Sample records for gravity aromatics hydrocarbons

  1. aromatic hydrocarbon components: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS 2005 April 19 ABSTRACT Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) infrared emission features 26 Dehydrogenation of polycyclic aromatic...

  2. Aromaticity of Polycyclic Conjugated Hydrocarbons Milan Randic*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    Aromaticity of Polycyclic Conjugated Hydrocarbons Milan Randic´* National Institute of Chemistry Chemistry 3462 G. Clar 6n Rule versus Hu¨ckel 4n + 2 Rule 3464 H. Hydrocarbons versus Heteroatomic Systems Ordering 3476 VI. On Enumeration of Benzenoid Hydrocarbons 3477 VII. Kekule´ Valence Structures Count 3479

  3. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for fullerene synthesis in flames

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.

    2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides improved methods for combustion synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, employing multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels selected for high carbon conversion to extractable fullerenes. The multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels include those that contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. More specifically, multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain a substantial amount of indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof. Coal tar and petroleum distillate fractions provide low cost hydrocarbon fuels containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including without limitation, indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof.

  4. Toxicity Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naspinski, Christine S.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment and are generated by many sources. Though the potential of PAH-rich mixtures to cause health effects has been known for almost a century, there are still unanswered...

  5. Sampling precautions for the measurement of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Sampling precautions for the measurement of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and of their oxidation products, such as nitrated and oxygenated PAHs hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Sampling

  6. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two aromatic hydrocarbons, 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 8 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) were carried out during hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  7. Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard reference material 1649a (urban dust) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic

  8. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two;2 Abstract The size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH derivatives of compounds. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated

  9. Trace elements and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Trace elements and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in snow and ice sampled at Colle designed, built and tested. Melt water from inner part of ice core section was pumped to an ICP-SFMS and ICP-OES. Melt water from outer section was on-line extracted by solid-phase cartridges for semi

  10. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  11. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Delfino, R. J; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coupled out- door/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration in combustionbound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons K. A. , Morris, J. ,

  12. aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogenesis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Ecology Websites Summary: ), and there are oil refineries on the shore. In this environment, input of aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum and the Yarra River Estuary J. David...

  13. aromatic hydrocarbon tracers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Ecology Websites Summary: ), and there are oil refineries on the shore. In this environment, input of aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum and the Yarra River Estuary J. David...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons resulting Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of Summary: fuel. (d) Lubricating oil. - 300 400 Wavelength (nm) Results Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons... Aust. J....

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of Summary: fuel. (d) Lubricating oil. - 300 400 Wavelength (nm) Results Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons... Bay...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of Summary: fuel. (d) Lubricating oil. - 300 400 Wavelength (nm) Results Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons... Bay...

  17. Toxicity cutoff of aromatic hydrocarbons for luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Toxicity cutoff of aromatic hydrocarbons for luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri So Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons a b s t r a c t Effects of individual petroleum hydrocarbons hydrocarbons, including benzene and its derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were chosen

  18. aromatic hydrocarbon emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Detection of mid-infrared Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features from the Small Magellanic Cloud Astrophysics...

  19. aromatic hydrocarbon cations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NITROGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CATIONS FROM 0.7 TO 2.5...

  20. aromatic hydrocarbon emission: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Detection of mid-infrared Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features from the Small Magellanic Cloud Astrophysics...

  1. Biodegradability of select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Anuradha M.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmentally significant because of their ubiquity and the toxicity of some. Their recalcitrance and persistence makes them problematic environmental contaminants. Microbial degradation is considered...

  2. Modeling the biodegradability and physicochemical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitriou-Christidis, Petros

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The biodegradability and physicochemical properties of unsubstituted and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated. The focus was on the development of models expressing the influence of molecular structure and properties...

  3. Biodegradability of select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Anuradha M.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmentally significant because of their ubiquity and the toxicity of some. Their recalcitrance and persistence makes them problematic environmental contaminants. Microbial degradation is considered...

  4. Stimulating the anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments by providing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Stimulating the anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments to simulate the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic contaminated sediments was investigated as the sole electron acceptor. Providing graphite electrodes as an electron acceptor in hydrocarbon

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in Mississippi Fan sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, William Allan

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON DISTRIBUTIONS IN MISSISSIPPI FAN SEDIMENTS A Thesis by WILLIAM ALLAN SANDBERG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Oceanography POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON DISTRIBUTIONS IN MISSISSIPPI FAN SEDIMENTS A Thesis by WILLIAM ALLAN SANDBERG Approved as to style and content by: James M. Brooks (Chairman of Committee) Leis M...

  6. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanshan Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH emission, as well as emission profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the total PAH emission in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The emission profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% of the total emission, respectively. Total emission, emission density, emission intensity, and emission per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher emission density, while those in western and northern China featured higher emission intensity and population-normalized emission. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, annual emission of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Long-range transport of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at Cape Hedo remote island site in the East China Sea between 2005 and 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 2004. Atmos.of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air throughpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air of Hong Kong.

  8. Isomer discrimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Murchison meteorite by resonant ionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Vries, Mattanjah S.

    Isomer discrimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Murchison meteorite by resonant between isomers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Murchison meteorite. We measured the 2C-R2PI: Resonant ionization; Jet cooling; Mass spectrometry; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Murchison meteorite

  9. Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Prediction of Solid Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubility in Water with the NRTL-PR Model of solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water. For this purpose, we first validate our methodology for fluid phase equilibria predictions of aromatic hydrocarbons and gas (CO2, C2H6) mixtures. Finally, we

  10. Experimental and modeling investigation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed ethylene flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldi, M.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Melius, C.F. [and others

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been performed to investigate aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon formation pathways in a rich, sooting, ethylene-oxygen-argon premixed flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.5 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) technique. Measurements were made in the flame and post-flame zone for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-aromatic fused rings. The modeling results show the key reaction sequences leading to aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth involve the combination of resonantly stabilized radicals. In particular, propargyl and 1-methylallenyl combination reactions lead to benzene and methyl substituted benzene formation, while polycyclic aromatics are formed from cyclopentadienyl radicals and fused rings that have a shared C{sub 5} side structure. Naphthalene production through the reaction step of cyclopentadienyl self-combination and phenanthrene formation from indenyl and cyclopentadienyl combination were shown to be important in the flame modeling study. The removal of phenyl by O{sub 2} leading to cyclopentadienyl formation is expected to play a pivotal role in the PAH or soot precursor growth process under fuel-rich oxidation conditions.

  11. UV Irradiation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Clemett,3 Richard N. Zare3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultra meteorites. Hydrogen and deu- terium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain abundant and widespread class of carbon-car- rying gaseous species is believed to be PAHs (3­5). In dense

  12. Desorption Kinetics for Field-Aged Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockne, Karl J.

    Harbor Estuary. Desorption kinetics for PAHs with a log octanol- water partition coefficient greater than This study considers desorption kinetics for 12 field-aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) desorbing 6 were well- described by a one-domain diffusion model that assumes that PAHs are initially

  13. Biodegradation of Bicyclic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockne, Karl J.

    solubility of oxygen in water. Therefore, our present understanding of PAH degradation in aerobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be biodegraded under aerobic conditions, most contaminated sediments are anaerobic. With recent results demonstrating that some bicyclics and PAHs can

  14. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be attributed to patterns determining the origin of the air masses sampled. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were in general significantly higher in air masses that passed over anthropocentrically impacted regions. Interspecies correlations and ratios gave some indications of the possible sources for the different aromatic hydrocarbons in the source regions defined in the paper. The highest contribution of aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to ozone formation potential was also observed in plumes passing over anthropocentrically impacted regions.

  15. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Allamandola, Louis J., E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov [Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

  16. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of Port Phillip Bay of aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal waters, using solvent extraction and fluorescence emission analysis, shows and the Yarra River estuary. Introduction Pollution of the marine environment by petroleum hydrocarbons

  17. aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil Microcosms: A Review CiteSeer Summary: Copyright 2001 Kansas State University Key words: bioremediation, denitrification, PAHs, sulfidogenesis...

  18. aromatic hydrocarbon water-soluble: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    naturally into the environment by (more) Bobak, Deanna M. 2010-01-01 12 Zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Open Access Theses and...

  19. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N nature of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) they are mostly bound to the sludge and escape aerobic

  20. Occurrence of chlorinated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in tap water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiraishi, H.; Pilkington, N.H.; Otsuki, A.; Fuwa, K.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic compounds in tap waters were extracted by a modified continuous liquid-liquid extractor and analyzed by computerized gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a fused silica capillary column. The results indicate the presence of monochlorinated derivatives of naphthalene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, fluorenone, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene and dichlorinated derivatives of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. The parent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated derivatives such as fluorenone and anthraquinone were also found. It was demonstrated that chlorinated PAHs (Cl-PAHs) were really present in tap waters at 10/sup -1/-10/sup -2/ ng/L levels.

  1. Synthesis of condensed phases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fullerenes and nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods for producing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and nanotubes, comprising: a. heating at least one carbon-containing material to form a condensed phase comprising at least one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; b. collecting at least some of the condensed phase; c. reacting the condensed phase to form fullerenes and/or nanotubes.

  2. Simulated transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artificial streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartell, S.M.; Landrum, P.F.; Giesy, J.P.; Leversee, G.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model was constructed to predict the pattern of flow and accumulation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (anthracene, naphthalene, and benzo(a)pyrene) in artificial streams located on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Predictions were based upon the premise that the fundamental chemistry of individual PAH contains useful information for predictive purposes. Model processes included volatilization, photolysis, sorption to sediments and particulates, and net accumulation by biota. Simulations of anthracene transport were compared to results of an experiment conducted in the streams. The model realistically predicted the concentration of dissolved anthracene through time and space. Photolytic degradation appeared to be a major pathway of anthracene flux from the streams.

  3. QSAR model of the phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Fabiana Alves de Lima Ribeiro, Marcia Miguel Castro Ferreira*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    QSAR model of the phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Fabiana Alves de Lima Ribeiro of 67 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is performed and a prediction rule for the phototoxicity be produced from saturated hydrocarbons under oxygen-deficient conditions. Hydrocarbons with very low

  4. LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Dinelli, B. M. [ISAC-CNR, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E. [IAPS-INAF, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Moriconi, M. L. [ISAC-CNR, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: puertas@iaa.es [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)

    2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  5. Reduction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Zero-Valent Iron and Palladium Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Hun; Shin, Won Sik; Ko, Seok-Oh; Kim, Myung-Chul

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is an alternative technology for soil and groundwater remediation. Zero valent iron, which is the most popular PRB material, is only applicable to halogenated aliphatic organics and some heavy metals. The objective of this study was to investigate reductive dechlorination of halogenated compounds and reduction of non-halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons using zero valent metals (ZVMs) and catalysts as reactive materials for PRBs. A group of small aromatic hydrocarbons such as monochlorophenols, phenol and benzene were readily reduced with palladium catalyst and zero valent iron. Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also tested with the catalysts and zero valent metal combinations. The aromatic rings were reduced and partly reduced PAHs were found as the daughter compounds. The current study demonstrates reduction of aromatic compounds by ZVMs and modified catalysts and implicates that PRB is applicable not only for halogenated organic compounds but nonhalogenated aromatic compounds such as PAHs.

  6. Cardiac toxicity of 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is differentially dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 isoform during zebrafish development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardiac toxicity of 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is differentially dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 isoform during zebrafish development John P. Incardona , Tiffany L. Linbo, Nathaniel L aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), commonly occur as com- plex mixtures in the environment. Recent studies using

  7. Black carbon in marine sediments : quantification and implications for the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accardi-Dey, AmyMarie, 1976-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorption is a key factor in determining the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Here, PAH sorption is proposed as the sum of two mechanisms: absorption into a biogenic, organic carbon (OC) ...

  8. Bacterial mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reconstituted mixtures and crude coal tar extracts and fractions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onufrock, Amy Mildred

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , coal, and oil shale vary widely in the amount and nature of potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, potential carcinogenicity varies widely between representative PAH fractions derived from complex mixtures. PAH fractions...

  9. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  10. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  11. Interfacial effects in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor: degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    Interfacial effects in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor: degradation of polycyclic aromatic) was examined in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB). TPPBs are characterized by a cell Bioreactor; Hydrophobicity 1. Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which possess

  12. Polycylcic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH's) in dense cloud chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentine Wakelam; Eric Herbst

    2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Virtually all detailed gas-phase models of the chemistry of dense interstellar clouds exclude polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's). This omission is unfortunate because from the few studies that have been done on the subject, it is known that the inclusion of PAH's can affect the gas-phase chemistry strongly. We have added PAH's to our network to determine the role they play in the chemistry of cold dense cores. In the models presented here, we include radiative attachment to form PAH-, mutual neutralization between PAH anions and small positively-charged ions, and photodetachment. We also test the sensitivity of our results to changes in the size and abundance of the PAH's. Our results confirm that the inclusion of PAH's changes many of the calculated abundances of smaller species considerably. In TMC-1, the general agreement with observations is significantly improved contrary to L134N. This may indicate a difference in PAH properties between the two regions. With the inclusion of PAH's in dense cloud chemistry, high-metal elemental abundances give a satisfactory agreement with observations. As a result, we do not need to decrease the observed elemental abundances of all metals and we do not need to vary the elemental C/O ratio in order to produce large abundances of carbon species in TMC-1 (CP).

  13. Origin and significance of aromatic hydrocarbons in giant iron ore deposits of the late Archean Hamersley Basin,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brocks, Jochen J.

    Origin and significance of aromatic hydrocarbons in giant iron ore deposits of the late Archean extractable saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The host rocks belong to the $2.5 billion years (Ga) old Mt and Newman (Mt Whaleback). The saturated hydrocarbons in the rock extracts have the composition of highly

  14. Energetics of C-H Bond Activation of Fluorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using a [TpRh(CNneopentyl)] Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Energetics of C-H Bond Activation of Fluorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using a [Tp activation of fluorinated aromatic hydrocarbons by [TpRh(CNneopentyl)] resulted in the formation of products of homogeneous transition-metal catalysts to activate and functionalize C-H bonds of hydrocarbons for industrial

  15. Sorption characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aluminum smelter residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gijs D. Breedveld; Emilien Pelletier; Richard St. Louis; Gerard Cornelissen [Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature carbon oxidation in primary aluminum smelters results in the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) into the environment. The main source of PAH are the anodes, which are composed of petroleum coke (black carbon, BC) and coal tar pitch. To elucidate the dominant carbonaceous phase controlling the environmental fate of PAH in aluminum smelter residues (coke BC and/or coal tar), the sorptive behavior of PAHs has been determined, using passive samplers and infinite-sink desorption methods. Samples directly from the wet scrubber were studied as well as ones from an adjacent 20-year old storage lagoon and roof dust from the smelter. Carbon-normalized distribution coefficients of native PAHs were 2 orders of magnitude higher than expected based on amorphous organic carbon (AOC)/water partitioning, which is in the same order of magnitude as reported literature values for soots and charcoals. Sorption isotherms of laboratory-spiked deuterated phenanthrene showed strong (about 100 times stronger than AOC) but nonetheless linear sorption in both fresh and aged aluminum smelter residues. The absence of nonlinear behavior typical for adsorption to BC indicates that PAH sorption in aluminum smelter residues is dominated by absorption into the semi-solid coal tar pitch matrix. Desorption experiments using Tenax showed that fresh smelter residues had a relatively large rapidly desorbing fraction of PAH (35-50%), whereas this fraction was strongly reduced (11-16%) in the lagoon and roof dust material. Weathering of the coal tar residue and/or redistribution of PAH between coal tar and BC phases could explain the reduced availability in aged samples. 38 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. aromatic hydrocarbon formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Formation, Hamersley Group, and were collected in mines near Tom Price mature gas condensates. The aromatic fraction predominantly consists of unsubstituted two and...

  17. aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 14 through March 7, 2014 Opening Reception: Friday, February 14, 5-8PM TRI-COUNTY HIGH Berdichevsky, Victor 443 The Behavior of the Aromatic Features in M101 HII...

  18. Enumeration and phylogenetic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria from Puget Sound sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiselbrecht, A.D.; Herwig, R.P.; Deming, J.W.; Staley, J.T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are primarily released into the environment through anthropomorphic sources. PAH degradation has been known to occur in marine sediments. This paper describes the enumeration, isolation, and preliminary characterization of PAH-degrading strains from Puget Sound sediments. 38 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and potentially carcinogenic pollutants. Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are less hydro- phobic (log Kow 3­5) and more water soluble than the high Mm PAHs; thus, they are fairly1461 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and potentially carcinogenic pollutants. Plants and their associated rhizosphere microbes can promote PAH dissipation, offering

  20. QSPR models of boiling point, octanolwater partition coefficient and retention time index of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    QSPR models of boiling point, octanol­water partition coefficient and retention time index Structure­Property Relationship (QSPR) analysis and study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (bp), octanol­ water partition coefficient ðlog KowÞ and retention time index (RI) for reversed

  1. Tenax as sorption sink for in vitro bioaccessibility measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    & Environment, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China d Soil and Water Science Department, University and maintain the desorption gradient between soil and GI solution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were method. Inclusion of Tenax in GI solution increased bioaccessibility of PAHs in five spiked soils from 8

  2. Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sattler, Klaus

    exhausts,7­17 coal-fired, electricity generating power plants,18,19 tobacco smoke,20 residential wood hydrocarbons PAHs are in our air environment1­3 in the form of volatile and particulate pollutants4 or coal combustion,21­24 burning of plastics,25 and area sources such as forest fires and agricultural

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in Mississippi Fan sediments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, William Allan

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on fractionation of carbon in phytoplankton; 3) the alteration of organic matter's isotopic composition during degradation and diagenesis; 4) upward and/or lateral migration of petrogenic hydrocarbons into shallower sediments; 5) anomalous isotopic compositions... ? acenaphthene fluorene phenanthrene/anthracene Gr-3 rings fluoranthene, pyr'ene benz(a)anthracene, chrysene benzopyrenes, perylene ?drz-perylene dibenzanthracenes (*internal standards) Gas GhromatograIrhv Injector: 300 C, splitless mode Total Run...

  4. Long-Range Atmospheric Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A Global 3-D Model Analysis Including Evaluation of Arctic Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Carey

    We use the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem to simulate long-range atmospheric transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To evaluate the model’s ability to simulate PAHs with different volatilities, ...

  5. Effectiveness of in site biodegradation for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a contaminated oil refinery, Port Arthur, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffit, Alfred Edward

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sediments contaminated with highly weathered petroleum was evaluated at a contaminated oil refinery. The sediments were chronically contaminated...

  6. Assessing the Influence of Secondary Organic versus Primary Carbonaceous Aerosols on Long-Range Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, J. R.

    We use the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem to evaluate the hypothesis that atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are trapped in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) as it forms. We test the ability of three ...

  7. Estimated IR and phosphorescence emission fluxes for specific Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Red Rectangle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Mulas; G. Malloci; C. Joblin; D. Toublanc

    2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the tentative identification of the blue luminescence in the Red Rectangle by Vijh et al. (2005), we compute absolute fluxes for the vibrational IR emission and phosphorescence bands of three small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The calculated IR spectra are compared with available ISO observations. A subset of the emission bands are predicted to be observable using presently available facilities, and can be used for an immediate, independent, discriminating test on their alleged presence in this well-known astronomical object.

  8. Phototoxicity of non-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagan, J.; Kagan, E.D.; Kagan, I.A.; Kagan, P.A.; Quigley, S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene are phototoxic in Daphnia magna, Artemia salina, first instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, late embryonic forms of Rana pipiens, and fish (Pimephales promelas). Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are generated in the combustion processes held responsible for the damages of acid rain, and they are introduced into the environment through other means as well, the high phototoxicity of the major pollutants, which are not carcinogenic, suggests that greater attention must be given to their environmental significance.

  9. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Some Inorganic Substances, Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Amines, N-Nitroso Compounds,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Inorganic Substances, Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Amines, N-Nitroso Compounds, and Natural Products 1973; 181 pages ISBN 92 832 1202 9 (out of print) Volume 3 Certain Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Acrolein 1979; 513 pages ISBN 92 832 1219 3 (out of print) Volume 20 Some Halogenated Hydrocarbons 1979

  10. doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(00)01302-9 Release of bound aromatic hydrocarbons from late Archean and Mesoproterozoic kerogens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brocks, Jochen J.

    doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(00)01302-9 Release of bound aromatic hydrocarbons from late Archean, and higher polyaromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated homologues were generated in low relative concentrations of the hydropyrolysates are very similar to aromatic hydrocarbons obtained by solvent extraction of the host rocks

  11. A Multiscale Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Properties in Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Galliano

    2008-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present contribution, I summarize a systematic study of ISO and Spitzer mid-IR spectra of Galactic regions and star forming galaxies. This study quantifies the relative variations of the main aromatic features inside spatially resolved objects as well as among the integrated spectra of 50 objects. Our analysis implies that the properties of the PAHs are remarkably universal throughout our sample and at different spatial scales. In addition, the relative variations of the band ratios, as large as one order of magnitude, are mainly controled by the fraction of ionized PAHs. In particular, I show that we can rule out both the modification of the PAH size distribution and the mid-IR extinction, as an explanation of these variations. High values of the I(6.2)/I(11.3) ratio are found to be associated with the far-UV illuminated surface of PDRs, at the scale of an interstellar cloud, and associated with star formation activity, at the scale of a galaxy. Using a few well-studied Galactic regions, we provide an empirical relation between the I(6.2)/I(11.3) ratio and the ionization/recombination ratio G0/ne. Finally, I show that these trends are consistent with the detailed modeling of the PAH emission within photodissociation regions, taking into account the radiative transfer, the stochastic heating and the charge exchange between gas and dust.

  12. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons on the vegetation of a railroad right-of-way

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hancock, James Leonard

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the epicuticular leaf waxes of selected plant species growing along a railrcad right-of-way was conduct:ed near Bryan, Texas from October 1967 to February 1969, The objectives of the study were to correlate diesel... locomotive exhaust emissions to PAH on Lhe vege tation of the righL- of way and to compar'e PAH levels on right of way piants to levels on similar species growing in an area isolated from locomotive emissions, The PAH were isolated from leaf wax extracts...

  13. Bacterial mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reconstituted mixtures and crude coal tar extracts and fractions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onufrock, Amy Mildred

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    7 8 Phenanthrene 8 9 2 6 3 5 4 Fluorene 7 6 Fluoranthene 3 10 I 9 H I, 8 7 I 6 Pyrene Il 2 111 Q 12 5 6 ltenzolclphenanthrene 2 I I 12 4 I H 5 8 7 6 Benz[ajanthracene 12 II 10 8 + ~ 5 7 6 Chrysene I 4 13 14 12 e... are associated with the coal utilization and petroleum refining industries. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can result as thermal degradative products of combustion, pyrolysis, and pyrosynthesis. They are also derived from a variety of petroleum refining...

  14. UNUSUAL STABILITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON RADICAL CATIONS IN AMORPHOUS WATER ICES UP TO 120 K: ASTRONOMICAL IMPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    during warm-up above 120 K. Earlier we found that PAH ionization is quantitative in water ice and PAH studies of PAHs in water ice. These optical studies were undertaken to overcome the limitations of severeUNUSUAL STABILITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON RADICAL CATIONS IN AMORPHOUS WATER ICES UP

  15. DO THE INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES NEED ULTRAVIOLET EXCITATION? THE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON MODEL IN UV-POOR REFLECTION NEBULAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draine, Bruce T.

    '' PAHs in reflection nebulae near stars as cool as Teff ¼ 3000 K can result in observable emis- sion at 6DO THE INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES NEED ULTRAVIOLET EXCITATION? THE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON MODEL IN UV-POOR REFLECTION NEBULAE Aigen Li and B. T. Draine Department of Astrophysical Sciences

  16. Anisotropy and Size Effects on the Optical Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caterina Cocchi; Deborah Prezzi; Alice Ruini; Marilia J. Caldas; Elisa Molinari

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic and optical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present a strong dependence on their size and geometry. We tackle this issue by analyzing the spectral features of two prototypical classes of PAHs, belonging to D6h and D2h symmetry point groups and related to coronene as multifunctional seed. While the size variation induces an overall red shift of the spectra and a redistribution of the oscillator strength between the main peaks, a lower molecular symmetry is responsible for the appearance of new optical features. Along with broken molecular orbital degeneracies, optical peaks split and dark states are activated in the low-energy part of the spectrum. Supported by a systematic analysis of the composition and the character of the optical transitions, our results contribute in shedding light to the mechanisms responsible for spectral modifications in the visible and near UV absorption bands of medium-size PAHs.

  17. One-electron oxidation in the degradation of creosote polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysoporium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogan, B.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[USDA Forest Service Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States); Lamar, R.T. [USDA Forest Service Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The abilities of whole cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and P. chrysosporium manganese peroxidase-mediated lipid peroxidation reactions to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in creosote were studied. The disappearance of 12 three- to six-ring PAHs occurred in both systems. Both in vivo and in vitro, the disappearance of all PAHs was found to be very strongly correlated with ionization potential. This was true even for compounds beyond the ionization potential thresholds of lignin peroxidase and Mn{sup 3+}. Deviations from this correlation were seen in the cases of PAHs which are susceptible to radical addition reactions. These results thus begin to clarify the mechanisms of non-lignin peroxidase-labile PAH degradation in the manganese peroxidase-lipid peroxidation system and provide further evidence for the ability of this system to explain the in vivo oxidation of these compounds. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Aromatic hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells. Annual report, fiscal 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeley, D.F.; Meriwether, J.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of cryocondensates - materials condensed at - 78.5/sup 0/C were taken on a regular basis from the gas stream for the USDOE geopressured wells. Most of the data has been taken from the Gladys McCall well as it has flowed on a regular and almost continous basis. The cryocondensates, not the ''condensate'' from gas wells, are almost exclusively aromatic hydrocarbons, primarily benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylenes, but contain over 95 compounds, characterized using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy. The solubility in water and brine of benezene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene, some of the components of the cryocondensate, as well as distribution coefficients between water or brine and a standard oil have been measured. 25 refs.

  19. On-line database of the spectral properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Malloci; C. Joblin; G. Mulas

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an on-line database of computed molecular properties for a large sample of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in four charge states: -1, 0, +1, and +2. At present our database includes 40 molecules ranging in size from naphthalene and azulene (C10H8) up to circumovalene (C66H20). We performed our calculations in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent DFT to obtain the most relevant molecular parameters needed for astrophysical applications. For each molecule in the sample, our database presents in a uniform way the energetic, rotational, vibrational, and electronic properties. It is freely accessible on the web at http://astrochemistry.ca.astro.it/database/ and http://www.cesr.fr/~joblin/database/.

  20. Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in northwest Gulf of Mexico marine fish and invertebrates: indicators of offshore petroleum contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, Cynthia Marie

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Higher molecular weight Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) associated with crude oil induce CYPIAI gene expression, and this response has been utilized as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs in aquatic and marine environments. Several benthic...

  1. Effects of partial charge-transfer solute -- solvent interactions in absorption spectra of aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous and alcoholic solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Ar'ev; N. I. Lebovka; E. A. Solovieva

    2013-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for study of charge-transfer interactions between solute molecules and solvent based on the comparison of the ratios of spectral shifts of different electronic transitions in solute molecules in chemically inert solvent is proposed. The method is applicable to molecules that do not change their dipole moment on excitation. As an example, a presence of charge transfer interactions in higher electronic states of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, phenanthrene, and naphthalene) dissolved in water and alcohols was demonstrated.

  2. Capillary chromatography of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on glass and quartz capillary columns coated with stationary polysiloxane phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudenko, B.A.; Bulycheva, Z.Y.; Kutenev, V.F.; Topunov, V.N.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper resports a technique for analyzing automobile exhausts for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) by means of a new Biokhrom-1 chromatograph designed to operate with capillary glass and quartz columns. The method is assessed for performance and is shown to be useful in monitoring the PAH content in the environment. The detection limit for benz(a)pyrene was 0.05 ug with a relative standard deviation of 0.08 to 0.12.

  3. Properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in local elliptical galaxies revealed by the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kaneda; T. Onaka; I. Sakon; T. Kitayama; Y. Okada; T. Suzuki

    2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of 18 local dusty elliptical galaxies by using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board Spitzer. We have significantly detected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features from 14 out of the 18 galaxies, and thus found that the presence of PAHs is not rare but rather common in dusty elliptical galaxies. Most of these galaxies show an unusually weak 7.7 um emission feature relative to 11.3 um and 17 um emission features. A large fraction of the galaxies also exhibit H2 rotational line and ionic fine-structure line emissions, which have no significant correlation with the PAH emissions. The PAH features are well correlated with the continuum at 35 um, whereas they are not correlated with the continuum at 6 um. We conclude that the PAH emission of the elliptical galaxies is mostly of interstellar origin rather than of stellar origin, and that the unusual PAH interband strength ratios are likely to be due to a large fraction of neutral to ionized PAHs.

  4. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION IN THE PROPLYD HST10: WHAT IS THE MECHANISM BEHIND PHOTOEVAPORATION?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vicente, S.; Kamp, I. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands); Berne, O. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huelamo, N. [CAB (INTA-CSIC), LAEFF, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Pantin, E. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM - CNRS - Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAP, F-91191 sur Yvette (France); Carmona, A. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France)

    2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Proplyds are photodissociation-region-(PDR)-like cometary cocoons around young stars which are thought to originate through photoevaporation of the central protoplanetary disk by external UV radiation from the nearby OB stars. This Letter presents spatially resolved mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the proplyd HST10 obtained with the Very Large Telescope/VISIR instrument. These observations allow us to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the proplyd PDR and to study the general properties of PAHs in proplyds for the first time. We find that PAHs in HST10 are mostly neutral and at least 50 times less abundant than typical values found for the diffuse interstellar medium or the nearby Orion Bar. With such a low PAH abundance, photoelectric heating is significantly reduced. If this low abundance pertains also to the original disk material, gas heating rates could be too low to efficiently drive photoevaporation unless other processes can be identified. Alternatively, the model behind the formation of proplyds as evaporating disks may have to be revised.

  5. The importance of snow scavenging of polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wania, F. [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mackay, D. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies] [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies; Hoff, J.T. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Earth Science] [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Earth Science

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, experimental data on the scavenging of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the atmosphere by snow were interpreted assuming that the distribution of chemical between particles and dissolved phase measured in the meltwater reflects the state of the chemical during the scavenging process. A consequence of this assumption is that vapor scavenging is found to be unimportant relative to particle scavenging. An alternative interpretation is presented that during melting repartitioning occurs from the dissolved phase to the particle-sorbed phase. Further, it is argued that a constant particle scavenging ratio may apply to all chemicals of the same class in the same precipitation event, and its value can be estimated from the scavenging characteristics of predominantly particle-sorbed, high molecular mass chemicals. This analysis suggests that for more volatile PCBs and PAHs vapor scavenging is an important, if not the dominating, snow scavenging process. Gas scavenging ratios obtained with this method are, as expected, negatively correlated with the vapor pressure of a substance, indicating that adsorption to the air-ice interface is the process responsible for vapor scavenging.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in marine sediments near Kitimat, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, C.D.; Harrington, C.F.; Cullen, W.R. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Chemistry Dept.] [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Chemistry Dept.; Bright, D.A.; Reimer, K.J. [Royal Roads Military College, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). Environmental Sciences Group] [Royal Roads Military College, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). Environmental Sciences Group

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), like many other hydrophobic organic contaminants, are rapidly sorbed to particles and incorporated within sediments in aquatic systems. The PAH composition within the sediments reflects the source(s) from which the PAHs were derived. However, the ``source signature`` may be altered by postdepositional weathering or biodegradation. In the present study, variation in PAH composition was investigated in size-fractionated sediments and depth-fractionated sediments collected from a Canadian fjord contaminated with aluminum smelter derived PAHs. Multivariate analyses of PAH compositional data consistently showed that different sampling sites could be discriminated on the basis of their PAH composition, but smaller versus larger size fractions within a site could not. The composition of unsubstituted and alkyl-substituted PAHs in a sediment core primarily showed changes with depth that were attributable to enhancement of anthropogenic inputs in the upper core segments. No trends with sediment depth, associated with compound-specific weathering or biotransformation, were noted in the composition of anthropogenically generated PAHs. This may indicate a limited chemical and biological availability of the aluminum smelter derived PAHs.

  7. GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON ANIONS WITH MOLECULES OF INTERSTELLAR RELEVANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demarais, Nicholas J.; Yang Zhibo; Martinez, Oscar; Wehres, Nadine; Bierbaum, Veronica M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 215 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0215 (United States); Snow, Theodore P., E-mail: Nicholas.Demarais@Colorado.edu, E-mail: Zhibo.Yang@Colorado.edu, E-mail: OMartinez@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: Nadine.Wehres@Colorado.edu, E-mail: Veronica.Bierbaum@Colorado.edu, E-mail: Theodore.Snow@Colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States)

    2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied reactions of small dehydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anions with neutral species of interstellar relevance. Reaction rate constants are measured at 300 K for the reactions of phenide (C{sub 6}H{sup -}{sub 5}), naphthalenide (C{sub 10}H{sup -}{sub 7}), and anthracenide (C{sub 14}H{sup -}{sub 9}) with atomic H, H{sub 2}, and D{sub 2} using a flowing afterglow-selected ion flow tube instrument. Reaction rate constants of phenide with neutral molecules (CO, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 3}CN, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO, CH{sub 3}CHO, CH{sub 3}Cl, and (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O) are also measured under the same conditions. Experimental measurements are accompanied by ab initio calculations to provide insight into reaction pathways and enthalpies. Our measured reaction rate constants should prove useful in the modeling of astrophysical environments, particularly when applied to dense regions of the interstellar and circumstellar medium.

  8. Field application of a genetically engineered microorganism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation process monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayler, G.S.; Cox, C.D.; Ripp, S.; Nivens, D.E.; Werner, C.; Ahn, Y.; Matrubutham, U. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burlage, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On October 30, 1996, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commenced the first test release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) for use in bioremediation. The specific objectives of the investigation were multifaceted and include (1) testing the hypothesis that a GEM can be successfully introduced and maintained in a bioremediation process, (2) testing the concept of using, at the field scale, reporter organisms for direct bioremediation process monitoring and control, and (3) acquiring data that can be used in risk assessment decision making and protocol development for future field release applications of GEMs. The genetically engineered strain under investigation is Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (King et al., 1990). The original P. fluorescens parent strain was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated manufactured gas plant soil. Thus, this bacterium is able to biodegrade naphthalene (as well as other substituted naphthalenes and other PAHs) and is able to function as a living bioluminescent reporter for the presence of naphthalene contamination, its bioavailability, and the functional process of biodegradation. A unique component of this field investigation was the availability of an array of large subsurface soil lysimeters. This article describes the experience associated with the release of a genetically modified microorganism, the lysimeter facility and its associated instrumentation, as well as representative data collected during the first eighteen months of operation.

  9. An in situ intercomparison exercise on passive samplers for the monitoring of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in surface water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides in surface waters. Various PSs were used and compared at 2 rivers sites aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in surface water C. Miège1* , N. Mazzella2 , S. Schiavone1 , A. Dabrin, the interlaboratory variability of field blanks, time weighted average water concentrations and its uncertainties

  10. Shock processing of interstellar dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the supernova remnant N132D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Tappe; J. Rho; W. T. Reach

    2006-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We observed the oxygen-rich Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) supernova remnant N132D (SNR 0525-69.6), using all instruments onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, IRS, IRAC, and MIPS (Infrared Spectrograph, Infrared Array Camera, Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer). The 5-40 micron IRS spectra toward the southeastern shell of the remnant show a steeply rising continuum with [NeIII] and [OIV] as well as PAH emission. We also present the spectrum of a fast moving ejecta knot, previously detected at optical wavelengths, which is dominated by strong [NeIII] and [OIV] emission lines. We interpret the continuum as thermal emission from swept-up, shock-heated dust grains in the expanding shell of N132D, which is clearly visible in the MIPS 24 micron image. A 15-20 micron emission hump appears superposed on the dust continuum, and we attribute this to PAH C-C-C bending modes. We also detect the well-known 11.3 micron PAH C-H bending feature, and find the integrated strength of the 15-20 micron hump about a factor of seven stronger than the 11.3 micron band in the shell of the remnant. IRAC 3-9 micron images do not show clear evidence of large-scale, shell-like emission from the remnant, partly due to confusion with the ambient ISM material. However, we identified several knots of shocked interstellar gas based on their distinct infrared colors. We discuss the bright infrared continuum and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features with respect to dust processing in young supernova remnants.

  11. Phototransformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on a Non-Semi Conductive Surface Such as Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabestani, R., Sigman, M.E.

    1997-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), by products of fossil fuel production and consumption, constitute a large class of environmental pollutants. These toxic and sometimes carcinogenic compounds are also found in coal tar and fly ash. When released into the air, they can be sorbed onto particulates present in the atmosphere where they find their way into soil and ground water upon being washed by rain. During their residence time in the environment, PAHs will be exposed to solar radiation and may undergo phototransformation to other products. Thus, light induced photodegradation of PM`s at the solid/air interfaces can play a significant role in their depletion. Light-induced processes have been claimed to enhance transformation of these PM`s in the environment. However, detailed studies on the nature and identities of photoproducts formed during the transformation of these compounds on solid surfaces is scarce. Since insulators such as silica, alumina,silicoaluminates and calcium carbonate are believed to constitute up 20-30% of inorganic particulates present in the atmosphere, they serve as environmentally relevant model surfaces to study the photophysical and photochemical behavior of PM`s. Although photochemistry of organic compounds adsorbed on solid surfaces has received much attention in recent years, the specific properties of the interface which influence photoprocesses and the exact mechanism of interaction between a surface and a substrate are often not well understood. We have investigated the photochemistry of many PAHs including eight that are on Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) sixteen priority pollutant PAH list shown in Table 1 at silica/air interface.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fresh and smoked fish samples from three Nigerian cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akpan, V.; Lodovici, M.; Dolara, P. (Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Florence (Italy))

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nigeria is a major producer of crude oil in sub-Saharan Africa. In-shore and off-shore wells are located in richly watered creeks in the southern part of the country. Although published data on environmental impact assessment of the petroleum industry in Nigeria are lacking, there is a growing concern about the possible contamination of estuarine and coastal waters and of marine species by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs). PAHs are ubiquitous priority pollutants that occur naturally in crude oil, automobile exhaust emissions and smoke condensates from incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials. PAHs with high molecular weight are less readily biodegraded by indigenous microorganisms in some regions, and given their marked hydrophobic characteristics, may persist in the aqueous environment, thus contaminating the food chain by bioaccumulating in aquatic species like fish and mussels. Major Nigerian oil wells are located in the vicinity of breeding and harvesting sites serving the fresh-water fishing industry. Large hauls of fresh fish are normally consumed cooked in soups or smoke cured in handcrafted traditional ovens using freshly cut red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa) wood as fuel. Though smoke curing is economical and may ensure longer conservation of fish, it undoubtedly increases the burden of PAHs in finished products as a result of partial charring and from smoke condensates or mangroves that also contain PAHs in measurable quantities as reported by Asita et al. (1991). Apart from PAHs analyzed by Emerole (1980) in smoked food samples from Ibadan using simple analytical methods, those from industrial and other anthropogenic sources have rarely been analyzed in Nigeria. We tried therefore to update the data and address this discrepancy. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. EXTINCTION AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON INTENSITY VARIATIONS ACROSS THE H II REGION IRAS 12063-6259

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.; Otaguro, J. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Bik, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band intensities are normally attributed to the physical conditions of the emitting PAHs, however in recent years it has been suggested that such variations are caused mainly by extinction. To resolve this question, we have obtained near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), and radio observations of the compact H II region IRAS 12063-6259. We use these data to construct multiple independent extinction maps and also to measure the main PAH features (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 {mu}m) in the MIR. Three extinction maps are derived: the first using the NIR hydrogen lines and case B recombination theory; the second combining the NIR data with radio data; and the third making use of the Spitzer/IRS MIR observations to measure the 9.8 {mu}m silicate absorption feature using the Spoon method and PAHFIT (as the depth of this feature can be related to overall extinction). The silicate absorption over the bright, southern component of IRAS 12063-6259 is almost absent while the other methods find significant extinction. While such breakdowns of the relationship between the NIR extinction and the 9.8 {mu}m absorption have been observed in molecular clouds, they have never been observed for H II regions. We then compare the PAH intensity variations in the Spitzer/IRS data after dereddening to those found in the original data. It was found that in most cases, the PAH band intensity variations persist even after dereddening, implying that extinction is not the main cause of the PAH band intensity variations.

  14. Effect of irradiance spectra on the photoinduced toxicity of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, S.A.; Mount, D.R.; Burkhard, L.P.; Ankley, G.T.; Makynen, E.A.; Leonard, E.N.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is dependent on the concentration of compounds present and the dose of light received. Of the light present, only those wavelengths absorbed by the compound have the potential to initiate the photochemical events underlying phototoxicity. This suggests that variation in light spectra present in natural waters, arising from variation in dissolved organic carbon composition, is an important determinant of phototoxicity risk in specific, PAH-contaminated waterbodies. To quantify the effect of environmentally realistic variation in light spectra on toxicity, brine shrimp (Artemia salina) assays were conducted under various light spectra and with three PAHs (pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene) of known phototoxicity potential. In these spectral assays, the total ultraviolet light present was equivalent; only the spectral characteristics varied. Based on the absorbance spectra of these PAHs, it was predicted that toxicity, quantified using immobilization as the endpoint, would vary significantly among light spectra in pyrene assays, but not in anthracene assays, and that variation in toxicity in fluoranthene assays would be intermediate. The results supported these assumptions. In the pyrene exposures, the glass filter time to 50% population immobilization (IT50) (39.5 min) was 117% longer than the KCr filter IT50 (18.2 min). In the fluoranthene exposures, the glass filter IT50 (49.5 min) was 27% longer than the KCr filter IT50 (39.1 min). In the anthracene exposures, the glass filter IT50 (62.2 min) was not statistically different from the KCr filter IT50 (63.8 min). Comparison of these results with the results of assays conducted under neutral-density filters (that change intensity but not spectral distribution) demonstrate that multiplying spectral intensity by wavelength-specific absorbance accurately predicts relative photoinduced toxicity among the experimental treatments. These results indicate that quantifying the spectral characteristics of PAH-contaminated aquatic environments may be an important component of risk assessment at these sites.

  15. aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of complex aromatic organic matter. While concerns remain as to the organic purity of the aerogel collection medium and the thermal effects associated 212 Conversion of polycyclic...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons adducted Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrocarbon... to its high reactivity toward DNA and cellular proteins. The major acrolein-DNA adduct, -hydrox- ypropano... -hy- droxynonenal, and acrolein, that readily form...

  17. Liquid-liquid equilibria for mixtures of an alkane + an aromatic hydrocarbon + 1,4-dicyanobutane at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letcher, T.M.; Naicker, P.K.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of pure aromatic and aliphatic compounds from their mixtures is an important goal in chemical operations (e.g., Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) that produce both types of compounds. In this work the authors have used 1,4-dicyanobutane (DCB) as a potential solvent for this separation. Liquid-liquid equilibrium results for mixtures of an alkane + an aromatic hydrocarbon + 1,4-dicyanobutane at 298.15 K are reported, where the alkane is hexane or nonane or dodecane or hexadecane and the aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene or methylbenzene or 1,2-dimethylbenzene, or 1,3-dimethylbenzene, or 1,4-dimethylbenzene or 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene or ethylbenzene. The results show that there is a small increase in the two-phase region as the chain length of the alkane is increased. The type of aromatic hydrocarbon present in the mixture has a noticeable effect on the slopes of the tie lines. There is also an increase in the area of the two phase-region with increasing substitution of methyl groups on the benzene ring. NRTL and UNIQUAC models were correlated to the data. The results show that 1,4-dicyanobutane may be used as a solvent for the separation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  18. Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K., E-mail: rajan.chakrabarty@gmail.com [Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Novosselov, Igor V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Enertechnix Inc., Maple Valley, Washington 98068 (United States); Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmüller, Hans [Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Sorensen, Christopher M. [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Stipe, Christopher B. [TSI Incorporated, 500 Cardigan Rd, Shoreview, Minnesota 55126 (United States)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (?g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in ?g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in ?g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ?10{sup 6}?s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

  19. Time-dependent density functional study of the electronic excited states of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon radical ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirata, So; Head-Gordon, Martin P.; Szczepanski, Jan; Vala, Martin

    2003-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A uniform, comprehensive theoretical interpretation of spectroscopic data is presented for 53 radical ion species of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s) with the aid of (Tamm–Dancoff) time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). TDDFT is capable of predicting the transition energies to the low-lying excited states of PAH ions with quantitative accuracy (the standard deviation from experimental results being less than 0.3 eV) and their intensity patterns qualitatively correctly. The accuracy is hardly affected by the sizes of PAH ions (azulene through dinaphthocoronene), the types of transitions (Koopmans or satellite transitions), the types of orbi-tals involved (*←, *←, or *← transitions), the types of ions (cations or anions), or other geometrical or electronic perturbations (non-planarity, sp3 carbons, or heterocyclic or non-benzenoid rings)

  20. Photochemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons: implications for ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suh, Inseon

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    -toluene reaction. The branching ratios of OH addition to ortho, para, meta, and ipso positions are predicted to be 0.52, 0.34, 0.11, and 0.03, respectively, significantly different from a recent theoretical study of the same reaction system. Aromatic peroxy...

  1. Identification of Sediment Organic Carbon Location and Association with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Contaminated Sediment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Identification of Sediment Organic Carbon Location and Association with Polycyclic Aromatic is known about the mechanisms of PAH and other hydrophobic organic compound sequestration and aging microspectroscopy at the NSLS beamline U10B and ALS beamline 1.4 were used to identify organic carbon location

  2. Elimination Rate Constants of 46 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Unionid Mussel, Elliptio complanata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cope, W. Gregory

    contaminants, such as PAHs (James 1989; Neff 1979), as well as the large quantity of water that mussels individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocar- bons (PAHs) including both parent and alkyl homologues, t1/2, and t95 values reported in the literature for PAHs and other classes of hydrophobic organic

  3. Aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism by Rhodococcus sp. I24 : computational, biochemical and transcriptional analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Jefferson A. (Jefferson Alexander), 1974-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rhodococcus sp. 124 is a Gram-positive soil bacterium being developed for the manufacture of (-)cis-(1S,2R)-1-aminoindan-2-ol, a key precursor in the production of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor CrixivanTM, from the aromatic ...

  4. Reaction mechanisms in aromatic hydrocarbon formation involving the C{sub 5}H{sub 5} cyclopentadienyl moiety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melius, C.F.; Colvin, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Marinov, N.M.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Senkan, S.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum chemical BAC-MP4 and BAC-MP2 methods have been used to investigate the reaction mechanisms leading to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ring formation. In particular the authors have determined the elementary reaction steps in the conversion of two cyclopentadienyl radicals to naphthalene. This reaction mechanism is shown to be an extension of the mechanism occurring in the H atom-assisted conversion of fulvene to benzene. The net reaction involves the formation of dihydrofulvalene, which eliminates a hydrogen atom and then rearranges to form naphthalene through a series of ring closures and openings. The importance of forming the {single_bond}CR({center_dot}){single_bond}CHR{single_bond}CR{prime}{double_bond}CR{double_prime}-moiety, which can undergo rearrangement to form three-carbon-atom ring structures, is illustrated with the C{sub 4}H{sub 7} system. The ability of hydrogen atoms to migrate around the cyclopentadienyl moiety is illustrated both for methyl-cyclopentadiene, C{sub 5}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3}, and dihydrofulvalene, C{sub 5}H{sub 5}C{sub 5}H{sub 5}, as well as for their radical species, C{sub 6}H{sub 7} and C{sub 5}H{sub 5}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}. The mobility of hydrogen in the cyclopentadienyl moiety plays an important role both in providing resonance-stabilized radical products and in creating the {single_bond}CR({center_dot}){single_bond}CHR{single_bond}CR{prime}{double_bond}CR{double_prime}-moiety for ring formation. The results illustrate the radical pathway for converting five-membered rings to aromatic six-membered rings. Furthermore, the results indicate the important catalytic role of H atoms in the aromatic ring formation process.

  5. Quantification of in situ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation at a petroleum contaminated site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conti, Enzo Mario

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrocarbons (PAHS) at a Bunker C contaminated soil. The effectiveness of EPA Seal Beach treatment with a consortium of biosurfactant bacteria in relation of a control is compared. using an EPA Seal Beach consortium of biosurfactant organisms in relation to PAH...

  6. A correlation of water solubility in jet fuels with API gravity: aniline point percent aromatics, and temperature.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byington, Alonzo

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A CORRELATION OF WATER SOLUBILITY IN JET FUELS WITH API GRAVITY, ANILINE POINT PERCENT AROMATICS, AND TEMPERATURE A Thesis By ALONZO B YINGTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1964 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A CORRELATION OF MATER SOLUBILITT IH JET FUELS WITS API GEAVITT, ANILINE POINT, PERCENT ARONATICS, AND TENPERATURE A Thesis By ALOHZO BYIHGTOH Approved...

  7. Manganese peroxidase mRNA and enzyme activity levels during bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil with Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogan, B.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Schoenike, B.; Lamar, R.T.; Cullen, D. [Forest Service Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mRNA extraction from soil and quantitation by competitive reverse transcription-PCR were combined to study the expression of three manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes during removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium grown in presterilized soil. Periods of high mnp transcript levels and extractable MnP enzyme activity were temporally correlated, although separated by a short (1- to 2-day) lag period. This time frame also coincided with maximal rates of fluorene oxidation and chrysene disappearance in soil cultures, supporting the hypothesis that high ionization potential polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidized in soil via MnP-dependent mechanisms. The patterns of transcript abundance over time in soil-grown P. chrysosporium were similar for all three of the mnp mRNAs studied, indicating that transcription of this gene family may be coordinately regulated under these growth conditions. 47 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, IONIZED GAS, AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES OF COOL-CORE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, Megan; Mark Voit, G.; Hoffer, Aaron [Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); De Messieres, Genevieve E.; O'Connell, Robert W. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); McNamara, Brian R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nulsen, Paul E. J., E-mail: donahue@pa.msu.edu, E-mail: voit@pa.msu.edu, E-mail: hofferaa@msu.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of 5-25 {mu}m emission features of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with strong optical emission lines in a sample of nine cool-core clusters of galaxies observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. These systems provide a view of dusty molecular gas and star formation, surrounded by dense, X-ray-emitting intracluster gas. Past work has shown that BCGs in cool-core clusters may host powerful radio sources, luminous optical emission-line systems, and excess UV, while BCGs in other clusters never show this activity. In this sample, we detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), extremely luminous, rotationally excited molecular hydrogen line emission, forbidden line emission from ionized gas ([Ne II] and [Ne III]), and infrared continuum emission from warm dust and cool stars. We show here that these BCGs exhibit more luminous forbidden neon and H{sub 2} rotational line emission than star-forming galaxies with similar total infrared luminosities, as well as somewhat higher ratios of 70 {mu}m/24 {mu}m luminosities. Our analysis suggests that while star formation processes dominate the heating of the dust and PAHs, a heating process consistent with suprathermal electron heating from the hot gas, distinct from star formation, is heating the molecular gas and contributing to the heating of the ionized gas in the galaxies. The survival of PAHs and dust suggests that dusty gas is somehow shielded from significant interaction with the X-ray gas.

  9. Infrared spectra of methyl-, and nitrogen-modified void coronene; modeling a carrier of interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ota, Norio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Void induced coronene C23H12++ was suggested to be a possible carrier of the astronomically observed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), which shows unique molecular structure with carbon two pentagons connected with five hexagons. Well observed astronomical infrared spectrum from 3-15 micron could be almost reproduced based on density functional theory. However, there remain several discrepancies with observed spectra, especially on 11-15 micron band weaker intensity. Observed 11.2 micron intensity is comparable to 7.6-7.8 micron one. Methyl-modified molecule C24H14++ revealed that calculated peak height of 11.4 micron show fairly large intensity up to 70-90% compared with that of 7.6-7.8 micron band. Also, nitrogen atom was substituted to peripheral C-H site of void coronene to be C22H11N1++. Pentagon site substituted case show 60% peak height. This molecule also reproduced well 12-15 micron peak position and relative intensity. Vibration mode analysis demonstrated that 11.3 micron mode comes from C-H ou...

  10. Spatial and temporal variation of freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban river undergoing Superfund remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aregory James Sower; Kim A. Anderson [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (USA). Environmental and Molecular Toxicology Department

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Urban rivers with a history of industrial use can exhibit spatial and temporal variations in contaminant concentrations that may significantly affect risk evaluations and even the assessment of remediation efforts. Concentrations of 15 biologically available priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured over five years along 18.5 miles of the lower Willamette River using passive sampling devices and HPLC. The study area includes the Portland Harbor Superfund megasite with several PAH sources including remediation operations for coal tar at RM 6.3 west and an additional Superfund site, McCormick and Baxter, at RM 7 east consisting largely of creosote contamination. Study results show that organoclay capping at the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site reduced PAHs from a precap average of 440 {+-} 422 ng/L to 8 {+-} 3 ng/L postcapping. Results also reveal that dredging of submerged coal tar nearly tripled nearby freely dissolved PAH concentrations. For apportioning sources, fluoranthene/pyrene and phenanthrene/anthracene diagnostic ratios from passive sampling devices were established for creosote and coal tar contamination and compared to published sediment values. 29 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Source Contribution Analysis of Surface Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Northeastern Asia by Source-receptor Relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Kajino, Mizuo; Sato, Keiichi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi; Ueda, Hiromasa; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyzed the sourceereceptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40°N, 40-60%) and central China (30-40°N, 10-40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40-80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes.

  12. Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.S. [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi-do 445-706 (Korea); Anh, D.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

  13. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban and a suburban area of Korea from 2002 to 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, H.B.; Kannan, K.; Lee, S.J.; Ok, G. [National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, Pusan (Republic of Korea)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric bulk samples (wet and dry) were collected monthly during 2002 to 2004 from an urban and a suburban area in Korea for assessment of depositional flux and seasonal variations in the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH depositional flux ranged from 64.1 to 610 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the urban area and from 65 to 460 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the suburban area. The fluxes of PAHs measured in this study were comparable with those reported for urban and suburban areas in other countries. The fluxes of particulates and PAHs were higher in winter than in summer, consistent with the greater per capita consumption of fossil fuel in winter than in summer. Ambient temperature played a major role in the seasonal variability in PAH fluxes. Photochemical degradation of PAHs appears to occur during the summer months. The relationship of PAH depositional fluxes with major air pollutants, such as ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and presence of particulate matter up to 10 {mu} m in size (PM10), was also investigated. Dominant PAH compounds in both the urban and the suburban locations were benzo(g,h,i)perylene, pyrene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Based on the PAH diagnostic ratios and a factor analysis, the major sources of PAHs in the urban and the suburban regions were found to be similar. Diesel exhaust, coal combustion, and gasoline emissions contributed predominantly to atmospheric PAH contamination.

  15. Accumulation and effects of aluminum smelter-generated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on soft-bottom invertebrates and fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naes, K.; Hylland, K.; Oug, E.; Foerlin, L.; Ericson, G.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated study involving measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in bottom sediments, assessments of resident soft-bottom communities, the accumulation of PAHs in soft-bottom invertebrates, and biomarker responses in invertebrates and fish was conducted to assess the impact of an aluminum reduction plant in a Norwegian fjord. The fjord sediments were heavily contaminated by PAHs in the inner reaches near the aluminum smelter, where concentrations were well above levels elsewhere reported to induce biological effects. Nevertheless, the PAH contamination in the fjord did not seem to have severe effects on the benthic biota. This conclusion can be drawn from the soft-bottom communities as well as from biomarker analyses. Presumably, contaminant speciation is important for explaining the restricted biological effects. The results support the assumption that PAHs associated with soot-like structures have limited bioavailability. They also point to the need to link various single-species approaches to measurements of effects on higher levels of organization and with an understanding of the speciation of the chemical contaminant.

  16. The mid-infrared spectrum of the carbon star HD 38218 and its possible relation to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, R.H., Jr.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Snow, T.P. (NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA) Colorado, University, Boulder (USA))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mid-infrared spectra of carbon giant stars with hot companions are investigated in order to search for infrared emission bands from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the envelopes of the C giants. A strong 8-micron emission band found in TU Tau = HD 38218 is attributed to the binary A star companion. It is argued that if the 8-micron feature in HD 38218 arises from PAHs, they seem to be important constituents of the C-giant shell, and they might be large compared with some interstellar PAHs. It is suggested that because no other IR spectra of C giants show clear PAH features, the greater flux of hard radiation in the binary HD 38218 seems likely to be responsible for the 8-micron feature and for its absence in many other C giants. Thus, PAHs could be present in the same amounts relative to SiC grains in the shells of similar single C giants, and the formation of carbonaceous grains could proceed through the formation of PAHs in C giant shells. 57 refs.

  17. Comparative potency approach based on H2AX assay for estimating the genotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Audebert, M., E-mail: marc.audebert@toulouse.inra.fr [INRA UMR1331, TOXALIM (Research Center in Food Toxicology), 180 chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, EIP, UPS, UMR1331, Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France); Zeman, F.; Beaudoin, R.; Péry, A. [Unité “Modèles pour l'écotoxicologie et la toxicologie” (METO), INERIS, BP2, F-60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)] [Unité “Modèles pour l'écotoxicologie et la toxicologie” (METO), INERIS, BP2, F-60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Cravedi, J.-P. [INRA UMR1331, TOXALIM (Research Center in Food Toxicology), 180 chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse (France) [INRA UMR1331, TOXALIM (Research Center in Food Toxicology), 180 chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, EIP, UPS, UMR1331, Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France)

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a family of over one hundred compounds and can generally be found in complex mixtures. PAHs metabolites cause DNA damage which can lead to the development of carcinogenesis. Toxicity assessment of PAH complex mixtures is currently expressed in terms of toxic equivalents, based on Toxicity Equivalent Factors (TEFs). However, the definition of new TEFs for a large number of PAH could overcome some limitations of the current method and improve cancer risk assessment. The current investigation aimed at deriving the relative potency factors of PAHs, based on their genotoxic effect measured in vitro and analyzed with mathematical models. For this purpose, we used a new genotoxic assay (?H2AX) with two human cell lines (HepG2 and LS-174T) to analyze the genotoxic properties of 13 selected PAHs at low doses after 24 h treatment. The dose–response for genotoxic effects was modeled with a Hill model; equivalency between PAHs at low dose was assessed by applying constraints to the model parameters. In the two cell lines tested, we observed a clear dose–response for genotoxic effects for 11 tested compounds. LS-174T was on average ten times more sensitive than HepG2 towards PAHs regarding genotoxicity. We developed new TEFs, which we named Genotoxic Equivalent Factor (GEF). Calculated GEF for the tested PAHs were generally higher than the TEF usually used. Our study proposed a new in vitro based method for the establishment of relevant TEFs for PAHs to improve cancer risk assessment. -- Highlights: ? Examination of the genotoxic properties of 13 PAHs on two human cell lines. ? Modelization with a Hill model of the genotoxic dose–response. ? First investigation of the genotoxicity of benzo[c]fluorene on human cell lines. ? Establishment of relevant TEFs for PAHs to improve cancer risk assessment.

  18. Analysis of Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Conventional Diesel and Fischer--Tropsch Diesel Fuel Emissions Using Electron Monochromator-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havey, C. D.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Dane, A. J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in diesel fuel emissions has been studied for a number of years predominantly because of their contribution to the overall health and environmental risks associated with these emissions. Electron monochromator-mass spectrometry (EM-MS) is a highly selective and sensitive method for detection of NPAHs in complex matrixes, such as diesel emissions. Here, EM-MS was used to compare the levels of NPAHs in fuel emissions from conventional (petroleum) diesel, ultra-low sulfur/low-aromatic content diesel, Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel/synthetic diesel blend. The largest quantities of NPAHs were detected in the conventional diesel fuel emissions, while the ultra-low sulfur diesel and synthetic diesel fuel demonstrated a more than 50% reduction of NPAH quantities when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. The emissions from the blend of conventional diesel with 30% synthetic diesel fuel also demonstrated a more than 30% reduction of the NPAH content when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. In addition, a correlation was made between the aromatic content of the different fuel types and NPAH quantities and between the nitrogen oxides emissions from the different fuel types and NPAH quantities. The EM-MS system demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity for detection of the NPAHs in the emissions with minimal sample cleanup required.

  19. Effect of Soederberg smelting technology, anode paste composition, and work shift on the relationship between benzo(a)pyrene and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric G. Sanderson; Peter J. Kelly; Jean-Pierre Farant [McGill University, Montreal (Canada). Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This follow-up of the Farant and Gariepy study investigates the relationship between benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal tar pitch volatiles in two types of Soederberg aluminum smelters horizontal and vertical stud. The study confirms the strong relationships between B(a)P and total PAHs, and that B(a)P was a good indicator for other PAHs in this industry. The PAH profiles were consistent within each smelter, but the smelter technology used and the changes in the raw material formulation resulted in significantly different profiles. B(a)P toxic equivalency factors for emitted PAH mixtures were greater in the horizontal stud smelter than in the vertical stud smelter. Overall, this study illustrates the potential usefulness of B(a)P relative abundance ratios to simplify exposure assessment in the workplace and reduce associated costs.

  20. 2094 J.Org. Chem. 1988,53, 2094-2099 Table 11. Bromination of Aromatic Hydrocarbons with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudlicky, Tomas

    Br,/aromatic = 5; solvent: carbon tetrachloride. *Chloro- benzene. tetrachloride and 1,4-dibromonaphthalenewas from ICN Biomedicals (WoelmN-Super 1). Carbon tetrachloride was dried with calcium chloride,26, 759. (10) Kovacic, P.; Wu, C. J. Org. Chem. 1961,26, 762. mmol), 2 (30 g), and carbon tetrachloride

  1. Activated carbon and biochar amendments decrease pore-water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    and biochar are effective at reducing PAH pore-water concentrations, the more expensive and non contaminants including PAHs may be taken up by organ- isms or migrate to water basins. Methods that limitActivated carbon and biochar amendments decrease pore-water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic

  2. Hydrocarbon conversion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.; Field, L.A.; Robinson, R.C.

    1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrocarbon conversion process is disclosed having a very high selectivity for dehydrocyclization. In one aspect of this process, a hydrocarbon feed is subjected to hydrotreating, then the hydrocarbon feed is passed through a sulfur removal system which reduces the sulfur concentration of the hydrocarbon feed to below 500 ppb, and then the hydrocarbon feed is reformed over a dehydrocyclization catalyst comprising a large pore zeolite containing at least one Group VIII metal to produce aromatics and hydrogen.

  3. Development of in vitro screening assays for potentially neurotoxic polyaromatic hydrocarbons in SY5Y and C6 cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Yan

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Some congeners produce extreme toxicity in laboratory Animal studies. While much attention has been ...

  4. Estimation method for the thermochemical properties of polycyclic aromatic molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Joanna

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic molecules, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted considerable attention in the past few decades. They are formed during the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and are ...

  5. Environmental dependence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission at z~0.8. Investigation by observing the RX J0152.7-1357 with AKARI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murata, Kazumi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuhara, Hideo; Kodama, Tadayuki

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the environmental dependence of the strength of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission by AKARI observations of RX J0152.7-1357, a galaxy cluster at z=0.84. PAH emission reflects the physical conditions of galaxies and dominates 8 um luminosity (L8), which can directly be measured with the L15 band of AKARI. L8 to infrared luminosity (LIR) ratio is used as a tracer of the PAH strength. Both photometric and spectroscopic redshifts are applied to identify the cluster members. The L15-band-detected galaxies tend to reside in the outskirt of the cluster and have optically green colour, R-z'~ 1.2. We find no clear difference of the L8/LIR behaviour of galaxies in field and cluster environment. The L8/LIR of cluster galaxies decreases with specific-star-formation rate divided by that of main-sequence galaxies, and with LIR, consistent with the results for field galaxies. The relation between L8/LIR and LIR is between those at z=0 and z=2 in the literature. Our data also shows that starburst galaxie...

  6. Directed metalation of N,N-diethylbenzamides. Silylated benzamides for the synthesis of naturally occurring peri-methylanthraquinones and peri-methyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, R.J.; Snieckus, V. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient methodologies based on directed ortho metalation, fluoride-induced carbodesilylation, and metal-halogen exchange processes (Scheme I) are reported for the synthesis of peri-methyl-substituted anthraquinone natural products 5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 6, 7. Benzamide 8 (Scheme II) is converted in a one-pot sequence into the disilylated derivative 10, which upon metalation, condensation with 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, CsF desilylation, and TsOH cyclization leads to the key phthalide 11. Compound 11 is transformed into deoxyerythrolaccin tris(methyl ether) 5c, which has been previously converted into the natural product 5a. For the synthesis of erythrolaccin tetrakis(methyl ether) 5d, the silyl and bromo benzamides 14 and 15 (Scheme III) are condensed with 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde by CsF-induced carbodesilylation and metal-halogen exchange expedients, respectively, to give the phthalide 16, which is transformed into the target anthraquinone 55d by methods identical with those used in 5c. Along similar lines, the synthesis of 11-methyl-7,12-benz(a)anthraquinone (6a, Scheme IV), 8-methyl-7,12-benz(a)anthraquinone (6b), and 10-methyl-9,14-dibenz(a,c)anthraquinone (7) is described.

  7. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in semipermeable membrane devices and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in relation to water column phase distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axelman, J.; Naes, K.; Naef, C.; Broman, D.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) were deployed at a site contaminated by discharges of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an aluminium reduction plant, and at a reference site. The accumulation of PAHs in SPMDs versus mussels, along with the ability of the two matrices to predict contaminant concentrations in the ambient environment, were evaluated through concurrent measurements of particulate, dissolved, and colloidal PAHs in the water column. Analysis of the results showed that blue mussels were more efficient at sequestering PAHs than were SPMDs. The PAH profile (i.e,, the relative abundance of individual PAHs) in the two matrices were similar, but differed significantly from the profile in the dissolved phase. Further, back-calculation of the ambient dissolved concentrations from SPMDs indicated systematic overtrapping with increasing hydrophobicity. Calculation of in situ bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the blue mussels at the smelter site indicated that uptake via particles or from colloids dominated over direct uptake from the dissolved phase, as opposed to the reference site. The in situ BCFs differed markedly from literature values, which implies that the use of mussels to predict ambient concentrations would require that site-specific BCFs be applied.

  8. Adequacy of benzo(a)pyrene and benzene soluble materials as indicators of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a Sderberg aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, M.C.; Demers, P.A.; Spinelli, J.J.; Le, N.D. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational & Environmental Hygiene

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurs as a complex mixture that is evaluated using specific components, such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and benzene soluble materials (BSM). Factors that influence the relationship between BaP, BSM, and other PAHs within an aluminum smelter were investigated. Personal samples collected from 1978 to 2001 were used. Differences in the log-transformed ratios (PAH/BaP, BaP/BSM) due to anode paste composition, pot group, season, and job were examined using linear regression. In linear regression, 27% of the variability in the log-transformed BaP/BSM ratio was explained by coal tar pitch, work area, and job; no seasonal or pot group differences were observed. Within the potrooms, BaP was very strongly correlated with other PAHs (majority 0.9). Depending on the PAH, between 23% and 89% of the variability in the log-transformed PAH/BSM was explained by season, coal tar pitch, pot group, and job. The BaP toxic equivalency factors of the mixture varied more across job (2.1-3.5) than across coal tar pitch source (1.8-2.8) or pot group (2.3-2.5). Seasonal and work area differences in the relationship between BaP and other PAHs have not been reported previously.

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanVeller, Brett

    The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

  10. INTRODUCTION Asphalt is a mixture of a wide variety of chemical compounds that include aliphatic hydrocarbons and highly fused

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    hydrocarbons and highly fused aromatic ring systems.They are classified as asphaltenes (medium molecular weight

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic rings synthesis Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aromatic compounds. 500 265 500 265 500 265 WAVELENGTH (nm) ARABIAN CRUDE LUBRICATING OIL... - ent aromatic hydrocarbons (ZIKTO and CARSON 1970r NEFF and ANDERSON ... Source:...

  12. Constraining uncertainties about the sources and magnitude of ambient air exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): The state of Minnesota as a case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobscheid, Agnes B.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions data are often lacking or uncertain for many airborne contaminants. Chemicals, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), emitted from combustion sources, fall into this category. Currently available ambient-air emission inventories of PAHs either fail to account for population-based activities (such as residential wood combustion and motor vehicle activity) and/or report ''total PAH'' or particulate organic matter emissions instead of individual compounds. We measure the degree of overlap between predicted concentrations from estimated emissions with measured concentrations. Our analysis is, based on probabilistic analysis of measured outdoor air concentrations with those predicted from mass-balance models. Based on available information, we estimate the relative magnitude of emissions from four major sources of PAHs to outdoor air- (1) on-road motor vehicles, including light-duty gasoline vehicles and diesel-powered buses and medium and heavy duty trucks; (2) residential wood combustion; and (3) power generation from external combustion boilers. We use the CalTOX regional multimedia mass-balance model to evaluate our emissions estimates in rural and urban regions of the state of Minnesota, USA. We compare model estimates of outdoor PAH airborne concentrations with those reported by the Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES). With these measured concentrations we probabilistically evaluate our emissions and interpret the reliability of our emissions estimates for specific PAHs. The median estimates of our predicted outdoor air concentrations agree within an order of magnitude of measured concentrations. For four representative PAHs, we were able to obtain a reasonable degree of overlap between empirical and predicted distributions of outdoor air concentrations. Our combination of models, emissions estimates, and empirical concentration data estimate exposure in a manner that is more reliable than any of these tools alone. Thereby, we increase our confidence about our plausible ranges of emissions and predicted concentrations.

  13. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties at elevated temperatures and pressures of saturated and aromatic high molecular weight solid and liquid hydrocarbons in kerogen, bitumen, petroleum, and other organic matter of biogeochemical interest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, L.; Helgeson, H.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To supplement the relatively sparse set of calorimetric data available for the multitude of high molecular weight organic compounds of biogeochemical interest, group additivity algorithms have been developed to estimate heat capacity power function coefficients and the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar of high molecular weight compounds in hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, including crystalline and liquid isoprenoids, steroids, tricyclic diterpenoids, hopanoids, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A total of ninety-six group contributions for each coefficient and property were generated from the thermodynamic properties of lower molecular weight reference species for which calorimetric data are available in the literature. These group contributions were then used to compute corresponding coefficients and properties for {approximately}360 representative solid and liquid high molecular weight compounds in kerogen, bitumen, and petroleum for which few or no experimental data are available. The coefficients and properties of these high molecular weight compounds are summarized in tables, together with those of the groups and reference species from which they were generated. The tabulated heat capacity power function coefficients and standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar include selected crystalline and liquid regular, irregular and highly branched isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpanes, 17{alpha}(H)- and 17{beta}(H)-hopanes, 5{alpha}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{beta}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{alpha}(H),14{beta}(H)-, and 5{beta}(H),14{beta}(H)-steranes, double ether- and ester-bonded n-alkanes, and various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including methylated biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes. However, corresponding coefficients and properties for many more saturated and unsaturated high molecular weight hydrocarbons can be estimated from the equations of state group additivity algorithms. Calculations of this kind permit comprehensive thermodynamic description of the chemical evolution of organic matter with increasing depth in sedimentary basins.

  14. Oil & Chemical Pollution 6 (19'X)} 81-Hydrocarbon Pollution of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    distribution offuel distillates is evident with only a small contribution from lubricating and heavier oilOil & Chemical Pollution 6 (19'X)} 81- pollution as all oils contain aromatic hydrocarbons while few, if any, biogenic aromatic hydrocarbons

  15. Development of in vitro screening assays for potentially neurotoxic polyaromatic hydrocarbons in SY5Y and C6 cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Yan

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Some congeners produce extreme toxicity in laboratory Animal studies. While much attention has been given to the carcinogenicity...

  16. Stable carbon isotope ratio of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment: validation of isolation and stable carbon isotope analysis methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Moon Koo

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , fluorene and chrysene, can be used to determine if the PAHs are pyrogenic or petrogenic in origin (Wang et al., 1999). Some PAHs are relatively resistant to degradation compared with aliphatic hydrocarbons, and the relative amounts can also reflect... INTRODUCTION Organic pollutants are an ever increasing concern as a stressor of ecosystems and an agent of degradation of the condition and health of natural resources. Many classes of industrial and combustion-derived chemicals are released...

  17. On-site profiling and speciation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at manufactured gas plant sites by a high temperature transfer line, membrane inlet probe coupled to a photoionization detector and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Considine; Albert Robbat Jr. [Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States). Chemistry Department, Center for Field Analytical Studies and Technology

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new high temperature transfer line, membrane inlet probe (HTTL-MIP) coupled to a photoionization detector (PID) and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to rapidly profile and speciate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the subsurface. PID signals were in agreement with GC/MS results. Correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.99 were obtained for discrete and composite samples collected from the same exact location. Continuous probe advancement with PID detection found coal tar, a dense nonaqueous phase liquid, in soil channels and saturated media. When samples were collected conventionally, split, solvent extracted, and analyzed in the field and confirmation laboratory, GC/MS measurement precision and accuracy were indistinguishable; despite the fact the field laboratory produced data five times faster than the laboratory using standard EPA methods. No false positive/negatives were found. Based on these findings, increased confidence in site conceptual models should be obtained, since PID response indicated total PAH presence/absence in 'real-time', while GC/MS provided information as to which PAH was present and at what concentration. Incorporation of this tool into a dynamic workplan will provide more data at less cost enabling environmental scientists, engineers, and regulators to better understand coal tar migration and its impact on human health and the environment. 24 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Calculate the solubility of aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Like naphthenes and paraffins, aromatics are an important hydrocarbon component of fossil fuels. Their physical and thermodynamic property data are valuable to engineers in the chemical process industries. In particular, their solubility in water is becoming more important in engineering and environmental studies because of increasingly stringent regulations regarding health, safety and the environment. In this article the authors present water-solubility data and correlations for aromatics (benzenes) as a function of temperature. These results can be useful for engineers conducting various types of initial studies.

  19. Isolation of marine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading Cycloclasticus strains from the Gulf of Mexico and comparison of their PAH degradation ability with that of Puget Sound Cycloclasticus strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiselbrecht, A.D.; Hedlund, B.P.; Tichi, M.A.; Staley, J.T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenanthrene- and naphthalene-degrading bacteria were isolated from four offshore and nearshore locations in the Gulf of Mexico by using a modified most-probable-number technique. The concentrations of these bacteria ranged from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} cells per ml of wet surficial sediment in mildly contaminated and noncontaminated sediments. A total of 23 strains of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria were obtained. Based on partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences and Phenotypic characteristics, these 23 strains are members of the genus Cycloclasticus. Three representatives were chosen for a complete phylogenetic analysis, which confirmed the close relationship of these isolates to type strain Cycloclasticus pugetii PS-1, which was isolated from Puget Sound. PAH substrate utilization tests which included high-molecular-weight PAHs revealed that these isolates had similar, broad substrate ranges which included naphthalene, substituted naphthalenes, phenanthrene, biphenyl, anthracene, acenaphthene, and fluorene. Degradation of pyrene and fluoranthene occurred only when the strains were incubated with phenanthrene. Two distinct partial PAH dioxygenase iron sulfur protein (ISP) gene sequences were PCR amplified from Puget Sound and Gulf of Mexico Cycloclasticus strains. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed that one ISP type is related to the bph type of ISP sequences, while the other ISP type is related to the nah type of ISP sequences. The predicted ISP amino acid sequences for the Gulf of Mexico and Puget Sound strains are identical, which supports the hypothesis that these geographically separated isolates are closely related phylogentically. Cycloclasticus species appear to be numerically important and widespread PAH-degrading bacteria in both Puget Sound and the Gulf of Mexico.

  20. Relationship between hydrocarbon measurements and toxicity to a chironomid, fish larva and daphnid for oils and oil spill chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyman, John

    the extent to which various common hydrocarbon measures can be used to predict toxicity to fresh- water microcosms using two water- column species and a benthic species, were described earlier. The hydrocarbon, and aromatics; specific individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the sum of various PAH subsets

  1. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Aromatic Hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Ping

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E.O. , Driscoll, D.J. , Speer, R.E. , Weathers, W.S. , 1999.E.O. , Driscoll, D.J. , Speer, R.E. , Weathers, W.S. ,

  2. Mass Transfer of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    and/or carcinogenicity (1). The dissolution of individual PAHs from such DNAPLs into raw water sources). Many PAHs are only sparingly soluble, and large volumes of water can therefore be contaminated by small . * , Environmental and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University

  3. Toxicity Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naspinski, Christine S.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    TRANSFORMATION UV degradation Chemical reactions Biodegradation RECEPTOR Adults Children Ecological Fig. 1-1. Environmental exposure model. Once a mixture is released into the environment, it is acted upon by transformation and transport processes... chemical reactions with other compounds and may be degraded by UV light exposure or by biological organisms. Transport processes can be as simple as movement downstream of an industrial effluent released into a river, or complex, involving multiple...

  4. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 81. Hydrocarbons with Water and Seawater Revised and Updated. Part 7. C8H12C8H18 Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 81. Hydrocarbons with Water and Seawater Revised and Updated. Part 7. C8H12­C8H18 Hydrocarbons with Water Volume Editors David G. Shawa... University of Alaska on the evaluation of the all experimental data for a given homologous series of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons

  5. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  6. Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  7. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for a combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  8. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

  9. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Copenhaver, Sally C. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  10. New correlation accurately calculates water solubilities of aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1994-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new correlation calculates reliable aromatics solubilities in water down to very low concentrations. The correlation, based on boiling point, can be used for initial engineering studies. The importance of hydrocarbon solubility in water is increasing because of health, safety, and environmental issues. The paper begins with a discussion of the importance of solubility, even at low concentrations. The new correlation is described, aromatics are compared with paraffins, and the new correlation is compared with the API correlation.

  11. Comparisons of hydrocarbon and nitrogen distributions in geologically diverse tar sand bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, S.A.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of bitumens from different tar sand deposits are generally significantly different and affect the utilization of the resource. The chemical and physical properties of bitumen are a result of maturation reactions on the varied organic sediments. For example, saturated hydrocarbon distributions have been related to the geochemical history of organic matter. Very paraffinic or sometimes paraffinic-naphthenic distributions in organic matter are derived from a nonmarine depositional environment. More aromatic and paraffinic-naphthenic hydrocarbon distributions are derived from organic matter deposited in a marine environment. The characteristics of the bitumen also influence the potential for recovery and subsequent processing of the material. For example, saturated hydrocarbons contribute to the high pour points of recovered oils. The origin and composition of an oil influence its viscosity, API gravity, and coke formation during processing, particularly under low-temperature oxidation conditions. The objective of this work is to determine the chemical and physical properties of several samples of bitumen from geologically diverse tar sand deposits. The compound-type distributions and LTD properties of these bitumens are discussed relative to the depositional environment and processing potential of the organic matter.

  12. Low temperature formation of naphthalene and its role in the synthesis of PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Hydrocarbons) in the interstellar medium Dorian S. N. Parkera , Fangtong Zhanga , Y. Seol Kima , Ralf I, and approved October 26, 2011 (received for review August 24, 2011) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs finding challenges conventional wisdom that PAH-formation only occurs at high temperatures

  13. Diesel fuel aromatic and cetane number effects on combustion and emissions from a prototype 1991 diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, E.J.; Jass, R.E.; Slodowske, W.J.; McCarthy, C.I.; Krodel, A.L.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book reports on a prototype 1991-model diesel engine that was tested using EPA transient emissions procedures to determine the effect of fuel properties on combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions. The eleven test fuel set focused primarily on total aromatic content, multi-ring aromatic content, and cetane number, but other fuel variables were also studied. Hydrotreating was used to obtain reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content. Increasing cetane number and reducing aromatic content resulted in lower emissions of hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}. Particulate emission were best predicted by sulfur content, aromatic content and 90% distillation temperature. Multi-ring aromatics showed a greater significance that total aromatics on hydrocarbon and particulate emissions. combustion parameters were highly dependent on fuel cetane number.

  14. BOND LENGTH IN BENZENOID HYDROCARBONS Mrcia M. C. Fereira and Rudolf Kiralj, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, 13084-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    1 BOND LENGTH IN BENZENOID HYDROCARBONS Márcia M. C. Fereira and Rudolf Kiralj, Universidade-carbon bond length in organic compounds, especially in aromatic hydrocarbons, is a tradicional subject calculation in planar benzenoid hydrocarbons, we must first to explain concepts like benzenoid system, data

  15. Ultrafast UV Pump/IR Probe Studies of C-H Activation in Linear, Cyclic, and Aryl Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Charles B.

    Ultrafast UV Pump/IR Probe Studies of C-H Activation in Linear, Cyclic, and Aryl Hydrocarbons, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbon solvents on a femtosecond to microsecond time scale. These results have revealed that the structure of the hydrocarbon substrate affects the final C-H bond activation step, which

  16. Water solubility data for 151 hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Pan, Xiang; Lin, Xiaoyin (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility of a hydrocarbon in water is important from both an environmental and a safety perspective. This information is required by engineers who design or operate stripping processes that remove hydrocarbons from air or water, or who must determine the amount of a hydrocarbon that has dissolved in water following a chemical spill. In particular, the water solubilities of paraffins are increasingly important because of more-stringent government regulations. Paraffins, along with naphthenes and aromatics, are the three major components of unrefined fuels. The water solubilities of 151 paraffins are listed in tables. The data are valid between 25 and 121 C, typical temperature in air- and steam-stripping operations. Also included is a correlation equation that allows users to estimate hydrocarbon solubilities above the given temperature range.

  17. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  18. Hydrocarbon emission features in the IR spectra of warm supergiants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, R.H. Jr.; Cohen, M.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Werner, M.W.; Bregman, J.D. (NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA))

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations in the 3-13 micron range are presented for two objects possessing the unidentified 21-micron feature, IRAS 22272 and IRAS 07134, which were obtained in the course of search for circumstellar aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission bands. The 3.3 and 6.2 micron bands are attributed to circumstellar PAH molecules, and the 6-9 micron plateau and the 12- and 6.9-micron lines are attributed to larger, aromatic hydrocarbon clusters. These are the coolest stars known to exhibit the IR emission bands. The 21-micron feature is conjectured to also originate in a carbonaceous carrier. 29 refs.

  19. HYDROCARBONS & ENERGY FROM PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemethy, E.K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBL-8596 itr-t C,d.. HYDROCARBONS & ENERGY FROM PLANTS jmethods of isolating the hydrocarbon-like material from I.privatelyownedrights. HYDROCARBONS AND ENERGY FROM PLANTS

  20. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  1. aromatic hydrocarbons methyl: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with electrophiles allows preparation of (more) Savla, Paresh M. 1993-01-01 2 Infrared spectra of methyl-, and nitrogen-modified void coronene; modeling a carrier of...

  2. aromatic hydrocarbon removal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    contamination control 12;10 Transfer of Graphite to Supersack (V) 12;11 Moving graphite pile Complete shipment of graphite to DOE's Nevada Test Site Removal of biological shield...

  3. aromatic hydrocarbon contamination: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dominant. The hydrogenation state of PAHs depends strongly on the H density, the size of the molecule and UV field. In diffuse clouds with low H density and normal UV...

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in San Francisco Estuary sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    power plants) with combustion turbines that operate on petroleum distillate fuel and natural gas pair ratios as indicators showed that PAH are derived primarily from combustion of fossil fuels direct petroleum input. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Biomass; Combustion; PAH

  5. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN STORMWATER RUNOFF FROM SEALCOATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sealant (0.25 acre) #12;Where does it go? #12;Where does it go? Abrasion/Plow/Tire tracking Solar: Filtered vs unfiltered stormwater Stormwater from treatment systems Wind and Tire tracking #12

  6. Engineered Antibodies for Monitoring of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander E. Karu Ph.D; Victoria A. Roberts Ph.D.; Qing X. Li, Ph.D.

    2002-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was undertaken to fill needs in ODE's human and ecosystem health effects research, site remediation, rapid emergency response, and regulatory compliance monitoring programs. Doe has greatly stimulated development and validation of antibody-based, rapid, field-portable detection systems for small hazardous compounds. These range from simple dipsticks, microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and hand-held colorimeters, to ultrasensitive microfluidic reactors, fiber-optic sensors and microarrays that can identify multiple analytes from patterns of cross-reactivity. Unfortunately, the technology to produce antibodies with the most desirable properties did not keep pace. Lack of antibodies remains a limiting factor in production and practical use of such devices. The goals of our project were to determine the chemical and structural bases for the antibody-analyte binding interactions using advanced computational chemistry, and to use this information to create useful new binding properties through in vitro genetic engineering and combinatorial library methods.

  7. Modeling the biodegradability and physicochemical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitriou-Christidis, Petros

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    material balance equations describing different interaction types were fitted to the depletion data and evaluated on a statistical and probabilistic basis. Mixture degradation was most adequately described by a pure competitive interaction model with mutual...

  8. aromatic hydrocarbons molecular: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    associated with NOM are being characterized and quantified using liquid- 2 and solid-state 3 deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, fluorescence probe...

  9. aromatic hydrocarbons interacting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    associated with NOM are being characterized and quantified using liquid- 2 and solid-state 3 deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, fluorescence probe...

  10. Hydrocarbon in Catalyst in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    Hydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in Vent 1 Vent 2 Product out Tank Pressure #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Hydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in Vent 1 Vent 2 Product out Tank Pressure controller Computer operator

  11. Hydrocarbon in Catalyst in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    #12;Hydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in Vent 1 Vent 2 Product out Tank Pressure controller Computer;#12;Vent 1 Vent 2 Product outHydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in light Warning Computer controller Tank

  12. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  13. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  14. 2, 16451664, 2005 Hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 2, 1645­1664, 2005 Hydrocarbon emissions from a boreal fen S. Haapanala et al. Title Page Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Measurements of hydrocarbon emissions Hydrocarbon emissions from a boreal fen S. Haapanala et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  15. Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum-Contaminated Harbor Sediments under Sulfate of iron(III) oxide to stimulate in- situ hydrocarbon degradation in anaerobic petroleum- contaminated did not stimulate anaerobic hydrocarbon oxidation. Exposure of the sediment to air [to reoxidize Fe

  16. Is cyclobutane a hydrocarbon?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Is cyclobutane a hydrocarbon? Biologically interesting entities possibly > 1,000,000 Does cyclobutane have a four- membered ring? Is cyclobutane a hydrocarbon? Expressive and decidable formalism needs to be classified under chemical classes: Is dinitrogen inorganic? Is acetylene a hydrocarbon

  17. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms by which various fuel component hydrocarbons related to both heavy petroleum and coal-derived liquids are converted to hydrogen without forming carbon were investigated. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in autothermal reforming (ATR) were shown to be responsible for the observed fuel-specific carbon formation characteristics. The types of carbon formed in the reformer were identified by SEM and XRD analyses of catalyst samples and carbon deposits. From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation. The effects of propylene addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics, synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Indications that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation were found. The conversion and degradation effects of the sulfur additive (thiophene) were examined.

  18. Fuel-flexible partial oxidation reforming of hydrocarbons for automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Carter, J. D.; Kopasz, J. P.; Krumpelt, M.; Wilkenhoener, R.

    1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro-reactor tests indicate that our partial oxidation catalyst is fuel-flexible and can reform conventional (gasoline and diesel) and alternative (ethanol, methanol, natural gas) fuels to hydrogen rich product gases with high hydrogen selectivity. Alcohols are reformed at lower temperatures (< 600 C) while alkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons require slightly higher temperatures. Cyclic hydrocarbons and aromatics have also been reformed at relatively low temperatures, however, a different mechanism appears to be responsible for their reforming. Complex fuels like gasoline and diesel, which are mixtures of a broad range of hydrocarbons, require temperatures of > 700 C for maximum hydrogen production.

  19. Engineering Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemical Engineering Abstract Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) form a class carriers/supports for NZVI particles to address the in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. We

  20. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

    1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  1. Influence of Hydrocarbons Exposure on Survival, Growth and Condition of Juvenile Flatfish: A Mesocosm Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Biogéochimie et Ecotoxicologie (BE), Ifremer,BP70 29280 Plouzané, France KEYWORDS PAHs. Solea solea. Nursery/1000 v: v water: fuel), similar to what happened after an oil spill on coastal areas, affects survival to petroleum hydro- carbons and in particular Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are regarded

  2. Hydrocarbon desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plummer, M.A.; Zimmerman, C.C. Jr.

    1986-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting a sour hydrocarbon feedstock having a relatively high sulfur content to a hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content comprising the steps of: (a) hydrodesulfurizing the feedstock having a relatively high sulfur contact with hydrogen to produce the hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content and hydrogen sulfide gas; (b) contacting the hydrogen sulfide gas with an anthraquinone dissolved in a polar organic solvent having a polarity greater than about 3 Debye units to produce sulfur and an anthrahydroquinone in the solvent; (c) regenerating the anthraquinone from the anthrahydroquinone upon contact with air to produce the anthraquinone and hydrogen peroxide; (d) recycling the anthraquinone to step (b); (e) reducing the hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water; (f) partially oxidizing a hydrocarbon fuel with the oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen; and (g) recycling the hydrogen to step (a).

  3. NATURAL MARINE HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    affects ocean chemistry (Dando and Hovland, 1992) and provides a natural source of petroleum pollution the water column above submarine vents, plumes of hydrocarbon gas bubbles act as acoustic scattering targets

  4. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  5. Evidence of Reactive Aromatics As a Major Source of Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate over China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yuhang; Gu, Dasa; Zhao, Chun; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, Robert; Liao, Jin; Shao, Min; Zhu, T.; Zeng, Limin; Liu, Shaw C.; Chang, Chih-Chung; Amoroso, Antonio; Costabile, Francesa

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the observations of near-surface peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) and its precursors in Beijing, China in August of 2007. The levels of PAN are remarkably high (up to 14 ppbv), surpassing those measured over other urban regions in recent years. Analyses employing a 1-D version of a chemical transport model (Regional chEmical and trAnsport Model, REAM) indicate that aromatic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are the dominant (55-75%) PAN source. The major oxidation product of aromatics that produces acetyl peroxy radicals is methylglyoxal (MGLY). PAN and O3 in the observations are correlated at daytime; aromatic NMHCs appear to play an important role in O3 photochemistry. Previous NMHC measurements indicate the presence of reactive aromatics at high levels over broad polluted regions of China. Aromatics are often ignored in global and (to a lesser degree) regional 3D photochemical transport models; their emissions over China as well as photochemistry are quite uncertain.Our findings suggest that critical assessments of aromatics emissions and chemistry (such as the yields of MGLY) are necessary to understand and assess ozone photochemistry and regional pollution export in China.

  6. A Novel, Green Technology for the Production of Aromatic Thiol from Aromatic Sulfonyl Chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Bradley R.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogenation of aromatic sulfonyl chloride to produce aromatic thiol is an important industrial reaction. The aromatic thiol is a critical intermediate in the production of many pharmaceuticals as well as several agrochemicals. Density...

  7. HYDROCARBONS FROM PLANTS: ANALYTICAL METHODS AND OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvin, Melvin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    molecular weights of various hydrocarbon materials for fuelof oil and alcohol from hydrocarbon-producing plants. Into Die Naturwissenschaften HYDROCARBONS FROM PLANTS: METHODS

  8. Aromaticity and Antiaromaticity in Transition-Metal Systems....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aromaticity and Antiaromaticity in Transition-Metal Systems. Aromaticity and Antiaromaticity in Transition-Metal Systems. Abstract: Aromaticity is an important concept in chemistry...

  9. Inversion of surface and borehole gravity with thresholding and density constraints Jiajia Sun and Yaoguo Li, Center for Gravity, Electrical and Magnetic Studies, Department of Geophysics, Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Yaoguo Li, Center for Gravity, Electrical and Magnetic Studies, Department of Geophysics, Colorado School of geophysical data has been widely uti- lized in data interpretation in both hydrocarbon and mineral exploration

  10. Tailoring hydrocarbon streams for asphaltene removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Bianco, A.; Stroppa, F.; Bertero, L.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oilfield production is often hindered by asphaltene precipitation which tends to fill the pores of the reservoir rocks and plug the wellbore tubing as well as the other auxiliary equipment used during crude oil recovery. Several remedies to remove these deposits have been proposed and patented but the injection of aromatic solvents such as toluene and light petroleum distillates is normally preferred. Previous studies with a number of pure aromatic hydrocarbons have shown that the solvent capacity of these molecules may be very different and that the degree of condensation plays an important role. In this regard, tetralins and naphthalenes are superior to alkylbenzenes. However, because the use of pure compounds is not economically feasible, the authors examined various industrial streams and the authors correlated their chemical composition to the solvent capacity. This work allowed the identification of the pseudo-components whose relative concentration is crucial for evaluating the solvent performances. Based on these data, the authors were able to find new products with ideal characteristics. The efficiency of one of these products was confirmed by the analysis of the data obtained when using this new solvent to remove asphaltene in damaged wells of an Italian field.

  11. Chemistry of Furan Conversion into Aromatics and Olefins over HZSM-5: A Model Biomass Conversion Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Huber, George W. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of furan (a model of cellulosic biomass) over HZSM-5 was investigated in a thermogravimetric analysis–mass spectrometry system, in situ Fourier transform infrared analysis, and in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor. Furan adsorbed as oligomers at room temperature with a 1.73 of adsorbed furan/Al ratio. These oligomers were polycyclic aromatic compounds that were converted to CO, CO?, aromatics, and olefins at temperatures from 400 to 600 °C. Aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, and naphthalene), oligomer isomers (e.g., benzofuran, 2,2-methylenebisfuran, and benzodioxane), and heavy oxygenates (C??{sub +} oligomers) were identified as intermediates formed inside HZSM-5 at different reaction temperatures. During furan conversion, graphite-type coke formed on the catalyst surface, which caused the aromatics and olefins formation to deactivate within the first 30 min of time on-stream. We have measured the effects of space velocity and temperature for furan conversion to help us understand the chemistry of biomass conversion inside zeolite catalysts. The major products for furan conversion included CO, CO?, allene, C?–C? olefins, benzene, toluene, styrene, benzofuran, indene, and naphthalene. The aromatics (benzene and toluene) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) selectivity decreased with increasing space velocity. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as allene, cyclopentadiene, and aromatics selectivity increased with increasing space velocity. The product distribution was selective to olefins and CO at high temperatures (650 °C) but was selective to aromatics (benzene and toluene) at intermediate temperatures (450–600 °C). At low temperatures (450 °C), benzofuran and coke contributed 60% of the carbon selectivity. Several different reactions were occurring for furan conversion over zeolites. Some important reactions that we have identified in this study include Diels–Alder condensation (e.g., two furans form benzofuran and water), decarbonylation (e.g., furan forms CO and allene), oligomerization (allene forms olefins and aromatics plus hydrogen), and alkylation (e.g., furan plus olefins). The product distribution was far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

  12. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  13. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop:...

  14. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  15. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  16. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  17. Hydrocarbon cracking catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lochow, C.F.; Kovacs, D.B.

    1988-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a catalyst composition for cracking hydrocarbons to maximize gasoline comprising: rare earth exchanged ''Y'' crystalline faujasite dispersed in a clay containing matrix material; and which has been subsequently further ion exchanged to contain 0.20 to 3.0 wt% yttrium, calculated as the oxide, whereby the yttrium is chemically combined in the catalyst composition.

  18. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  19. Hydrocarbon anomaly in soil gas as near-surface expressions of upflows and outflows in geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, H.L.; Higashihara, M.; Klusman, R.W.; Voorhees, K.J.; Pudjianto, R.; Ong, J

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of hydrocarbons, C1 - C12, have been found in volcanic gases (fumarolic) and in geothermal waters and gases. The hydrocarbons are thought to have come from products of pyrolysis of kerogen in sedimentary rocks or they could be fed into the geothermal system by the recharging waters which may contain dissolved hydrocarbons or hydrocarbons extracted by the waters from the rocks. In the hot geothermal zone, 300°+ C, many of these hydrocarbons are in their critical state. It is thought that they move upwards due to buoyancy and flux up with the upflowing geothermal fluids in the upflow zones together with the magmatic gases. Permeability which could be provided by faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures are thought to provide pathways for the upward flux. A sensitive technique (Petrex) utilizing passive integrative adsorption of the hydrocarbons in soil gas on activated charcoal followed by desorption and analysis of the hydrocarbons by direct introduction mass spectrometry allows mapping of the anomalous areas. Surveys for geothermal resources conducted in Japan and in Indonesia show that the hydrocarbon anomaly occur over known fields and over areas strongly suspected of geothermal potential. The hydrocarbons found and identified were n-paraffins (C7-C9) and aromatics (C7-C8). Detection of permeable, i.e. active or open faults, parts of older faults which have been reactivated, e.g. by younger intersecting faults, and the area surrounding these faulted and permeable region is possible. The mechanism leading to the appearance of the hydrocarbon in the soil gas over upflow zones of the geothermal reservoir is proposed. The paraffins seems to be better pathfinders for the location of upflows than the aromatics. However the aromatics may, under certain circumstances, give better indications of the direction of the outflow of the geothermal system. It is thought that an upflow zone can be defined when conditions exist where the recharging waters containing the hydrocarbons feed into the geothermal kitchen. The existence of open and active faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures allow sufficient permeability for the gases to flux up and express themselves at the surface as hydrocarbon anomaly in the soil gas. When any of the requirements is absent, i.e. in the absence of the recharging waters, hydrocarbons, temperature, or permeability, no anomaly can be expected. It assumes a dynamic convective system, i.e. recharging waters, upflow and outflow. The anomalies however can define to a certain extent, regions of geothermal upflow, buoyant transport of gases, and frequently down-gradient of cooling waters.

  20. Gas and Particulate Sampling of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, D.A.; Gundel, L.A.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The denuder surfaces of the gas and particle (GAP) sampler (developed at the Atmospheric Environment Service of Environment Canada) have been modified by coating with XAD-4 resin, using techniques developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the lower capacity integrated organic vapor/particle sampler (IOVPS). The resulting high capacity integrated organic gas and particle sampler (IOGAPS) has been operated in ambient air at 16.7 L min{sup -1} for a 24-hour period in Berkeley, California, USA. Simultaneous measurements were made at the same collection rate with a conventional sampler that used a filter followed by two sorbent beds. Gas and particle partition measurements were determined for 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ranging from 2-ring to 6-ring species. The IOGAPS indicated a higher particle fraction of these compounds than did the conventional sampler, suggesting that the conventional sampler suffered from 'blow-off' losses from the particles collected on the filter.

  1. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  2. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  3. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  5. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  6. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  7. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  8. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  9. Process for separating an ethylenically unsaturated hydrocarbon from a hydrocarbon mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    vanEijl, A.T.

    1986-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for separating an ethylenically unsaturated hydrocarbon from a hydrocarbon mixture characterized by: (a) distilling a hydrocarbon mixture containing the unsaturated hydrocarbon with an N-(aminoalkyl) piperazine; and (b) separating the amine/hydrocarbon mixture into at least two factions, one of which contains the amine and the unsaturated hydrocarbon.

  10. Engineering Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemical Engineering Abstract Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) form a class carriers/supports for NZVI particles to address the in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. We Remediation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Dr. Vijay John Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

  11. HYDROCARBON CONSTITUENTS OF ICELAND LEAF FOSSIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jerry; Calvin, Melvin.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L.S. (1962) Isoprenoid hydrocarbons in petroleum. Anal.and EVANS E. D. (1965) Hydrocarbons in non-reservo; r-rockVI. Distribution of wax hydrocarbons in plants at different

  12. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benner, Linda S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NV~ August 25-29, 1980 HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-catalyzed reduction of CO to hydrocarbons Tropscb. Among theof CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain

  13. Study of net soot formation in hydrocarbon reforming for hydrogen fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelman, R. B.; Farmer, R. C.; Wang, T. S.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogen fuel cell is expected to be a valuable addition to the electric utility industry; however, the current fuel supply availability requires that conventional heavier hydrocarbon fuels also be considered as primary fuels. Typical heavier fuels would be No. 2 fuel oil with its accompanying sulfur impurities, compared with the currently used light hydrocarbon gases. The potential future use of alternate fuels which are rich in aromatics would exacerbate the problems associated with hydrogen production. Among the more severe of these problems, is the greater tendency of heavier hydrocarbons to form soot. The development of a quasi-global kinetics model to represent the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions which control the autothermal hydrogen reforming process and the accompanying soot formation and gasification was the objective of this study.

  14. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  15. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  16. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop March 18, 2015 8:00AM EDT to...

  17. MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION PRODUCTS FROM HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudbo, Aa. S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FROM HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS RECE1VED Aa. S. Sudbo, P. A.FROM HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS LBL-6966 Aa. S. Sudbo, t P. A.

  18. Hydrocarbon sensors and materials therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor and materials for use in sensors. A suitable proton conducting electrolyte and catalytic materials have been found for specific application in the detection and measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons. The sensor comprises a proton conducting electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. At least one of the electrodes is covered with a hydrocarbon decomposition catalyst. Two different modes of operation for the hydrocarbon sensors can be used: equilibrium versus non-equilibrium measurements and differential catalytic. The sensor has particular application for on-board monitoring of automobile exhaust gases to evaluate the performance of catalytic converters. In addition, the sensor can be utilized in monitoring any process where hydrocarbons are exhausted, for instance, industrial power plants. The sensor is low cost, rugged, sensitive, simple to fabricate, miniature, and does not suffer cross sensitivities.

  19. Gravity stabilized thermal miscible displacement process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, J.V.

    1987-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described of recovering viscous hydrocarbons from a subterranean reservoir. The reservoir is penetrated by at least one injection well and one production well. The injection well is in fluid communication with the upper portion of the reservoir and the production well is in fluid communication with the lower portion of the reservoir. The injection well and the production well defines a fluid flow path therebetween. The method comprises the steps of: (a) injecting a steam-solvent vapor mixture into the upper portion of the reservoir through the injection well. The steam-solvent vapor mixture is undersaturated in solvent and saturated with steam; (b) reducing the viscosity of the hydrocarbons by heat released upon condensation of the steam-solvent vapor mixture and reducing the viscosity of the hydrocarbons further upon condensation of solvent vapors. The condensed solvent vapors goes into solution with the hydrocarbons; and (c) collecting a mixture of hydrocarbons and solvent accumulated at the bottom of the production well substantially entirely under the force of gravity.

  20. Computer Simulations Reveal Multiple Functions for Aromatic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computer Simulations Reveal Multiple Functions for Aromatic Residues in Cellulase Enzymes NREL researchers use high-performance computing to demonstrate fundamental roles of aromatic residues in cellulase enzyme tunnels. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) computer simulations of a key indus- trial

  1. All-Boron Aromatic Clusters as Potential New Inorganic Ligands...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boron Aromatic Clusters as Potential New Inorganic Ligands and Building Blocks in Chemistry. All-Boron Aromatic Clusters as Potential New Inorganic Ligands and Building Blocks in...

  2. Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocharyan, A. A. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.

  3. Ambient concentrations, sources, emission rates, and photochemical reactivity of C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosjean, E.; Grosjean, D. [DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States)] [DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering] [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    1998-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of vehicle fuels used in Porto Alegre, Brazil, is unique in the world. As a result, air pollution control strategies for Porto Alegre, where vehicles account for ca. 99% and ca. 86% of total city wide CO and hydrocarbons emissions, respectively, must make use of air quality data specific to the Porto Alegre area. In this study, ambient concentrations of 66 C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons have been measured for ca. 1 year (March 1996--April 1997) at downtown Porto Alegre locations. On the average, the 10 most abundant hydrocarbons on a mass concentration basis were, in decreasing order, as follows: acetylene, ethylene, propane, toluene, isopentane, (m+p)-xylene, propene, n-butane, benzene, and n-pentane. Scatterplots of ambient concentrations showed a high degree of correlation among hydrocarbon classes (e.g., alkenes, isobutene vs 1-pentene), between hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics) and acetylene, and between hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Mid-1996 hydrocarbon emissions rates (e.g., 3,274 {+-} 828 and 1,418 {+-} 369 t per year for acetylene and isopentane, respectively) are estimated from regression analysis of ambient hydrocarbon vs ambient CO. Reactivity rankings are presented, one involving reaction with OH (using hydrocarbon-OH reaction rate constants) and the other involving the production of ozone (using maximum incremental reactivity coefficients).

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  5. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  6. Stochastic Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. L. Hu

    1999-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a summary of the status of current research in stochastic semiclassical gravity and suggest directions for further investigations. This theory generalizes the semiclassical Einstein equation to an Einstein-Langevin equation with a stochastic source term arising from the fluctuations of the energy-momentum tensor of quantum fields. We mention recent efforts in applying this theory to the study of black hole fluctuations and backreaction problems, linear response of hot flat space, and structure formation in inflationary cosmology. To explore the physical meaning and implications of this stochastic regime in relation to both classical and quantum gravity, we find it useful to take the view that semiclassical gravity is mesoscopic physics and that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit of certain spacetime quantum substructures. Three basic issues - stochasticity, collectivity, correlations- and three processes - dissipation, fluctuations, decoherence- underscore the transformation from quantum micro structure and interaction to the emergence of classical macro structure and dynamics. We discuss ways to probe into the high energy activity from below and make two suggestions: via effective field theory and the correlation hierarchy. We discuss how stochastic behavior at low energy in an effective theory and how correlation noise associated with coarse-grained higher correlation functions in an interacting quantum field could carry nontrivial information about the high energy sector. Finally we describe processes deemed important at the Planck scale, including tunneling and pair creation, wave scattering in random geometry, growth of fluctuations and forms, Planck scale resonance states, and spacetime foams.

  7. Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

  8. Use of thermal desorption/gas chromatography as a performance-based screening method for petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slavin, P.J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crandall, K. [Brown and Root Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dawson, L.; Kottenstette, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wade, M. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal desorption/gas chromatography (TD/GC) was used to screen soil samples on site for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content during a RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI). It proved to be a rapid, cost- effective tool for detecting non-aromatic mineral oil in soil. The on- site TD/GC results correlated well with those generated at an off- site laboratory for samples analyzed in accordance with EPA Method 418.1.

  9. HYDROCARBONS FROM AUSTRALIAN OIL, 200 MILLION YEARS OLD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Hoeven, William; Haug, Pat; Burlingame, A.L.; Calvin, Kelvin.

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Moonie Oil "Branched- Cyclic" Hydrocarbon FractionNo. W -7405 -eng -48 HYDROCARBONS FROM AUSTRALIAN OIL, 200and Melvin Calvin July HYDROCARBONS FROM AUSTRALIAN OIL, 200

  10. Quantum Field Theory & Gravity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Field Theory & Gravity Quantum Field Theory & Gravity Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664...

  11. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang; Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  12. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  13. Biological enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of microbial enhanced oil recovery for recovering oil from an oil-bearing rock formation is provided. The methodology uses a consortium of bacteria including a mixture of surfactant producing bacteria and non-surfactant enzyme producing bacteria which may release hydrocarbons from bitumen containing sands. The described bioprocess can work with existing petroleum recovery protocols. The consortium microorganisms are also useful for treatment of above oil sands, ground waste tailings, subsurface oil recovery, and similar materials to enhance remediation and/or recovery of additional hydrocarbons from the materials.

  14. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  15. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct...

  16. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Abstract: Many...

  17. aromatic hydrocarbon-dna adducts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and DNA adducts. Growth of Mycobacterium sp. strain (more) Zhang, Chun 2013-01-01 2 Infrared spectroscopy of fullerene C60anthracene adducts CERN Preprints Summary: Recent...

  18. aromatic hydrocarbon-dna adduct: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and DNA adducts. Growth of Mycobacterium sp. strain (more) Zhang, Chun 2013-01-01 2 Infrared spectroscopy of fullerene C60anthracene adducts CERN Preprints Summary: Recent...

  19. A method for using polyethylene passive samplers to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chemical activity in sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Loretta A. (Loretta Ana)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to aid in the determination of the hazards posed by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in sediment beds, a method for the use of polyethylene (PE) sheets as passive sampling devices for measuring chemical ...

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Orbiting HD 233517, an Evolved Oxygen-Rich Red Giant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Jura; J. Bohac; B. Sargent; W. J. Forrest; J. Green; D. M. Watson; G. C. Sloan; F. Markwick-Kemper; C. H. Chen; J. Najita

    2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report spectra obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the 5 to 35 micron range of HD 233517, an evolved K2 III giant with circumstellar dust. At wavelengths longer than 13 microns, the flux is a smooth continuum that varies approximately as frequency to the -5/3 power. For wavelengths shorter than 13 microns, although the star is oxygen-rich, PAH features produced by carbon-rich species at 6.3 microns, 8.2 microns, 11.3 microns and 12.7 microns are detected along with likely broad silicate emission near 20 microns. These results can be explained if there is a passive, flared disk orbiting HD 233517. Our data support the hypothesis that organic molecules in orbiting disks may be synthesized in situ as well as being incorporated from the interstellar medium.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in ambient air of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    lower. 9- Fluorenone and 9,10-anthraquinone were the most abundant OPAHs, accounting for about 60[a]anthracene-7,12-dione seems to be diesel vehicles. Finally, 9,10-anthraquinone presents a double origin: primary diesel emission and photochemical processes. Formation of 9,10- anthraquinone from anthracene

  2. Risk assessment of complex mixtures: development of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reese, Erica Dawn

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RISK ASSESSMENT O F C O M P L E X M I X T U R E S : D E V E L O P M E N T O F T O X I C E Q U I V A L E N C Y F A C T O R S (TEFs) F O R P O L Y C Y C L I C A R O M A T I C H Y D R O C A R B O N S (PAHs) A Thesis by E R I C A D A W N R E E S E... Submitted to the Office o f Graduate Studies o f Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree o f M A S T E R O F S C I E N C E December 2001 Major Subject: C i v i l Engineering RISK A S S E S S M E N T O F C O M P...

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Present in Cigarette Smoke Cause Bone Loss in an Ovariectomized Rat Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldman, Stephen D.

    of epidemiological studies have suggested that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Benzo- (a and fragility seen in smoking-related osteoporosis. In this study four groups of 9-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats; Ovariectomy (ovx); Estrogen; Osteoporosis. Introduction Epidemiological studies have focused

  4. Determination of the mutagenic potential of individual and binary mixtures of polycyclic aromatic and nitroaromatic hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Tracie A

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LEGEND & ~ 16 mlcrogroms/plote SAP o-8 aag 0 0. 0 1. 0 2. 0 3. 0 4. 0 S. O 6. 0 7. 0 8. 0 Dose of BEP-micrograms/plate Figure 5. 12. Dose/Response Curves for BAP/BEP Mixtures Mith Metabolic Activation 0. 0 10. 0 33 The highest response... LEGEND 0 ~ 16 mlcrograms/plate SAP oa 8 aa g &~ 2 800. 0 400. 0 0. 0 0. 0 LO 2. 0 3. 0 4. 0 5. 0 8. 0 T. O 8. 0 8. 0 10. 0 11. 0 12. 0 13. 0 H. O 15. 0 lb. 0 17. 0 18. 0 18. 0 20. 0 Dose of l-NP-mlcrograms/plate Figure 5. 20. Oese...

  5. Attenuation of dilute aromatic hydrocarbon transport by a block copolymer in a compacted vertisol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akin, James Browning

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Leachate from permeameters packed with soil containing more than 1% (wt) polymer had BTEX concentrations below the drinking water standard for 3 or more pore volumes. The findings of this research were applied...

  6. Rotationally-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pyrene (C16

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCall, Benjamin J.

    Cooling Future Work References and Acknowledgments [1] Cami et al. Science 329, 1180 (2010). [2] Western, such as coronene (C24 H12 ) Develop an external cavity quantum cascade laser system to extend our frequency this molecule to assess cooling of large molecules by supersonic expansion. We use a cw quantum cascade laser

  7. Supplementary Information for Depletion of gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    , Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M3H 5T4 *now at: Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough of gaseous PAHs S5­S6 Table S4 Concentrations of particulate PAHs S7­S8 Fig. S3 Back trajectories and wind-rose diagrams S9­S11 Fig. S4 Vertical profiles of PAHs S12­S13 Table S5 Particle-bound percentages of PAHs S14­S

  8. Isomeric differentiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using silver nitrate reactive desorption electrospray ionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, oil refining, motor vehicle exhaust, coke production, and other industrial activities.[1] Because of their effect as carcinogens,[2] PAHs are included in the US

  9. Selective Fluorescence Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Other Airborne Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahanama, K.R.R.; Gundel, L.A.; Daisey, J.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1= naphthalene, 2= acenaphthene. 3= acenaphthylene. 4=acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene,1= naphthalene, 2= acenaphthene, 3= acenaphthylene, 4=

  10. Direct Determination of the Phase Distributions of Semi-Volatile Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Annular Denuders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gundel, L.A.; Lee, V.C.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Stevens, R.K.; Daisey, J.M.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    i.e. , the naphthalenes, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene andthe naphthalenes, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, biphenyl andMethylnaphthalene Biphenyl Acenaphthene and acenaphthylene

  11. Pulsed discharge nozzle cavity ringdown spectroscopy of cold polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    absorption spectra of the naphthalene (C10H8 ) and acenaphthene (C12H10) cations have been measured cation along with the gas-phase vibronic absorption spectrum of the cold acenaphthene cation are reported

  12. Risk assessment of complex mixtures: development of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reese, Erica Dawn

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RISK ASSESSMENT O F C O M P L E X M I X T U R E S : D E V E L O P M E N T O F T O X I C E Q U I V A L E N C Y F A C T O R S (TEFs) F O R P O L Y C Y C L I C A R O M A T I C H Y D R O C A R B O N S (PAHs) A Thesis by E R I C A D A W N R E E S E... Submitted to the Office o f Graduate Studies o f Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree o f M A S T E R O F S C I E N C E December 2001 Major Subject: C i v i l Engineering RISK A S S E S S M E N T O F C O M P...

  13. Metabolism of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Cunninghamella elegans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olatubi, Oluwaseun Alfred

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ., Corynebacterium renale, Moraxella sp., Streptomyces sp., Neptunnomonas naphthovorans, Cycloclasticus sp. Acenapthalene Beijernickia sp., P. putida, P. flourescens, Bu. cepacia, Pseudomonas sp., Cycloclasticus sp, Neptunnomonas naphthovorans, Alcaligens...

  14. Determination of the mutagenic potential of individual and binary mixtures of polycyclic aromatic and nitroaromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Tracie A

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    98. The chemicals tested were: 1. b nzn(a)pyrene (BAP), 2. benzo(e)pyrene (BEP), 3. 1-nitropyrene (INP), 4. 2-nitrofluorene (2NF), 5. 7, 12-dimethylbenzanthracene (D11BA), 6. 1, 2-henzanthracene (BA), 7. fluoranthene (FA), and 8. Chrysene (CH... the toxicity of the individual and binary mixtures of chemicals is the Ames Reverse Muta- tion Assay. In this assay, bacteria are mixed with the chemical and tested both with and without the presence of metabolic activation (S9 mix). This mixture is plated...

  15. Formation and destruction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon clusters in the interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Rapacioli; F. Calvo; C. Joblin; P. Parneix; D. Toublanc; F. Spiegelman

    2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The competition between the formation and destruction of coronene clusters under interstellar conditions is investigated theoretically. The unimolecular nucleation of neutral clusters is simulated with an atomic model combining an explicit classical force field and a quantum tight-binding approach. Evaporation rates are calculated in the framework of the phase space theory and are inserted in an infrared emission model and compared with the growth rate constants. It is found that, in interstellar conditions, most collisions lead to cluster growth. The time evolution of small clusters (containing up to 312 carbon atoms) was specifically investigated under the physical conditions of the northern photodissociation region of NGC 7023. These clusters are found to be thermally photoevaporated much faster than they are reformed, thus providing an interpretation for the lowest limit of the interstellar cluster size distribution inferred from observations. The effects of ionizing the clusters and density heterogeneities are also considered. Based on our results, the possibility that PAH clusters could be formed in PDRs is critically discussed.

  16. Partitioning and Bioavailability of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Intertidal Marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruya, Keith A; Horne, Alex J

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pitt & Boseman 1982). The mudflat area that is the focus ofshorebirds. Three major mudflat habitats were selected forHoffman Marsh, an intertidal mudflat in east San Francisco

  17. Quantification of in situ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation at a petroleum contaminated site 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conti, Enzo Mario

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    degradation. Also the use of 17a 21 b hopane as an internal mass balance indicator is compared to a high molecular weight PAH benzo(gh/)perylene and to some alkylated homologous. Different ratios of molecualr markers are tested. Linear regression is performed...

  18. Metabolism of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Cunninghamella elegans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olatubi, Oluwaseun Alfred

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ? ( Davis 1988). Pathways of the metabolism of PAHs by various filamentous fungi and their various metabolites have been delineated, particularly the fungus Cunninghamella elegans ( C. elegans). C.elegans has been shown to degrade benzo... gentotoxic effects in cells of plants and animals. PAH carcinogenicity and toxicity is induced during the metabolism of PAHs by living cells (Cerniglia 1984), for this reason knowledge of PAH metabolism or degradation is very important to help us assess...

  19. aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    As a result, we do not need to decrease the observed elemental abundances of all metals and we do not need to vary the elemental CO ratio in order to produce large...

  20. MICROCHEMICALJOURNAL39, 160-165<-) Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    by acetonitrile and all traces of dichlo- romethane were removed beforeanalysis. Q I~ Academic grade. PAH stock solutions (40~g/ml) were prepared by dissolving standardsin acetonitrile. Individual diluted with acetonitrile when required. Microparticulate separa- tory columns (Sep-Pak CIS>were obtained

  1. Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi KlavŸzar a,# , Petra Ÿ Zigert a , Ivan hydrocarbon: CL is equal to the minimum number of straight lines required to intersect all hexagons theory; Clar formula; Clar number; Resonance graph; Benzenoid hydrocarbons 1. Introduction Within

  2. Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi Klavzara, , Petra Zigerta , Ivan Gutmanb sextets in any of the Clar formulae) of a catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbon: CL is equal to the minimum; Resonance graph; Benzenoid hydrocarbons 1. Introduction Within the theory that was formulated [1, 2

  3. Cuticular Hydrocarbon Research1 Marion Page2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Cuticular Hydrocarbon Research1 Marion Page2 We have been studying existing taxonomies of forest in the utility of cuticular (surface) hydrocarbons as taxonomic characters (Haverty and others 1988, 1989, Page to be genetically fixed. Because the insects studied so far synthesize all or most of their hydrocarbon components

  4. Monitoring hydrocarbons and trace metals in Beaufort Sea sediments and organisms. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, P.; LeBlanc, L.; Trefry, J.; Marajh-Whittemore, P.; Brown, J.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Minerals Management Service's environmental studies of oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, a study was conducted in 1989 to monitor the marine environment for inputs of chemicals related to drilling and exploration. The 1989 Beaufort Sea Monitoring Program (BSMP) was designed to monitor sediments and selected benthic organisms for trace metals and hydrocarbons so as to infer any changes that might have resulted from drilling and production activities. A series of 49 stations were sampled during the program. The study area extended from Cape Halkett on the western end of Harrison Bay to Griffin Point, east of Barter Island. The sampling design combined an area-wide approach in which stations were treated as replicates of 8 specific geographic regions, with an activity-specific approach, which focused on the potential establishment of metal or hydrocarbon concentration gradients with distance from the Endicott Production Field in Prudhoe Bay. The analytical program focused on the analysis of the fine-fraction of the sediment for a series of trace metals and elements and the analysis of a suite of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the bulk sediment. The total organic carbon (TOB) content and the grain size distribution in the sediments were determined as well. Benthic bivalve molluscs, representative of several feeding types were collected from those stations for which data previously existed from the 1984-1986 BSMP, and were analyzed for metals and saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The benthic amphipods were collected, pooled by station or region, and analyzed as well.

  5. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  6. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, R.E.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes. No Drawings

  7. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Robert E. [557 Escondido Cir., Livermore, CA 94550; Dolbeare, Frank A. [5178 Diane La., Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  8. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maloney, Alexander [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Song Wei [Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Strominger, Andrew [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  9. Underground caverns for hydrocarbon storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barron, T.F. [Exeter Energy Services, Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Large, international gas processing projects and growing LPG imports in developing countries are driving the need to store large quantities of hydrocarbon liquids. Even though underground storage is common in the US, many people outside the domestic industry are not familiar with the technology and the benefits underground storage can offer. The latter include lower construction and operating costs than surface storage, added safety, security and greater environmental acceptance.

  10. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  11. Kinetics and mechanisms of reactions involving small aromatic reactive intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, M.C. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small aromatic radicals such as C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 6}H{sub 4} are key prototype species of their homologs. C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and its oxidation product, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O are believed to be important intermediates which play a pivotal role in hydrocarbon combustion, particularly with regard to soot formation. Despite their fundamental importance, experimental data on the reaction mechanisms and reactivities of these species are very limited. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, most kinetic data except its reactions with NO and NO{sub 2}, were obtained by relative rate measurements. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O, the authors have earlier measured its fragmentation reaction producing C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + CO in shock waves. For C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, the only rate constant measured in the gas phase is its recombination rate at room temperature. The authors have proposed to investigate systematically the kinetics and mechanisms of this important class of molecules using two parallel laser diagnostic techniques--laser resonance absorption (LRA) and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry (REMPI/MS). In the past two years, study has been focused on the development of a new multipass adsorption technique--the {open_quotes}cavity-ring-down{close_quotes} technique for kinetic applications. The preliminary results of this study appear to be quite good and the sensitivity of the technique is at least comparable to that of the laser-induced fluorescence method.

  12. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  13. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  14. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Westmont, IL); Gatsis, John G. (Des Plaines, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  15. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  16. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Presentation by Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Argonne National Laboratory, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the...

  17. Hydrocarbon Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California:Project JumpHyEnergyHydrocarbon Technologies

  18. Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795 nm rubidium laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Sheldon Shao Quan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and R. J. Beach, "Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795-a Reliable Diode-Pumped Hydrocarbon-Free 795-nm Rubidiumand R. J. Beach, "Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795-

  19. Alteration, HFSE mineralisation and hydrocarbon formation in peralkaline igneous systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    hydrothermal alteration to produce hydrocarbons via a Fischer­Tropsch synthesis. As a result, hydrocarbons alteration; Abiogenic hydrocarbons; Fischer­Tropsch; HFSE mineralization; Strange Lake Lithos 91 (2006) 19

  20. Einstein Gravity, Massive Gravity, Multi-Gravity and Nonlinear Realizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett Goon; Kurt Hinterbichler; Austin Joyce; Mark Trodden

    2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The existence of a ghost free theory of massive gravity begs for an interpretation as a Higgs phase of General Relativity. We revisit the study of massive gravity as a Higgs phase. Absent a compelling microphysical model of spontaneous symmetry breaking in gravity, we approach this problem from the viewpoint of nonlinear realizations. We employ the coset construction to search for the most restrictive symmetry breaking pattern whose low energy theory will both admit the de Rham--Gabadadze--Tolley (dRGT) potentials and nonlinearly realize every symmetry of General Relativity, thereby providing a new perspective from which to build theories of massive gravity. In addition to the known ghost-free terms, we find a novel parity violating interaction which preserves the constraint structure of the theory, but which vanishes on the normal branch of the theory. Finally, the procedure is extended to the cases of bi-gravity and multi-vielbein theories. Analogous parity violating interactions exist here, too, and may be non-trivial for certain classes of multi-metric theories.

  1. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  2. Hydrocarbon conversion process and catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.40 A, a water adsorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of between 10% and 15% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; am amorphous cracking component, a binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  3. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  4. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  5. Commercialization of IH2® Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and...

  6. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  7. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons...

  8. Device for aqueous detection of nitro-aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reagen, William K. (Stillwater, MN); Schulz, Amber L. (Bremerton, WA); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a compact and portable detection apparatus for ro-aromatic based chemical compounds, such as nitrotoluenes, dinitrotoluenes, and trinitrotoluene (TNT). The apparatus is based upon the use of fiber optics using filtered light. The preferred process of the invention relies upon a reflective chemical sensor and optical and electronic components to monitor a decrease in fluorescence when the nitro-aromatic molecules in aqueous solution combine and react with a fluorescent polycyclic aromatic compound.

  9. aromatic aldehyde production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    virtual product and production Lemurell, Stefan 291 Production of 18F-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: One carbon Two carbon Aromatic ...

  10. aromatic diamine curing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hawaii 96822 University. University of Hawai'i at Manoa. (1) Ramdahl, T.; Bjorseth, J. Handbook of Polycyclic Aromatic Kaiser, Ralf I. 178 Photofragmentation spectroscopy of...

  11. aromatic nitro compounds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the reactions of amines with aldehydes and with aromatic nitro - compounds in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Kinetic and equilibrium studies of...

  12. aromatic methoxy groups: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Formation, Hamersley Group, and were collected in mines near Tom Price mature gas condensates. The aromatic fraction predominantly consists of unsubstituted two and...

  13. Effective Viscosity of Confined Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Sivebaek; V. N. Samoilov; B. N. J. Persson

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity \\mu eff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log(effective viscosity) = C - n log (shear rate), where n varies from 1 (solidlike friction) at very low temperatures to 0 (Newtonian liquid) at very high temperatures, following an inverse sigmoidal curve. Only the shortest chain molecules melt, whereas the longer ones only show a softening in the studied temperature interval 0 < T < 900 K. The results are important for the frictional properties of very thin (nanometer) films and to estimate their thermal durability.

  14. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

  15. Particle Dynamics And Emergent Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir H. Fatollahi

    2008-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The emergent gravity proposal is examined within the framework of noncommutative QED/gravity correspondence from particle dynamics point of view.

  16. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify, and to confirm or determine rate constants for, the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize soot and fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics. Stable and radical species profiles in the aromatics oxidation study are measured using molecular beam sampling with on-line mass spectrometry. The rate of soot formation measured by conventional optical techniques is found to support the hypotheses that particle inception occurs through reactive coagulation of high molecular weight PAH in competition with destruction by OHattack, and that the subsequent growth of the soot mass occurs through addition reactions of PAH and C[sub 2]H[sub 2] with the soot particles. During the first year of this reporting period, fullerenes C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] in substantial quantities were found in the flames being studied. The fullerenes were recovered, purified and spectroscopically identified. The yields of C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] were then determined over ranges of conditions in low-pressure premixed flames of benzene and oxygen.

  17. Synthesis of Aliphatic-Aromatic Copolyesters by a High Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Saad A.

    -aromatic polyesters. #12;Full Paper: Reverse-selective polymer membranes exhibiting high CO2 affinity can be used for purification of H2 in industrial gasification processes. In this work, the phy- sical properties of CO2Synthesis of Aliphatic-Aromatic Copolyesters by a High Temperature Bulk Reaction Between Poly

  18. Nutritional Status of some Aromatic Plants Grown to Produce Volatile Oils under Treated Municipal Wastewater irrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalifa, Ramadan Khalifa Mohamed

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used for growing aromatic plants in the arid area to produceoil for five aromatic plants , 2) evaluation of TMW assource for the tested plants and study its nutritional

  19. Solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons using biosurfactants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanga, Shahrukh

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that bioavailability of the crude oil to the microorganisms limited the degradation rates (Mills, 1994). Preliminary experiments at our laboratories have also indicated enhanced solubilities of petroleum hydrocarbons due to the effects of biosurfactants (Kanga et al...

  20. Solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons using biosurfactants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanga, Shahrukh

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low solubility of petroleum hydrocarbons in water is the major factor limiting the degradation rates of these compounds (Zhang and Miller, 1994). The fraction that is more soluble in the aqueous phase is degraded at higher rates, while less soluble...

  1. Hydrocarbon habitat of the west Netherlands basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jager, J. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)); Doyle, M. (Petroleum Development Oman, Muscat (Oman)); Grantham, P. (KSEPL/Shell Research, Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Mabillard, J. (Shell Nigeria, Port Harcourt (Nigeria))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.

  2. Detoxification of aromatic pollutants by fungal enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollag, J.M.; Dec, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fungal enzymes, such as laccase, peroxidase, and tyrosinase, play a prominent role in catalyzing the transformation of various aromatic compounds in the environment. The enzyme-mediated oxidative coupling reaction results in covalent binding of chlorinated phenols and anilines to soil organic matter or polymerization of the substrates in aquatic systems. Both of these processes are accompanied by a detoxification effect. Therefore, it has been postulated that they be exploited for the treatment of polluted soil and water. The mechanism and efficiency of oxidative coupling in pollutant removal were studied by incubation of chlorinated phenols and anilines with various humic substances or soil and analysis of the reaction products by chromatography and mass and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. The decontamination effect could be enhanced by optimization of the reaction conditions and immobilization of enzymes on solid materials. The results obtained strongly support the concept of using enzymes for control of environmental pollution.

  3. Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  4. Selective Sorbents For Purification Of Hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Frances H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Takahashi, Akira (Yoko-Machi, JP); Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal ion that is adapted to form p-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by p-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  5. Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

  6. Isolation, Determination of Absolute Stereochemistry, and Asymmetric Synthesis of Insect Methyl-Branched Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bello, Jan Edgar

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    d’Ettore, P. In Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry,A.G. In Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry, ChemicalMillar, J.G. In Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry,

  7. Massively-parallel electrical-conductivity imaging of hydrocarbons using the Blue Gene/L supercomputer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONDUCTIVITY IMAGING OF HYDROCARBONS USING THE BLUE GENE/Lidentification of hydrocarbon filled layers in deepwater,”Remote sensing of hydrocarbon layers by seabed logging (

  8. Gravity Train Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dec 7, 2013 ... As soon as the brakes of a railroad car in West Lafayette are released, the car will roll down under the force of gravity. It will accelerate, then ...

  9. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  10. Gas-assisted gravity drainage (GAGD) process for improved oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, Dandina N. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapid and inexpensive process for increasing the amount of hydrocarbons (e.g., oil) produced and the rate of production from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs by displacing oil downwards within the oil reservoir and into an oil recovery apparatus is disclosed. The process is referred to as "gas-assisted gravity drainage" and comprises the steps of placing one or more horizontal producer wells near the bottom of a payzone (i.e., rock in which oil and gas are found in exploitable quantities) of a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir and injecting a fluid displacer (e.g., CO.sub.2) through one or more vertical wells or horizontal wells. Pre-existing vertical wells may be used to inject the fluid displacer into the reservoir. As the fluid displacer is injected into the top portion of the reservoir, it forms a gas zone, which displaces oil and water downward towards the horizontal producer well(s).

  11. Removal of particulate solids from a hot hydrocarbon slurry oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rush, J.B.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method of treating a hot, refractory hydrocarbon slurry oil having an initial boiling point at atmospheric pressure at least as high as 500{degrees} F and having a gravity of from about 5{degrees} API to about 15{degrees} API, to remove solid particulate material the slurry oil. It comprises mixing with the hot slurry oil, a hot vacuum reduced crude oil having an initial boiling point at atmospheric pressure which is higher than the initial boiling plant at atmospheric pressure of the slurry oil, and having an end point at atmospheric pressure which is higher than the end point at atmospheric pressure of the slurry oil; charging the mixture of hot vacuum reduced crude oil and hot slurry oil to a vacuum flash zone having a pressure of from 1.0 mm Hg to about 10.0 mm Hg and at the selected temperature of less than 700{degrees} F and more than 300{degrees} F to thereby vaporize a major portion of the slurry oil in the mixture, and to thereby transfer substantially all of the solid particulate material into the bottoms liquid remaining in the flash zone following the completion of the vaporization; recovering the overhead; and recovering the liquid bottoms containing the solid particulate material.

  12. aromatic heterocyclic compounds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Infrared Spectroscopy of Matrix-Isolated Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds and Their Ions. 6....

  13. Onshore and offshore basins of northeast Libya: Their origin and hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shegewi, O.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive data base of more than 3000 km of seismic lines, gravity and magnetic data, more than 30 subsurface well logs, and surface geology data were utilized to examine and interpret the sedimentary and tectonic history of the onshore and offshore parts of Northeast Libya and their hydrocarbon potential. The Dernah-Tobruk and Benghazi offshore basins form the northern parts of the study area. The Cyrenaica Stable Platform represents the southern parts. The Sirual Trough stretches E-W and opens into the Antelat Trough in the west. Between these elements is the uplifted areas of the Al Jabal Al Akhdar. Six principal tectonic phases were responsible for the formation and development of these structural elements: the pre-Mesozoic phase, the Triassic-Jurassic rifting phase, the Neocomian and the Aptian-Albian renewed rifting phases, the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene uplifting phase; and the Eocene-Middle Oligocene rifting phase. Oceanic crust of probable Aptian-Albian age is evident on the seismic lines north of the master fault marking the southern boundary of the rift separating the north African plate and Apulia. The western boundary of the Dernah High displayed clearly NE-SW strike-slip movement of these trajectories. Oceanic crust is also present west of the Dernah High. Positive gravity and magnetic anomalies traverse parallel to the boundary of this oceanic plate Mesogea. The prerequisites for commercial hydrocarbon production are present in abundance. Reservoirs ranging in age from Paleozoic clastics in the Cyrenaica Stable Platform to Mesozoic and Tertiary carbonates throughout the rest of the region. Several deep sites for the generation of hydrocarbons were also present, including the rifted northern parts of the Dernah-Tobruk basin, the Antelat Trough and the Cyrenaica Passive Margin. The Cretaceous and Tertiary section in the study area contain several potential seal rocks. Several potential trap types are also present.

  14. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution.

  15. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of environmental parameters on bioremediation is important in designing a bioremediation system to reduce petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in impacted soils.

  16. Catalytic hydrogenation of an aromatic sulfonyl chloride into thiophenol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouckout, Nicolas Julien

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    to the facile oxidation by air into disulfides [3]. Many aliphatic thiols are important starting materials for the synthesis of crop- protection agents, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and polysulfides. They are also widely used as polymerization regulators... for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, dyes, pigments, rubber, plastics and metal finishing [3]. The current market volume for aromatic thiols was determined to be more than 10 million pounds per year [4]. Aromatic thiols are commonly synthesized...

  17. Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revill, A.T.; Volkman, J.K.; O'Leary, T. (CSIRO Division of Oceanography, Tasmania (Australia)); Summons, R.E.; Boreham, C.J. (Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra (Australia)); Banks, M.R.; Denwer, K. (Univ. of Tasmania (Australia))

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C[sub 19] tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n-alkanes dominate the extractable hydrocarbon distribution. The aromatic hydrocarbons are predominantly derivatives of tricyclic compounds, with 1,2,8-trimethylphenanthrene increasing in relative abundance with increasing maturity. Geological and geochemical evidence suggests that the sediments were deposited in a marine environment of high latitude with associated cold waters and seasonal sea-ice. It is proposed that the organism contributing the bulk of the kerogen, Tasmanites, occupied an environmental niche similar to that of modern sea-ice diatoms and that bloom conditions coupled with physical isolation from atmospheric CO[sub 2] led to the distinctive [open quotes]isotopically heavy[close quotes] [delta][sup 13]C values for the kerogen. [delta][sup 13]C data from modern sea-ice diatoms supports this hypothesis. Isotopic analysis of n-alkanes in the bitumen suggests a multiple source from bacteria and algae. On the other hand, the n-alkanes generated from closed-system pyrolysis of the kerogen are mainly derived from the preserved Tasmanites biopolymer algaenan. The tricyclic compounds (mean -8[per thousand]) both in the bitumen and pyrolysate, have a common precursor. They are consistently enriched in [sup 13]C compared with the kerogen and probably have a different source from the n-alkanes. The identification of a location where the maturity of the tasmanite oil shale approaches the [open quotes]oil window[close quotes] raises the possibility that it may be a viable petroleum source rock.

  18. Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, Carlos (Alamo, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus (10), including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO.sub.2 aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions (18) are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor (12) having a transparent window (16), by hydrogen and CO, C.sub.2 H.sub.4 or C.sub.2 H.sub.6 gas mixtures (20), and exposed to radiation (34) from a light source (32) external to the reactor (12), to produce the short chain hydrocarbons (36).

  19. Calculating the hyperWiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Calculating the hyper­Wiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons Petra Zigert1 , Sandi Klavzar1) is not easy, especially in the case of large polycyclic molecules, such as benzenoid hydrocarbons. Some time

  20. Calculating the hyper--Wiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Calculating the hyper--Wiener index of benzenoid hydrocarbons Petra Ÿ Zigert 1 , Sandi KlavŸ zar 1. (1) is not easy, especially in the case of large polycyclic molecules, such as benzenoid hydrocarbons

  1. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. ...

  2. Seismic Analysis Using Wavelet Transform for Hydrocarbon Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Rui

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    result in successful hydrocarbon finds because abnormal seismic amplitude variations can sometimes be caused by other factors, such as alternative lithology and residual hydrocarbons in certain depositional environments. Furthermore, not all gas fields...

  3. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. acep03rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO...

  4. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (OFCVT). deer07rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO...

  5. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in...

  6. Effect of surface derived hydrocarbon impurities on Ar plasma properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox-Lyon, Nick; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S., E-mail: Oehrlein@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Institute for Research and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Godyak, Valery [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on Langmuir probe measurements that show that hydrocarbon surfaces in contact with Ar plasma cause changes of electron energy distribution functions due to the flux of hydrogen and carbon atoms released by the surfaces. The authors compare the impact on plasma properties of hydrocarbon species gasified from an etching hydrocarbon surface with injection of gaseous hydrocarbons into Ar plasma. They find that both kinds of hydrocarbon injections decrease electron density and slightly increase electron temperatures of low pressure Ar plasma. For low percentages of impurities (?1% impurity in Ar plasma explored here), surface-derived hydrocarbon species and gas phase injected hydrocarbon molecules cause similar changes of plasma properties for the same number of hydrocarbon molecules injected into Ar with a decrease in electron density of ?4%.

  7. Method and apparatus for low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reagen, William Kevin (Stillwater, MN); Janikowski, Stuart Kevin (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for decomposing halogenated hydrocarbons are provided. The halogenated hydrocarbon is mixed with solvating agents and maintained in a predetermined atmosphere and at a predetermined temperature. The mixture is contacted with recyclable reactive material for chemically reacting with the recyclable material to create dehalogenated hydrocarbons and halogenated inorganic compounds. A feature of the invention is that the process enables low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons.

  8. Time Gravity and Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. G. Unruh

    1993-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Time plays different roles in quantum mechanics and gravity. These roles are examined and the problems that the conflict in the roles presents for quantum gravity are briefly summarised.

  9. Hydrocarbon Formation in Metallic Iron/Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Hydrocarbon Formation in Metallic Iron/Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G , , § T I M O T H Y J . C-labeled hydrocarbons are produced. In the absence of chlorinated ethenes, however, lower con- centrations of many of the same hydrocarbons (methane and C2-C6 alkanes and alkenes) are also produced. Hardy and Gillham (1996

  10. RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS PART I: ALLENE developed in our laboratory for the reactions of C3-C4 unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main reaction pathways2007 #12;3 INTRODUCTION Soots and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are present in the exhaust gas

  11. The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton Stephanie Lyn Shaw Center for Global://web.mit.edu/cgcs/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton by Stephanie of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton by Stephanie Lyn Shaw Submitted to the Department of Earth

  12. Binary coding of Kekule structures of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Binary coding of Kekul´e structures of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi Klavzar of benzenoids Key words: benzenoid hydrocarbons, benzenoid graph, resonance graph, Kekul´e structure, algorithm easily be recovered from its binary code. Key words: benzenoid hydrocarbons, benzenoid graph, resonance

  13. Atomic displacements due to spinspin repulsion in conjugated alternant hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benzi, Michele

    Atomic displacements due to spin­spin repulsion in conjugated alternant hydrocarbons Ernesto-induced atomic displacements in conjugated alt- ernant hydrocarbons. It appears to be responsible alternant hydrocarbons (CAHs) have played a fun- damental role in the development of theoretical chemistry

  14. Wiener Numbers of Pericondensed Benzenoid Hydrocarbons Sandi Klav zar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Wiener Numbers of Pericondensed Benzenoid Hydrocarbons Sandi Klav#20;zar Department of Mathematics expressions for W for several homologous series of pericondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons. An elementary proof polycyclic systems studied were catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons. 11{14 Few years ago the situation

  15. Original article Hydrocarbons and monoesters of propolis waxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Hydrocarbons and monoesters of propolis waxes from Brazil Giuseppina Negri* Maria yielded mono- esters as main constituents, followed by hydrocarbons. The methyl and acetyl esters of the car- boxylic acids and alcohols, respectively, derived from the monoesters, and the hydrocarbons were

  16. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent liver development and hepatotoxicity are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradfield, Christopher A.

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent liver development and hepatotoxicity are mediated by different for review June 7, 2005) The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays a role in three areas of biology recombinase ductus venosus endothelial cell hepatocyte dioxin The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic

  17. Binary coding of Kekule structures of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Binary coding of Kekulâ??e structures of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi KlavŸzar, aâ??e structures of benzenoids Key words: benzenoid hydrocarbons, benzenoid graph, resonance graph, Kekul easily be recovered from its binary code. Key words: benzenoid hydrocarbons, benzenoid graph, resonance

  18. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

    1984-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  19. Production of hydrocarbons from hydrates. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, P.L.

    1981-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An economical and safe method of producing hydrocarbons (or natural gas) from in situ hydrocarbon-containing hydrates is given. Once started, the method will be self-driven and will continue producing hydrocarbons over an extended period of time (i.e., many days).

  20. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1981-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  1. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  2. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  3. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  4. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. The isolated consortia and bacteria are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. The isolated consortia, bacteria, and dispersants are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  5. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Delfino, R. J; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between in-situ, real-time aerosol photoemis- sion intensityconcentration in combustion aerosols, Water, Air, Soilin-use commercial aircraft, Aerosol Sci. Tech. , 39(8), 799–

  6. Rat liver endothelial and Kupffer cell-mediated mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aflatoxin B sub 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, P.; Schlemper, B.; Molitor, E.; Platt, K.L.; Seidel, A.; Oesch, F. (Univ. of Mainz (West Germany))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of isolated rat liver endothelial and Kupffer cells to activate benzo(a)pyrene (BP), trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene (DDBP), trans-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydrochrysene (DDCH), and aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) to mutagenic metabolites was assessed by means of a cell-mediated bacterial mutagenicity assay and compared with the ability of parenchymal cells to activate these compounds. Endothelial and Kupffer cells from untreated rats were able to activate AFB{sub 1} and DDBP; DDBP was activated even in the absence of an NADPH-generating system. Pretreating the animals with Aroclor 1254 strongly enhanced the mutagenicity of the dihydrodiol, whereas the mutagenicity of AFB{sub 1} showed a slight increase. BP and DDCH were only activated by endothelial and Kupffer cells isolated from Aroclor 1254-pretreated rats. Parenchymal cells form untreated animals activated all four carcinogens tested; Aroclor 1254 enhanced the parenchymal cell-mediated mutagenicity of BP and DDCH but did not affect that of DDBP and clearly reduced that of AFB{sub 1}. The reduced mutagenicity of AFB{sub 1} correlates with the decrease in the amount of 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone formed when testosterone was incubated with parenchymal cell microsomes from Aroclor 1254-pretreated rats (compared with microsomes from untreated animals): the formation of 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone is specifically catalyzed by cytochrome P-450h, a hemoprotein thought to be involved in the activation of AFB{sub 1}. These results show that not only rat liver parenchymal cells, but also endothelial and Kupffer cells, activated several carcinogens to mutagenic metabolites.

  7. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Delfino, R. J; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Response of the Photo-Electric Aerosol Sensor (PAS) to2008 Abstract. A photo-electric aerosol sensor, a diffusionthe measured photo-electric aerosol sensor signal (fA) was

  8. Correlation of gas-chromatographic retention indices and high-order bonding indices for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulycheva, Z.Y.; Dylevskaya, L.V.; Kutenev, V.F.; Rudenko, B.A.

    1985-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors apply multifactor correlation equations between the retention indices on OV-101, OV-17, and PFMS-6 polysiloxanes and the bonding indices from the zeroth to fourth orders. Certain fragment descriptors are also applied which give higher significance levels and standard deviations for the retention indices less by 18-25 units, than do correlation equations between the retention indices and the first-order bonding indices.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading, Genetically Engineered Bioluminescent Bioreporter Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chauhan, Archana [ORNL; Layton, Alice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Williams, Daniel W [ORNL; Smart, Abby E. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ripp, Steven Anthony [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Sayler, Gary Steven [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (DSM 6700) is a genetically engineered lux-based bioluminescent bioreporter. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain HK44. Annotation of {approx}6.1 Mb sequence indicates that 30% of the traits are unique and distributed over 5 genomic islands, a prophage and two plasmids.

  10. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Delfino, R. J; Sioutas, C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    samples were also analyzed for Acenaphthene, Fluorene, 2,6-were also analyzed for Acenaphthene, Fluorene, 2,6- p-PAHs (

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Indoor Air and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Measured with a New Integrated Organic Vapor-Particle Sampler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gundel, L.A.; Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Lee, C.C.; Stevens, R.K.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and 2-methyl derivatives, acenaphthene and acenapthylene. At19; biphenyl, 69; acenaphthene and acenaphthylene, 4.9;

  12. Semi-Volatile and Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Cleanup, Speciation and Emissions Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gundel, L.A.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Daisey, J.M.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylnaphthalene Biphenyl Acenaphthene and acenaphthylene2-methylnaphthalene; acen, acenaphthene and acenaphthylene;and 2-methyl derivatives, acenaphthene and acenapthylene. At

  13. Effectiveness of in site biodegradation for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a contaminated oil refinery, Port Arthur, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffit, Alfred Edward

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    % and 34% for clay and silt content, respectively. Sediment mineralogy was dominated by kaolinite and smectite. [PAH]/[Hopane] ratios indicate no significant PAH degradation in either the INIPOL, BNIO, or CONTROL plots over the 11 week period. This data...

  14. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in sediments of the Upper Scheldt River Basin: contamination levels and source apportionment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Author manuscript, published in "Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11, 5 (2009) 1086-1093" DOI : 10 and Antwerp. Anthropogenic activities including textile and chemical industries, transport, coal mining, paper) has been developing an integrated and coordinated water management plan for the whole river basin

  15. Plasma-assisted conversion of solid hydrocarbon to diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Shah, S. Ismat (Wilmington, DE)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing diamond, e.g., diamond fiber, by subjecting a hydrocarbon material, e.g., a hydrocarbon fiber, to a plasma treatment in a gaseous feedstream for a sufficient period of time to form diamond, e.g., a diamond fiber is disclosed. The method generally further involves pretreating the hydrocarbon material prior to treatment with the plasma by heating within an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures sufficient to increase crosslinking within said hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to melt or decompose said hydrocarbon material, followed by heating at temperatures sufficient to promote outgassing of said crosslinked hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to convert said hydrocarbon material to carbon.

  16. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of hydrocarbons having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 340 to 360/sup 0/C, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, CH/sub 3/OH is produced in an amount of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture, and comprised 1 mole % of the effluent gas.

  17. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Conversion method for gas streams containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard G. (Norman, OK); Lobban, Lance (Norman, OK); Liu, Chang-jun (Tianjin, CN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and a method of using the apparatus are provided for converting a gas stream containing hydrocarbons to a reaction product containing effluent molecules having at least one carbon atom, having at least one interior surface and at least one exterior surface, a first electrode and a second electrode with the first and second electrodes being selectively movable in relation to each other and positioned within the housing so as to be spatially disposed a predetermined distance from each other, a plasma discharge generator between the first and second electrodes, gas stream introducer and a collector for collecting the reaction product effluent produced by the reaction of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons with the plasma discharge between the first and second electrodes.

  19. Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wen Ling

    1987-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm/sup 2/. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000/degree/C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity. 2 figs.

  20. Production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from peat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodle, W.W.; Punwani, D.; Weil, S.A.

    1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from peat providing wide variation of the composite proportion of liquid-gas output while maintaining high overall carbon conversion to useful fuel. The process and apparatus utilizes three process stages in a single vessel providing functions of drying wet peat, provisions for addition of both wet and dry peat to a hydropyrolysis zone and gasification of the peat char.

  1. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

    1988-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  2. Gravity on Conformal Superspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan Kelleher

    2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The configuration space of general relativity is superspace - the space of all Riemannian 3-metrics modulo diffeomorphisms. However, it has been argued that the configuration space for gravity should be conformal superspace - the space of all Riemannian 3-metrics modulo diffeomorphisms and conformal transformations. Taking this conformal nature seriously leads to a new theory of gravity which although very similar to general relativity has some very different features particularly in cosmology and quantisation. It should reproduce the standard tests of general relativity. The cosmology is studied in some detail. The theory is incredibly restrictive and as a result admits an extremely limited number of possible solutions. The problems of the standard cosmology are addressed and most remarkably the cosmological constant problem is resolved in a natural way. The theory also has several attractive features with regard to quantisation particularly regarding the problem of time.

  3. UV RESONANCE W A N SPECTROSCOPY: A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR SPECIATION OF AROMATICS IN COMPLEX MATRICES.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asher, Sanford A.

    UV RESONANCE W A N SPECTROSCOPY: A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR SPECIATION OF AROMATICS IN COMPLEX MATRICES resonance Raman spectroscopy ( 1). appears to be uniquely suited for studies of aromatic species in fuels

  4. Gravity, Dimension, Equilibrium, & Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerome Perez

    2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Is it actually possible to interpret gravitation as space's property in a pure classical way. Then, we note that extended self-gravitating system equilibrium depends directly on the number of dimension of the space in which it evolves. Given those precisions, we review the principal thermodynamical knowledge in the context of classical gravity with arbitrary dimension of space. Stability analyses for bounded 3D systems, namely the Antonov instability paradigm, are then rapproched to some amazing properties of globular clusters and galaxies.

  5. Viscosity in modified gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iver Brevik

    2012-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A bulk viscosity is introduced in the formalism of modified gravity. It is shown that, on the basis of a natural scaling law for the viscosity, a simple solution can be found for quantities such as the Hubble parameter and the energy density. These solutions may incorporate a viscosity-induced Big Rip singularity. By introducing a phase transition in the cosmic fluid, the future singularity can nevertheless in principle be avoided.

  6. Lie algebraic noncommutative gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Samanta, Saurav [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700098 (India); Mukherjee, Pradip [Presidency College, 86/1 College Street, Kolkata-700073, West-Bengal (India)

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We exploit the Seiberg-Witten map technique to formulate the theory of gravity defined on a Lie algebraic noncommutative space-time. Detailed expressions of the Seiberg-Witten maps for the gauge parameters, gauge potentials, and the field strengths have been worked out. Our results demonstrate that notwithstanding the introduction of more general noncommutative structure there is no first order correction, exactly as happens for a canonical (i.e. constant) noncommutativity.

  7. Cosmological Tests of Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) is tested accurately within the local universe i.e., the Solar System, but this leaves open the possibility that it is not a good description at the largest scales in the Universe. The standard model of cosmology assumes GR as the theory to describe gravity on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. The standard model of cosmology is based on a huge extrapolation of our limited knowledge of gravity. This discovery of the late time acceleration of the Universe may require us to revise the theory of gravity and the standard model of cosmology based on GR. We will review recent ...

  8. Development of genetically engineered bacteria for production of selected aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Thomas E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watkins, Carolyn S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bulmer, Deborah K. (Henderson, NV); Johnson, Bruce F. (Scotia, NY); Amaratunga, Mohan (Clifton Park, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cloning and expression of genes in the common aromatic pathway of E. coli are described. A compound for which chorismate, the final product of the common aromatic pathway, is an anabolic intermediate can be produced by cloning and expressing selected genes of the common aromatic pathway and the genes coding for enzymes necessary to convert chorismate to the selected compound. Plasmids carrying selected genes of the common aromatic pathway are also described.

  9. Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasperikova, E.; Hoversten, G.M.

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the relative merits of gravity measurements as a monitoring tool for geological CO{sub 2} sequestration in three different modeling scenarios. The first is a combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the second is sequestration in a brine formation, and the third is for a coalbed methane formation. EOR/sequestration petroleum reservoirs have relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}), whereas brine formations usually have much thicker injection intervals and only two components (brine and CO{sub 2}). Coal formations undergoing methane extraction tend to be thin (3-10 m), but shallow compared to either EOR or brine formations. The injection of CO{sub 2} into the oil reservoir produced a bulk density decrease in the reservoir. The spatial pattern of the change in the vertical component of gravity (G{sub z}) is directly correlated with the net change in reservoir density. Furthermore, time-lapse changes in the borehole G{sub z} clearly identified the vertical section of the reservoir where fluid saturations are changing. The CO{sub 2}-brine front, on the order of 1 km within a 20 m thick brine formation at 1900 m depth, with 30% CO{sub 2} and 70% brine saturations, respectively, produced a -10 Gal surface gravity anomaly. Such anomaly would be detectable in the field. The amount of CO{sub 2} in a coalbed methane test scenario did not produce a large enough surface gravity response; however, we would expect that for an industrial size injection, the surface gravity response would be measurable. Gravity inversions in all three scenarios illustrated that the general position of density changes caused by CO{sub 2} can be recovered, but not the absolute value of the change. Analysis of the spatial resolution and detectability limits shows that gravity measurements could, under certain circumstances, be used as a lower-cost alternative to seismic measurements.

  10. No-carrier-added (NCA) aryl ([sup 18]F) fluorides via the nucleophilic aromatic substitution of electron rich aromatic rings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yushin Ding; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1993-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for synthesizing no-carrier-added (NCA) aryl [.sup.18 F] fluoride substituted aromatic aldehyde compositions bearing an electron donating group is described. The method of the present invention includes the step of reacting aromatic nitro aldehydes having a suitably protected hydroxyl substitutent on an electron rich ring. The reaction is The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016, between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities Inc.

  11. Entropic Gravity in Rindler Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edi Halyo

    2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that Rindler horizons are entropic screens and gravity is an entropic force in Rindler space by deriving the Verlinde entropy formula from the focusing of light due to a mass close to the horizon. Consequently, gravity is also entropic in the near horizon regions of Schwarzschild and de Sitter space-times. In different limits, the entropic nature of gravity in Rindler space leads to the Bekenstein entropy bound and the uncertainty principle.

  12. Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 and ZSM-5 Composite Catalyst System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite Pd/ZnO/Al2O3-HZSM-5 (Si/Al=40) catalytic system was evaluated for the synthesis of gasoline-range hydrocarbons directly from synthesis gas. Bifunctional catalyst comprising PdZn metal and acid sites present the required catalytically active sites necessary for the methanol synthesis, methanol dehydration, and methanol-to-gasoline reactions. This system provides a unique catalytic pathway for the production of liquid hydrocarbons directly from syngas. However, selectivity control is difficult and poses many challenges. The composite catalytic system was evaluated under various process conditions. Investigated were the effects of temperature (310-375oC), pressure (300-1000 psig), time-on-stream (50 hrs), and gas-hour space velocity (740-2970 hr-1), using a H2/CO molar syngas ratio of 2.0. By operating at the lower end of the temperature range investigated, liquid hydrocarbon formation was favored, as was decreased amounts of undesirable light hydrocarbons. However, lower operating temperatures also facilitated undesirable CO2 formation via the water-gas shift reaction. Higher operating pressures slightly favored liquid synthesis. Operating at relatively low pressures (e.g. 300 psig) was made possible, whereas for methanol synthesis alone higher pressure are usually required to achieve similar conversion levels (e.g. 1000 psig). Thermodynamic constraints on methanol synthesis are eased by pushing the equilibrium through hydrocarbon formation. Catalytic performance was also evaluated by altering Pd and Zn composition of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. Of the catalysts and conditions tested, selectivity toward liquid hydrocarbon was highest when using a 5% Pd metal loading and Pd/Zn molar ratio of 0.25 and mixed with HZMS-5, operating at 310oC and 300 psig, CO conversion was 43 % and selectivity (carbon weight basis) to hydrocarbons was 49 wt. %. Of the hydrocarbon fraction, 44wt. % was in the C5-C12 liquid product range and consisted primarily of aromatic polymethylbenzenes. However, as syngas conversion increases with increasing temperature, selectivity to liquid product diminished. This is attributed, in large part, to increased saturation of the olefinic intermediates over PdZn metal sites. Under all the conditions and catalysts evaluated in this study, generating liquid product in high yield was challenging (<10 wt. % C5+ yield).

  13. Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  14. Lifshitz Gravity for Lifshitz Holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Griffin; Petr Horava; Charles M. Melby-Thompson

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that Horava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity provides the minimal holographic dual for Lifshitz-type field theories with anisotropic scaling and dynamical exponent z. First we show that Lifshitz spacetimes are vacuum solutions of HL gravity, without need for additional matter. Then we perform holographic renormalization of HL gravity, and show how it reproduces the full structure of the z=2 anisotropic Weyl anomaly in dual field theories in 2+1 dimensions, while its minimal relativistic gravity counterpart yields only one of two independent central charges in the anomaly.

  15. Aggregation Behavior of Two Asphaltenic Fractions in Aromatic Solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    Aggregation Behavior of Two Asphaltenic Fractions in Aromatic Solvents Rahoma S. Mohamed* and Anto. The results indicated possible asphaltene aggregation as well as the probable existence of critical micelle fraction. Average molecular areas for asphaltenes adsorbed at different interfaces estimated from surface

  16. Hydrotreating the bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquid produced in a fluidized-bed pyrolysis reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longstaff, D.C.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Oblad, A.G.; Tsai, C.H.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone produces three primary product streams: C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons gases, a C{sub 5}{sup +} total liquid product, and a carbonaceous residue on the spent sand. The bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquid was significantly upgraded relative to the native bitumen: it had a higher API gravity, lower Conradson carbon residue, asphaltene content, pour point and viscosity and a reduced distillation endpoint relative to the native bitumen. The elemental composition was little different from that of the native bitumen except for the hydrogen content which was lower. The bitumen-derived liquid produced in a 4-inch diameter fluidized-bed reactor from the Whiterocks tar sand deposit has been hydrotreated in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the extent of upgrading as a function of process operating variables. The extent of denitrogenation and desulfurization of the bitumen-derived liquid was used to monitor catalyst activity as a function of process operating variables and to estimate the extent of catalyst deactivation as a function of time on-stream. The apparent kinetics for the nitrogen and sulfur removal reactions were determined. Product distribution and yield data were also obtained.

  17. Hydrotreating the bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquid produced in a fluidized-bed pyrolysis reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longstaff, D.C.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Oblad, A.G.; Tsai, C.H.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone produces three primary product streams: C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons gases, a C{sub 5}{sup +} total liquid product, and a carbonaceous residue on the spent sand. The bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquid was significantly upgraded relative to the native bitumen: it had a higher API gravity, lower Conradson carbon residue, asphaltene content, pour point and viscosity and a reduced distillation endpoint relative to the native bitumen. The elemental composition was little different from that of the native bitumen except for the hydrogen content which was lower. The bitumen-derived liquid produced in a 4-inch diameter fluidized-bed reactor from the Whiterocks tar sand deposit has been hydrotreated in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the extent of upgrading as a function of process operating variables. The extent of denitrogenation and desulfurization of the bitumen-derived liquid was used to monitor catalyst activity as a function of process operating variables and to estimate the extent of catalyst deactivation as a function of time on-stream. The apparent kinetics for the nitrogen and sulfur removal reactions were determined. Product distribution and yield data were also obtained.

  18. Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    aging, etc. deer09devarakonda.pdf More Documents & Publications The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and...

  19. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  20. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of catalyst materials to facilitate the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) emissions. deer08...

  1. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Lewis Center, OH); LaPlante, Timothy J. (Columbus, OH); Rankin, Scott (Columbus, OH); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick (Columbus, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Mazanec, Terry (Solon, OH) Daymo, Eric (Dublin, OH)

    2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  2. Ozone production and hydrocarbon reactivity in Hong Kong, Southern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Middleton, P. , and Wang, T. : Ozone precursor relationshipsJ. Zhang et al. : Ozone production and hydrocarbonKiang, C. S. : Ground- level ozone pollution in Hong Kong,

  3. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with...

  4. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  5. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  6. adsorption equilibria hydrocarbons: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Phase equilibria of polydisperse hydrocarbons: moment free energy method analysis Mathematical Physics (arXiv) Summary: We analyze the phase...

  7. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium...

  8. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  9. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster Location P-19 Gregory K. Lilik, Andr L. Boehman Department of Energy & Mineral Engineering EMS Energy...

  10. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste FeedstocksEnhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage...

  11. On Modified Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivan Dimitrijevic; Branko Dragovich; Jelena Grujic; Zoran Rakic

    2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider some aspects of nonlocal modified gravity, where nonlocality is of the type $R \\mathcal{F}(\\Box) R$. In particular, using ansatz of the form $\\Box R = c R^\\gamma,$ we find a few $R(t)$ solutions for the spatially flat FLRW metric. There are singular and nonsingular bounce solutions. For late cosmic time, scalar curvature R(t) is in low regime and scale factor a(t) is decelerated. R (t) = 0 satisfies all equations when k = -1.

  12. Mechanism of Gravity Impulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning Wu

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well-known that energy-momentum is the source of gravitational field. For a long time, it is generally believed that only stars with huge masses can generate strong gravitational field. Based on the unified theory of gravitational interactions and electromagnetic interactions, a new mechanism of the generation of gravitational field is studied. According to this mechanism, in some special conditions, electromagnetic energy can be directly converted into gravitational energy, and strong gravitational field can be generated without massive stars. Gravity impulse found in experiments is generated by this mechanism.

  13. Modes of log gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Rosseel, Jan [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Townsend, Paul K. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional 'critical gravity', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All 'log mode' solutions, which we categorize as 'spin-2' or 'Proca', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized Einstein tensor of a spin-2 log mode is itself a 'nongauge' solution of the linearized Einstein equations whereas the linearized Einstein tensor of a Proca mode takes the form of a linearized general coordinate transformation. Our results suggest the existence of a holographically dual logarithmic conformal field theory.

  14. Fundamental measure theory of hydrated hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor F. Sokolov; Gennady N. Chuev

    2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    To calculate the solvation of hydrophobic solutes we have developed the method based on the fundamental measure treatment of the density functional theory. This method allows us to carry out calculations of density profiles and the solvation energy for various hydrophobic molecules with a high accuracy. We have applied the method to the hydration of various hydrocarbons (linear, branched and cyclic). The calculations of the entropic and the enthalpic parts are also carried out. We have examined a question about temperature dependence of the entropy convergence. Finally, we have calculated the mean force potential between two large hydrophobic nanoparticles immersed in water.

  15. Evaluating separator performance for hydrocarbon streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, W.F.

    1982-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal for ideal separator selection and design is to separate the hydrocarbon stream into liquid-free gas and gasfree liquid. Separators are mechanical devices for removing and collecting liquids from natural gas. Verticle, horizontal, and spherical separators and their respective capabilities are described. Coalescing gas separators are designed specifically for the removal of mists, oil fogs, rust, and dust from the gas stream. A table lists estimated fabrication and installation cost, performance rating, and time requirements for each filter-coalescer liquid separator based on gas pressure (psig) and gas volumes (MMcfd).

  16. HYDROCARBONS OF BIOLOGICAL ORIGIN FROM A ONE-BILLION YEAR OLD SEDIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eglinton, Geoffrey.; Scott, P.M.; Belsky, Ted.; Burlingame, A.L.; Calvin, Melvin.; Cloud Jr., Preston E.

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contract No. W-7405-eng-48 HYDROCARBONS OF BIOLOGICAL ORIGINAbstract The isoprenoid hydrocarbons, phytane (C 20H4Z) andThe identification of these hydrocarbons augurs well for the

  17. Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons the in situ anaerobic attenuation of hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer underly- ing a former refinery. Metabolite profiles associated with anaerobic hydrocarbon decay revealed the microbial utilization

  18. Lasius niger ants discriminate aphids based on their cuticular hydrocarbons Corsin Langa,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Lasius niger ants discriminate aphids based on their cuticular hydrocarbons Corsin Langa,1 chemical communication cuticular hydrocarbon interspecific communication Lasius niger mutualism species covered with aphid cuticular hydrocarbons. Neutral control objects were antennated, but the ants quickly

  19. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage...

  20. Cyclic Versus Linear Isomers Produced by Reaction of the Methylidyne Radical (CH) with Small Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulay, Fabien

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with Small Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Fabien Goulay, 1, †,‡react with the selected hydrocarbon in a helium gas flow.Small cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons such as c-C 3 H, c-C 3

  1. HYDROCARBON LIQUID FLOW CALIBRATION SERVICE NIST Special Publication 250-1039

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    HYDROCARBON LIQUID FLOW CALIBRATION SERVICE NIST Special Publication 250-1039 T. T. Yeh, Jesús and Technology Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD 20899 #12;Hydrocarbon......................................... 3 4.0 Description of the Hydrocarbon Liquid Flow Standard

  2. The Hydrophobic Effect Drives the Recognition of Hydrocarbons by an Anionic Metal-Ligand Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biros, Shannon

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drives the Recognition of Hydrocarbons by an Anionic Metal-Drives the Recognition of Hydrocarbons by an Anionic Metal-including saturated hydrocarbons, 11,12 in aqueous solution,

  3. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea, in spite of the fact that these areas do not have highest potential for future hydrocarbon reserves. Opportunities for improving the mapping and assessment of Arctic hydrocarbon resources include: 1) Refining hydrocarbon potential on a basin-by-basin basis, 2) Developing more realistic and detailed distribution of gas hydrate, and 3) Assessing the likely future scenarios for development of infrastructure and their interaction with hydrocarbon potential. It would also be useful to develop a more sophisticated approach to merging conventional and gas hydrate resource potential that considers the technical uncertainty associated with exploitation of gas hydrate resources. Taken together, additional work in these areas could significantly improve our understanding of the exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbons as ice-free areas increase in the future.

  4. Reduced models for quantum gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Thiemann

    1999-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The preceding talks given at this conference have dealt mainly with general ideas for, main problems of and techniques for the task of quantizing gravity canonically. Since one of the major motivations to arrange for this meeting was that it should serve as a beginner's introduction to canonical quantum gravity, we regard it as important to demonstrate the usefulness of the formalism by means of applying it to simplified models of quantum gravity, here formulated in terms of Ashtekar's new variables. From the various, completely solvable, models that have been discussed in the literature we choose those that we consider as most suitable for our pedagogical reasons, namely 2+1 gravity and the spherically symmetric model. The former model arises from a dimensional, the latter from a Killing reduction of full 3+1 gravity. While 2+1 gravity is usually treated in terms of closed topologies without boundary of the initial data hypersurface, the toplogy for the spherically symmetric system is chosen to be asymptotically flat. Finally, 2+1 gravity is more suitably quantized using the loop representation while spherically symmetric gravity is easier to quantize via the self-dual representation. Accordingly, both types of reductions, both types of topologies and both types of representations that are mainly employed in the literature in the context of the new variables come into practice. What makes the discussion especially clear is the fact that for both models the reduced phase space turns out to be finitely dimensional.

  5. Canonical Analysis of Unimodular Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kluson

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This short note is devoted to the Hamiltonian analysis of the Unimodular Gravity.We treat the unimodular gravity as General Relativity action with the unimodular constraint imposed with the help of Lagrange multiplier. We perform the canonical analysis of the resulting theory and determine its constraint structure.

  6. Solubility of hydrocarbons in salt water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Lin, X. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the design and operation of industrial processes, physical and thermodynamic property data are required. Increasingly stringent regulations are making water solubility of substances even more critical. Water solubility data of naphthenes, or cycloalkanes, is applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations, including water without salt to water saturated with salt. The results are intended for use in initial engineering and environmental applications. Solubility values from the correlation are useful in determining the distribution of a hydrocarbon spill on its contact with sea water. Solubility values at other salt concentrations also may be computed. Results are presented for water solubility of hydrocarbons (naphthenes) as a function of salt concentration (log(S) = A + BX + CX[sup 2]). The correlation constants, A, B and C, are displayed in an easy-to-use tabular format that is applicable for rapid engineering use with the personal computer or hand-held calculator. The results for solubility in salt water are applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations. This range covers water without salt, X = 0, to water saturated with salt, X = 358,700 ppM(wt). Correlation and experimental results are in favorable agreement.

  7. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  8. Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants Paul BYRNE prototype working with a scroll compressor was built and tested. A near-industrial prototype is today being regarding hydrocarbons as refrigerants, this article reviews scroll compressor modelling studies

  9. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  10. ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS H. MATSUOKA1 , T] or meniscus force [3], which have been neglected in the conventional and relatively large mechani- cal systems forces between mica surfaces in under- saturated vapors of several kind of hydrocarbon liquids are mea

  11. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization...

  12. AdS Chern-Simons Gravity induces Conformal Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigo Aros; Danilo E. Diaz

    2013-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional Conformal Gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauged-fixed, tractor-like) five-dimensional AdS connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program admits a readily generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.

  13. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  14. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  15. Anal. Chem. 1993, 65, 3571-3575 3571 Ultrasensitive Fluorescence Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Hydrocarbons in Capillary Electrophoresis ShumingNie, Rajeev Dadoo, and Richard N. 2are* Department hydrocarbons, including anthracene, phenan- threne, benz[alanthracene, methylanthracene, pyrene, fluoranthene hydrophobic, is difficult by conventional CE or micellar e

  16. Analytic technique measures aromatics in soil and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, K.A.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on a technique for detecting aromatic compounds in soil and water. The technique traces its roots to a chemical reaction discovered in 1877. The reaction is an organic synthesis process that has been harnessed for the production of high-octane gasoline, synthetic rubber, plastics and synthetic detergents. More than a century later the same chemistry is used as the basis for an analytical technique that quantifies contamination caused by products.

  17. Quantum Gravity and Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. G. Romania; N. C. Tsamis; R. P. Woodard

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We review some perturbative results obtained in quantum gravity in an accelerating cosmological background. We then describe a class of non-local, purely gravitational models which have the correct structure to reproduce the leading infrared logarithms of quantum gravitational back-reaction during the inflationary regime. These models end inflation in a distinctive phase of oscillations with slight and short violations of the weak energy condition and should, when coupled to matter, lead to rapid reheating. By elaborating this class of models we exhibit one that has the same behaviour during inflation, goes quiescent until the onset of matter domination, and induces a small, positive cosmological constant of about the right size thereafter. We also briefly comment on the primordial density perturbations that this class of models predict.

  18. Duality in linearized gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henneaux, Marc; Teitelboim, Claudio [Physique Theorique et Mathematique and International Solvay Institutes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine C. P. 231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium) and Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia (Chile); Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia (Chile)

    2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that duality transformations of linearized gravity in four dimensions, i.e., rotations of the linearized Riemann tensor and its dual into each other, can be extended to the dynamical fields of the theory so as to be symmetries of the action and not just symmetries of the equations of motion. Our approach relies on the introduction of two superpotentials, one for the spatial components of the spin-2 field and the other for their canonically conjugate momenta. These superpotentials are two-index, symmetric tensors. They can be taken to be the basic dynamical fields and appear locally in the action. They are simply rotated into each other under duality. In terms of the superpotentials, the canonical generator of duality rotations is found to have a Chern-Simons-like structure, as in the Maxwell case.

  19. Entropy and quantum gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Bernard S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We give an account of the matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis which, unlike the standard approach to entropy based on coarse-graining, offers a definition for the entropy of a closed system as a real and objective quantity. We explain how this new approach offers an explanation for the Second Law of Thermodynamics in general and a non-paradoxical understanding of information loss during black hole formation and evaporation in particular. We also very briefly review some recent related work on the nature of equilibrium states involving quantum black holes and point out how it promises to resolve some puzzling issues in the current version of the string theory approach to black hole entropy.

  20. Natural Inflation and Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anton de la Fuente; Prashant Saraswat; Raman Sundrum

    2015-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic Inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which Quantum Gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular the constraint of the Weak Gravity Conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically-controlled and predictive class of Natural Inflation models.

  1. Riding Gravity Away from Doomsday

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Ashoke

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery that most of the energy density in the universe is stored in the form of dark energy has profound consequences for our future. In particular our current limited understanding of quantum theory of gravity indicates that some time in the future our universe will undergo a phase transition that will destroy us and everything else around us instantaneously. However the laws of gravity also suggest a way out -- some of our descendants could survive this catastrophe by riding gravity away from the danger. In this essay I describe the tale of this escape from doomsday.

  2. Riding Gravity Away from Doomsday

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashoke Sen

    2015-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery that most of the energy density in the universe is stored in the form of dark energy has profound consequences for our future. In particular our current limited understanding of quantum theory of gravity indicates that some time in the future our universe will undergo a phase transition that will destroy us and everything else around us instantaneously. However the laws of gravity also suggest a way out -- some of our descendants could survive this catastrophe by riding gravity away from the danger. In this essay I describe the tale of this escape from doomsday.

  3. Geology and hydrocarbon prospects of Latvia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freimanis, A. (Latvian Dept. of Geology, Riga (Latvia)); Margulis, L.; Brangulis, A.; Kanev, S.; Pomerantseva, R. (Inst. of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Riga (Latvia))

    1993-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil prospects in Latvia are associated with the Baltic syneclise. Latvia occupies about one fourth of that large tectonic depression; zones of oil accumulation continue there from adjacent areas: the Telshai rampart (Lithuania) and the Leba nose (Polish offshore). The oil prospects in separate areas are determined by their position regarding the sources of oil generation--the Gdansk-Kura and Liepaya depressions. The most prospective areas are the Liepaya-Saldus zone of highs and the Pape-Barta trough. The Liepaya-Saldus zone was situated so that the hydrocarbon migration path crossed it. It probably is an important oil accumulation zone. The paper describes the geology of Latvia and the one oil field in Latvia.

  4. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  5. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  6. Microbial hydrocarbons: back to the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The defining challenge of energy research in the 21st century is the development and deployment of technologies for large-scale reconfiguration of global energy infrastructure. Modern society is built upon a concentrated yet finite reservoir of diverse hydrocarbons formed through the photosynthetic transformation of several hundred million years of solar energy. In human history, the fossil energy era will be short lived and never repeated. Although the timing of peak oil is extensively debated, it is an eventuality. It is, therefore, imperative that projections for both when it will occur and the degree to which supply will fall short of demand be taken into serious consideration, especially in the sectors of energy technology development, political and economic decision making, and societal energy usage. The requirement for renewable energy systems is no longer a point for discussion, and swift advances on many fronts are vital to counteract current and impending crises in both energy and the environment.

  7. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Missallati, A.A. (Agip (N.A.M.E.)Ltd., Tripoli (Libya))

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  8. Critical Gravity in Four Dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lue, H. [China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081 (China); Institute for Advanced Study, Shenzhen University, Nanhai Avenue 3688, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Pope, C. N. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This ''critical'' theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical 'new massive gravity' with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions.

  9. Quantum Gravity: Motivations and Alternatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiner Hedrich

    2009-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The mutual conceptual incompatibility between GR and QM/QFT is generally seen as the most essential motivation for the development of a theory of Quantum Gravity (QG). It leads to the insight that, if gravity is a fundamental interaction and QM is universally valid, the gravitational field will have to be quantized, not at least because of the inconsistency of semi-classical theories of gravity. If this means to quantize GR, its identification of the gravitational field with the spacetime metric has to be taken into account. And the resulting quantum theory has to be background-independent. This can not be achieved by means of quantum field theoretical procedures. More sophisticated strategies have to be applied. One of the basic requirements for such a quantization strategy is that the resulting quantum theory has GR as a classical limit. - However, should gravity not be a fundamental, but an residual, emergent interaction, it could very well be an intrinsically classical phenomenon. Should QM be nonetheless universally valid, we had to assume a quantum substrate from which gravity would result as an emergent classical phenomenon. And there would be no conflict with the arguments against semi-classical theories, because there would be no gravity at all on the substrate level. The gravitational field would not have any quantum properties, and a quantization of GR would not lead to any fundamental theory. The objective of a theory of 'QG' would instead be the identification of the quantum substrate from which gravity results. - The paper tries to give an overview over the main options for theory construction in the field of QG. Because of the still unclear status of gravity and spacetime, it pleads for the necessity of a plurality of conceptually different approaches to QG.

  10. Non-Sticking of Helium Buffer Gas to Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, James F E

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lifetimes of complexes formed during helium-hydrocarbon collisions at low temperature are estimated for symmetric top hydrocarbons. The lifetimes are obtained using a density-of-states approach. In general the lifetimes are less than 10-100 ns, and are found to decrease with increasing hydrocarbon size. This suggests that clustering will not limit precision spectroscopy in helium buffer gas experiments. Lifetimes are computed for noble-gas benzene collisions and are found to be in reasonable agreement with lifetimes obtained from classical trajectories as reported by Cui {\\it et al}.

  11. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  12. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Hydrocarbon Production in the Green Microalga Botryococcus braunii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Taylor Leigh

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Algae biofuels ................................................................................ 1 Algae .............................................................................................. 2 Botryococcus braunii... ..................................................................... 4 General biology ........................................................................ 4 Biofuel potential ....................................................................... 9 Hydrocarbon synthesis...

  13. Hydrocarbons on Harvester Ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) Middens Guide Foragers to the Nest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Deborah

    Hydrocarbons on Harvester Ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) Middens Guide Foragers to the Nest Shelby J hydrocarbons are used by social insects in nestmate recognition. Here, we showed that hydrocarbons found-specific hydrocarbons, which ants use to distinguish nestmates from non-nestmates, are found on the midden pebbles

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds progress Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aromatic compounds. 500 265 500 265 500 265 WAVELENGTH (nm) ARABIAN CRUDE LUBRICATING OIL... . 271 12;Although the spectra only give a qualitative analysis of the major types...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic blending compounds Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ring aromatic compounds. 500 265 500 265 500 265 WAVELENGTH (nm) ARABIAN CRUDE LUBRICATING OIL... . 271 12;Although the spectra only give a qualitative analysis of the major...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic organic compounds Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aromatic compounds. 500 265 500 265 500 265 WAVELENGTH (nm) ARABIAN CRUDE LUBRICATING OIL... . 271 12;Although the spectra only give a qualitative analysis of the major types...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds effects Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aromatic compounds. 500 265 500 265 500 265 WAVELENGTH (nm) ARABIAN CRUDE LUBRICATING OIL... . 271 12;Although the spectra only give a qualitative analysis of the major types...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous polar aromatic Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth Summary: is diffusion of the aqueous amine into the oil phase, then the polyurea formed early should be rich in aromatic... diisocyanate...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aromatic compounds. 500 265 500 265 500 265 WAVELENGTH (nm) ARABIAN CRUDE LUBRICATING OIL... . 271 12;Although the spectra only give a qualitative analysis of the major types...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds part Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ring aromatic compounds. 500 265 500 265 500 265 WAVELENGTH (nm) ARABIAN CRUDE LUBRICATING OIL... . 271 12;Although the spectra only give a qualitative analysis of the major...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic compounds derived Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ring aromatic compounds. 500 265 500 265 500 265 WAVELENGTH (nm) ARABIAN CRUDE LUBRICATING OIL... . 271 12;Although the spectra only give a qualitative analysis of the major...

  2. Bimetallic cleavage of aromatic C-H bonds by rare-earth-metal complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, W; Huang, W; Dulong, F; Khan, SI; Cantat, T; Diaconescu, PL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Aromatic C-H Bonds by Rare Earth Metal Complexes Wenliangone week prior to use. Rare earth metal oxides (scandium,

  3. aromatic amine 2-amino-3-methyl-9h-pyrido: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the reactions of amines with aldehydes and with aromatic nitro - compounds in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Kinetic and equilibrium studies of...

  4. aromatic amine p-anilinoaniline: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the reactions of amines with aldehydes and with aromatic nitro - compounds in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Kinetic and equilibrium studies of...

  5. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, Edward J. (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); Wijesinghe, Ananda M. (Tracy, CA); Viani, Brian E. (Oakland, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

  6. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, E.J.; Anderson, B.L.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced. 3 figs.

  7. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

  8. Whole Ecosystem Measurements of Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emissions Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Whole Ecosystem Measurements of Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emissions Final Report ARB Award No. 98 of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management Ecosystem Sciences Division 151 Hilgard Hall University Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Mangement Ecosystem Sciences Division 151 Hilgard Hall

  9. Subcontinuum mass transport of condensed hydrocarbons in nanoporous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falk, Kerstin

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional reservoirs, the so-called shale gas, has exploded recently, reliable predictions of resource availability and extraction are missing because conventional tools fail to ...

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution of urban topsoil in Ibadan city, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onianwa, P.C. [Univ. of Ibadan (Nigeria)] [Univ. of Ibadan (Nigeria)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbon in topsoils from various parts of Ibadan city, Nigeria, was studied. Samples were selected from around the following zones: (a) railway tracks, (b) petrol stations, (c) refuse dumps, (d) residential areas, (e) high traffic density areas, (f) mechanical workshops, and (g) control zones. Contamination of the topsoil with hydrocarbons was significant only around petrol stations and mechanical workshops where the factors of accumulation were 10.1 and 4.72, respectively. The general trend in hydrocarbon levels was petrol station > mechanical workshop > refuse dumps > high traffic areas {ge} rail tracks > control residential areas. The results highlight the need to monitor urban environments that are remote from petroleum exploration activities for petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Ken Rapp, Liyu Li, Jonathan Male, Dave King...

  12. Faults as potential hydrocarbon barriers, Arroyo Grande, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Switek, Daniel Paul

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Faulting in a sandstone introduces properties which are different from the country rock. Previous work has shown that these new properties can significantly impede the flow of hydrocarbons through the country rock. This thesis seeks to analyze...

  13. Vertimass licenses ORNL biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    McCorkle Communications and Media Relations 865.574.7308 Vertimass licenses ORNL biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology Vertimass LLC, a California-based start-up...

  14. Conversion of methane and acetylene into gasoline range hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkhawaldeh, Ammar

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , indene, azulene, fluorene, and biphenyl substituted compounds. Also, lighter hydrocarbons, such as ethylene and isobutene were produced. The reaction was conducted at different operating temperatures and different molar feed composition. The results...

  15. active natural hydrocarbon: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 2 Assessment of natural and anthropogenic...

  16. Kinetics simulation for natural gas conversion to unsaturated C? hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Li

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) techniques are being studied to convert natural gas to useful hydrocarbon liquids, which can be transported with far less cost. Direct pyrolysis of methane, followed by catalytic reaction, is a promising technology that can be commercialized in industry...

  17. Gravity monitoring of CO{sub 2} movement during sequestration: Model studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasperikova, E.; Hoversten, G.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sequestration/enhanced oil recovery (EOR) petroleum reservoirs have relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and carbon dioxide, or CO{sub 2}), whereas brine formations usually have much thicker injection intervals and only two components (brine and CO{sub 2}). Coal formations undergoing methane extraction tend to be thin (3-10 m) but shallow compared to either EOR or brine formations. Injecting CO{sub 2} into an oil reservoir decreases the bulk density in the reservoir. The spatial pattern of the change in the vertical component of gravity (G{sub z}) is correlated directly with the net change in reservoir density. Furthermore, time-lapse changes in the borehole G{sub z} clearly identify the vertical section of the reservoir where fluid saturations are changing. The CO{sub 2}-brine front, on the order of 1 km within a 20-m-thick brine formation at 1900-m depth with 30% CO{sub 2} and 70% brine saturations, respectively, produced a -10-{mu} Gal surface gravity anomaly. Such an anomaly would be detectable in the field. The amount of CO{sub 2} in a coal-bed methane scenario did not produce a large enough surface gravity response; however, we would expect that for an industrial-size injection, the surface gravity response would be measurable. Gravity inversions in all three scenarios illustrate that the general position of density changes caused by CO{sub 2} can be recovered but not the absolute value of the change. Analysis of the spatial resolution and detectability limits shows that gravity measurements could, under certain circumstances, be used as a lower-cost alternative to seismic measurements.

  18. The relative reactivity of formic esters with aromatic amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markley, Max C.

    1922-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .MARKLEY I Vies* S ma y c . l k f c V i M t s RDQOSS 38M30 PREFACE. The purpose of this thesis was to determine the relative reactivity between aromatic amines and the esters of formic acid.It was proposed to first: deter­ mine the reactivity... be given Br .Ray Q,.Brewster , the director of this work, for his help and directions for carrying out this work, and to Br.Prank B.Bains for his kind assistance in many ways. 1.Broil,Journal fur Practische Chemie,1875,vol. 12,page 208. ( 2 ) TABLE...

  19. University of Delaware | Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation | Aromatics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship Program TheSite Map SiteResearch Thrust Green Aromatics

  20. Petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the Galveston Bay system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schropp, Steven James

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Department) (Membge' ) I, (Member) December, 1979 ABSTRACT Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in the Galveston Bay System {December 1979) Steven James Schropp: B. S. , Texas A&M University Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. John R. Schwarz... about the distribution and abundance of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrad- ing bacteria in the Galveston Bay system. Several parts of the Galveston Bay system were sampled during this study. Petroleum input to the study area ranged from relatively small...

  1. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Brown, David B. (Brighton, MI)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  2. Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons in east-central Texas groundwaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coffman, Bryan Keith

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; Follett, 1974). The high transmissivity and sandy lithology of the Sparta are much like those of the Queen City, as is the quality of water. 40 LIGNITE STREAKS 30 Laminated and discontinuous lenticular. Trough cross bedded siltstones. 20 ROAD l... hydrocarbons simply reflects a difference in the 5 C of the substrate. Sparta lignite is about 7%%do enriched in ' C relative to Yegua lignite, comparable to the difference seen in the gaseous hydrocarbons. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Steven...

  3. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  4. Conformal Lifshitz Gravity from Holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Griffin; Petr Horava; Charles M. Melby-Thompson

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that holographic renormalization of relativistic gravity in asymptotically Lifshitz spacetimes naturally reproduces the structure of gravity with anisotropic scaling: The holographic counterterms induced near anisotropic infinity take the form of the action for gravity at a Lifshitz point, with the appropriate value of the dynamical critical exponent $z$. In the particular case of 3+1 bulk dimensions and $z=2$ asymptotic scaling near infinity, we find a logarithmic counterterm, related to anisotropic Weyl anomaly of the dual CFT, and show that this counterterm reproduces precisely the action of conformal gravity at a $z=2$ Lifshitz point in 2+1 dimensions, which enjoys anisotropic local Weyl invariance and satisfies the detailed balance condition. We explain how the detailed balance is a consequence of relations among holographic counterterms, and point out that a similar relation holds in the relativistic case of holography in $AdS_5$. Upon analytic continuation, analogous to the relativistic case studied recently by Maldacena, the action of conformal gravity at the $z=2$ Lifshitz point features in the ground-state wavefunction of a gravitational system with an interesting type of spatial anisotropy.

  5. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  6. Gauge Theory of Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Moffat

    1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A gauge theory of quantum gravity is formulated, in which an internal, field dependent metric is introduced which non-linearly realizes the gauge fields on the non-compact group $SL(2,C)$, while linearly realizing them on $SU(2)$. Einstein's $SL(2,C)$ invariant theory of gravity emerges at low energies, since the extra degrees of freedom associated with the quadratic curvature and the internal metric only dominate at high energies. In a fixed internal metric gauge, only the the $SU(2)$ gauge symmetry is satisfied, the particle spectrum is identified and the Hamiltonian is shown to be bounded from below. Although Lorentz invariance is broken in this gauge, it is satisfied in general. The theory is quantized in this fixed, broken symmetry gauge as an $SU(2)$ gauge theory on a lattice with a lattice spacing equal to the Planck length. This produces a unitary and finite theory of quantum gravity.

  7. Energy bounds in designer gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Marolf, Donald [Physics Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider asymptotically anti-de Sitter gravity coupled to tachyonic scalar fields with mass at or slightly above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound in d{>=}4 spacetime dimensions. The boundary conditions in these ''designer gravity'' theories are defined in terms of an arbitrary function W. We give a general argument that the Hamiltonian generators of asymptotic symmetries for such systems will be finite, and proceed to construct these generators using the covariant phase space method. The direct calculation confirms that the generators are finite and shows that they take the form of the pure gravity result plus additional contributions from the scalar fields. By comparing the generators to the spinor charge, we derive a lower bound on the gravitational energy when W has a global minimum and the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound is not saturated.

  8. Counterterms, critical gravity and holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallol Sen; Aninda Sinha; Nemani V. Suryanarayana

    2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider counterterms for odd dimensional holographic CFTs. These counterterms are derived by demanding cut-off independence of the CFT partition function on $S^d$ and $S^1 \\times S^{d-1}$. The same choice of counterterms leads to a cut-off independent Schwarzschild black hole entropy. When treated as independent actions, these counterterm actions resemble critical theories of gravity, i.e., higher curvature gravity theories where the additional massive spin-2 modes become massless. Equivalently, in the context of AdS/CFT, these are theories where at least one of the central charges associated with the trace anomaly vanishes. Connections between these theories and logarithmic CFTs are discussed. For a specific choice of parameters, the theories arising from counterterms are non-dynamical and resemble a DBI generalization of gravity. For even dimensional CFTs, analogous counterterms cancel log-independent cut-off dependence.

  9. Fluid Gravity Engineering Rocket motor flow analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand, Mahesh

    Fluid Gravity Engineering Capability · Rocket motor flow analysis -Internal (performance) -External (plume / contamination) · Effect on landing site (surface alteration) -In-depth flow through porous young scientists/engineers Fluid Gravity Engineering Ltd #12;

  10. ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES. II. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jerry; McCarthy, E.D.; Van Hoeven Jr., William; Calvin, Melvin; Bradley, W. H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significantly to the hydrocarbons of higher molecular weightDISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA,T E DISTRIBUTION O ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS H F A PRELIMINARY

  11. Hydrocarbon Seeps of the Mesozoic Great Valley Group Forearc Strata and Franciscan Complex, Northern and Central California, U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keenan, Kristin Euphrat

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Cretaceous Gastropods from Hydrocarbon Seeps in ForearcPeregrinella-Dominated Hydrocarbon-Seep Deposit on the1999. Signatures of Hydrocarbon Venting in a Middle Devonian

  12. Molecular and isotopic partitioning of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons during migration and gas hydrate precipitation in deposits of a high-flux seepage site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bohrmann, G. , 2007. In situ hydrocarbon concentrations fromM. , Bohrmann, G. , 2003. Hydrocarbon gases in deposits fromMethane and other hydrocarbon gases in marine sediment.

  13. Lovelock-Brans-Dicke gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, David Wenjie

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to Lovelock's theorem, the Hilbert-Einstein and the Lovelock actions are indistinguishable from their field equations. However, they have different scalar-tensor counterparts, which correspond to the Brans-Dicke and the \\emph{Lovelock-Brans-Dicke} (LBD) gravities, respectively. In this paper the LBD model of alternative gravity with the Lagrangian density $\\mathscr{L}_{\\text{LBD}}=\\frac{1}{16\\pi}\\left[\\phi\\left(R+\\frac{a}{\\sqrt{-g}}{}^*RR + b\\mathcal{G}\\right)-\\frac{\\omega_{\\text L}}{\\phi}\

  14. Lovelock-Brans-Dicke gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Wenjie Tian; Ivan Booth

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    According to Lovelock's theorem, the Hilbert-Einstein and the Lovelock actions are indistinguishable from their field equations. However, they have different scalar-tensor counterparts, which correspond to the Brans-Dicke and the \\emph{Lovelock-Brans-Dicke} (LBD) gravities, respectively. In this paper the LBD model of alternative gravity with the Lagrangian density $\\mathscr{L}_{\\text{LBD}}=\\frac{1}{16\\pi}[\\phi(R+\\frac{a}{\\sqrt{-g}}{}^*RR + b\\mathcal{G})-\\frac{\\omega_{\\text L}}{\\phi}\

  15. Intrusive gravity currents in two-layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flynn, Morris R.

    Intrusive gravity currents in two-layer stratified media Morris R. Flynn & Paul F. Linden Dept.avalanche.org/pictures #12;· `Microbursts' pose a non-trivial threat to airplane safety Introduction Impacts on human health;· Whereas gravity currents travel along a solid boundary, intrusive gravity currents or intrusions propagate

  16. Quantum Gravity and Precision Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. P. Burgess

    2006-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This article provides a cartoon of the quantization of General Relativity using the ideas of effective field theory. These ideas underpin the use of General Relativity as a theory from which precise predictions are possible, since they show why quantum corrections to standard classical calculations are small. Quantum corrections can be computed controllably provided they are made for the weakly-curved geometries associated with precision tests of General Relativity, such as within the solar system or for binary pulsars. They also bring gravity back into the mainstream of physics, by showing that its quantization (at low energies) exactly parallels the quantization of other, better understood, non-renormalizable field theories which arise elsewhere in physics. Of course effective field theory techniques do not solve the fundamental problems of quantum gravity discussed elsewhere in these pages, but they do helpfully show that these problems are specific to applications on very small distance scales. They also show why we may safely reject any proposals to modify gravity at long distances if these involve low-energy problems (like ghosts or instabilities), since such problems are unlikely to be removed by the details of the ultimate understanding of gravity at microscopic scales.

  17. High-gravity central stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Rauch

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    NLTE spectral analyses of high-gravity central stars by means of state-of-the-art model atmosphere techniques provide information about the precursor AGB stars. The hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars allow investigations on the intershell matter which is apparently exhibited at the stellar surface. We summarize recent results from imaging, spectroscopy, and spectropolarimetry.

  18. Antimatter, the SME, and Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay D. Tasson

    2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A general field-theoretic framework for the analysis of CPT and Lorentz violation is provided by the Standard-Model Extension (SME). This work discusses a number of SME-based proposals for tests of CPT and Lorentz symmetry, including antihydrogen spectroscopy and antimatter gravity tests.

  19. Antimatter, the SME, and Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tasson, Jay D

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general field-theoretic framework for the analysis of CPT and Lorentz violation is provided by the Standard-Model Extension (SME). This work discusses a number of SME-based proposals for tests of CPT and Lorentz symmetry, including antihydrogen spectroscopy and antimatter gravity tests.

  20. Liouville quantum gravity and KPZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duplantier, Bertrand

    Consider a bounded planar domain D, an instance h of the Gaussian free field on D, with Dirichlet energy ... and a constant 0[less than or equal to]?<2. The Liouville quantum gravity measure on D is the weak limit as ...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-BIOREMEDIATED SOIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRIGMON, ROBIN

    2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between toxicity and soil contamination must be understood to develop reliable indicators of environmental restoration for bioremediation. Two bacterial rapid bioassays: SOS chromotest and umu-test with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mixture) were used to evaluate genotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil following bioremediation treatment. The soil was taken from an engineered biopile at the Czor Polish oil refinery. The bioremediation process in the biopile lasted 4 years, and the toxicity measurements were done after this treatment. Carcinogens detected in the soil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were reduced to low concentrations (2 mg/kg dry wt) by the bioremediation process. Genotoxicity was not observed for soils tested with and without metabolic activation by a liver homogenate (S-9 mixture). However, umu-test was more sensitive than SOS-chromotest in the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon-bioremediated soil. Analytical results of soil used in the bioassays confirmed that the bioremediation process reduced 81 percent of the petroleum hydrocarbons including PAHs. We conclude that the combined test systems employed in this study are useful tools for the genotoxic examination of remediated petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  2. Quantitative Changes in Hydrocarbons over Time in Fecal Pellets of Incisitermes minor May Predict Whether Colonies Are Alive or Dead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Vernard R.; Nelson, Lori J.; Haverty, Michael I.; Baldwin, James A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    termite species by the hydrocarbons in their feces. J. Chem.effects on the cuticular hydrocarbons of the host-specificG. J. 1990. Cuticular hydrocarbons of eight species of North

  3. Hydrocarbon anions in interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Millar; C. Walsh; M. A. Cordiner; R. Ní Chuimín; Eric Herbst

    2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent detection of the hydrocarbon anion C6H- in the interstellar medium has led us to investigate the synthesis of hydrocarbon anions in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments. We find that the anion/neutral abundance ratio can be quite large, on the order of at least a few percent, once the neutral has more than five carbon atoms. Detailed modeling shows that the column densities of C6H- observed in IRC+10216 and TMC-1 can be reproduced. Our calculations also predict that other hydrocarbon anions, such as C4H- and C8H-, are viable candidates for detection in IRC+10216, TMC-1 and photon-dominated regions such as the Horsehead Nebula.

  4. Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

  5. Process for light-driven hydrocarbon oxidation at ambient temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photochemical reaction for the oxidation of hydrocarbons uses molecular oxygen as the oxidant. A reductive photoredox cycle that uses a tin(IV)- or antimony(V)-porphyrin photosensitizer generates the reducing equivalents required to activate oxygen. This artificial photosynthesis system drives a catalytic cycle, which mimics the cytochrome P.sub.450 reaction, to oxidize hydrocarbons. An iron(III)- or manganese(III)-porphyrin is used as the hydrocarbon-oxidation catalyst. Methylviologen can be used as a redox relay molecule to provide for electron-transfer from the reduced photosensitizer to the Fe or Mn porphyrin. The system is long-lived and may be used in photo-initiated spectroscopic studies of the reaction to determine reaction rates and intermediates.

  6. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

  7. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Lessing, P.A.

    1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: (a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; (b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; (c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and (d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed. 4 figs.

  8. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  9. Phase equilibria of polydisperse hydrocarbons: moment free energy method analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Speranza; Francesca Di Patti; Alessandro Terenzi

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the phase equilibria of systems of polydisperse hydrocarbons by means of the recently introduced moment method. Hydrocarbons are modelled with the Soave-Redlick-Kwong and Peng-Robinson equations of states. Numerical results show no particular qualitative difference between the two equations of states. Furthermore, in general the moment method proves to be an excellent method for solving phase equilibria of polydisperse systems, showing excellent agreement with previous results and allowing a great improvement in generality of the numerical scheme and speed of computation.

  10. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  11. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, J.W.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the sea bed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the sea bed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. 20 figures.

  12. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  13. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, James L. (Scottsdale, AZ)

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  14. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  15. Method for recovering light hydrocarbons from coal agglomerates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Getsoian, John (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for removing light hydrocarbons, such as heptane, from coal agglomerates includes an enclosed chamber having a substantially horizontal perforate surface therein. The coal agglomerates are introduced into a water bath within the chamber. The agglomerates are advanced over the surface while steam is substantially continuously introduced through the surface into the water bath. Steam heats the water and causes volatilization of the light hydrocarbons, which may be collected from the overhead of the chamber. The resulting agglomerates may be collected at the opposite end from the surface and subjected to final draining processes prior to transportation or use.

  16. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  17. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external floatation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration.

  18. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  19. Evaluation of biological treatment for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a wastewater treatment plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Pradipta Ranjan

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon can be an effective treatment method applied to control oil pollution in both fresh water and marine environments. Hydrocarbon degraders, both indigenous and exogenous, are responsible for utilizing petroleum...

  20. Asphalt compositions containing spurted polyolefin fibers with improved dispersibility in hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jabloner, H.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A cutback asphalt composition is described comprising asphalt and a hydrocarbon solvent. The improvement composition comprises a water-dispersible spurted polyolefin pulp having precipitated a natural rubber or synthetic elastomer that is swellable in hydrocarbon solvents.