence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Waters Used for the Production of Drinking Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two methods widely applied for isolating PAH from surface water have been compared: solvent extraction using cyclohexane and solid surface extraction. Higher recoveires were obtained through solvent extraction...

F. Van Hoof; S. Aerts

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Biosensor Control of Acute Total Toxicity of Water and Soil Polluted by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article a short analysis of total toxicity of different samples of water and soil (obtained from some Azerbaijan mud bobbling volcanoes, region of oil production, railway lines, Dnieper river and prepa...

Nikolay F. Starodub

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Water Quality and Enrichment of Sedimentary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Relation to Fish Culture in Malaysia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigated the potential effects of the fish aquaculture on water quality and enrichment of PAHs in the aquaculture surface sediments. Water quality parameters and PAHs were determined at fish far...

Ananthy Retnam; Hafizan Juahir; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Inhalation exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and lung cancer risk of Chinese population  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...987 . 36 Zhang JF Smith KR ( 2007 ) Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels...at a temperature of T0 and the active energy (a):0 OHk 0 0exp((1/1/))OH...relationship to emission sources in the Pan-Japan Sea countries. Atmospheric Environment...

Yanxu Zhang; Shu Tao; Huizhong Shen; Jianmin Ma

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Determination of the mutagenic potential of individual and binary mixtures of polycyclic aromatic and nitroaromatic hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). iv Based on these pure results, fair binary mixtures were chosen; BAP/BEP, BAP/1NP, BAP/DMBA, and BEP/DMBA. For the mixtures? a mutagenic interaction ratio (MIR) was calculated. Using two doses of pure chemicals, boundaries between inhibitive.../Response Curve for BEP 21 5. 6 Dose/Response Curve for 1NP 5. 7. Dose/Response Curve for DMBA 5. 8. Dose/Response Curve for 2NF 5. 9. Dose/Response Curve for BA 5. 10. Dose/Response Curve for FA 5. 11. Dose/Response Curve for CH 22 24 25 26 27 29...

Keller, Tracie A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

360

Biological enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of microbial enhanced oil recovery for recovering oil from an oil-bearing rock formation is provided. The methodology uses a consortium of bacteria including a mixture of surfactant producing bacteria and non-surfactant enzyme producing bacteria which may release hydrocarbons from bitumen containing sands. The described bioprocess can work with existing petroleum recovery protocols. The consortium microorganisms are also useful for treatment of above oil sands, ground waste tailings, subsurface oil recovery, and similar materials to enhance remediation and/or recovery of additional hydrocarbons from the materials.

Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Fluorescence Detection of Hydrocarbons in Harbour Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In harbor water, the hydrocarbons pollution identification represents an important issue. Hydrocarbon presence derives from oil spills, for instance in bilge water, or it may come from industrial discharge ... Fl...

A. Catini; F. Dini; D. Polese; S. Petrocco; M. De Luca…

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Abstract: Many...

363

Extracting hydrocarbons from water using a centrifuge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An original method for the solid-phase microextraction of hydrocarbons from water using a centrifuge is proposed. Comparative results...

A. Yu. Ryabov; A. A. Ilyina; A. V. Chuikin…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Photo-oxides of Carcinogenic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... are involved in the biological action of carcinogenic hydrocarbons, we have attempted to isolate the photo-oxides of some of these hydrocarbons. Such ... -oxides of some of these hydrocarbons. Such photo-oxides would naturally be insoluble in water and hence would represent merely one stage in ...

J. W. COOK; R. MARTIN; E. M. F. ROE

1939-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

365

MHUG process for production of low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel. [Medium-pressure Hydro UpGrading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new hydro-upgrading process operated under medium pressure has been developed to reduce the sulfur and the aromatics content in light cycle oil (LCO). Two catalysts were used in series in this technology. The commercial RN-1 catalyst, which is known as having high activity in hydrodenitrogenation, desulfurization and aromatic saturation, was chosen as the first catalyst. The second one was a nickel-tungsten zeolite catalyst, named RT-5, which was developed by RIPP specially for hydrogenolysis of naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The pilot plant tests showed that high quality diesel oil with aromatics content less than 20 v% and sulfur content less than 0.05 wt% could be produced from various LCO/straight-run-gas-oil (SRGO) blended feedstocks under hydrogen partial pressure of 6.4 MPa. The reaction temperature and overall space velocity (S.V.) varied in the range of 350--380 C and 0.6--1.2 h[sup [minus]1], respectively, depending on the properties of the feedstocks to be processed and the upgrading depth required. Several examples presented also illustrated that this technology could be used to prepare catalytic reforming feedstock as well, which is in urgent need in China. A life test operated in relatively high severity for 3,000 hr. indicated that the catalysts possessed excellent stability. A commercial demonstration unit has been running well since the last Oct 1.

Shi, Yu Lin; Shi, Jian Wen; Zhang, Xin Wei; Shi, Ya Hua; Li, Da Dong (SINOPEC, Beijing (China). Research Inst. of Petroleum Processing)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hot effluent from the catalytic steam reforming of a major portion of a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream in the reformer tubes of a primary reformer, or said effluent after secondary reforming thereof, is mixed with the hot effluent from the catalytic steam reforming of the remaining portion of the feed discharged from the reformer tubes of a primary reformer-exchanger. The combined gas steam is passed on the shell side of the reformer-exchanger countercurrently to the passage of feed in the reformer tubes thereof, thus supplying the heat for the reforming of the portion of the feed passed through the reformer tubes of the reformerexchanger. At least about 2/3 of the hydrocarbon feed stream is passed to the reformer tubes of said primary reformer, heated by radiant heat transfer and/or by contact with combustion gases, at a steam/hydrocarbon mole ratio of about 2-4/1. The remainder of said feed stream is passed to the reformer tubes of said reformer -exchanger at a steam/hydrocarbon mole ratio of about 3-6/1. The reformer shell of the reformer-exchanger is internally insulated by a refractory lining or by use of a double shell with passage of water or a portion of the feed material between the inner and outer shells. There is no significant difference between the pressure inside and outside of the reformer tubes of said primary reformer-exchanger.

Fuderer, A.

1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

367

Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

368

Gravity Train Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dec 7, 2013 ... Gravity Train Project. Same page in Romanian, Polish, and in French. Let us drill a straight tunnel from West Lafayette, IN to Paris, France:.

369

A Novel, Green Technology for the Production of Aromatic Thiol from Aromatic Sulfonyl Chloride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Functional Theory (DFT), a quantum mechanical method, was used to investigate the new aromatic thiol production technology at the molecular level in aspects including reaction species adsorption and transition state determination. Plant design methods...

Atkinson, Bradley R.

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

370

Hydrocarbon Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrocarbon Technologies Hydrocarbon Technologies Place Lawrenceville, New Jersey Zip 8648 Sector Efficiency Product String representation "Technology-base ... onmental risks." is too long. Coordinates 36.761678°, -77.845048° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":36.761678,"lon":-77.845048,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

371

Enhanced liquid hydrocarbon recovery process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formation. It comprises injecting natural gas into the formation via a well in fluid communication with the formation, the natural gas being at a temperature which is insufficient to significantly mobilize light density oil in the formation and at a pressure such that the natural gas is immiscible with the light density oil in the formation, the natural gas being injected in a volume sufficient to contact light density oil in the formation within a radius from the well of about 50 meters; shutting in the well for a period of time of about 1 to about 100 days which is sufficient to render the contacted light density oil mobile; and producing the light density oil which has been mobilized by solution of the natural gas from the well.

Haines, H.K.; Monger, T.G.; Kenyon, D.E.; Galvin, L.J.

1991-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

372

Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

Shah, Yatish T. [Norfolk State University; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal ... Studies of the reactions of coal in electric discharges by two chemists at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Pittsburgh Coal Research Center may lead to improved ways of producing acetylene and other useful chemicals from coal. ... Other workers have produced high yields of acetylene from coal by extremely rapid pyrolysis using energy sources such as plasma jets, laser beams, arc-image reactors, and flash heaters. ...

1968-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

374

Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

375

Counterterms in Lovelock Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences in the action of Lovelock gravity can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of the black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. We calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. We, also, find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there ex...

Mehdizadeh, M R; Zangeneh, M Kord

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Gravity perturbed Crapper waves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...waves are known to have multi-valued height. Using...gravity-capillary waves with multi-valued height. The...of single-valued and multi-valued travelling waves...absence of gravity, a family of exact solutions is...elliptic functions. Building upon the work by Tanveer...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Chapter 4 - Physical Properties of Hydrocarbons and Petrochemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A brief description of the most common hydrocarbons and chemicals used in the process industries is provided, starting from the simplest to the more complex. Additionally, several tables are provided that identify the molecular compositions and typical fire hazards (flash points, flammability limits, autoignition temperatures) of these common materials. The specific fire hazard terms are explained in further detail for better understanding of the risks involved with processing and handling of the materials. An autoignition temperature approximation method is also provided for use where a mixture of material may be present. Physical properties that may influence the severity of an incident from these materials are mentioned and described, which includes vapor density, vapor pressure, and specific gravity.

Dennis P. Nolan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Selection Rules for the Nonlinear Interactions of Internal Gravity Waves and Inertia-Gravity Waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internal Gravity Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Twodimensional inertia-gravity wave physics . . . . . . . . .Three dimensional inertia-gravity wave physics . . . . . .

Jiang, Chung-Hsiang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Kinetics and mechanisms of reactions involving small aromatic reactive intermediates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small aromatic radicals such as C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 6}H{sub 4} are key prototype species of their homologs. C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and its oxidation product, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O are believed to be important intermediates which play a pivotal role in hydrocarbon combustion, particularly with regard to soot formation. Despite their fundamental importance, experimental data on the reaction mechanisms and reactivities of these species are very limited. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, most kinetic data except its reactions with NO and NO{sub 2}, were obtained by relative rate measurements. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O, the authors have earlier measured its fragmentation reaction producing C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + CO in shock waves. For C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, the only rate constant measured in the gas phase is its recombination rate at room temperature. The authors have proposed to investigate systematically the kinetics and mechanisms of this important class of molecules using two parallel laser diagnostic techniques--laser resonance absorption (LRA) and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry (REMPI/MS). In the past two years, study has been focused on the development of a new multipass adsorption technique--the {open_quotes}cavity-ring-down{close_quotes} technique for kinetic applications. The preliminary results of this study appear to be quite good and the sensitivity of the technique is at least comparable to that of the laser-induced fluorescence method.

Lin, M.C. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Volatile liquid hydrocarbon characterization of underwater hydrocarbon vents and formation waters from offshore production operations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Volatile liquid hydrocarbon characterization of underwater hydrocarbon vents and formation waters from offshore production operations ... The environmental implications of offshore oil and gas activities ... The environmental implications of offshore oil and gas activities ...

Theodor C. Sauer

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

383

catalytic_upgrading_sugars_to_hydrocarbons  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

phase reforming into hydrocarbons for fuels and co-product commodities. Process Block Diagram Next Steps Additional modeling is necessary to quantify baseline costs associated...

384

Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research Rafal Gieleciak, Craig Fairbridge and Darcy Hager Poster...

385

Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon liquids at high pressures and temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the organic/inorganic interface in the Earth's crust requires values of the thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon species in crude oil, coal, and natural gas at elevated temperatures and pressures. Values of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation and the standard partial molal entropies and heat capacities of these organic species can be computed as a function of temperature at 1 bar using the equations of state adopted by Helgeson et al (1991). The pressure dependence of the thermodynamic properties can be calculated from a modified version of the Parameters From Group Contributions (PFGC) equation of state. To improve the accuracy of these predictions, critical evaluation of high-pressure density experiments reported in the literature was used in the present study to characterize b[sub j] as a function of pressure and temperature. The revised PFGC equation of state permits accurate calculation of the standard partial molal volumes of the major hydrocarbon species in the aliphatic, aromatic, and naphthenic fractions of crude oil, as well as fatty acids, phenols, and naphthenic acids at temperatures and pressures to 500 C and 5 kbar. Combining the revised PFGC equation of state and parameters with the standard partial molal properties of these species at one bar and those of aqueous species and minerals permits calculation of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs Free energies of reaction, and thus equilibrium constants for a wide variety of chemical equilibria among organic liquids, solids, and gases, aqueous species, and minerals at temperatures and pressures characteristic of both diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust.

Aagaard, P. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geology); Oelkers, E.H. (Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Geochimie); Helgeson, H.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Modifications of gravity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...requirement of cold dark matter (CDM...gravity|cosmology|dark energy| 1. Introduction...cosmology). The discovery that the expansion...the form of cold dark matter (CDM...and perhaps dark energy (DE) [22-26...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Hydrocarbons in rift basins: the role of stratigraphy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...versus shallow-water environments...A (1999) Hydrocarbons in rift basins...Facies and hydrocarbon potential The...availability of water. This can either...form seals for hydrocarbons. The shallow-water environ- ments...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Learning and discrimination of cuticular hydrocarbons in a social insect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...colony members. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play a central...CHC profile with synthetic hydrocarbons [4-6] reveal that some hydrocarbons elicit aggression. However...non-volatile, insoluble in water and therefore difficult...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Purely affine Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a topological theory of gravity with torsion where metric has a dynamical rather than a kinematical origin. This approach towards gravity resembles pre-geometrical approaches in which a fundamental metric does not exist, but the affine connection gives place to a local inertial structure. Such feature reminds us of Mach's principle, that assumes the inertial forces should have dynamical origin. Additionally, a Newtonian gravitational force is obtained in the non-relativistic limit of the theory.

Skirzewski, Aureliano

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Purely affine Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a topological theory of gravity with torsion where metric has a dynamical rather than a kinematical origin. This approach towards gravity resembles pre-geometrical approaches in which a fundamental metric does not exist, but the affine connection gives place to a local inertial structure. Such feature reminds us of Mach's principle, that assumes the inertial forces should have dynamical origin. Additionally, a Newtonian gravitational force is obtained in the non-relativistic limit of the theory.

Aureliano Skirzewski; Oscar Castillo-Felisola

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

392

Extraction of aromatics from petroleum naphtha reformate by a 1-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone/ethylene carbonate mixed solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The phase equilibria for the extraction of aromatics from petroleum naphtha reformate (with a boiling range of 338--403 K) using a mixed solvent of 1-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) and ethylene carbonate (EC) have been correlated using the universal function-group activity coefficients model (UNIFAC). The interaction parameters of CHP and EC with different hydrocarbon groups present in the reformate such as CH{sub 2} (paraffinic CH{sub 2}), ACH (aromatic CH), ACCH{sub 2} (aromatic CCH{sub 2}), and each of the two solvents have been fitted to experimental concentrations of three ternary systems that contain these groups. The extraction runs have been carried out at different temperatures, solvent compositions, and solvent-to-feed ratios. Experimental results compared favorably with those predicted from the UNIFAC method. The optimum extraction conditions were determined by calculation of the minimum energy of separation. In this study these conditions were found to be at a mixed solvent composition of 65% EC (by weight) and 35% CHP. The solvent-to-feed ratio was 1.8 on a volume basis, and the extraction temperature was 329 K.

Radwan, G.M.; Al-Muhtaseb, S.A.; Dowaidar, A.M.; Fahim, M.A. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Dept.] [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Dept.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Tensile Effective Stresses in Hydrocarbon Storage Caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tensile Effective Stresses in Hydrocarbon Storage Caverns Hippolyte Djizanne and Pierre Bérest LMS, Germany,1-2 October 2012 TENSILE EFFECTIVE STRESSES IN HYDROCARBON STORAGE CAVERNS Hippolyte Djizanne1 that effective tensile stresses can be generated at a cavern wall after a rapid increase or decrease in pressure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

394

Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

Greenbaum, E.

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

395

The Effects of Two Isomeric Benzoflavones on Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase and the Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of Polycyclic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...recrystallized from alcohol : water. For tissue culture experiments the hydrocarbons and benzoflavones...metabolism of the hydrocarbons to water-soluble derivatives...chloroform:methanol. Hydrocarbon-3 H metabolized to water-soluble derivatives...

Leila Diamond; Rosemary McFall; Joel Miller; and Harry V. Gelboin

1972-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Hydrocarbon fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hydrocarbon fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion Hydrocarbon fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion...

397

Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons...

398

DOE Perspectives on Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE Perspectives on Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels DOE Perspectives on Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels Zia Haq, DPA Coordinator, presentation on DOE Perspectives on...

399

Commercialization of IH2® Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and...

400

Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Device for aqueous detection of nitro-aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a compact and portable detection apparatus for nitro-aromatic based chemical compounds, such as nitrotoluenes, dinitrotoluenes, and trinitrotoluene (TNT). The apparatus is based upon the use of fiber optics using filtered light. The preferred process of the invention relies upon a reflective chemical sensor and optical and electronic components to monitor a decrease in fluorescence when the nitro-aromatic molecules in aqueous solution combine and react with a fluorescent polycyclic aromatic compound. 4 figures.

Reagen, W.K.; Schulz, A.L.; Ingram, J.C.; Lancaster, G.D.; Grey, A.E.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

402

Selective Conversion of Lignin into Simple Aromatic Compounds...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Lignin into Simple Aromatic Compounds Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Lignin is a major component of...

403

Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Preparation of synthetic hydrocarbon lubricants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for preparing synthetic lubricating materials which process comprises: (a) reacting (i) at least a portion of a reaction product of the liquid phase oligomerization of propylene, butylene or mixtures thereof containing a C/sub 6/ olefin component, (ii) a linear olefin reactant having an average carbon number ranging from about 10 to about 18 in the presence of a catalyst, (b) separating from the reaction mixture of (a) hydrocarbons which distill at a temperature above about 660/sup 0/ F. (316/sup 0/ C.), and (c) hydrogenating the reaction product of (b) by contact with hydrogen with or without a catalyst at a temperature ranging from about 25/sup 0/ C. to about 300/sup 0/ C.

Johnson, T.H.

1986-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

405

Resummation of Massive Gravity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We construct four-dimensional covariant nonlinear theories of massive gravity which are ghost-free in the decoupling limit to all orders. These theories resume explicitly all the nonlinear terms of an effective field theory of massive gravity. We show that away from the decoupling limit the Hamiltonian constraint is maintained at least up to and including quartic order in nonlinearities, hence excluding the possibility of the Boulware-Deser ghost up to this order. We also show that the same remains true to all orders in a similar toy model.

Rham, Claudia de [Department de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 Quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve (Switzerland); Gabadadze, Gregory [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York 10003 (United States); Tolley, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

406

Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Berkeley, CA); Sun, Hai (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient polycyclic aromatic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Adducts in Mothers Summary: . Exposure to genotoxins present in ambient air in Bangkok, Thailand: particle associated polycyclic aromatic... DNA Damage from Polycyclic Aromatic...

408

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

409

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic rings synthesis Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

410

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds part Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Energy Innovation, an Energy... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

411

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds derived Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

412

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic molecules suggested Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results have shown that these new... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

413

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds progress Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

414

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds effects Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

415

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic geranyl derivatives Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

416

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic substitution reaction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science, Office of Summary: Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

417

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic reactive intermediates Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and allene as intermediates... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

418

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic molecules application Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results have shown that these new... Sciences. Renewable Aromatics and Olefins from Solid Biomass by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: Design of New... into aromatics and olefins with...

419

Chemically bonded stationary phases that use synthetic hosts containing aromatic binding clefts: HPLC analysis of nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...show a link be- tween human cancers and exposure to diesel engine exhaust, indoor kerosene heaters, and other sources...uncorrected. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded on either a General Electric QE-300 (300 MHz, 1H; 75.5 MHz, 13C...

S C Zimmerman; K W Saionz; Z Zeng

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Gas-assisted gravity drainage (GAGD) process for improved oil recovery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A rapid and inexpensive process for increasing the amount of hydrocarbons (e.g., oil) produced and the rate of production from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs by displacing oil downwards within the oil reservoir and into an oil recovery apparatus is disclosed. The process is referred to as "gas-assisted gravity drainage" and comprises the steps of placing one or more horizontal producer wells near the bottom of a payzone (i.e., rock in which oil and gas are found in exploitable quantities) of a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir and injecting a fluid displacer (e.g., CO.sub.2) through one or more vertical wells or horizontal wells. Pre-existing vertical wells may be used to inject the fluid displacer into the reservoir. As the fluid displacer is injected into the top portion of the reservoir, it forms a gas zone, which displaces oil and water downward towards the horizontal producer well(s).

Rao, Dandina N. (Baton Rouge, LA)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Analyzing Biomass Conversion into Liquid Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Variants of the Fischer–Tropsch producer-gas conversion into liquid hydrocarbons are analyzed under the ... is attained in the reactions occurring in the biomass gasification. When the raw material is wood ... th...

V. D. Meshcheryakov; V. A. Kirillov

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons using biosurfactants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low solubility of petroleum hydrocarbons in water is the major factor limiting the degradation rates of these compounds (Zhang and Miller, 1994). The fraction that is more soluble in the aqueous phase is degraded at higher rates, while less soluble...

Kanga, Shahrukh

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

423

Phenomenological Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Planck scale physics represents a future challenge, located between particle physics and general relativity. The Planck scale marks a threshold beyond which the old description of spacetime breaks down and conceptually new phenomena must appear. In the last years, increased efforts have been made to examine the phenomenology of quantum gravity, even if the full theory is still unknown.

S. Hossenfelder

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Modified Theories of Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent observational data in cosmology seem to indicate that the universe is currently expanding in an accelerated way. An intriguing interpretation of these data is that they may just be signalling that Einstein's General Relativity is not the correct description of gravity when we consider distances of the order of the present horizon of the universe. In this thesis we consider two models which modify General Relativity at very large distances, the Cascading DGP and the dRGT massive gravity, and investigate their phenomenological viability. We start with a general introduction to standard cosmology and we introduce the late time acceleration problem and the cosmological constant problem. We then provide a pedagogical introduction to the DGP model, of which the Cascading DGP is an extension, and to the dRGT massive gravity. Concerning the Cascading DGP, we show that the thin limit of the 4D brane inside the (already thin) 5D brane is well defined, at least for the class of configurations that we consider, and confirm that gravity is regularized in these set-ups. We give a geometrical interpretation of the presence of the critical tension, and comment on the difference between the results in the literature and our results, which we support with a numerical calculation. Regarding the dRGT massive gravity, we focus on the branch of solutions in which the Vainshtein mechanism can occur. We determine analytically the number and properties of local solutions which exist asymptotically on large scales (but still below the gravitational Compton wavelength), and of local (inner) solutions which exist on small scales. We characterize exactly the properties of global solutions in every point of the phase space, and characterize precisely in which regions the Vainshtein mechanism takes place. We also provide numerical solutions which confirm our analysis.

Fulvio Sbisa'

2014-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

425

Methanol conversion to higher hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several indirect options exist for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, or biomass. All involve an initial conversion step to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}). Presently, there are two commercial technologies for converting syngas to liquids: Fischer-Tropsch, which yields a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights determined by Schulz-Flory kinetics, and methanol synthesis. Mobil`s diversity of technology for methanol conversion gives the methanol synthesis route flexibility for production of either gasoline, distillate or chemicals. Mobil`s ZSM-5 catalyst is the key in several processes for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from methanol: MTO for light olefins, MTG for gasoline, MOGD for distillates. The MTG process has been commercialized in New Zealand since 1985, producing one-third of the country`s gasoline supply, while MTO and MOGD have been developed and demonstrated at greater than 100 BPD scale. This paper will discuss recent work in understanding methanol conversion chemistry and the various options for its use.

Tabak, S.A. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States). Central Research Lab.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

426

Viscosity in modified gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A bulk viscosity is introduced in the formalism of modified gravity. It is shown that, on the basis of a natural scaling law for the viscosity, a simple solution can be found for quantities such as the Hubble parameter and the energy density. These solutions may incorporate a viscosity-induced Big Rip singularity. By introducing a phase transition in the cosmic fluid, the future singularity can nevertheless in principle be avoided.

Iver Brevik

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

427

Unimodular Gravity and Averaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The question of the averaging of inhomogeneous spacetimes in cosmology is important for the correct interpretation of cosmological data. In this paper we suggest a conceptually simpler approach to averaging in cosmology based on the averaging of scalars within unimodular gravity. As an illustration, we consider the example of an exact spherically symmetric dust model, and show that within this approach averaging introduces correlations (corrections) to the effective dynamical evolution equation in the form of a spatial curvature term.

A. Coley; J. Brannlund; J. Latta

2011-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

428

Gravity, Dimension, Equilibrium, & Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Is it actually possible to interpret gravitation as space's property in a pure classical way. Then, we note that extended self-gravitating system equilibrium depends directly on the number of dimension of the space in which it evolves. Given those precisions, we review the principal thermodynamical knowledge in the context of classical gravity with arbitrary dimension of space. Stability analyses for bounded 3D systems, namely the Antonov instability paradigm, are then rapproched to some amazing properties of globular clusters and galaxies.

Jerome Perez

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

429

Modified Theories of Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent observational data in cosmology seem to indicate that the universe is currently expanding in an accelerated way. An intriguing interpretation of these data is that they may just be signalling that Einstein's General Relativity is not the correct description of gravity when we consider distances of the order of the present horizon of the universe. In this thesis we consider two models which modify General Relativity at very large distances, the Cascading DGP and the dRGT massive gravity, and investigate their phenomenological viability. We start with a general introduction to standard cosmology and we introduce the late time acceleration problem and the cosmological constant problem. We then provide a pedagogical introduction to the DGP model, of which the Cascading DGP is an extension, and to the dRGT massive gravity. Concerning the Cascading DGP, we show that the thin limit of the 4D brane inside the (already thin) 5D brane is well defined, at least for the class of configurations that we consider...

Sbisà, Fulvio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Aromatic Interactions in Proteins, DNA and Synthetic Receptors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Aromatic Interactions in Proteins, DNA and Synthetic Receptors C. A. Hunter Non-covalent interactions between...and three-dimensional structure in double-helical DNA. The - interaction model has been used to calculate the...

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Gravity Methods | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gravity Methods Gravity Methods Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Gravity Methods Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(3) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Gravity Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png Gravity Methods: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition References No exploration activities found. Document # Analysis Type Applicant Geothermal Area Lead Agency District Office Field Office Mineral Manager Surface Manager Development Phase(s) Techniques NVN-084630 CU Vulcan Energy Patua Geothermal Area BLM Nevada State Office BLM Winnemucca District Office BLM Humboldt River Field Office BLM BLM Geothermal/Exploration Gravity Methods

432

Geometric scalar theory of gravity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a geometric scalar theory of gravity. Our proposal will be described using the ''background field method'' introduced by Gupta, Feynman, Deser and others as a field theory formulation of general relativity. We analyze previous criticisms against scalar gravity and show how the present proposal avoids these difficulties. This concerns not only the theoretical complaints but also those related to observations. In particular, we show that the widespread belief of the conjecture that the source of scalar gravity must be the trace of the energy-momentum tensor — which is one of the main difficulties to couple gravity with electromagnetic phenomenon in previous models — does not apply to our geometric scalar theory. From the very beginning this is not a special relativistic scalar gravity. The adjective ''geometric'' pinpoints its similarity with general relativity: this is a metric theory of gravity. Some consequences of this new scalar theory are explored.

Novello, M.; Bittencourt, E.; Goulart, E.; Salim, J.M.; Toniato, J.D. [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica ICRA - CBPF Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro - Brazil (Brazil); Moschella, U., E-mail: novello@cbpf.br, E-mail: eduhsb@cbpf.br, E-mail: Ugo.Moschella@uninsubria.it, E-mail: egoulart@cbpf.br, E-mail: jsalim@cbpf.br, E-mail: toniato@cbpf.br [Università degli Studi dell'Insubria - Dipartamento di Fisica e Matematica Via Valleggio 11 - 22100 Como - Italy (Italy)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Gulf Hydrocarbon Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrocarbon Inc Hydrocarbon Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Gulf Hydrocarbon Inc Address 2016 Main St Place Houston, Texas Zip 77002 Sector Biofuels Product Wholesale marketing of biodiesel and ethanol to refiners, blenders and petroleum distributors Website http://www.gulfhydrocarbon.com Coordinates 29.749227°, -95.371693° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.749227,"lon":-95.371693,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

434

George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry Resources with Additional Information · Patents George A. Olah Courtesy Rand Larson, Morningstar Productions George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids ... that are much stronger than ordinary acids, are non-nucleophilic, and are fluid at low temperatures. In such media ... carbocations are stable and their physical properties ... can be observed, thus allowing details of their structures to be determined. Besides trivalent ions ... Olah demonstrated the existence of higher coordinate carbocations ... . These species do not violate the octet rule, but involve 2-electron 3-center bonding. '1

435

Dual gravity and E11  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the equation of motion in the gravity sector that arises from the non-linear realisation of the semi-direct product of E11 and its first fundamental representation, denoted by l1, in four dimensions. This equation is first order in derivatives and at low levels relates the usual field of gravity to a dual gravity field. When the generalised space-time is restricted to be the usual four dimensional space-time we show that this equation does correctly describe Einstein's theory at the linearised level. We also comment on previous discussions of dual gravity.

Peter West

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

436

Dual gravity and E11  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the equation of motion in the gravity sector that arises from the non-linear realisation of the semi-direct product of E11 and its first fundamental representation, denoted by l1, in four dimensions. This equation is first order in derivatives and at low levels relates the usual field of gravity to a dual gravity field. When the generalised space-time is restricted to be the usual four dimensional space-time we show that this equation does correctly describe Einstein's theory at the linearised level. We also comment on previous discussions of dual gravity.

West, Peter

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Sexual selection on cuticular hydrocarbons of male sagebrush crickets in the wild  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...association between cuticular hydrocarbon composition and desiccation...temperature on cuticular lipids and water balance in a desert Drosophila...interactions for cuticular hydrocarbon expression in Drosophila simulans...evolutionary roles of cuticular hydrocarbons in Diptera. In Insect hydrocarbons...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine the relative merits of gravity measurements as a monitoring tool for geological CO{sub 2} sequestration in three different modeling scenarios. The first is a combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the second is sequestration in a brine formation, and the third is for a coalbed methane formation. EOR/sequestration petroleum reservoirs have relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}), whereas brine formations usually have much thicker injection intervals and only two components (brine and CO{sub 2}). Coal formations undergoing methane extraction tend to be thin (3-10 m), but shallow compared to either EOR or brine formations. The injection of CO{sub 2} into the oil reservoir produced a bulk density decrease in the reservoir. The spatial pattern of the change in the vertical component of gravity (G{sub z}) is directly correlated with the net change in reservoir density. Furthermore, time-lapse changes in the borehole G{sub z} clearly identified the vertical section of the reservoir where fluid saturations are changing. The CO{sub 2}-brine front, on the order of 1 km within a 20 m thick brine formation at 1900 m depth, with 30% CO{sub 2} and 70% brine saturations, respectively, produced a -10 Gal surface gravity anomaly. Such anomaly would be detectable in the field. The amount of CO{sub 2} in a coalbed methane test scenario did not produce a large enough surface gravity response; however, we would expect that for an industrial size injection, the surface gravity response would be measurable. Gravity inversions in all three scenarios illustrated that the general position of density changes caused by CO{sub 2} can be recovered, but not the absolute value of the change. Analysis of the spatial resolution and detectability limits shows that gravity measurements could, under certain circumstances, be used as a lower-cost alternative to seismic measurements.

Gasperikova, E.; Hoversten, G.M.

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. ...

Cunningham, Colin John

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

440

Chapter 9 - Chemical and Physical Properties of Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds and contain only carbon and hydrogen but they can be straight chain or branched chain with the same empirical formula but showing differences in properties. Chemical change results in the hydrocarbon yielding a product that may be entirely different in composition to the starting hydrocarbon—the exception is the isomerization reaction where a straight-chain hydrocarbon is converted to a branched-chain hydrocarbon. Chemical properties of hydrocarbons describe the potential of hydrocarbons to undergo chemical change or reaction by virtue of the hydrocarbon structure. Physical properties can be observed or measured without changing the composition of matter. Physical properties are used to observe and describe matter. Physical properties that are of interest in the current context include: boiling point, melting point, density, vapor density, flash point, ignition temperature, and dew point.

James G. Speight

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Echoes of Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The study of anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation is progressing at a phenomenal rate, both experimentally and theoretically. These anisotropies can teach us an enormous amount about the way that fluctuations were generated and the way they subsequently evolved into the clustered galaxies which are observed today. In particular, on sub-degree scales the rich structure in the anisotropy spectrum is the consequence of gravity-driven acoustic oscillations occurring before the matter in the universe became neutral. The frozen-in phases of these sound waves imprint a dependence on many cosmological parameters, that we may be on the verge of extracting.

Douglas Scott; Martin White

1995-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

442

Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enzymes Acid + Caustic Wastewater Treatment Process Heat and Power Integration Biogas + Sludge Fuel Finishing (hydroprocessing, as needed) Electricity Hydrogen Hydrocarbon...

443

THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION IN PARTHENIUM ARGENTATUM (GUAYULE)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conversion of solar energy is the production of hydrocarbonsproduction of hydrocarbons. Mankind's use of biologically converted solar energy

Bauer, T.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Modeling personal particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pb-pah) exposure in human subjects in Southern California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R21ES016379), the Health Effect Institute (HEI 4787-RFA09-Research Report 143. Health Effects Institute: Boston, MA;

Wu, Jun; Tjoa, Thomas; Li, Lianfa; Jaimes, Guillermo; Delfino, Ralph J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Isolation and Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria Associated with the Rhizosphere of Salt Marsh Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...relationship to salt marsh oxygen balance...analysis of rRNAs R. Kadlec R. L. Knight...mineral and sandy salt marsh sediments. . G. R. Lotufo Bioaccumulation...bacteria . A. L. Wright R. W. Weaver J. W...bioremediation in salt marsh mesocosms as influenced...

L. L. Daane; I. Harjono; G. J. Zylstra; M. M. Häggblom

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Studies Estimating the Dermal Bioavailability of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Manufactured Gas Plant Tar-Contaminated Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In vitro percutaneous absorption studies were performed with contaminated soils or organic extracts of contaminated soils collected at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. The MGP tar contaminated soils were found to contain a group of targeted polynuclear ...

Timothy A. Roy; Andrew J. Krueger; Barbara B. Taylor; David M. Mauro; Lawrence S. Goldstein

1998-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

447

Breast Cancer Risk and Exposure in Early Life to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Total Suspended Particulates as a Proxy Measure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Important sources of PAHs include cigarette smoke, steel mills, foundries, automobiles, coal combustion for electricity...45-degree angle to account for the prevailing southwesterly winds and limited the exposure estimation for each address to the...

Matthew R. Bonner; Daikwon Han; Jing Nie; Peter Rogerson; John E. Vena; Paola Muti; Maurizio Trevisan; Stephen B. Edge; and Jo L. Freudenheim

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Dose-Response Modeling of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...are formed during incomplete combustion and constitute a mixture of various...carcinogenic potency. Their chemistry and formation have been reviewed...exposures in aluminium production, coal gasification, coal production, and iron and steel...

Beate Pesch; Martin Kappler; Kurt Straif; Boleslaw Marczynski; Ralf Preuss; Bernd Ro?bach; Hans-Peter Rihs; Tobias Weiss; Sylvia Rabstein; Christiane Pierl; Michael Scherenberg; Ansgar Adams; Heiko Udo Käfferlein; Jürgen Angerer; Michael Wilhelm; Albrecht Seidel; and Thomas Brüning

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Porticoccus hydrocarbonoclasticus sp. nov., an Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium Identified in Laboratory Cultures of Marine Phytoplankton  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and refined fossil fuels. Based on their...adsorption. Stock solutions (ca. 3,000...saturated NaCl solution were added to...which 30% of the air atmosphere was...2000. Oil pollution of marine algae...fractions. Water Air Soil Pollut...

Tony Gutierrez; Peter D. Nichols; William B. Whitman; Michael D. Aitken

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

450

Draft Genome Sequence of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading, Genetically Engineered Bioluminescent Bioreporter Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (DSM 6700) is a genetically engineered lux-based bioluminescent bioreporter. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain HK44. Annotation of {approx}6.1 Mb sequence indicates that 30% of the traits are unique and distributed over 5 genomic islands, a prophage and two plasmids.

Chauhan, Archana [ORNL; Layton, Alice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Williams, Daniel W [ORNL; Smart, Abby E. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ripp, Steven Anthony [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Sayler, Gary Steven [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Evaluating officially reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region with a multimedia fate model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...14 9 3-5-13 Wind speed [m/s...region ÷ average wind speed Particle...particle deposition velocity to snow [m...Assumed/Default Mass fraction of OC...0.1 Assumed Mass transfer coeff...particle deposition velocity to soil [m...forest 0.5 Google maps Fraction of forest...

Abha Parajulee; Frank Wania

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Treatment of produced water by simultaneous removal of heavy metals and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a photoelectrochemical cell.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Early produced water treatment technologies were developed before carbon dioxide emissions and hazardous waste discharge were recognised as operational priority. These technologies are deficient in… (more)

Igunnu, Ebenezer Temitope

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plant-soil systems: Plant responses to a chemical stress in the root zone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under laboratory conditions selected to maximize root uptake, plant tissue distribution of PAH-derived {sup 14}C was largely limited to root tissue of Malilotus alba. These results suggest that plant uptake of PAHs from contaminated soil via roots, and translocation to aboveground plant tissues (stems and leaves), is a limited mechanism for transport into terrestrial food chains. However, these data also indicate that root surface sorption of PAHs may be important for plants grown in soils containing elevated concentration PAHs. Root surface sorption of PAHs may be an important route of exposure for plants in soils containing elevated concentrations of PAHS. Consequently, the root-soil interface may be the site of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. In this study, evidence of a shift in carbon allocation to the root zone of plants exposed to phenanthrene and corresponding increases in soil respiration and heterotrophic plate counts provide evidence of a plant-microbial response to a chemical stress. The results of this study establish the importance of the root-soil interface for plants growing in PAH contaminated soil and indicate the existence of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. These results may provide new avenues of inquiry for studies of plant toxicology, plant-microbial interactions in the rhizosphere, and environmental fates of soil contaminants. In addition, the utilization of plants to enhance the biodegradation of soil contaminants may require evaluation of plant physiological changes and plant shifts in resource allocation.

Hoylman, A.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Ecology; Walton, B.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Breast Cancer Risk and Exposure in Early Life to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Total Suspended Particulates as a Proxy Measure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...steel mills, foundries, automobiles, coal combustion for electricity production and many other industrial and nonindustrial processes...provided information regarding medical history, diet, alcohol consumption, smoking history, lifetime passive smoke exposure, occupational...

Matthew R. Bonner; Daikwon Han; Jing Nie; Peter Rogerson; John E. Vena; Paola Muti; Maurizio Trevisan; Stephen B. Edge; and Jo L. Freudenheim

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Semiquantitation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-DNA Adducts in Human Esophagus by Immunohistochemistry and the Automated Cellular Imaging System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...uncooked food (3.1-13.8 ng BP/g staple food) taken from homes in Linxian are comparable with or higher than char-broiled...8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide pharmacology Animals Automation Carcinoma, Squamous Cell epidemiology pathology surgery China...

Hilde E. van Gijssel; Rao L. Divi; Ofelia A. Olivero; Mark J. Roth; Guo-Qing Wang; Sanford M. Dawsey; Paul S. Albert; You-Lin Qiao; Philip R. Taylor; Zhi-Wei Dong; Jeffrey A. Schrager; David E. Kleiner; and Miriam C. Poirier

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Assessing the Influence of Secondary Organic versus Primary Carbonaceous Aerosols on Long-Range Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

§ Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, United States ... Summer underestimates are likely partially due to the influence of local sources not included in model emissions (e.g., camp- or wildfires). ... emission of these 16 PAHs in 2004 was 520 giga grams per yr (Gg y-1) with biofuel (56.7%), wildfire (17.0%) and consumer product usage (6.9%) as the major sources, and China (114 Gg y-1), India (90 Gg y-1) and United States (32 Gg y-1) were the top three countries with the highest PAH emissions. ...

C. L. Friedman; J. R. Pierce; N. E. Selin

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

457

Seasonal trends and spatial variations of PM10-bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Veneto Region, Northeast Italy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Veneto Region extends for ?18.4·103 km2 in the northeastern part of the Po Valley and includes mountains, hills, plain and coastal environments with very different and discontinuous anthropogenic pressures. Although many efforts have been made to mitigate air pollution, the European air quality standards for atmospheric pollutants are frequently breached. This study investigates the levels of eight PM10-bound \\{PAHs\\} collected in 21 stations categorized as rural background, urban and suburban backgrounds, traffic and industrial hot-spots during one year (2011). Data were statistically processed to detect the PAH seasonal trends, their relationship with other air pollutants and micro-meteorological parameters and the space variations at a regional scale. Results show that \\{PAHs\\} levels are relatively high in the largest part of the region, with 10 sites exceeding the levels of BaP targeted by the European legislation. Two sites exhibited anomalously high \\{PAHs\\} concentrations and this anomaly became even more evident when considering the population density as a surrogate for the potential anthropogenic pressure. The \\{PAHs\\} levels were found directly proportional to other gaseous pollutants (CO, NO, NOx, SO2) suggesting common polluting sources. The analysis of time trends of PAH concentrations reveals significant coincidences throughout the region, i.e. simultaneous changes are observed in most sites as a consequence of similar emission sources and accumulation/removal processes. In this scenario, the control strategies currently imposed at local level (e.g. traffic limitations) have proven scarcely effective in mitigating air pollution and a real coordination at regional or even interregional level cannot be further postponed. Peculiar features of the \\{PAHs\\} pollution in the Veneto were also identified and some measures for protecting the human health were suggested.

Mauro Masiol; Gianni Formenton; Alberto Pasqualetto; Bruno Pavoni

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fish. Exposure assessment for Kuwaiti consumers after the gulf oil spill of 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This investigation involves a preliminary assessment of public health hazards associated with exposure to PAHs in locally consumed fish from oil-impacted areas after the Gulf oil spill in 1991. Based on levels of 10 PAHs determined in edible parts of fish collected during the NOAA-Mt. Mitchell scientific cruise (April-May 1992), two exposure scenarios were hypothesized. The first scenario considers that the extent of exposure to PAHs is influenced by the frequency of occurrence and the mean concentration of individual PAH compounds. In the second scenario, the maximum detected PAH concentrations are considered as potential extremes in exposure based on the likely preference of consumption of highly contaminated fish. The mean concentration of the frequently occurring pyrene (75%) poses 3.8, 2.37, and 5.85 times the carcinogenic equivalency, carcinogenic potency, and mutagenic potency, respectively, posed by the mean B(a)P concentration. The maximum concentration of pyrene poses 5.81, 3.62, 8.94 times the carcinogenic equivalency, carcinogenic potency, and mutagenic potency, respectively, posed by the maximum B(a)P concentration. The mean concentration of anthracene (frequency of occurrence = 10%) poses 8.05 and 1.51 times the carcinogenic potency and mutagenic potency, respectively, posed by the mean B(a)P concentration. 16 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Al-Yakoob, S.N.; Saeed, T.; Al-Hashash, H. (Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Asphalt Binder Using Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion and Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......emissions generated during the production and application of asphalt binders...pre-concentration, and gas chro- matography (GC). Mechanical...hydrogen was used as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 1.0 mL...alumina. However, owing to the cost, silica gel was selected as......

Paulo R.N. Fernandes; Sandra de A. Soares; Ronaldo F. Nascimento; Jorge B. Soares; Rivelino M. Cavalcante

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

The Predictive Power of the Annellation Theory: The Case of the C32H16 Benzenoid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Furthermore, 37 members of the C32H16 benzenoid PAHs, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX, XXI, XXII, XXIII, XXIV, XXV, XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXIX, XXX, XXXI, XXXII, XXXIII, XXXIV, XXXV, XXXVI, XXXVII, XXXVIII, XXXIX, XL, XLI, XLII, XLIII, XLIV, and XLV, are structurally similar to the C28H14 benzenoid PAHs, with a molecular mass of 350 g/mol (8FAR), which are shown in Table 3, where the only difference is one more ring in the structures. ... The published positions of maximum absorbance for the p bands are equal to 495, 462, and 435 nm, and the published position of maximum absorbance for the ? band is equal to 323 nm. ...

Jorge O. Oña-Ruales; Yosadara Ruiz-Morales

2014-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Boron nitride nanotubes as novel sorbent for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) is a novel material that shows potential ability in capturing organic pollutants. In this study, BNNTs fixed on a stainless steel fiber by a sol–gel technique were used as sorbent fo...

Meizhen Fu; Hanzhu Xing; Xiangfeng Chen…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Isolation and Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria Associated with the Rhizosphere of Salt Marsh Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the whole-cell fatty acid compositions of the sediment and rhizosphere...pesticide-contaminated soils from two agrochemical dealerships in Iowa. . G...J. Fuhrmann Bacterial composition in the rhizosphere of nodulating...from the Gulf of Mexico and composition of their PAH degradation...

L. L. Daane; I. Harjono; G. J. Zylstra; M. M. Häggblom

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

The Analysis of Hydrocarbon Types — Saturates, Aromatics and Olefins—by Selective Chemical Absorption and Flame Ionization Detection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......n-heptane calibration; (2).--Synthetic gasoline; (3).--Commercial gasoline; (4).--Propylene. ; 2 1 capacity packed...samples were prepared from a dearomatized straight run gasoline (S), a polymerization gasoline (0) containing......

Nestor L. Soulages; Antonio M. Brieva

1971-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Reaction of aromatic compounds and coal-derived liquids with steam over alumina supported nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research program has been to explore and define the potential of steam reforming to produce light gases from coal-derived liquids. This was achieved through a study of the reaction of a model aromatic compound and of a coal-derived liquid with steam over an alumina supported nickel catalyst. The reaction of steam with benzene and SRC-II liquids over an alumina supported nickel-catalyst has been investigated in a plug flow reactor. The primary process variables investigated were reactor pressure and temperature, contact time, and steam/carbon ratio. A proposed reaction network was also developed to explain the data obtained in this study. The empirical rate equation for the benzene steam reforming reaction at 973 K, 300 psig, and a steam/carbon ratio of approximately 3 was r/sub C6H6/ = 1.92 x 10 TP/sub C6H6/. The activation energy was 88 KJ/mol, or 21 kcal/mol in the temperature range 748-973 K. A correlation was developed to predict product yields and hydrocarbon conversion over the range of process variables investigated. A second correlation was developed to predict the yields and conversion beyond the range of variables investigated.

Chen, I.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Fluid Gravity Engineering Rocket motor flow analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fluid Gravity Engineering Capability · Rocket motor flow analysis -Internal (performance) -External young scientists/engineers Fluid Gravity Engineering Ltd #12;

Anand, Mahesh

466

Production of hydrocarbons from hydrates. [DOE patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An economical and safe method of producing hydrocarbons (or natural gas) from in situ hydrocarbon-containing hydrates is given. Once started, the method will be self-driven and will continue producing hydrocarbons over an extended period of time (i.e., many days).

McGuire, P.L.

1981-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

467

Molecular carbon isotopic evidence for the origin of geothermal hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... in the flask's headspace. This procedure produced negligible amounts of contaminating hydrocarbons. The geothermal hydrocarbons were separated and combusted, and the carbon dioxide product purified and measured using ... of the pyrolysis and spark discharge experiments, b, Isotopic abundance of hydrocarbons from four geothermal localities as follows: D, Cerro Prieto, well M-5, sampled January 1979; ...

David J. Des Marais; Jason H. Donchin; Nancy L. Nehring; Alfred H. Truesdell

1981-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

468

Reduced models for quantum gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The preceding talks given at this conference have dealt mainly with general ideas for, main problems of and techniques for the task of quantizing gravity canonically. Since one of the major motivations to arrange for this meeting was that it should serve as a beginner's introduction to canonical quantum gravity, we regard it as important to demonstrate the usefulness of the formalism by means of applying it to simplified models of quantum gravity, here formulated in terms of Ashtekar's new variables. From the various, completely solvable, models that have been discussed in the literature we choose those that we consider as most suitable for our pedagogical reasons, namely 2+1 gravity and the spherically symmetric model. The former model arises from a dimensional, the latter from a Killing reduction of full 3+1 gravity. While 2+1 gravity is usually treated in terms of closed topologies without boundary of the initial data hypersurface, the toplogy for the spherically symmetric system is chosen to be asymptotically flat. Finally, 2+1 gravity is more suitably quantized using the loop representation while spherically symmetric gravity is easier to quantize via the self-dual representation. Accordingly, both types of reductions, both types of topologies and both types of representations that are mainly employed in the literature in the context of the new variables come into practice. What makes the discussion especially clear is the fact that for both models the reduced phase space turns out to be finitely dimensional.

T. Thiemann

1999-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

469

Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

1981-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

470

Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Nonlinear dependence of the solubility of water in hydrocarbons on the molar volume of the hydrocarbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solubility of water in fifty hydrocarbon solvents at 20°C is estimated by ... in nonspecific cohesion forces, and assuming that water is primarily monomeric in solution, the prediction ... breaking of the H-b...

Paul Ruelle; Ulrich W. Kesselring

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Gravity Waves in the Sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present numerical simulations of penetrative convection and gravity wave excitation in the Sun. Gravity waves are self-consistently generated by a convective zone overlying a radiative interior. We produce power spectra for gravity waves in the radiative region as well as estimates for the energy flux of gravity waves below the convection zone. We calculate a peak energy flux in waves below the convection zone to be three orders of magnitude smaller than previous estimates for m=1. The simulations show that the linear dispersion relation is a good approximation only deep below the convective-radiative boundary. Both low frequency propagating gravity waves as well as higher frequency standing modes are generated; although we find that convection does not continually drive the standing g-mode frequencies.

Tamara M. Rogers; Gary A. Glatzmaier

2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

474

Plasma-assisted conversion of solid hydrocarbon to diamond  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing diamond, e.g., diamond fiber, by subjecting a hydrocarbon material, e.g., a hydrocarbon fiber, to a plasma treatment in a gaseous feedstream for a sufficient period of time to form diamond, e.g., a diamond fiber is disclosed. The method generally further involves pretreating the hydrocarbon material prior to treatment with the plasma by heating within an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures sufficient to increase crosslinking within said hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to melt or decompose said hydrocarbon material, followed by heating at temperatures sufficient to promote outgassing of said crosslinked hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to convert said hydrocarbon material to carbon.

Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Shah, S. Ismat (Wilmington, DE)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

INFRARED LUMINOSITIES AND AROMATIC FEATURES IN THE 24 {mu}m FLUX-LIMITED SAMPLE OF 5MUSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study a 24 {mu}m selected sample of 330 galaxies observed with the infrared spectrograph for the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey. We estimate accurate total infrared luminosities by combining mid-IR spectroscopy and mid-to-far infrared photometry, and by utilizing new empirical spectral templates from Spitzer data. The infrared luminosities of this sample range mostly from 10{sup 9} L{sub sun} to 10{sup 13.5} L{sub sun}, with 83% in the range 10{sup 10} L{sub sun} < L{sub IR} < 10{sup 12} L{sub sun}. The redshifts range from 0.008 to 4.27, with a median of 0.144. The equivalent widths of the 6.2 {mu}m aromatic feature have a bimodal distribution, probably related to selection effects. We use the 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon equivalent width (PAH EW) to classify our objects as starburst (SB)-dominated (44%), SB-AGN composite (22%), and active galactic nucleus (AGN)-dominated (34%). The high EW objects (SB-dominated) tend to have steeper mid-IR to far-IR spectral slopes and lower L{sub IR} and redshifts. The low EW objects (AGN-dominated) tend to have less steep spectral slopes and higher L{sub IR} and redshifts. This dichotomy leads to a gross correlation between EW and slope, which does not hold within either group. AGN-dominated sources tend to have lower log(L{sub PAH7.7{sub {mu}m}}/L{sub PAH11.3{sub {mu}m}}) ratios than star-forming galaxies, possibly due to preferential destruction of the smaller aromatics by the AGN. The log(L{sub PAH7.7{sub {mu}m}}/L{sub PAH11.3{sub {mu}m}}) ratios for star-forming galaxies are lower in our sample than the ratios measured from the nuclear spectra of nearby normal galaxies, most probably indicating a difference in the ionization state or grain size distribution between the nuclear regions and the entire galaxy. Finally, we provide a calibration relating the monochromatic continuum or aromatic feature luminosity to L{sub IR} for different types of objects.

Wu Yanling; Helou, George; Shi Yong, E-mail: yanling@ipac.caltech.ed, E-mail: gxh@ipac.caltech.ed, E-mail: yong@ipac.caltech.ed [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Hydrocarbon Depletion of Athabasca Core at Near Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Petroleum coke (petcoke), a solid typically produced at T > 480 °C in refineries, has attracted the attention of many research groups as a feedstock for combustion and gasification. ...

Luis A. Pineda-Perez; Lante Carbognani; Ronald J. Spencer; Brij Maini; Pedro Pereira-Almao

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

477

E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne polycyclic organic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...

478

HYDROCARBONS FROM PLANTS: ANALYTICAL METHODS AND OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have suggested that certain plants rich in hydrocarbon-like materials might be cultivated for renewable photosynthetic products. Two species were selected for experimental plantations: Euphorbia lathyris, an annual from seed and Euphorbia tirucalli, a perennial from cuttings, The yield from each species is over 10 barrels of oil/acre/year without genetic or agronomic improvement. In addition to plants, there are trees, such as species of Copaifera in Brazil and other tropical areas, which produce a diesel-like oil upon tapping. Each tree produces approximately 40 liters of hydrocarbon per year, and this material can be used directly by a diesel-powered car. Further efforts to develop plants as alternate energy sources are underway, as well as a continuing search for additional plant species throughout the world which have a similar capability.

Calvin, Melvin

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

1988-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

480

Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm/sup 2/. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000/degree/C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity. 2 figs.

Hsu, Wen Ling

1987-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "gravity aromatics hydrocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

The Emissions of Major Aromatic Voc as Landfill Gas from Urban Landfill Sites in Korea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, concentrations of major aromatic VOCs were determined from landfill gas (LFG) at a total of five...?1 (WJ in wintertime). The LFG flux values of aromatic VOC, when compared to the contribution of n...

Ki-Hyun Kim; Sung Ok Baek; Ye-Jin Choi…

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Gravity Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gravity Techniques Gravity Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Gravity Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(1) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Gravity Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Geophysical Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Distribution of density in the subsurface enables inference of rock type. Stratigraphic/Structural: Delineation of steeply dipping formations, geological discontinuities and faults, intrusions and the deposition of silicates due to hydrothermal activity. Hydrological: Density of sedimentary rocks are strongly influenced by fluid contained within pore space. Dry bulk density refers to the rock with no moisture, while the wet bulk density accounts for water saturation; fluid content may alter density by up to 30%.(Sharma, 1997)

483

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROCARBON AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present period, the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) has been modified to improve its volumetric and equilibrium predictions. Specifically, the attractive term of the PGR equation was modified to enhance the flexibility of the model, and a new expression was developed for the temperature dependence of the attractive term in this segment-segment interaction model. The predictive capability of the modified PGR EOS for vapor pressure, and saturated liquid and vapor densities was evaluated for selected normal paraffins, normal alkenes, cyclo-paraffins, light aromatics, argon, carbon dioxide and water. The generalized EOS constants and substance-specific characteristic parameters in the modified PGR EOS were obtained from the pure component vapor pressures, and saturated liquid and vapor molar volumes. The calculated phase properties were compared to those of the Peng-Robinson (PR), the simplified-perturbed-hard-chain theory (SPHCT) and the original PGR equations. Generally, the performance of the proposed EOS was better than the PR, SPHCT and original PGR equations in predicting the pure fluid properties (%AAD of 1.3, 2.8 and 3.7 for vapor pressure, saturated liquid and vapor densities, respectively).

KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

484

Polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants and refrigerant oils colored with fluorescent dyes and method for their use as leak detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A leak detectable refrigeration composition is described comprising: (A) a refrigeration liquid selection from the group consisting of: (1) a polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant; (2) a refrigeration oil selected from the group consisting of naphthenic oils, paraffinic oils, alkylated benzenes, silicones, polyglycols, diesters or triesters of dicarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids, and polyalkyl silicate oils, and (3) a mixture of A(1) and A(2), and (B) a fluorescent dye compound or composition comprising the dye selected from the group consisting of: (1) a fluorescent dye selected from the group consisting of perylene, naphthoxanthene, monocyclic aromatic compounds having an organometallic compound, (2) a solution of fluorescent dye in a solvent, and (3) a mixture of B(1) and B(2). The fluorescent dye compound or composition is soluble in the refrigeration liquid. The concentration of the dye being at least 0.001 grams per 100 grams of the refrigeration liquid.

Parekh, M.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

485

Chiral Aromaticities. A Topological Exploration of Möbius Homoaromaticity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A series of C2-symmetric homoderivatives of the cyclo C9H9+ cation first identified by Schleyer as Möbius aromatic are shown to themselves sustain Möbius 4n-?-electron homoaromaticity. Analogous double-twist Möbius bis-homoaromatics follow a 4n+2 electron ...

Charlotte S. M. Allan; Henry S. Rzepa

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

486

Epoxy Coenzyme A Thioester Pathways for Degradation of Aromatic Compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Fe-O-Fe center in stearoyl-ACP desaturase. Primary sequence identity with other diiron-oxo proteins. Biochemistry 33 :12776-12786. 29. Fuchs, G , M Boll and J Heider. 2011. Microbial degradation of aromatic compounds-from one strategy to four...

Wael Ismail; Johannes Gescher

2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

487

Methods of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov May 2012 Opportunity Research is currently active on the technology "Methods of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview This invention discloses a method to reform hydrocarbon fuels using hexa- aluminate catalysts. In general, the method successfully disrupts the forma- tion of carbon that leads to the deactivation of the catalyst, a key element in the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. When researchers are designing catalysts to reform hydrocarbon fuels, one

488

Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 and ZSM-5 Composite Catalyst System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite Pd/ZnO/Al2O3-HZSM-5 (Si/Al=40) catalytic system was evaluated for the synthesis of gasoline-range hydrocarbons directly from synthesis gas. Bifunctional catalyst comprising PdZn metal and acid sites present the required catalytically active sites necessary for the methanol synthesis, methanol dehydration, and methanol-to-gasoline reactions. This system provides a unique catalytic pathway for the production of liquid hydrocarbons directly from syngas. However, selectivity control is difficult and poses many challenges. The composite catalytic system was evaluated under various process conditions. Investigated were the effects of temperature (310-375oC), pressure (300-1000 psig), time-on-stream (50 hrs), and gas-hour space velocity (740-2970 hr-1), using a H2/CO molar syngas ratio of 2.0. By operating at the lower end of the temperature range investigated, liquid hydrocarbon formation was favored, as was decreased amounts of undesirable light hydrocarbons. However, lower operating temperatures also facilitated undesirable CO2 formation via the water-gas shift reaction. Higher operating pressures slightly favored liquid synthesis. Operating at relatively low pressures (e.g. 300 psig) was made possible, whereas for methanol synthesis alone higher pressure are usually required to achieve similar conversion levels (e.g. 1000 psig). Thermodynamic constraints on methanol synthesis are eased by pushing the equilibrium through hydrocarbon formation. Catalytic performance was also evaluated by altering Pd and Zn composition of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. Of the catalysts and conditions tested, selectivity toward liquid hydrocarbon was highest when using a 5% Pd metal loading and Pd/Zn molar ratio of 0.25 and mixed with HZMS-5, operating at 310oC and 300 psig, CO conversion was 43 % and selectivity (carbon weight basis) to hydrocarbons was 49 wt. %. Of the hydrocarbon fraction, 44wt. % was in the C5-C12 liquid product range and consisted primarily of aromatic polymethylbenzenes. However, as syngas conversion increases with increasing temperature, selectivity to liquid product diminished. This is attributed, in large part, to increased saturation of the olefinic intermediates over PdZn metal sites. Under all the conditions and catalysts evaluated in this study, generating liquid product in high yield was challenging (<10 wt. % C5+ yield).

Dagle, Robert A.; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fractionation Hydrogen Acid, Caustic, Enzymes Wastewater Treatment Insoluble solids Biogas + Sludge Process Heat and Power Integration Corn Stover Hydrocarbon Biofuels (i.e....

490

Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with...

491

CSIA of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Forensic Fingerprinting and Oil Spill Characterisation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis has identified a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices to be applied in the forensic fingerprinting of diesel oil characterisation and source identification using… (more)

Muhammad, Syahidah Akmal binti

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

The mobility of petroleum hydrocarbons in Athabasca oil sands tailings.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Several oil sands tailings from Suncor Energy Inc. were analysed with respect to the mobility and solubility of the petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contaminants. At sites… (more)

Brickner, Heather

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Lewis Center, OH); LaPlante, Timothy J. (Columbus, OH); Rankin, Scott (Columbus, OH); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick (Columbus, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Mazanec, Terry (Solon, OH) Daymo, Eric (Dublin, OH)

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

494

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

495

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Selective aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons over supported gold catalysts.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The selective oxidation of hydrocarbons is of vital importance for the production of valuable chemicals from crude oil and natural gas resources. Unfortunately, when using… (more)

Hereijgers, B.P.C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium...

498

Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Poisoning of A Urea SCR Catalyst  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Understanding what reactions and which catalytic functions are affected by hydrocarbons can lead to improved tolerances for selective catalytic reduction performance

499

Electrical dispersion of water drops suspended in hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of alternating (50 Hz) and direct current fields on drops of distilled water in a nonpolar hydrocarbon medium were examined.

G. M. Panchenkov; V. V. Papko; V. Ya. Baranov

1968-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z